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MSC Nastran 2012.

2
Demonstration Problems

Main Index

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Revision 0 5/24/2012
NA*V2012.2*Z*Z:Z*MN-DPM

Main Index

Contents
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3-D Sheet Metal Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

3-D Loaded Pin with Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading . . . . . . . . 116

Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading. . . . . . . . . . 121

Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

10

Engine Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

11

Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body


Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

12

Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Main Index

4 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems

13

Ball Joint Rubber Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164

14

Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

174

15

Tube Flaring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

183

16

Cup Forming Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190

17

Double-sided Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

200

18

Demonstration of Springback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

249

19

3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

256

20

Composite Fracture and Delamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

308

21

Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

317

22

Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

362

23

Bolted Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

368

24

Friction Between Belt and Pulley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

381

25

Modal Analysis with Glued Contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

390

26

Interference Fit Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

398

27

Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

405

28

Model Airplane Engine Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

Main Index

Contents 5

29

Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic


External Superelement Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

30

Paper Feeding Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

31

Wheel Drop Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

32

Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

33

Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

34

Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

35

Engine Mount Topology Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

36

Wheel Topology Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

37

Local Adaptive Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

38

Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

39

Brake Squeal Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

40

Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

41

Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599

42

Mine Blast Under a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658

43

Blastwave Hitting a Bunker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678

44

Concentric Spheres with Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741

Main Index

6 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems

45

Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400 . . . . . .

798

46

Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

863

47

Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

914

48

Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

927

49

Shell Edge Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

936

50

Large Rotation Analysis of a Riveted Lap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

980

51

Creep of a Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

993

52

Hydro-forming of a Square Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001

53

Chained Analysis: Fan Blade Out with Rotor Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010

54

Ball Penetration using SPH Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031

55

Square Cup Deep Drawing using Forming Limit Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040

56

Hydroplaning Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056

57

Heating and Convection on a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064

58

Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076

59

Shallow Cylindrical Shell Snap-through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087

60

Deformable Baffle in a Duct using OpenFSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096

Main Index

Contents 7

61

Steady State Heat Transfer due to Natural Convection between Two


Noncontacting Bodies located in Nearby Vicinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100

62

Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110

63

Beam Reinforced Shell Structure using Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119

64

Stent Analysis with Growing Rigid Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131

65

Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1142

66

Satellite in Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154

67

Thermal Contact on Surface, Edge and Solid Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1168

68

Collection and Primitives Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175

69

Simulation of Fuel Tank Filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1187

70

User-defined Subroutines for Heat Transfer Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203

71

Impact of a Rigid on Composite Laminate using GENOA PFA Material . . 1216

72

Automated Bolt Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223

73

Cylinder Upsetting with Plastic and Friction Heat Generation . . . . . . . . . 1235

74

Under Water Explosion (UNDEX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246

75

Importing Euler Archives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261

76

Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 700 . . . . . . 1276

Main Index

8 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems

77

Three Methods of Sloshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1285

78

Closure of a Rubber Seal using Segment-to-Segment Contact with Friction


1319

Main Index

Preface

Preface

Main Index

Introduction

10

Feature Cross Reference

Overview of SimXpert

15

List of Nastran Books

15

Technical Support

Internet Resources

16
17

11

10

Introduction
This demonstration problems manual, written for those with a working knowledge of Nastran, highlights the steps
necessary to use the advanced features of the MSC Nastran 2012, including contact, elastic-plastic creep, elastomeric
material nonlinearities, heat transfer, and adaptive mesh refinement. The subsequent application examples focus on
how to include these advanced features by making relatively modest changes to existing MSC Nastran bulk data files
using either a text editor or using a pre- and post-processing program like SimXpert exemplified in the video showcase
below. Click the thumbnails (Figure P-1) to open streaming videos, or read on and youll find these videos at the end
of the indicated chapters.

39

56
6

23
3

25
5

16
72

60
6

64

44

28

45

61

46

18
18

10

A
10

49

core

42
4
2

53

4
1

t
F

23

27

25

200
x
z=0

Figure P-1

Main Index

MSC Nastran Another World - Click Thumbnails for Streaming How To Videos

MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 11


Preface

Every application example has a working input file(s) available to simulate the results found in each chapter, and upon
clicking its name, it will be downloaded into your browser to use. Once an understanding of how to invoke a new
feature has been reached, you are encouraged to experiment by changing some of the input parameters and rerunning
the application. Furthermore, as confidence grows, these models can serve as stepping stones to more complex
simulations that can help you better understand and improve your simulations.

Feature Cross Reference


The basic features in Table P-1 are cross referenced to each chapter for your convenience. Click the chapter number
in the table to go to the summary of that chapter.
Table P-1

Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control
Contact

Load
Control

Point Load

yes

NLPARM

Pressure

yes

NLPARM

plane strain and 3-D


Elastic-plastic
shell

Moving
Rigid Body

yes

NLPARM

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

yes

NLPARM

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Gravity,
Pressure

yes

NLPARM

400

2-D & 3-D

Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic

Point Load

no

NLPARM

400

3-D shell

Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic

Pressure

no

NLPARM

400

3-D shell

Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic

Pressure

no

NLPARM

700

3-D shell and solid

Metal

Centripetal,
Impact

yes

TSTEPNL

10

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic gasket

Pressure,
Bolt Loading

yes

NLPARM

11

400

3-D shell

Elastic-plastic

yes

NLPARM

12

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

no

NLPARM

13

400

axisymmetric

Mooney, Ogden

yes

NLSTEP

14

103 &
700

3-D shell

Isotropic Elastic

no

TSTEPNL

15

400

axisymmetric

Elastic-plastic

yes

NLPARM

Ch.

Sol

Element Type(s)

400

plane strain

Isotropic Elastic

400

axisymmetric &
3-D

Isotropic Elastic

400

Main Index

Material

Loads/BC

Pressure

Point Load

12

Table P-1

Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Contact

Load
Control

yes

NLPARM

Elastic-plastic

yes

NLPARM

plane strain

Elastic-plastic

yes

NLPARM

400

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Moving
Rigid Body

yes

NLPARM

20

400

plane strain

Isotropic Elastic cohesive

VCCT

yes

NLSTEP

21

700

3-D

Fabric, Seatbelt, Rigid,

Airbag

yes

TSTEPNL

22

700

3-D

Fabric, Seatbelt, Rigid,

Side Airbag

yes

TSTEPNL

23

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Bold Load,
Pressure,
Thermal

yes

NLPARM

24

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

yes

NLPARM

25

103

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Glued
Contact

yes

NLPARM

26

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Interference
Fit

yes

NLPARM

27

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Snap Fit

yes

NLPARM

28

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic/gasket

Bolt Loads,
Pressure

yes

NLSTEP

29

200

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

no

30

700

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Rollers

yes

TSTEPNL

31

700

3-D

Isotropic Elastic, Composite,


Rubber, Elastic-Plastic

Impact

yes

TSTEPNL

32

700

3-D

Elastic-plastic, rigid

Impact

yes

TSTEPNL

33

101

Beam

Composites

Point Load

no

34

200

2-D, & 3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

no

35

200

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

no

36

200

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

no

37

101

plane stress

Isotropic Elastic

Edge Load

no

38

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Distributed
Load

yes

Ch.

