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SEMINOR ON

LEADERSHIP THEORIES
SUBMITED BY
K.DURGA RAJU

R. NO: 145N1E0010

ANNAMACHARYA PG COLLEGE OF COMPUTER


STUDIES
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 10/02/2016

INDEX
Leadership theories:
1. Definition of leadership
1.1. Factors of leadership
1.1.1Follower
1.1.2Leader
1.1.3Communication
1.1.4Situation

2. Qualities of leadership
2.1Character
2.2Commitment
2.3Communication
2.4Competence
2.5Listening
2.6Passion
2.7Positive Attitude
2.8Problem Solving
2.9Relationships
2.10Security
2.11Self-Discipline
2.12Vision

3. Theories of leadership
3.1Trait Theory
3.2Behavioral Theories
3.2.1The Managerial Grid
3.2.2Theory X And Theory Y
3.3Situational Leadership
3.4Transformational Leadership

LEADERSHIP THEORIES
1. Definition of leadership:
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The behavior of an individual ... directing the activities of a group toward a


shared goal (Hemphill & Coons, 1957.)
Leadership is a process of social influence which maximizes the efforts of others
toward the achievement of a greater good.
The process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal
achievement (Rauch & Behling, 1984.)
the process of making sense of what people are doing together so that people will
understand and be committed (Drath & Palus, 1994.)
leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a
common goal.
1.1 FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP:

There are four major factors in leadership:

1.1.1Follower:
Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire
requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks
motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation.
You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good
understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must
come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
1.1.2Leader:
You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and
what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a
leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they
will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself
or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
1.1.3Communication:

You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For


instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you
would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What
and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and
your employees.
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1.1.4Situation:

All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in
another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the
leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an
employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early,
too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Various forces will
affect these factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the
skill of your people, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your
company is organized.

2. Leadership qualities:
2.1Character:
Leadership is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common
purpose and the character which inspires confidence.
2.2Commitment:

It separates Doers from Dreamers


To the boxer, its getting off the mat one more time than youve been knocked
down.

2.3Communication:

Without It You Travel Alone

Simplify your Message


Really Care about your Audience
Show the Truth
Seek a Response

2.4Competence: If you build it, they will come


Competence goes beyond words. Its the leaders ability to say it, plan it, and
do it in such a way that others know that you know how-and know that they want to
follow you.
2.5Listening: To Connect With Their Hearts, Use Your Ears

You have to be silent to listen


Both words are formed from the same letters.
L-i-s-t-e-n
S-i-l-e-n-t

2.6Passion:
Concentrate on what you do well, and do it better than anybody else.
2.7Positive Attitude:

Your Attitude Is a Choice


Your Attitude Determines Your Actions
Your People Are a Mirror of Your Attitude
Maintaining a Good Attitude Is Easier Than Regaining One

2.8Problem Solving:
You can measure a leader by the problems he tackles. He always looks for
ones his own size.
2.9Relationships:
The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing
how to get along with people.
2.10Security:
No man will make a great leader who wants to do it all himself or get all the
credit for doing it.
2.11Self-Discipline:
A man without a decision of character can never be said to belong to himself.
2.12Vision:
A great leaders courage to fulfill his vision comes from passion, not
position.

3. Leadership theories and models:


3.1Trait Theory
3.2Behavioral Theories
3.2.1The Managerial Grid
3.2.2Theory X And Theory Y
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3.3Situational Leadership
3.4Transformational Leadership

Theories of Leadership:
3.1Trait:
Trait Theory/Great Man (Woman) assumes the leader is different from the
average person in terms of personality traits such as intelligence, perseverance, and
ambition.

Assumptions:
People are born with inherited traits
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of
traits.

Trait Theory:

Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day,

which was of people having


Attention was given to discovering these traits, often by studying successful

leaders.
Underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these
traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders.

Stodgill's (1974) Traits and Skills


Traits

Skills

Adaptable to situations
Alert to social environment
Assertive
Cooperative
Decisive
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Clever (intelligent)
Conceptually skilled
Creative
Diplomatic and tactful
Fluent in speaking

Dependable
Persistent
Selfconfident
Tolerant of stress
Willing to assume responsibility

Knowledgeable

task
Persuasive
Socially skilled

about

3.2Behavioral Theories:

Assumptions
Leaders can be made, rather than are born
Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior
Description
Behavioral theories do not seek inborn traits they look at what leaders
actually do
Success can be defined in terms of describable actions
Implication:
Leadership capability can be learned

Behavioral Theories
Two general types of behavior exhibited by leaders:
Concern for People
Concern for Production

3.21. The Managerial Grid:


The Managerial Grid developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton focuses on
task (production) and employee (people) orientations of managers, as well as
combinations of concerns between the two extremes. A grid with concern for
production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis and plots
five basic leadership styles .The first number refers to a leader's production or task
orientation; the second, to people or employee orientation.

3.2.2McGregors Theory X & Theory Y Managers:

group

Although not strictly speaking a theory of leadership, the leadership strategy of


effectively-used participative management proposed in DoUglas McGregor's book has
had a tremendous impact on managers. The most publicized concept is McGregor's
thesis that leadership strategies are influenced by a leader's assumptions about human
nature. As a result of his experience as a consultant, McGreg or summarised two
contrasting sets of assumptions made by managers in industry.
Theory X managers believe that:

Theory Y managers believe that:

The average human being has an

inherent dislike of work and will

mental effort in work is as natural

avoid it if possible.
Because
of
this

as play or rest, and the average


human

human

characteristic, most people must be


threatened with punishment to get

being,

and

achieve organizational objectives.


The average human being prefers to

objectives

directed,

wishes

to

avoid

responsibility, has relatively little

proper

but to seek responsibility


People will exercise self-direction

them to put forth adequate effort to

be

under

conditions, learns not only to accept

coerced, controlled, directed, or

The expenditure of physical and

self-control
to

to

which

achieve
they

committed.
The capacity to exercise a relatively
high level of imagination.

ambition, and wants security.

3.3Situational Leadership:

Assumptions:
The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.
When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single
preferred style.

Factors Influence Situational Leadership:

are

Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified three forces that led to the leader's
action:
The forces in the situation
The forces in the follower
The forces in the leader

3.4Transactional Leadership:

Transactional leader works through creating clear structures


Work requirements are clear
Reward structure is clear
Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also wellunderstood
and formal systems of discipline are usually in place
Negotiate the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other
benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate's manager)
gets authority over the subordinate
When work is allocated to subordinates, they are

Transformational Leadership:
Assumptions:
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.