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J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.

), 2012, 17(4): 421-426


DOI: 10.1007/s12204-012-1301-1

Method to Calculate Resistance of


High-Speed Displacement Ship Taking the Eect of
Dynamic Sinkage and Trim and Fluid Viscosity into Account
YAO Chao-bang (),

DONG Wen-cai ()

(Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, China)

Shanghai Jiaotong University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012


Abstract: A method is presented to calculate the resistance of a high-speed displacement ship taking the eect
of sinkage and trim and viscosity of uid into account. A free surface ow eld is evaluated by solving Reynolds
averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with volume of uid (VoF) method. The sinkage and trim are computed
by equating the vertical force and pitching moment to the hydrostatic restoring force and moment. The software
Fluent, Maxsurf and MATLAB are used to implement this method. With dynamic mesh being used, the position
of a ship is updated by the motion of ship plus boundary layer grid zone. The hull factors are introduced for
fast calculating the running attitude of a ship. The method has been applied to the ship model INSEAN2340 for
dierent Froude numbers and is found to be ecient for evaluating the ow eld, resistance, sinkage and trim.
Key words: Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, ship resistance, hydrostatic equilibrium equations of ship, viscous wave-making ow eld, dynamic sinkage and trim, hull factor
CLC number: U 661.32
Document code: A

0 Introduction
Free surface potential theory to solve ship wavemaking problem has been put forward since Michell,
and subsequently the ship wave-making theory is comparatively perfect[1] . A steadily advancing surface ship
experiences sinkage and trim notably at high Froude
numbers due to the hydrodynamic forces acting on the
ship hull. Therefore, for accurate evaluation of steady
wave-making resistance of a ship, it is necessary to take
the eect of sinkage and trim into consideration. In
1979, Dawson[2] presented a procedure based on his
Rankine panel to take the eect of sinkage and trim
into account. Yasukawa[3] presented a new boundary
condition of the ship hull taking the eect of sinkage
and trim into account under the assumption of small
quantities of sinkage and trim, to improve the Dawsons
method. Yang and L
ohner[4] developed a free surface
ow solver based on unstructured grid for steady wave
resistance problem of Wigley hull model and Series 60
hull model. Wang[5-6] developed an inviscid free surface ow solution with the framework of nonlinear ship
wave-making theory. The calculation error of resistance
Received date: 2011-07-01
Foundation item: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50879090) and the Advanced Research Program of GAD of the P.L.A (No. 7131005)
E-mail: hgycb2004111@163.com

by methods listed above is larger than 5%, due to neglecting the viscous eect.
With the fast development of computational uid dynamics (CFD), and the advent of powerful computers
available for scientic computations, numerical simulation of 3D viscous ows with free surface about a ship
has become one of the hot issues in eld of ship hydrodynamics. As stated above, to improve the resistance
predictions of high speed vessel further, the ships running attitude has to be included in the computations.
Azcueta[7] developed a general approach to extend a
Navier-Stokes code to couple the uid ow with the
body motions induced by the ow forces. The comparison with experiments shows good agreement, but the
total resistance is about 5% under-prediction. Gu et
al.[8-9] investigated the hydrodynamic characteristic of a
trunk ship and the Series 60 hull model with free surface
by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)
equations and the renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model; the results showed that the ow eld,
drag, sinkage and trim agreed well with the experimental data. Wu et al.[10] presented a numerical simulation
method of free ship model towed in still water; the comparison results of resistance, sinkage and trim showed
good agreement with those of experiments. Generally,
it is of practical importance to include sinkage and trim
eects in the calculation of steady ship waves. But it
does not clearly state the coupling of the ship motion

422

J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.), 2012, 17(4): 421-426

and the uid ow and does not clearly state the fast
calculation of ships running attitude.
The researches in Refs. [7-9] oered a way for calculating the dynamic sinkage and trim. This paper
continues the development of more ecient model to
predict steady ship waves with sinkage and trim being incorporated into the calculations. A proposal is
established by solving the RANS equations and hydrostatic equilibrium equations of ship and is implemented by secondary development on the software Fluent platform.