Sol

Element Type(s)

16

400

3-D shell

Elastic-plastic

17

400

plane strain

18

400

19

Main Index

Material

Loads/BC
Moving
Rigid Body

NLPARM

MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 13


Preface

Table P-1

Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Contact

Load
Control

Distributed
Load

yes

NLPARM

Elastic-plastic

Impact

FSI

TSTEPNL

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Explosion

FSI

TSTEPNL

700

3-D shell and truss

Elastic-plastic

Explosion

FSI

TSTEPNL

43

700

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Explosion

FSI

TSTEPNL

44

400-HT

3-D membrane

Isotropic

Radiation

no

NLSTEP

45

400-HT

3-D

Isotropic

Thermal
Loads

no

TSTEPNL,
NLSTEP

46

400-HT

3-D

Isotropic

Thermal

no

NLSTEP

47

400

3-D beams

Elastic-plastic

Beam To
Beam

yes

TSTEPNL

48

400

3-D

Shape Memory

Prescribed
Displacemen
t

49

400

3-D shells

Isotropic Elastic

Prescribed
Displacemen
t

yes

NLPARM

50

400

3-D shell, CWELD,


CFAST, CBUSH

Isotropic Elastic

Point Load

no

NLPARM

51

400

Axisymmetric

Isotropic Elastic Creep

Pressure

no

NLSTEP

52

400

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Pressure

yes

NLSTEP

53

700

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Blade Out

yes

TSTEPNL

54

700

3-D shell

Elastic-plastic, hydrodynamic

Impact

yes

TSTEPNL

55

700

3-D shell

Anisotropic Elastic-plastic,
rigid

Moving
Rigid Body

yes

TSTEPNL

56

700

3-D solid & shell

Mooney

Hydroplanin
g

FSI

TSTEPNL

Ch.

Sol

Element Type(s)

Material

39

400

3-D

Isotropic and Anisotropic

40

700

3-D

41

700

42

Loads/BC

NLPARM

57

400 2-D
HT&RC

Isotropic

Convection

no

NLSTEP

58

400-RC

3-D

Isotropic

Convection

no

NLSTEP

59

400

3-D shell

Isotropic

Point Load

no

NLSTEP

60

400

3-D

Isotropic

OpenFSI

no

TSTEPNL

Main Index

14

Table P-1

Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Contact

Load
Control

Convection

yes

NLSTEP

Isotropic Elastic

Gravity,
Pressure

no

3-D shell and beam

Elastic-plastic

Pressure

no

NLSTEP

400

3-D

Elastic-plastic

Moving
Rigid Body

yes

NLSTEP

65

400-RC

3-D

Isotropic

Convection,
Advection

no

NLSTEP

66

400-RC

3-D

Isotropic, Honeycomb

Radiation

no

NLSTEP

67

400-RC

3-D

Isotropic

Prescribed
Temperature
s

yes

NLSTEP

68

400-RC

3-D

Isotropic

Radiation,
Distributed
Flux

no

NLSTEP

69

700

3-D

Isotropic

FSI

TSTEPNL

70

400-RC

2-D

Temp. dependent

Convection

no

NLSTEP

71

700

3-D shell

Orthotropic, Progressive
Failure

Impact

yes

TSTEPNL

72

400

3-D

Isotropic Elastic

Bolt Load

yes

NLSTEP

73

400

Axisymmetric

Elastic-plastic

Moving
Rigid Body

yes

NLSTEP

74

700

3D Euler, 2D Shell

Multi-Mat Fluids,
Elastic/Plastic

Undewater
Explosion

FSI
Coupiing

TSTEPNL

77

700

3D Euler, 2D Shell

Multi-Mat Fluids,
Elastic/Plastic

Prescribed
motion

FSI
Coupling

TSTEPNL

Ch.

Sol

Element Type(s)

61

400

3-D

Isotropic

62

400

Axisymmetric

63

400

64

Main Index

Material

Loads/BC

MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 15


Preface

Overview of SimXpert
SimXpert is an integral component of the enterprise simulation environment. It incorporates direct integration with
SimManager and SimDesigner. SimXpert is a multi-disciplinary simulation environment for the analyst including
workspaces between which one common model can be shared. The workspaces provide different tools appropriate to
the discipline:
Structures linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using MSC Nastran
Thermal linear FEA using MSC Nastran
Motion multi-body dynamics of rigid and flexible bodies using the Adams C++ solver
Crash nonlinear explicit dynamic FEA using LS-Dyna
MSC Explicit - nonlinear explicit dynamic FEA using MSC Nastran
Template Builder - Captures Simulation Procedures Consisting Of SimXpert Commands And Macros
Process Builder - Creating Enterprise Processes (SimProcess)
All solvers are included. Workspaces also filter the simulation model. Only the parts of the model that have relevance
to a workspace are visible.
The simulation process allows knowledge capture and re-use through the use of templates.The template builder allows
you to: define a sequence of tasks and sub-tasks, drag-and-drop existing scripts in a visual editing environment, and
publish the finished template to SimManager for re-use across an organization.
To learn more about SimXpert, see Appendix A: Getting Started in SimXpert.

List of Nastran Books


Below is a list of some of the Nastran documents. You may order any of these documents from the MSC.Software
BooksMart site at http://store.mscsoftware.com.
Installation and Release Guides
Installation and Operations Guide
Release Guide
Reference Books
Quick Reference Guide
DMAP Programmers Guide
Reference Manual

Main Index

16

Users Guides
Getting Started
Linear Static Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
MSC Demonstration Problems
Thermal Analysis
Superelement
Design Sensitivity and Optimization
Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)
Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)
Aeroelastic Analysis
User Defined Services
EFEA Users Guide
EFEA Tutorial
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Technical Support
For help with installing or using an MSC.Software product, contact your local technical support services. Our
technical support provides the following services:

Resolution of installation problems


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If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage.
You can reach technical support services on the web, by telephone, or e-mail:
Web

Main Index

Go to the MSC.Software website at www.mscsoftware.com, and click on


Support. Here, you can find a wide variety of support resources including
application examples, technical application notes, available training courses, and
documentation updates at the MSC.Software Training, Technical Support, and
Documentation web page.

MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 17


Preface

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Main Index

18

Training
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Main Index

Chapter 1: 2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Main Index

2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Summary

20

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Analytical Solution

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

21
21

21

22
26

69

29

20 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Summary
Title

Chapter 1: 2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Contact features

Geometry

2-D Plane strain (units: mm)

Advancing contact area


Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable contact
Friction
Comparison of linear and parabolic elements

Material properties

Block height = 200


Block width = 200
Cylinder diameter =100
Thickness = 1

E cylinder = 210kN mm 2

E block = 70kN mm 2

cylinder = block = 0.3

Linear elastic material


Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Symmetric displacement constraints along vertical symmetry line.


Bottom surface of the foundation is fixed u x = u y = 0
Contact between cylinder and block

Applied loads

Vertical point load F = 35kN

Element type

2-D Plane strain


8 -node parabolic elements
4-node linear elements

Contact properties

Coefficient of friction = 0.0

FE results

1. Plot of normal contact pressure against distance from center of contact


2. Plot of tangential stress against distance from center of contact
3. Plot of relative tangential slip against distance from center of contact
5000

and

= 0.1

Contact Pressure N/mm 2


Analytical
SOL 400 Contacting Surface

4000

SOL 400 Contacted Surface

3000
2000
1000
0

Distance (mm)

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 21
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Introduction
A steel cylinder is pressed into an aluminum block. It is assumed that the material behavior for both materials is linear
elastic. The cylinder is loaded by a point load with magnitude F = 35kN in the vertical direction. A 2-D approximation
(plane strain) of this problem is assumed to be representative for the solution. An analytical solution for the frictionless
case is known - (Ref: NAFEMS, 2006, Advanced Finite Element Contact Benchmarks, Benchmark 1 2D Cylinder
Roller Contact).

