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# Experiment 1 : Linear and Radial Heat Conduction Experiment

Objective:
To define the temperature profile and determine the rate of heat transfer in two different experimental
models which is linear and radial conduction.
Introduction:
There are 3 types of heat transfer which is conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conduction
is one of the mode of heat transfer which occurs when a heat source placed in a material causes
temperature changes. By doing this experiment, we can understand the factors and parameters which
will affect the rates of heat transfer.
Theory:
Linear Conduction Heat Transfer (Homogeneous bar)
A heat source placed in a material causes temperature change due to heat conduction. The relationship
between temperature and the distance from the heat source must be linear in the case of linear heat
conduction.
Fouriers law of heat conduction states that the conduction heat flow rate in a specified direction
equals to the product of the medium thermal conductivity, the temperature derivative in that direction
and the cross-sectional area of the conduction. In Cartesian coordinates, with temperature varying in
the x direction.

Q=kA

dT
dx

2

dT

## dx = change of displacement between two points, [ m

By using a cylindrical solid, the basic laws of heat conduction can be investigated. When the inner and
outer surfaces of a thick walled cylinder are each reach at a uniform temperature, heat flows radially
through the cylinder wall. The rate of radial heat flow through successive layers in the wall must be
constant if the flow is steady but since area of successive layers increases with radius, the temperature
In cylindrical coordinates, with temperature varying in the r direction only,

Q=kA

dT
dr

## For a cylindrical, Area, A =

Q=2 rkL

2 rL

dT
dr

Q
dT
=r
=constant =C1
2 kL
dr

dT C1
=
dr
r
T =C1 ln r +C 2
We need two points in cylindrical to carry out the experiments,

T 1 =C1 ln r 1+ C2

## For the point 1, the equation is :

For the point 2, the equation is :
(1)-(2):

C1 =

T 2 =C1 ln r 2 +C2

--------------(1)

--------------(2)

lnr 1 ln r 2
T 1 T 2

C2 =T 1 +

T 1T 2
ln r 1
ln r 1lnr 2

## Substitute back and rearranging gives the temperature distribution as

T 1 T ln rln r 1
=
T 1T 2 lnr 2ln r 1

Therefore, the amount of heat (Q), which is conducted across the cylinder wall per unit time is :

Q=2 kLC 1 or

Q=

2 kL ( T 1T 2 )
r
ln ( 2 )
r1

2 kL ( T 1T 2)
r
ln ( 1 )
r2

## Apparatus and Materials:

Heater, thermocouples, temperature sensors, linear heat conduction module, radial heat conduction
module, cooling water, stop watch
Description:
Unit Assembly
The equipment comprises two heat-conducting specimens, a multi-section bar for the
examination of linear conduction and a metal disc for radial conduction. A control panel supplies
electrical power to the heaters and shows readings for all relevant measurements.
A small flow of cooling water provides a heat sink at the end of the conducting path in each
specimen.

1
7

2
3

4
9

5
6

Figure 1: Unit Assembly for Heat Conduction Study Bench (Model: HE 105)

1. Control Panel
2. Heater Power Indicator

6.
7.

Thermocouple Connectors
Thermocouples

## 3. Heater Power Regulator

4. Temperature Indicator

8.
9.

Linear Module

5. Temperature Selector

Procedure:
Linear Heat conduction:
1. The main switch was switched off initially. The temperature sensors T1 to T9 of linear
heat module were installed to the test module and the sensors were connected leads to the
panel.
2. The heater supply lead for the linear conduction module was connected to the power
socket on the control panel.
3. The water supply was turned on and the water flowing was ensured from the free end of
the water pipe to drain.
4. The power supply was turned on and adjusted to 5.0 watts. A stop watch was used to
calculate 10 minutes times to make sure it had sufficient time to achieve steady state
conditions again.
5. After 10 minutes, the temperature of each temperature sensors were recorded.
6. The experiment was repeated by using 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 watts from step 4-5.
7. A graph of temperature, T versus distance, X was plotted. Thermal conductivity of the
test section was calculated.
1. The main switch was switched off initially. The temperature sensors T1 to T6 of radial
heat module were installed to the test module and the sensors were connected leads to the
panel.

