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Chapter 1

Background of the Library Research
Recent technological advances have created the possibility of new
ways of teaching and learning. However, taking full advantage of this
potential requires faculty to think about the teaching/learning process in
new ways as well as to master the technology itself. This article presents a
conceptualization of the ways technology might enhance student learning,
reviews what is known about the adoption of educational uses of
information technology by faculty, and provides a list of World Wide Web
(WWW) sites and bibliographical references for further exploration of the
instructional uses of technology.
Instructional technology creates a whole new world of possibilities
for teaching and learning. As William Geoghegan pointed out in 1994,
however, only a very small proportion of faculty are actively using
instructional technology, and these tend to be "innovators" or "early
adopters" rather than "mainstream" faculty.
The Revolution weakened ties with British scientists, disrupted
colleges, subjected scientific centers to sporadic enemy occupation, and
impoverished, distracted, or commandeered scientists. But the Revolution
also broadened intellectual and cultural horizons and challenged in the


1780s to prove that freedom nurtured science. New museums, journals,

societies, and colleges sprang up. Although the initial postwar fervor soon
cooled, the vision persisted. With little help from science, postwar
technology flourished. England's Industrial Revolution pointed the way,
and an elastic market freed from class inhibitions called for labor-saving
machinery. Transplanted British engineers, mechanics, and artisans added
a leaven. The patent system, economic expansion, and natural resources
encouraged homegrown tinkerers, and American distances induced a
transportation revolution that in turn brought forth native engineers and
technical schools in the early years of the nineteenth century.


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information. Although several studies in different countries have explored

the extent to which health science students use the computer and the
internet, few researches are available on this subject in Nigeria. The aim
of this study was to assess the uptake of computer and internet by health
science students studying in the country.
Statement Of The Problem
This paper seeks to give study about the advantages and
disadvantages of new technology specific answer to the following :
1. What is Computer Technology ?
2. What are the advantage of Computer?


3. What are the importance among students?

Significance of the Library Research

In this aspect, it is expected that to enumerate the sectors or
groups of people whom they believe will benefit to their study. The
researcher, however point the importance and value of the study to
different group of people such as the community, the students, the youth,
and even the nursing students particularly on the importance of science
and technology among the nurses.
Scope and Limitations
The scope of the research or study is about the importance of
computer technology among the students. It also indicates the nature of

Definition of Terms

The phase of the business cycle when the

economy moves from a trough to a peak. It is a
period when business activity surges and gross
domestic product expands until it reaches a
peak. Also known as an "economic recovery


An interconnected system of networks that

connects computers around the world via the
TCP/IP protocol.










happening or doing something, to hinder, to

make impossible.

Harmful rays produce by harmful chemicals and

bomb and other scientific machines.


refers to an organized and interdependent

community, the system of living this, composes
of an association of a persons sharing a
common aim or interest.







industrial or commercial objectives



Chapter 2

New Technology
Advances in telecommunication technology in the last two decades
have led to the development of computer networks that allow access to
vast amount of information and services. Of the many computer networks
that have been developed, the most prominent and widespread is the
Internet, a global network of networks that enables computers of all kinds
to directly and transparently communicate throughout the world. This
'global network of networks' has been described as the 'Information Superhighway' or 'Infobahn' because it constitutes a shared global resource of
knowledge, and means of collaboration and co-operation in diverse
communities. It is an open and unregulated community of people who
communicate freely across an international electronic computer network].
It is simply the linking together of individual computers in a network.