Solution Requirements
There are two solutions: one using a friction coefficient of 0.1 between the cylinder and block and one frictionless.
Length of contact zone
Normal pressure distribution as function of distance (x-coordinate) along the contact surface
Tangential stress distribution as function of distance along the contact surface
These solutions demonstrate:
More elements near the contact zone
Which surface is treated as master (contacting) and slave (contacting)
The analysis results are presented with linear and parabolic elements.

Analytical Solution
An analytical solution for this contact problem can be obtained from the Hertzian contact formulae (Hertz, H., ber
die Berhrung fester elasticher Krper. J. Reine Angew. Mathm. 92, 156-171, 1881) for two cylinders (line contact).
The maximum contact pressure is given by:
p max =

F n E*
-----------------2BR*

where F n is the applied normal force, E* the combined elasticity modulus, B the length of the cylinder and R* the
combined radius.
The contact width 2a is given by:
a =

8F n R*
----------------BE*

Using the normalized coordinate = x a with x the Cartesian x-coordinate, the pressure distribution is given by:
p = p max 1 2

The combined elasticity modulus is determined from the modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio of the cylinder and
block E cylinder , E block , cylinder , and blo ck , as follows:
2E cylinder E block
E* = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
E block 1 cylinder
+ E cylinder 1 block

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22 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

The combined radius of curvature is evaluated from the radius of curvature of the cylinder and block R cylind er and
R block , as follows:
R cylinder R block
R* = ------------------------------------------R cylinder + R block

For the target solution, the block is approximated with an infinitely large radius. The combined radius is then evaluated
as:
R* =

lim

R block

R cylinder R block
------------------------------------------= R cylinder
R cylinder + R block

Using the numerical parameters for the problems the following results are obtained:
a = 6.21mm
p max = 3585.37N mm 2

Note that half the contact length is equal to 6.21 mm which corresponds to approximately 7.1 degrees of the ring.
Hence, it is clear that, in order to simulate this problem correctly, a very fine mesh near the contact zone is needed.

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 (SOL 400) for the element mesh
shown in Figure 1-1 using plane strain linear elements. The elements in the entire cylinder and entire block have been
selected as contact bodies. Contact body IDs 5 and 6 are identified as a set of elements of the block and cylinder
respectively as:
BCBODY
BSURF
...

5
5

2D
1

DEFORM
2

5
3

0
4

.1
5

6
6

2D
1242

DEFORM
1243

6
1244

0
1245

.1
1246

1247

1248

and
BCBODY
BSURF
...

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

6
0
MASTERS 5
1
SLAVE
6
0
MASTERS 5

0.
0

1
0.
0

.1

0.

0.

0.
0

1
0.
0

.1

0.

0.

Thus, any deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.
The order of these bodies is important and is discussed later. For the simulations with friction, a bilinear Coulomb
model is used (FTYPE = 6). The slave or contacting nodes are contained in the elements in the cylinder, whereas the
master nodes or nodes or contacted segments are contained in the elements in the block.

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 23
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Steel Cylinder

Contact Body ID 6
Element IDs 1242 to 2641

Contact Body ID 5
Element IDs 1 to 1241

Aluminium Block
Y
Z

Figure 1-1

Element Mesh Applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran

Nonlinear plane strain elements are chosen by the PSHLN2 entry referring to the PLPLANE option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1
+
C4

1
1
PLSTRN

1
L

+
+

Herein referred to as plane strain quad4 elements (PLSTRN QUAD4) or (PLSTRN QUAD8) for the linear and parabolic
elements respectively listed in Table 1-1. All elements are 1 mm thick in the out-of-plane direction.
Table 1-1

Applied Element Types in Numerical Solutions


SOL 400

linear

PLSTRN QUAD4

parabolic

PLSTRN QUAD8

The material properties are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio defined as:
$ Material Record : steel
MAT1
1
210000.
$ Material Record : aluminum
MAT1
2
70000.

.3
.3

The nonlinear procedure used is:


NLPARM

PFNT

Here the PFNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every iteration using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy; the default convergence tolerance values (0.01) will be used. The convergence method and
tolerances may be specified explicitly as shown here since they will be discussed later.

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24 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Table 1-2

Nonlinear Control Parameters

NLPARM

+pb1

1.00E-2

1.00E-2

PFNT

10

UP

YES

+pb1

The obtained lengths of the contact zones are listed in Table 1-3. The exact length of the contact zone cannot be
determined due to the discrete character of contact detection algorithms (nodes are detected to be in contact with an
element edge for 2-D, element face for 3-D). It is clear, however, that the numerical solution is in good agreement with
the analytical one.
Table 1-3

Length of the Contact Zone and Pmax


amin
(mm)

aavg
(mm)

amax
(mm)

Error
(%)

Pmax
(N/mm2)

Error
(%)

linear

5.99

6.33

6.67

2.6

3285

-8.38

parabolic

5.88

6.08

6.28

-1.5

3583

-0.05

The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 1-2. A plot of the Hertzian contact solution
for the pressure along the contact surface is obtained with linear and parabolic elements as shown in Figure 1-3 and
Figure 1-4.

amax
amin
Contacting Nodes

Contacted Nodes

Figure 1-2

Main Index

Deformed Structure Plot at Maximum Load Level (magnification factor = 1)

CHAPTER 1 25
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

5000

Contact Pressure N/mm 2


Analytical
SOL 400 Contacted Surface

4000

SOL 400 Contacting Surface

3000
2000
1000
0

Distance (mm)

Figure 1-3

5000

Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Solutions for Linear Elements without Friction

Contact Pressure N/mm 2


Analytical
SOL 400 Contacting Surface

4000

SOL 400 Contacted Surface

3000
2000
1000
0

Distance (mm)
Figure 1-4

Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Solutions for Parabolic Elements without Friction

The contact pressure plotted for the contacting nodes shows, even with this mesh density, an oscillating type of
behavior. This is reduced for the parabolic elements. Generating the same plots along the contacted nodes produces a
smoother curve.
Numerical solutions have also been obtained with a friction coefficient of 0.1 (bilinear Coulomb). The contact normal
and tangential stress along the contacting nodes are shown in Figure 1-5.
All stresses show an oscillating type of behavior. This can be improved by refining the mesh in the contact zone.

Main Index

26 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

5000

Pressure Linear

Contact Stress N/mm 2

Pressure Parabolic

4000

Tangential Linear
Tangential Parabolic

3000
2000
1000
0

Distance (mm)
Figure 1-5

Normal and Tangential Stress Along Contact Surface

Modeling Tips
About Convergence
Although the nonlinearity of the force-displacement relation in this problem is quite mild, looking more closely at the
convergence of this problem will be useful for subsequent problems in this manual, and worthy of mention here as a
matter of introduction. Table 1-4 controls the number of iterations in the Newton-Raphson process illustrated below
in Figure 1-6.
Table 1-4

Convergence Output
Error Factors

Load Step

No. Inc

IRT

Disp

Load

Work

1.00E+00

9.78E-01

9.78E-01

3.70E+00

8.83E-01

4.57E+00

2.80E+00

6.83E-01

3.98E+00

1.43E+00

3.81E-01

2.26E+00

4.96E-01

7.28E-02

8.84E-01

3.72E-04

1.51E-02

9.98E-04

6.00E-05

2.69E-05

8.69E-05

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 27
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Load Fy (N)