written as

t  

() +
+
+
(ui ) =
t
xi
xj
xj
P ,

2
, P = t S 2 ,

1  ui
uj 
,
+
Sij =
2 xj
xi
t = C

1 Numerical Solution Method


1.1

Governing Equations and Turbulence


Model
Assuming air and water are incompressible and
isothermal Newtonian uids, volume of uid method
is adopted to deal with the interface between the two
phases of air and water. The governing equations for
the viscous free surface ow problem include continuity equation, volume fraction, momentum equation and
RNG - equation of turbulence model, where is turbulence kinetic energy and is turbulence dissipation
rate.
The momentum equation, shown below, is used for a
two-phase ow:

p
(ui ) +
(ui uj ) =
+
t
xj
xi
  ui
uj  2 ul 


+
ij +
xj
xj
xi
3 xl

(ui uj ) + fi ,
xj

(1)

where, is the uid density; ui , uj and ul are the components of velocity; is the viscosity coecient of uid;
ij is a tensor; ui uj is the Reynolds stress; fi and p
are the volume force and pressure, respectively; t and x
are the time and Cartesian horizontal coordinate value,
respectively; subscript i, j and l are the coordinate direction coecients.
The RNG-based - turbulence model is derived
from the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations by using a mathematical technique called renormalization
group. The transport equations for this model can be

RNG turbulent model constant


= 1.39,

Fig. 1

= 1.39,

C1 = 1.42,

C2 = 1.68, C = 0.084 5,
0 = 4.38,

= 0.012.

1.2 Sinkage and Trim


The sinkage and trim are as a result of equating
the vertical force and trim moment to the hydrostatic
restoring force and moment. The main inuencing factors include total vertical forces, pitching moment and
hull.
Let us consider two coordinate systems Oxyz and
O x y  z  in Fig. 1. System O x y  z  is xed with respect to the ship; it is a non-inertial system. The x
axis points to the stern of ship, the y  axis extends to
the starboard, and the z  axis is vertically upwards.
System Oxyz is a non-rotating and non-accelerating
frame, which moves forward with a mean ship speed. It
is a Newtonian reference system in which the equations
of linear and angular momentum are valid. The undisturbed free-surface plane always remains parallel to the
xOy plane. The z axis points upwards; the position and
orientation of the ship at any point are described with
z'

y
y'

(a) Initial state


2Sij Sij ,

C 3 (1 /0 ) 2
,
1 + 3

S
;
=

(O')O

S=

(3)

R =

z
z

(2)

t  

() +
+
+
(ui ) =
t
xi
xj
xj
2

C1 P C2 R ,

where

O
O'

(b) State of a certain sinkage and trim


Sketch of the coordinate systems

x
x'

J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.), 2012, 17(4): 421-426

423

respect to this reference system. The longitudinal locations of point O are the same as point O.
To simulate the motions of a ship oating freely at the
free surface, the equations of motions of the rigid body
can be solved together with the RANS equations. The
general idea is to decouple the problem in the following
way.
(1) The RANS equation solver computes the ow
around the ship in the usual way (ship-xed) by taking
the uid viscosity, ow turbulence and deformation of
the free surface into account.
(2) The forces and moments acting on the body are
calculated by integrating the normal (pressure) and
tangential (friction) stresses over the ship surface, and
amounts of sinkage and trim needed to balance the vertical uid dynamic forces are evaluated.
(3) The grids of ship are rearranged to take the sinkage and trim into account, and the ow is calculated
again.
The above iterative progress does not stop until the
relative error of force and moment is lower than 104 .
When the ow around the ship is steady, the contributions to the total vertical force Fz and trim moment
M acting on point O are


Fz = [Fflow + W ]z = (p n + )A + W ,
=1

M = [MO flow ]y =


(x xO )(p n + )A ,
=1

(5)

where, Fflow is the total uid force determined by integrating the pressure eld and viscous stresses and
MO flow is the total uid ow moment, and they are
both obtained from the RANS equation solver Fluent;
n is the normal vector to each control volume (CV)
face; W is the body weight force; the subscript stands
for each CV face number dening the body surface;
is total number of CV; is the tangential viscous shear
stress acting on each CV face; A is the CV face area.
Suppose the ship responds to these forces and experiences a sinkage s (dened as the upward vertical displacement at x = 0, negative as ship sinking downward)
and trim (dened as the bow up angle of rotation
about y = 0, positive with stern trim), the following relations are given from the balance of sinkage and trim
moment as[11]
L2
Fz = g
(s + x)B(x, z)dx =

sg

L
2


B(x, z)dx + g

M = g

sg

L
2

L
2
L
2

L
2

(s + x)B(x, z)xdx =

B(x, z)xdx + g

L
2

L
2

B(x, z)x2 dx, (7)

where B(x, z) is the width of the water plane at the


position (x, z), L denotes the length of ship, z is the
draft varied with sinkage and trim, and g is the gravity
acceleration acting in the negative z-direction. The hull
factors h0 , h1 and h2 can be expressed as

h0 =

L
2


h1 =

L
2

L
2


h2 =

L
2

L
2

L
2

B(x, z)dx,

B(x, z)xdx, .