2. The heater supply lead for the radial conduction module was connected to the power
socket on the control panel.
3. The water supply was turned on and the water flowing was ensured from the free end of
the water pipe to drain.
4. The power supply was turned on and adjusted to 5.0 watts. A stop watch was used to
calculate 10 minutes times to make sure it had sufficient time to achieve steady state
conditions again.
5. After 10 minutes, the temperature of each temperature sensors were recorded.
6. The experiment was repeated by using 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 watts from step 4-5.
7. A graph of temperature, T versus distance, X was plotted. Thermal conductivity of the
test section was calculated.

Result:
Linear Conduction of a Linear Module
Heater
T1( T2(C) T3(C)
Power, Q C)
(Watts)
5
28.7 28.5
28.3
10
33.7 33.2
32.7
15
39.6 38.8
38.0
20
48.0 47.0
45.7
Distance
0.11 0.12
0.13
from Heater
End,

T4(C)

T5(C)

T6(C)

T7(C)

T8(C)

T9(C)

27
29
31.8
36.0
0.14

26.1
25.9
26.0
26.9
0.15

26.7
29.2
32.2
36.9
0.16

26.3
28.2
30.6
34.1
0.77

26.1
27.6
29.7
32.7
0.18

25.8
27.1
28.5
30.7
0.19

(m)
Radial Conduction of a Cylindrical Module(average value of 2 set data)
Heater
T1(C)
T2(C)
T3(C)
T4(C)
Power, Q
(Watts)
5
27.25
26.20
24.25
25.60
10
30.7
28.25
24.60
26.55
15
34.95
31.75
25.0
27.7

T5(C)

T6(C)

25.40
26.05
26.85

25.30
25.75
26.4

20
Distance
from
Heater End,

Ri

39.15
0.11

33.3
0.12

25.60
0.13

28.9
0.14

27.7
0.15

26.9
0.16

or

Ro (m)

Discussion:
Based on the data collected, all the value of T1 are almost exactly the same by comparing
theoretical and experimental value. According to the concept of heat transfer, the further the point
from the heat source the lower the temperature that can be measured. By using the data collected, a
graph had been plotted with the relationships:

Q=kA

dT
dx

W
km

## the gradient of the graph.

Since the arrangement of the temperature should be: T1>T2>T3>T4>T5>>T9. But, for the
Linear module data, T4 and T5 for different power have the most different value and did not obey the
heat transfer concept. However, for the Cylindrical modules data, T3 data set also faced the same
problem with the wrong value of data. This problem can be explained by a few possible assumptions.
First, the connectivity of the study bench. There is a portion of the bench which is removable
by replacing other metal with different conductivity. For the Linear modules case, T4, T5 and T6
thermocouples are attach on the replaceable part so the data collected didnt same with the theoretical
value. Another concern is that maybe the surface of the brass of the removable part had been corrode

and cause the rate of heat transfer through conduction had been slightly reduce on the point.
Second, there might be some problem with the thermocouples T4, T5 and T6. It might be the
surface of the thermocouple didnt attach to the brass properly so the temperature recorded are not
correct. There also be some heat loss to the surrounding at the end of the thermocouple but the result
are not significant.
For the Cylindrical modules, besides the reason had been mentioned above, another plausible
factor that can causing the result differ is the radiation from the human body, As the room temperature
had been controlled and fix for a long time, the radiation from the human skin was transferring the
heat to the thermocouples. The result may varies with the number of people of the surrounding and the
distance between people and the set up of the device.
Overall, all the data were acceptable and close to the theoretical value as shown in the graph.

Conclusion:
Heat transfer in linear module is more efficient than the cylindrical module as the average thermal
conductivity , k have a huge different.