60000

Newton-Raphson Path

Fy , v

50000

Point C

40000
30000
Point D

20000

Applied Load = 17500

Point B

10000
Displacement v (mm)
Point A

0.0

Figure 1-6

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Newton - Raphson Path for Load-Displacement Curve

At the beginning of the analysis (Point A in Figure 1-6), the tangent modulus (slope of load-displacement curve) is
used to project to the applied load to Point B, which does not satisfy the convergence criteria. Then equilibrium is reestablished at Point C, and a new slope is computed. The Newton-Raphson iterative procedure continues until the
convergence tolerances are satisfied, Point D. The convergence criteria are based upon displacement, load or work
either individually or in some combination. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is recommended for all SOL 400
analyses because the degree of nonlinearity is typically significant. For the parameters in Table 1-3, the output
(Table 1-4) shows the following convergence characteristics. The percent sign helps to locate the line in the output
file. In this case, the criteria used is both the displacement, U, and load, P - specified through the UP keyword for the
convergence type on the NLPARM command - with a value of 0.01 for each. This means that both relative displacement
and load measures (error factors) must be below 0.01 for convergence to be permitted. This can be seen in Figure 1-7.
In this case, there is no checking on the work, even though it has a low tolerance.
1
Log(work)

Log(disp)

-1
-2

Log(epsp = epsu)

Log(load)

-3
-4
-5

Log(epsw)

Figure 1-7

Error Factors For Each Iteration

About the Order of Contact Bodies


The nug_01aw.dat input file changes the order of the contact body detection, in which the coarser mesh (block) is
the contacting surface. Although acceptable to the contact algorithm, the results are degraded since it is best to have

Main Index

28 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

the body with the most nodes as the contacting body. Run nug_01aw.dat to see the differences as shown in
Figure 1-8.

nug-01aw.dat
Steel Cylinder
Contacted Nodes

Contacting Nodes

Aluminium Block

Figure 1-8

Main Index

nug-01am.dat
Steel Cylinder
Contacting Nodes

Contacted Nodes

Aluminium Block

Deformed Mesh of Different Contact Body Ordering

CHAPTER 1 29
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


Units
All data imported or created in MSC SimXpert is assumed to be in a single consistent system of units, as specified in
the Unit Manager. It is important to specify the appropriate units prior to importing any unitless analysis files, such as
an MSC Nastran bulk data file, or creating materials, element properties, or loads. This is so that the MSC SimXpert
user is assisted in being consistent with the use of numerical quantities that have units. The system of units is specified
in a dialog accessed by selecting Tools: Units Manager.
For the illustration below, the geometry is created, meshed with linear elements using frictionless contact, and finished
by comparing results with the analytic solution.
a. Tools
b. Options
c. Units Manager
d. Basic Units

c
d

Main Index

30 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create a Part for the Block


Parts are the main components of a model and may be used to specify specific attributes (geometry, properties etc.).
For example, here the part/block, is created (bottom right) that will be later used by picking the part from the model
tree in the Model Browser (bottom left). We will find that in defining material properties picking parts from the model
tree is easier than trying to pick a group of elements. Later the last part, cylinder, is created.
a. Assemble
b. Create Part
c. block; click OK

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 31
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create the Block Geometry


The geometry of the part/block, is created here and results in a simple rectangular shaped object. More geometry is
added to this part in subsequent steps.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. X, Y, Z Input enter 0,200,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 30,200,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 30,170,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 0,170,0; click OK

( p

a
b

c
c

Main Index

32 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create a Curve to Define a Surface Edge


Continuing to add geometry to the part/block, a curve (line) is created below the previous rectangle. This curve is used
to generate a surface between the rectangle and line.
a. Geometry
b. Curve
c. X, Y, Z Input enter 0,100,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 100,100,0; click OK
OK

a
b

c
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 33
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create a Surface Between Two Curves


Now the surface is generated between the curve on the bottom of the rectangle and the previously created curve. The
part/block now contains two surfaces: a rectangle and quadrilateral.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. enter 2 Curves; click OK

a
b

Main Index

34 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create a Surface by Defining Its Vertices


Another surface is added using one point and three vertices.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. Enter 1 point, 3 vertices; click OK
d. X, Y, Z Input enter 100,200,0; click OK

a
b

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 35
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create a Surface by Sweeping a Curve


The final surface added to the part/block, is created by sweeping the bottom horizontal curve downward for 100 mm.
a. Geometry
b. Sweep
c. Vector, two point normal, pick Curve, Length of Sweep; click OK

Main Index

36 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Stitch Surfaces
Finally, all of the surfaces that comprise the part/block, are stitched together. Stitching surfaces creates congruent
surfaces with aligned normals within a stitch tolerance. Unconnected or free edges are displayed in red whereas shared
edges are displayed in green as shown below.
a. Geometry
b. Stitch
c. 4 bodies; click OK

1
2
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 37
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create a Part: Cylinder


Now the cylinder part is created.
a. Assemble
b. Create Part
c. Cylinder; click OK

c. cylinder, OK

Main Index

38 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create an Arc
The cylindrical surface is generated by an arc and a line. The arc is defined below.
a. Geometry
b. Arc
c. Dir-Radius 0,250,0;0,250,-1
d. Arc.1, 40,0,180 VERTEX(indicated); click OK

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 39
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create a Curve Along a Line of Symmetry


The cylindrical surface is generated by an arc and a line. The line is defined below.
a. Geometry
b. Curve
c. 2 Vertices; click OK

a
b

Main Index

40 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Break Line and Arc into Two Curves for Two Surfaces
Before generating a surface from these two curves, each curve (line and arc) is broken into two equal pieces
respectively. This allows for generating two surfaces that ultimately generate different meshes.
a. Geometry
b. Edit Curve
c. Split
d. Parametric, 2 Curves; click OK

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 41
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create Surfaces from Curves


Two surfaces (composing half of the cylinder) are generated from the curves previously constructed and are
stitched together.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. 2 Curves, click OK (repeat for other 2 curves
d. Stitch, 2 surfaces; click OK

a
b

Main Index

42 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create Mesh Seeds


With the parts completed, each curve of each surface is seeded prior to meshing. Here the curves that comprise the
surface of the lower portion of the cylinder are seeded with element sizes that include uniform and biased seeds.
a. Meshing
b. Seed: Arrows on curves indicate direction for nonuniform mesh seed
c. Curve (seed as indicated in the 3 curves); click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 43
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create Mesh
With the curves of this surface seeded, a quadrilateral dominate mesh is created by using the surface mesher.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface, Mesh type and Method (indicated)
d. Element Size 1
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
yp

a
b

c
d

Main Index

44 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create Mesh
The top cylindrical surface is meshed with a quadrilateral dominate mesh and the cylindrical part meshing is complete.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 2.5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 45
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create Mesh
The block part consists of four surfaces that are now to be meshed with the smallest rectangular surface being mesh
with uniform elements with the indicated size using a quadrilateral dominate mapped mesher.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 1.5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK

a
b

Main Index

46 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create Mesh Seeds


The upper quadrilateral surface curves are seeded appropriately, and the surface is meshed. A similar exercise is done
for the lower quadrilateral surface (not shown).
a. Meshing
b. Seed: Arrows on Curves indicate direction for nonuniform mesh seed
c. Surface
OK

a
b

c
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 47
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create Mesh
Finally, the lower rectangular surface of the block is meshed using the mapped mesher with uniform element sizes.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
g. Pick Surface
h. Element Size 5
i. Quad Dominant
j. OK

a
b

Main Index

48 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Enforce Consistent Normals