B(x, z)x dx

(8)

The hull factors h0 , h1 and h2 are only related to the


ship hull form. Also they can be explained as areas
enclosed by the inclining waterline, the rst moment
and second moment of these areas, respectively.
In order to get the value of sinkage s and trim , we
dene

(4)

L
2
L
2

L
2

L
2

B(x, z)xdx,

(6)

sgh0 + gh1 = Fz ,

(9)

sgh1 + gh2 = M .

(10)

2 Updating Position of Ship and Hull


Factor
2.1 Automatically Updating Position of Ship
The dynamic sinkage and trim are obtained in Subsection 1.2. The position of ship is then updated
automatically by using users dened function (UDF)
DEFINE CG MOTION in software Fluent; meanwhile,
many dynamic mesh parameters such as smoothing and
remeshing methods are used. In order to automatically
update the position of a ship, the relationship between
hull factor and attitude of ship should be established.
Hull factors h0 , h1 and h2 are related to B(x, z);
meanwhile, B(x, z) can be dened as a function of sinkage and trim. Hence h0 , h1 and h2 are determined by
sinkage and trim. Here the hull factors are solved numerically using explicit iteration within each time step;
the formulas can be taken as
hk+1
= f1 (sk , k ),
0

(11)

hk+1
1
hk+1
2

(12)

= f2 (s , ),

= f3 (s , ),
k Z.

(13)

424

J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.), 2012, 17(4): 421-426

2.2

Explanation and Solution Method on Hull


Factor
With hull factor being automatically calculated, the
attitude of ship can be computed iteratively.
Bivariate interpolation is used to calculate h0 , h1 and
h2 ; the solution procedure is listed as follows.
(1) The ship hull is divided into 200 sections in Maxsurf software, and series of h0 , h1 and h2 at dierent
sinkage and trim states are obtained by solving Eq. (8)
in MATLAB. These can be referred as the database for
interpolation.
(2) When the sinkage and trim data are obtained, the
hull factors can be got by using bivariate interpolation.
Table 1 compares hull factors of INSEAN 2340
model calculated by the interpolation and integration
methods, with s = 10 mm, = 0.35. The calculated
results accord well with each other. Hence, the eectiveness of this interpolation method can be proved.

Fig. 2

Table 1

Comparison between the results of h0 , h1


and h2 by two methods

Method

h0 /m2

h1 /m3

h2 /m4

Integration

3.449 6

1.190 4

7.114 1

Interpolation

3.449 6

1.190 5

7.114 3

Computational error

0.008%

0.003%

The surface charts of hull factors for INSEAN 2340


are shown in Fig. 2. The results show that: trim has
signicant inuence on h0 , h1 and h2 ; sinkage has obvious inuence on h0 and h2 , but has little inuence on
h1 . It is easy to understand this relation when considering the hull form of ship. Hull factors h0 , h1 and h2 can
well describe the relationship of the waterplane areas,
the rst moment and second moment of these areas and
the sinkage and trim corresponding to the geometry of
ship hull.

Surface charts of hull factors of INSEAN 2340 model

3 Numerical Results and Analysis


3.1 Ship Geometry and Computational Grid
The computation is performed for naval combatant
INSEAN 2340 model. It is an identical geometry of the
DTMB 5415 model. It has been selected as a benchmark case for CFD computations of ship resistance.
The model, whose main characteristic is shown in Table
2, presents transom stern and bulbous bow of peculiar
shape that allow the sonar lodging. Its length between
perpendiculars is 5.72 m, which corresponds to a scale
of 24.8. Resistance and sinkage and trim tests for INSEAN 2340 model have been carried out in the range
of Froude numbers between 0.05 and 0.45 on the free
model conditions in the Italian ship model basin. Data
for this ship model were procured by Olivieri et al[12] .
The grid structure is shown in Fig. 3. The computational domain is divided into two parts: one is moving
zone for the updating of ships position, including ship
surface and boundary layer grid; the other is computational zone. The prism boundary layer grid is adopted
around ship surface. To avoid the large deformation of