The Internet was originally conceived by the United States of

America's military in the sixties, as a means of ensuring a workable


communication system in the event of a strike by enemy missiles or

forces. It has grown over the years to include academic and government
computers as well as any one who owns a computer, a modem and an
account with an Internet Service Provider. Although there is no precise
statistics, it is estimated that there are at lest 100,000 networks, attached
to more than 5 million computers located in over 100 countries, connected
to the Internet. While access to the Internet was originally restricted to
government departments, and organizations such as universities, in the
1990s it became available to those with access to a computer network, in
both the developed and developing countries.
As in many other fields, the Internet is also present in medical
domain. The development of the Internet, as a vehicle for World-wide
communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web, has made
instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information
an exciting one. It is now one of the most important sources of information
for students in institutions of higher learning throughout the world. It has
also become a popular medium for delivering educational materials. The
Internet has been used for medical education in diverse ways including
teaching of organs, diagnosis of diseases, and conduct of medical
examinations. It is also being used as an important source of information
for medical research. Medical and nursing students who have participated
in online education have stated that this mode of education has several
advantages over traditional method of instruction. These advantages
include the convenience of taking a course at a time that fitted students


schedule and at a place that they did not have to commute to attend].
Online learning also assists students with the practical application of
theoretical knowledge of some aspects of medicine such as cardiology.
Advantages of Technology
Despite these advantages, online learning has certain limitations.
For example, some students have complained of insufficient time and
limited computer access. Others claimed that this mode of instruction lack
interactivity among students and between the students and the instructor










teleconferencing, however, appears to offer for real-time interactive

classroom meeting on the Internet. In addition, visual learners were more
apt than audio learners to gain from online learning]. On-line learning has
also been found to be consumer focused and many perceive online
advertisement to be distracting. Finally, the information available on the
Internet can be overwhelming for students who lack the skills for verifying
the quality of information available on-line.
While several researches have explored the extent to which health
science students use Internet services in many countries, few of such
studies are currently available in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to assess
the level of computer and Internet use amongst first year Clinical students
and students Nurses studying .
There have been rapid advances in communication and information
technology, in the past few years and the pervasion of the World Wide


Web into everyday life has important implications for medical education.
The use of the computer and the Internet technology by health science
students will result in more effective medical education, including
teaching, medical examination, and diagnosis of disease. However, these
gains will only occur when students have increased access to this
technology. In this study, only 43% of the sample could use the computer.
This figure is lower than the 84% of undergraduate students in Glasgow,
United Kingdom (UK) 94% of medical students from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia]
and 95% undergraduate dental students in Oulu, Finland. Similar studies
have found higher proportion of students had used the computer: 61 %
medical students from Malaysia, 80% final year medical students from
Lagos, Nigeria. The relatively lower proportion of those who could use the
computer in this study may be a reflection of a limited access to
computers among first year health sciences students. The relatively high
cost of this product within the country is one of the primary reasons for
this situation. Increased funding to Universities by government and NonGovernmental Agencies (NGA) is likely to solve this problem. This would
enable Nigerian universities to set-up computer laboratories in various
faculties where students can have full access to Internet services as it is
done in other countries including America.
More medical students, than student nurses had used both the
computer and the Internet. In addition, more medical students than
student nurses regularly obtained health-related information from the
Internet. Similar findings have been reported in Glasgow where more


medical students than nursing students had used the computer and the
Internet. Other investigators have reported similar findings. In this survey,
medical students may have had greater appreciation of the relevance of
the Internet to their education since they have spent some part of their
undergraduate years on the main campus of the University of Ibadan.
Thus, many of them may have come to see the Internet as a valued
source of information for their training. On the other hand, majority of the
student nurses may not have had the opportunity to use the Internet since
they have just recently left secondary school for the school of nursing. It is
also possible that the importance of the Internet has not been emphasized
in their previous and present education.
E-mail was the most popular of the Internet services used by the
students. This is comparable to previous studies where e-mail use was
high (78%) among medical students in. E-mail is the fastest and cheapest
means of electronic communication in the world today. Access to this
service has increased in recent years in Nigeria due to the proliferation of
cyber cafes in many towns and cities, which in turn has reduced the cost
of this service. However, access to e-mail services is not readily available
to many people living in rural areas of the country.
The use of the computer and Internet is rapidly becoming a key
component of medical education in many parts of the world. Although the
Internet is an important source of medical information, first year medical
and nursing students, have not fully utilized these facilities. Increased