Although the surfaces of the cylinder and block parts were stitched together, the surface mesher may create elements
with inconsistent outward normals. This is the case here, and elements need to be fixed such that their outward normals
all point in one direction (+z). This is done by showing the element normals, then fixing the normals using a reference
element to set the normal direction. Continue this process until all normals are consistent; namely, they all point in the
same direction.
a. Quality
b. Fix Elements
c. Normals
d. Show (Fix) Normals, click OK

b
c

d
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 49
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Define Material Data


Materials are defined by naming the material (steel and Al, respectively) while entering the properties. The problem
statement required that the cylinder be made of steel and the block made of aluminum (Al). Since the basic units
selected have derived units of pressure (stress or modulus) as N mm 2 , Youngs modulus for the steel is entered as
210x10 3 and 70x10 3 for aluminum. Poissons ratio is dimensionless and entered as 0.3 for both materials.
a. Materials and Properties
b. Isotropic
c. steel, (properties); click OK
d. Al, (properties as shown); click OK

d. Al, (properties), OK

Main Index

50 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Define Material Data


The properties defined are now applied to the parts accordingly along with the planar element properties. Parts and
materials are selected from the Model tree (not shown).
a. Materials and Properties
b. Plane
c. Plane Property (cylinder and block); click OK

c. Plane Property (cylinder and block), OK


a

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 51
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Contact Data for Cylinder


Since the cylinder will come into contact with the block, contact data needs to be specified. A contact body consists
of a set of elements and their associated nodes that are mutually exclusive from other elements. While we know that
only a small number of elements in the cylinder and block will ultimately come into contact, there is no need to specify
this information; the contact algorithm completely determines where and when contact happens. Hence, our choice is
simple. We will create two contact bodies, consisting of all elements in the two parts we have defined: the cylinder
and block.
Although one might be tempted to only pick those elements suspected of coming into contact, it is best (and less time
consuming) to just pick all the elements in the part as done here.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Deformable Body
c. Select cylinder; click OK

b. Deformable Body
c. Select cylinder, OK

a
b

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52 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Contact Data for Block


Similar to the cylinder contact body, all elements in the block are selected to be in the next deformable contact body.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Deformable Body
c. Select block; click OK

a
b

Define a deformable contact body for the block

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 53
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Define Contact Tables


Although a contact table is not necessary for this particular problem (see BCONTACT = ALLBODY in the QRG), one is
used here for illustration. Here, the contact table indicates that all contact bodies touch each other, including
themselves.
In general, contact tables describe how contact is to take place between contact bodies (touching, glue, none) and may
change during the analysis by selecting different contact tables. A contact table allows one to define the coefficient of
friction between the two touching bodies and its nonzero value overrides any previous value.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Table
c. BCTABLE_INIT; click OK

c. BCTABLE_INIT

Main Index

54 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Define Constraints
The horizontal component of displacement for all nodes on the symmetry plane is fixed to be zero by selecting the
associated curves.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. General
c. Symmetry (Tx = 0 only)
d. 5 Curves; click OK

y(

y)

d. 5 Curves, OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 55
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Define Constraints
The horizontal and vertical displacement components of all nodes on the bottom of the block are fixed by selecting
the associated curve.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. General
c. Bottom (Tx, Ty = 0 only)
d. 1 Curve; click OK

c. Bottom (Tx, Ty

0 only)

d. 1 Curve, OK

Main Index

56 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Define Point Load


The load of 35 kN is applied to the top node in the downward direction. However, since only half of the material is
being modeled because of the plane of symmetry, a load of 17.5 = 35/2 kN is applied to this half of the model.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Force
c. 1 Node
d. 17500, (direction); click OK

d. 17500, (direction), OK

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 57
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Create Nastran SOL 400 Job with Default Layout


An analysis job is set up using a general nonlinear analysis type (SOL 400) and the name of the solver input file
is specified.
a. Right click File Set
Create new Nastran job
b. Job Name
c. General Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 400)
d. Name input file; click OK

a
b

c
d

Main Index

58 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Create Nastran SOL 400 Job with Default Layout


The global loadcase is created and the initial contact table is selected.
a. Right click Load Cases
b. Create Global Loadcase
OK
c. Under Global Loadcase, Right click Loads/Boundary Conditions
d. Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT; click OK

c
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 59
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT for Loadcase DefaultLoadCase


The default loadcase is created using the same contact table.
a. Right click Loads/Boundaries under DefaultLoadCase
b. Select Contact Table
c. Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT
d. Click OK

Main Index

60 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Define Large Disp. and Contact in SOL 400 Nonlinear Parameters


Here, we are specifying some nonlinear parameters that allow forces to follow in a large displacement analysis and set
the bias factor used in contact detection.
a. Double click Solver Control
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. Large Disp and Follower Force, Apply
d. Contact Control Parameters
e. Bias = 0.90
f. click Apply
g. click Close

c
a

f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 61
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Define Nonlinear Static Parameters


Finishing the selection of nonlinear parameters, we select the stiffness update method along with convergence criteria.
a. Loadcase Control
b. Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. Pure Full Newton, 1, 50
d. Check Displacement error, enter 1.0e-2
e. Check Force Error, enter 1.0e-2
f. Check Vector Component Method

b
c

d
a

Main Index

62 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Request Output
In order to visualize results, nodal and elemental output requests are made.
a. Output Request
b. Nodal Output Requests
c. Create Constraint Force output Request; click OK
d. Elemental Output
e. Create Nonlinear Stress Output,; click OK

d
a
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 63
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Run Analysis
The preprocessing is now complete and the job is submitted. Upon successful completion of the job, the results are
attached and visualized.
a. Right click job, cylinder_roller_contact, under Simulations
b. Run.

Main Index

64 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Results
The results are attached.
a. Attach Results
b. Select *_xdb file

a
b Select *.xdb file

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 65
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Results - Fringe Plot


A fringe plot of the Y-component of the Cauchy stress tensor is plotted below.
a. Results
b. Fringe
c. Cauchy Stress
d. Y Component
e. Update

b. Fringe
c. Cauchy Stress
d. Y Component
e. Update

c
d

Main Index

66 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Results - Chart Data


Since the contact area is very small, it is useful to plot the Y component of Cauchy stress along the X component of
the nodal positions, which is done by constructing the chart below.
a. Results
b. Chart
c. Stress, Y Comp., Nodes
d. Advanced Picking Tool
e. From Curve
f. Select Curve
g. X Global
h. Add Curves
a. Results

b. Chart
c. Stress, Y Comp., Nodes
d. Advanced Picking Tool
e. From Curve
f. Select Curve
g. X Global
h. Add Curves

b
a
d

c
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 67
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel


Ultimately, we wish to compare the data contained in the chart above with the analytical solution. The results in the
chart can be extracted to the clipboard by selecting the Table under XY Chart Properties; then right click the table,
Select All, and then copy. Once in the clipboard, the data can be pasted into Excel to be used in further comparisons.
a. XY Chart Properties, Check Table
b. Mouse on Table, Select All, Copy
c. Paste into Excel

Main Index

68 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 1

Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel


The chart data in the clipboard one pasted into Excel is then compared to the analytical solution.
a. Plot with Analytical Solution in Excel

Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel


a. Plot with Analytical Solution in Excel
a

Main Index

CHAPTER 1 69
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Input File(s)
Snippets from the first four Nastran input files listed below are used to illustrate the simulation throughout various
sections of this chapter except the section, Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert. This later section illustrates the
simulation using the SimXpert workspace environment, instead of the Nastran input file(s). While both illustrations
ultimately lead to the same solution, viewing the simulation from these two different viewpoints facilitates a better
understanding of how to perform the simulation.
For example, nug_01am.dat, uses contact body IDs 5 and 6 as the set of elements for the block and cylinder,
respectively; whereas the input file, ch01.bdf, (derived from the SimXpert workspaces database, ch01.SimXpert)
uses contact body IDs 1 and 2 as the set of elements for the block and cylinder, respectively. It is important to
understand that while the contact bodies in these two input files are different (they use different IDs with a different
set of elements), they yield the same solution since the loads, boundary conditions, and material properties are
the same.
File

Description

nug_01am.dat

Linear Elements Without Friction

nug_01aw.dat

Same as above but contact bodies are in wrong order

nug_01bm.dat

Linear Elements With Friction

nug_01cm.dat

Parabolic Elements Without Friction

nug_01dm.dat

Parabolic Elements With Friction

ch01.SimXpert

SimXpert Model

ch01_SimXpert.proc

SimXpert Procedure file.

ch01.bdf

Nastran input model (Linear Elements Without Friction)

Main Index

Chapter 2: 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

Main Index

3-D Punch (Rounded


Edges) Contact

Summary

71

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

Results

General Analysis Tips

Input File(s)

Video

72
72

72

75

79

79

78

CHAPTER 2 71
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

Summary
Title

Chapter 2: 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

Contact features

Geometry

Axisymmetric and 3-D continuum elements (units: mm)

Axisymmetric/3-D contact
Analytical deformable body contact
Friction along deformable-deformable contact plane
Comparison of linear and parabolic elements

Punch Diameter = 100


Punch Height = 100
Foundation Diameter = 200
Foundation Height = 200
Fillet radius at edge of punch contact = 10

Material properties

E punch = 210kN mm 2 E foundation = 70kN mm 2 punch = foundation = 0.3

Analysis type

Linear elastic material


Geometric nonlinearity
Nonlinear boundary conditions

Boundary conditions

Symmetry displacement constraints in 3-D model (quarter symmetry)


Noncontacting surface of the foundation is fixed u x = u y = u z = 0

Applied loads

A uniform pressure (distributed load) is applied to the punch in the axial direction,
P = 100N mm 2

Element type

Axisymmetric
4-node linear elements
8-node parabolic elements

Contact properties

Coefficient of friction = 0.0 and = 0.1

FE results

1. Plot of contact pressure versus radius


2. Plot of contact normal force and friction force versus radius
3. Plot of radial displacement and relative tangential slip versus radius

3-D continuum
8-node linear elements

Radial Displacement (mm)

0.005

Radius (mm)

0.000

20

40

60

80

100

Friction

-0.005
-0.010

No Friction

-0.015
-0.020

Main Index

NAFEMS

Friction

No Friction

72 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 2

Introduction
An axisymmetric steel punch is compressed on an aluminium cylinder. It is assumed that the material behavior is linear
elastic. The punch is loaded by a uniform pressure with magnitude P = 100N mm 2 in the axial direction. The effect of
friction is studied along the contact zone. Axisymmetric 2-D solutions are used to serve as a target solution for a 3-D
analysis. For the 3-D solutions, one quarter of the assembly is modeled, using symmetry conditions. (Ref: NAFEMS,
2006, Advanced Finite Element Contact Benchmarks, Benchmark 2, 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact)

Requested Solutions
Both 2-D (axisymmetric) and 3-D solutions are requested. Two solutions, one frictionless and the other using a friction
coefficient of 0.1 between the punch and foundation, are requested. The displacement, force, and stress fields in the
contact zone (contacting surface of the punch and contacted surface of the foundation) are of interest and are obtained
with both linear and parabolic elements in the axisymmetric case and with linear elements in the 3-D case. The SOL
400 elements specified through suitable extensions to the PLPLANE or PSOLID entries are demonstrated. In the 3-D
case, solutions obtained with these elements are also compared to those obtained using existing HEX elements.
The solutions presented include:
Radial displacement of top contact surface of punch as function of coordinate.
Contact force, friction force, and contact pressure distributions as a function of coordinate.

FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for multiple 2-D axisymmetric
and 3-D cases. The axisymmetric cases include linear and parabolic elements, with and without friction. The 3-D case
includes linear elements with and without friction.
The contact, material, geometry, convergence, and other parameters are explained below - primarily with respect to
the axisymmetric linear element case and are representative for both 2-D and 3-D cases.

Contact Parameters
The element mesh using axisymmetric linear elements is shown in Figure 2-1 and is further described as follows: Two
contact bodies, one identified as the punch and the other identified as the foundation, are used. Pressure is applied at
the top of the punch in the axial direction. The bottom of the punch, in turn, compresses the foundation. Typical
element length along the punch and foundation is 4 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively. Contact body ID 4 is used to identify
the punch and body ID 5 is used to identify the foundation.
BCBODY
4
BSURF
4
........

2D
1

DEFORM
2

4
3

0
4

.1
5

BCBODY
5
BSURF
5
..........

2D
229

DEFORM
230

5
231

0
232

.1
233

Main Index

-1
6

234

235

CHAPTER 2 73
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

BCBODY with ID 4 is identified as a two-dimensional deformable body with BSURF ID 4 and friction coefficient of
0.1. Furthermore, -1 on the 8th field indicates that BCBODY 4 is described as an analytical body, wherein the discrete
facets associated with the element edges are internally enhanced by using cubic splines. Since the punch has rounded
edges in the contact zone, using an enhanced spline representation of the punch yields better accuracy. The minus sign
indicates that the nodal locations defining the spline discontinuities are automatically determined. Note that since the
foundation is a rectangular shape with sharp angles, using the spline option with this body is not necessary since it
would only increase the computational cost without an associated improvement in accuracy.

Figure 2-1

Element Mesh used for Axisymmetric Case in MSC Nastran (Benchmark 2)

The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below identify the touching conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

4
0
MASTERS 5
1
SLAVE
4
0
MASTERS 5

0.
0

1
0.
0

.1

0.

0.

0.
0

1
0.
0

.1

0.

0.

BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. It should be noted that this is
a required option that is required in SOL 400 for contact analysis. It is flagged in the case control section through the
optional BCONTACT = 0 option. Note that BCTABLE 0 and other contact cards with ID 0 (e.g., BCPARA 0) would be
applied at the start of the analysis even without the BCONTACT = 0 option. For later increments in the analysis,

Main Index

74 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 2

BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section indicates that BCTABLE with ID 1 is to be used to define the touching
conditions between the punch and the foundation.

The BCPARA bulk data entry shown below for the frictional linear axisymmetric case defines the general contact
parameters to be used in the analysis:
BCPARA

0
FTYPE

NBODIES 2
BIAS

MAXENT 84
9.0E-01 ISPLIT

MAXNOD

84
RVCNST

1.0E-04

Note that ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE - the friction type, RVCNST - the slip-threshold value
and the BIAS - the distance tolerance bias. As per general recommendation, BIAS is set to 0.9 (note that the default
value of BIAS is 0.9). For the frictional case, FTYPE is set to 6 (bilinear Coulomb model) and RVCNST is set to 1e-4
(this is a non-default value that is used in this particular problem - the need for a non-default value is discussed in more
detail later). Note that when other parameters on the BCPARA option like ERROR (distance tolerance), FNTOL
(separation force) are not specified, left as blank or specified as 0, program calculated defaults are used. It should also
be noted that while the BCPARA parameters generally apply to all the bodies throughout the analysis, some of the
parameters like ERROR, BIAS, FNTOL can be redefined via the BCTABLE option for specific body combinations and
for specific times through the analysis.