Table 2

Main particulars for INSEAN 2340 model

Parameter

Value

Length/m

5.72

Breadth/m

0.76

Draft/m

0.248

Displacement/kg

549

Wetted

Fig. 3

surface/m2

4.786

Free surface viscous ow computational grid for


INSEAN 2340 model

J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.), 2012, 17(4): 421-426

425

mesh around ship, the position of a ship is updated by


the motion of ship plus boundary layer grid zone.
3.2 Results and Analysis
The comparison of resistance, sinkage and trim between computational and published experimental results is presented in Table 3. In Table 3, vm is the
vm
is the
measured velocity of ship model, F r =
gL
Table 3
vm /
(m s1 )

Froude number, Rtm is the calculated or experimental resistance results of ship model, Rtm is the dierence between them, and abbreviation cal and exp
represent the computational and experimental results
respectively. The calculated results without consideration of the attitude of ship are also listed here (also
named xed condition).

Comparison of resistance, dynamic sinkage and dynamic trim between calculation and experiment
for INSEAN 2340 model
Rtm /N

Fr
Fixed

(Rtm /Rtm )/%

Free

Exp

Fixed

s/mm

Free

Cal

Exp

/( )

(scal sexp )/
mm

Cal

(cal exp )/
( )

Exp

1.501

0.20

22.44

22.04

21.58

3.98

2.12

3.50

5.33

1.83

0.212

0.061

0.151

2.097

0.28

44.68

44.93

45.18

1.11

0.55

9.90

10.41

0.51

0.100

0.108

0.008

2.621

0.35

75.21

79.76

80.70

6.80

1.17

14.99

18.19

3.20

0.017

0.069

0.052

2.996

0.40

130.16 136.96 138.35

5.92

1.00

25.20

25.51

0.31

0.390

0.333

0.057

3.071

0.41

140.91 149.68 152.70

7.72

1.98

26.10

26.88

0.78

0.427

0.421

0.006

3.370

0.45

186.50 209.70 216.33

13.79

3.06

27.80

28.94

1.14

0.925

0.997

0.072

As shown in Table 3, the computation underestimates the measured total resistances by 1.11%13.79%
in the model-xed condition case and by less than
3.06% in the model-free case for F r > 0.20.
In general, sinkage and trim are signicant at high
speed. The numerical prediction results for INSEAN
2340 model are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data for resistance, sinkage and trim.
Figure 4 shows comparison between the computed
wave proles of ship-xed and those on the ship-free
condition at F r = 0.45. The wave proles are dierent from each other. On the ship-free condition, the
wave height in the bow region is enhanced due to the
increase of ship breadth, so wave-making resistance increases, thats why the computed resistance on the shipfree condition is more accurate than that on the modelxed condition.
Figure 5 depicts the convergence of the computed

sinkage and trim with respect to the number of iterations. Convergence for INSEAN 2340 model is very
fast. In practice, two iterations or even one iteration is
sucient. Typical runs take about 100 h of wall clock
time in an HP Z800 workstation with 2 processors.
Ship-fixed

Ship-free
Fig. 4

Comparison of wave proles at F r = 0.45

0.9

0.7

s/mm

/()

10
20

0.3
0.1

30
40
1

0.5

0.1
2
Number of iterations
(a) Sinkage
Fr = 0.20,
Fr = 0.28,
Fig. 5

0.3

Fr = 0.35,

2
Number of iterations
(b) Trim
Fr = 0.40,
Fr = 0.41,
Fr = 0.45

Convergence of computed sinkage and trim for INSEAN2340 model

426

J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (Sci.), 2012, 17(4): 421-426

4 Conclusion
The numerical resistance prediction is improved by
taking the changes of trim and sinkage into consideration. The proposed numerical method is capable of
predicting both small and large changes of trim and
sinkage. The total resistance, sinkage and trim computed by using the present approach are in good agreement with the experimental measurements for INSEAN
2340 ship model in a wide range of Froude numbers.

References
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