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funding, introduction of computer education into existing medical and
nursing curricular would enhance students' ability to acquire, appraise,
and use information from the Internet to solve health problems quickly
and efficiently during training and practice.
Use of the computer
The students' ability and pattern of use of the computer is
presented in Table 2. Overall, only 42.6% of the sample could use the
computer, 57.4% could not. More than half (58%) of the medical students
are computer literate, 75.9% of the student are not. Majority (69.8%) of
the student nurses who cannot use the computer claimed that they do not
have access to a computer system. The 42% of the medical students who
cannot do so said they do not have the time to learn how to use it. Among
computer literate students, Microsoft Word was the most popular (66.2%)
software ever used, followed by Word Perfect (25.6%).
Use of the internet
The students' use of Internet services and resources is shown in
Table 3. Overall, 60.7% of the entire sample had used the Internet, 33.9%
had not. However, more medical students (63%) than student nurses
(12.5%) had used the Internet. Sixty five percent of the medical students
claimed that they regularly obtained health-related information from the
Internet as compared to 28.9% of the student nurses. The Email was the
most popular of Internet services used by the students (76.4%),
comprising of 81.3% medical and 73.4% student nurses. Forty-one percent

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of the 111 students who had ever used the Internet claimed that someone
assisted them, 55.9% completed the task on their own. The Cyber caf is
the common place (87.3%) where students had accessed Internet
services. Concerning search engines used, Yahoo is the most popular
(89.1%), which was used by 93.8% student nurses and medical students
(87.3%). Majority of the students, (67.5% student nurses and 72% medical
students) have not searched a database before
Disadvantages of New technology
Often, our television programs, music and video games portray
extremely violent content. This violence is often viewed to negatively
affect people, and even to spark violence in peaceful people. Many groups
and individuals protest this media violence. These protests have been
backed up with over a thousand studies. The studies of the anti-media
violence groups have determined that the increase of violence in media
has a direct effect on youth, creating and inspiring violence for their entire
By the age of 18, the typical person in America has been discovered
to view as many as 40,000 killings and 200,000 acts of violence on
television. It has been found that most of a persons learning takes place
before age 18, and with that being so centered on violence, children are
being trained towards violence. Children who view violence on television
are found to be more violent, not only as children, but also later, as adults.
With all of this violence around people, they are also being desensitized to

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it. When anyone is exposed to something continually for a long period of
time, they are gradually desensitized to it. This means that these constant
images of violence create a deficit of fear or respect of use of violence.
With no respect for violence, people will be less likely to question real acts
of violence, and will be more likely to think violence is a reasonable
solution to problems. This desensitization also broadens the affects of
violence to people of all ages, not only children. Therefore, the thousands
of violent images that are common to this country are a contribution to
much of the countrys violence, and a very large contribution to the new
generations violent acts.
Different media industries use many different shock tactics to
gain audience numbers and increase profit. The video games industries
are one of the most accused for these violence. Video game companies
often use violence as the main element of their games. Players will often
find themselves taking on the role of a Rambo-style character, shooting at
anything that moves. This style of gaming essentially allows the person to
get almost as close to actually shooting and destroying as you can without
actually doing it, and does it for a long period of time.
Computer Craze
The current craze among computer game addicts is the Ragnarok
online, so popular that it has been made into a television anime program
on afternoon prime time viewing. Though it is Ragnarok that has reaped
both praises and criticism, it is not the first computer-based game that has
spawned addiction. There are the early technology games such as the

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Warcraft and Counterstrike, all drawing their own loyal fanatics a few
years ago. Ragnarok online is the MMORPG or massive multiplayer online
role-playing game created by Gravity Corporation and has a local version
for the Philippines that is served by Level Up! Incorporated, the game's
exclusive distributor in the country. It is based on Ragnarok: Into the Abyss
Manhwa (Korean Manga) written by Lee Myoung-Jin. This best-selling
Korean comic book literally means "The End of the World".
Partly inspired by Norse mythology and Japanese anime, the game
is set in a fantasy world called Midgard, where gods, monsters, and
humans are locked in an eternal battle. Philippine Ragnarok online or pRO
is the eighth RO server in existence.