Material/Geometry Parameters
The two material properties used herein for the punch and foundation are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus
and Poissons ratio defined as
$ Material Record : steel
MAT1
1
210000.
$ Material Record : aluminum
MAT1
2
70000.

.3
.3

For the 2-D case, axisymmetric elements are chosen via the CQUADX option pointing to a PLPLANE entry which in
turn, points to an auxiliary PSHLN2 entry as shown below.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1
+
C4
+
C8

1
1
1
AXSOLID L
AXSOLID Q

+
+

where the C4 entries indicate that linear 4-noded full integration axisymmetric solid elements are to be used and the
C8 entries indicate that parabolic 8-noded full integration axisymmetric solid elements are to be used. Note that the
PSHLN2 entry enables SOL 400 to access a robust 2-D element library featuring linear and parabolic plane stress,
plane strain or axisymmetric elements. Multiple element topologies (4-noded, 6-noded, 8-noded) can be defined as
plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric through the PSHLN2 options. These elements which can be used for
isotropic/orthotropic/ anisotropic elastic/elasto-plastic applications augment previous SOL 400 hyperelastic element
technology that could be used in conjunction with the PLPLANE and MATHP options.
For the 3-D case, hex elements are chosen via the CHEXA option pointing to a PSOLID entry. For elastic or small strain
applications, the user has two choices: Use existing 3-D solid elements with just the PSOLID option or use 3-D solid
element technology accessed by the PSOLID entry pointing to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry. For large strain elastoplastic applications, the user should always use the 3-D solid elements; i.e., the primary usage of the 3-D solid

Main Index

CHAPTER 2 75
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

elements is for large strain elasto-plasticity for which the PSLDN1 + NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 bulk data entry is
recommended. However, as in the current example, these elements can also be used for elastic applications when used
in conjunction with PSLDN1 and with NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED entry.

Convergence Parameters
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLPARM entry:
NLPARM

10

PFNT

25

UP

YES

where 10 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Full Newton-Raphson Technique, wherein the
stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines whether the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed
and the next load increment is commenced. The maximum number of allowed recycles is 25 for every increment and
if this were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. UP indicates that convergence
will be checked using both displacements (U) and residual criteria (P). YES indicates that intermediate output will be
produced after every increment (note that this has been turned to NO for the 3-D case due to voluminous output). The
second line of NLPARM is omitted here, which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U
and P. It should be noted that the PFNT iterative method used conducts checking over incremental displacements and
is generally more stringent than for the FNT iterative method which convergence is checked over weighted total
displacements.

Case Control Parameters


Some of the case control entries to conduct these analyses are highlighted as follows: SUBCASE 1 indicates the case
being considered. There are no STEP entries in this analysis since a single loading sequence is being considered. For
multiple loading sequences that follow one another, STEP entries can be used within a single SUBCASE to identify
each sequence. BCONTACT = 1 is used to indicate the contact parameters for SUBCASE 1. NLPARM = 1 is used to flag
the nonlinear procedure for SUBCASE 1. In addition to regular output requests like DISPLACEMENTS, STRESSES,
the option that is required for contact related output in the F06 file is BOUTPUT. It should be noted that with the
BOUTPUT option, one can obtain normal contact forces, frictional forces, contact normal stress magnitudes, and
contact status for the contact nodes.

Results
The radial displacements obtained for the frictionless and frictional cases for the linear axisymmetric element case are
compared in Figure 2-2. The results match very well with the corresponding NAFEMS results (Benchmark 2 of
NAFEMS 2006).
It is noteworthy to study the effect of the slip threshold value, RVCNST, on the friction results. The radial
displacements for two different values of RVCNST are compared in Figure 2-3. It is seen that RVCNST has a significant
influence on the radial displacements. It should be noted that the default value of RVCNST is calculated as 0.0025 times
the average edge length of all elements that can participate in contact. For the linear axisymmetric problem, the default
RVCNST is of the order of 0.015. Relative radial displacements which are smaller than this value imply a transition

Main Index

76 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 2

zone and the frictional force linearly increases from 0 to the peak value within this zone. In order to capture the
frictional force and the relative sliding more accurately, a smaller value of RVCNST (= 1e-4) is required in this
problem. In general, for friction problems, a good check to be made from the f06 file or by postprocessing is whether
the friction force is of the order of F n , where is the friction coefficient and F n is the nodal contact normal force.
Radial Displacement (mm)

0.005

Radius (mm)

0.000

20

40

60

80

100

Friction

-0.005
-0.010

No Friction

-0.015
NAFEMS

-0.020
Figure 2-2

Friction

No Friction

Radial Displacement as Function of the Radial Coordinate (friction coefficient =0.0 and 0.1)
Obtained with Linear Axisymmetric Elements

Radial Displacement (mm)

0.005

Distance (mm)

0.000

20

40

60

80

100

= 0.1 RVCNST=1e-4
-0.005
-0.010

= 0.1
RVCNST=default

-0.015
No Friction
-0.020
Figure 2-3

Effect of slip threshold value, RVCNST, on Radial Displacement

The contact normal force and friction force along the punch for the linear axisymmetric element is plotted in
Figure 2-4. It is instructive to check that equilibrium is well-maintained (the sum of the contact forces transmitted via
the punch should be equal to the total force being applied to the punch). It can be shown that the sum of all contact
forces at the punch-foundation interface is within .03% of the total force applied on the punch
2
=PR punch
= 10050 2 = 7.85e5N . Also, the friction forces are about 0.1 times the contact normal forces.

Main Index

CHAPTER 2 77
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

The contact pressure is plotted for the contacting nodes for both the linear and parabolic axisymmetric elements of the
punch in Figure 2-5. The parabolic solution shows a rather oscillating type of behavior. Also, as may be expected, the
parabolic solution shows a more localized stress peak. These trends are consistent with the NAFEMS benchmark 2
results. The oscillatory behavior can be improved by refining the mesh in the contact zone (and the surrounding part
assuring connection with the remaining part of the structures).
Force (N)

350000
300000
250000

Contact Normal
Force

200000
150000

Contact Friction
Force

100000
50000
0

Distance (mm)

10

Figure 2-4

20

30

40

50

60

Contact Normal Force and Friction Force at Punch as a Function of Radial Coordinate Along
Punch-Foundation Contact Interface

Contact Normal Stress (N/mm 2)


800
Parabolic Elements
700
600

Linear Elements

500
400
300
200
100
0

Distance (mm)

Figure 2-5

10

20

30

40

50

60

Variation of Contact Normal Stress Along Radial Coordinate of Punch for Linear and
Parabolic Axisymmetric Elements

The displacement contours in the punch for the 3-D frictional case are shown in Figure 2-6. The left-hand side shows
the solution for the 3-D solid elements identified through the PSOLID + PSLDN1 options. The right-hand side shows

Main Index

78 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 2

the solution for the existing 3-D solid elements identified through the PSOLID options only. As seen, the solutions are
very close to each other.