Chapter 3


is an






information. Although several studies in different countries have explored

the extent to which health science students use the computer and the

Vinluan 14
internet, few researches are available on this subject in Nigeria. The aim
of this study was to assess the uptake of computer and internet by health
science students studying in the country.
Despite these advantages, online learning has certain limitations.
For example, some students have complained of insufficient time and
limited computer access Others claimed that this mode of instruction lack
interactivity among students and between the students and the instructor
that would be achieved in the ideal classroom setting . Internet
teleconferencing, however, appears to offer for real-time interactive
classroom meeting on the Internet. In addition, visual learners were more
apt than audio learners to gain from online learning.
First year students have not fully utilized the opportunity that the
use of computer and internet offer for medical education. Improved efforts
such as inclusion of computer education in curricular and establishment of
computer laboratories are required to increase the student's access to
computers and internet.

The researcher recommended that science and technology have a
benefits that society can derive from advances in science and technology.
They reaffirmed that knowledge creation and diffusion are increasingly

Vinluan 15
important drivers of innovation, sustainable economic growth and social
well-being. They emphasised the importance of ensuring the long term
sustainability of the research enterprise and the need to involve civil
society and business more effectively in the governance of public







Coiera E. Medical informatics. BMJ. 1995;310:13811386. [PubMed]

[Free Full Text]

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Mckenzie, BC. Medicine and the internet: introducing on-line resources
and terminology. New-York, Oxford University Press. 1997. p. 97.
December, J.; Randall, N. The world wide web unleashed. Indianapolis,
Sams Publishers. 1994. p. 6.
Millman A, Lee N, Kealy K. ABC of the Medical Computing Internet. BMJ.
1995;311:440. [PubMed] [Free Full Text]
Bio informatics: searching the net. Serm Nucl Med. 1998;28:177187.
Jones RB, Navin LM, Barrie J, Hillan E, Kinane D. Computer literacy
among medical, nursing, dental and veterinary undergraduates.
Med Educ. 1991;25:191195. [PubMed]
Mansor I. Computer skills among medical students: a survey at the
King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. J Ayub Med Coll. 2002;14:13
Mattheos N, Nattestad A, Schittek M, Attstrom R. Computer literacy and
attitudes among students in 16 European dental schools: current
aspects, regional differences and future trends. Eur J Dent Edu.

Dagupan City

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In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for GEC-Engl 1
(Communication Arts )

Mack Donald C. Vinluan, BSIT
Summer 2006

Title Page.





Vinluan 18
Table of Contents..
Chapter 1


Background of the Library Research

Statement of the Problem

Significance of the Library Research

Scope and Limitations

Definition of Terms
Chapter 2


Influence of Television program

Effects of Television Program

Chapter 3



Vinluan 19


The researcher

would like to thank who helped her and to

encourage her to finish this term paper to make it successful one.










encouragement and guiding her to make this research paper complete

and for all the suggestions, comments and support in order to improve
this paper.

To all of her friends who are always here at her side when he used
to talk to. And to his parents for the financial support.

And above all to our Lord God Almighty, who showered her with
wonderful gift and blessings and strength to surpass problems and
obstacles that come in her way.

Krizzel Anne M. Castillo

Vinluan 20


This paper is lovingly dedicated to the following: To my parents,

friends and colleagues; My inspiration, to my
Instructor- Mrs. Geraldine delos Reyes
to my Alma Mater, Above all---To Almighty God...