Figure 2-6

Comparison of Punch Displacement Contours in Two different Solid Elements Available in


SOL 400

General Analysis Tips


While the contact checking algorithm in SOL 400 provides a number of options for the searching order via the
ISEARCH parameter on the BCTABLE option, the user should be aware of a few recommendations regarding
the touching (slave) body and the touched (master) body: The touching body should be convex, generally be
less stiff, and be more finely meshed than the touched body. This allows for better conditioning of the
matrices and provides for better nodal contact. Note that these recommendations may not all be satisfied at the
same time; for example, in this benchmark, the punch which has been identified as the first body is convex
and smaller than the foundation but has a slightly coarser mesh and is somewhat stiffer than the foundation.
The accuracy of the friction solution should be judged by checking that the frictional forces at the nodes are
generally equal to F n . If this is violated, the slip-threshold value, RVCNST, may need to be adjusted. Note
also that to ensure a quality solution with friction, in general, the incremental displacements need to converge
well. This can be ensured by using PFNT on the NLPARM option and checking on U.
The PSHLN2 entry in conjunction with PLPLANE entries allows the users to flag 2-D elements for plane
stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric applications with isotropic/orthotropic/ anistropic elastic/elasto-plastic
materials. Similarly, PSLDN1 entries in conjunction with PSOLID entries allows the users to flag nonlinear
3-D solid continuum elements. The 2-D elements offer a range of abilities for small strain and large strain
elastic/elasto-plastic analysis. The fundamental application of the 3-D elements is for large strain elastoplastic applications, wherein use should be made of the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option to flag appropriate
element behavior. It should be noted that the 3-D elements can also be used in the elastic regime (as in this
current example - see nug_02em.dat). In such situations, it is highly recommended that one not use
NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 but use NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED to ensure better behavior in elastic bending.
Existing 3-D element technology for SOL 400 can be used for elastic applications too (see nug_02en.dat
for example). In this case, one simply uses PSOLID without the PSLDN1 addition.

Main Index

CHAPTER 2 79
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact

For the axisymmetric case, the pressure load is applied through PLOADX1. It should be noted that the pressure
value to be specified on the PLOADX1 option is not the force per unit area 100N mm 2 but the pressure over a
circular ring of angle 2 Accordingly, on the LOAD bulk data entry, the pressure load is scaled by a value of
2

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_02am.dat

Axisymmetric Linear Elements Without Friction

nug_02bm.dat

Axisymmetric Linear Elements With Friction

nug_02cm.dat

Axisymmetric Parabolic Elements Without Friction

nug_02dm.dat

Axisymmetric Parabolic Elements With Friction

nug_02em.dat

3-D Linear Elements Without Friction - PSLDN1 used along with PSOLID to flag nonlinear
HEX elements

nug_02en.dat

3-D Linear Elements Without Friction - existing HEX element technology flagged through
PSOLID

3-D Linear Elements With Friction - PSLDN1 used along with PSOLID to flag nonlinear
HEX elements

nug_02fm.dat

3-D Linear Elements With Friction - existing HEX element technology flagged through

nug_02fn.dat

PSOLID

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Radial Displacement (mm)

0.005

Radius (mm)

0.000

20

40

60

80

100

Friction

-0.005
-0.010

No Friction

-0.015
-0.020

Figure 2-7

Main Index

NAFEMS

Friction

No Friction

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Main Index

3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Summary

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

94

81
82

83
93
94

82

CHAPTER 3 81
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Summary
Title

Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Contact features

Geometry

2-D Plane strain elements or shell elements (units:


mm)
Punch radius = 23.5
Die radius R2 = 25.0
Die shoulder R3 = 4.0
Width of tools = 50.0
Length of sheet (initially) =120.0
Thickness of sheet = 1.0
Width of sheet = 30.0
Punch stroke = 28.5

Material properties

Rigid and deformable bodies


Mesh dependency
Elasticity, plasticity and spring back
Sliding contact around circular surface

Youngs modulus: E = 70.5kN mm 2


Poissons ratio: = 0.342
Initial yield stress: 0 = 194N mm 2

Original
Position

Punch

Sheet
Final
Position
W
R2
R3

Die

Hollomon hardening:
= K n
K = 550.4N mm 2
n = 0.223

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis
Elastic plastic material (isotropic hardening)
Geometric nonlinearity
Nonlinear boundary conditions

Displacement boundary
conditions

Symmetric displacement restraints (half symmetry).


Bottom surface fixed.
Prescribed vertical displacement for the punch.

Element type

2-D Plane strain - 4-node linear elements; 3-D Shell - 4-node shell elements

Contact properties

Coefficient of friction = 0.1342

FE results

1. Forming angle and angle after release


2. Plot of punch force versus punch displacement compared to experimental values
2D Plane Strain With Friction
Punch Force (N)

300

SOL 400
Marc

250
200
150

Experimental

100
50
0

10

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Main Index

82 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

Introduction
This benchmark problem is an approximation of the Numisheet 2002 Benchmark B problem. Simulations are carried
out using MSC Nastran solution sequence 400 to find the angles before and after spring back. Experimental results are
available for this benchmark, but it is noted that the sheet is slightly anisotropic. The text setup and reference details
of these experimental results are given in Figure 3-1. The current problem uses an isotropic elastic-plastic hardening
behavior.

SOURCE
FREE BENDING BENCHMARK TESTING OF 6111-T4 ALUMINUM ALLOY SAMPLE
John C. Brem*, Frederic Barlat**, Joseph M. Fridy** Alcoa Technical Center, Pennsylvania,
Numisheet 2002 Conference, Korea

Figure 3-1

Test Setup for Numisheet 2002 - Benchmark B Problem

Solution Requirements
Two solutions: one using friction coefficient 0.1342 (bilinear Coulomb friction model) between the sheet and both
tools, and one frictionless solution are requested for:
Forming angle (the angle at the end of the punch stroke)
Angle after release (the angle after tool removal)
Punch force - punch displacement diagram
Figure 3-2 shows the definition of angle . The solutions, obtained with shell elements and plane strain elements,
include the following:

Main Index

Element size (in particular near the curved zones)


Method used in discretization of the tools
Method for normal contact detection (hard/direct contact)
Method for stick slip approximation (bilinear Coulomb friction model)

CHAPTER 3 83
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Unit: mm
A

20

20
B

C
20

y
x

Figure 3-2

Requested Angles for Benchmark 3

FEM Solutions
FEM solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for the 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell
representations of the present sheet metal forming problem. The details of finite element models, contact simulations,
material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure of both the 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell approaches are
discussed.

Finite Element Models


The finite element model used for the 2-D plane strain approach is shown in Figure 3-3. The punch and die are
modeled in analytical form. The finite element mesh for the sheet contains 850 elements with 5 elements over the
thickness. Only half of the sheet is modeled. The applied element lengths can be determined from Table 3-1. MSC
Nastrans 2-D plane strain solid elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PLPLANE and PSHLN2
entries. The 30 mm for the width of the sheet is specified in PSHLN2 option.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1
+
C4

Main Index

1
1
PLSTRN

1
L

30.0

84 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

Figure 3-3

FE Model for 2-D Plane Strain Approach

Table 3-1

Number of Elements in Length Direction (2-D Plane Strain Model)

Position

Number of Elements
50

0 x 27mm
27 x 40.2mm

100

40.2 x 60mm

20

The finite element model used for the 3-D shell approach is presented in Figure 3-3. Also, in this case, only half of the
plate has been modeled with appropriate symmetry conditions at the middle of the plate. The sheet is modeled using
1020 thick shell elements with 6 elements across the width and 170 elements along the length (as in Table 3-2). MSC
Nastrans thick shell elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PSHELL and PSHLN1 entries. The
thickness 1 mm for the sheet is specified in PSHELL option.
PSHELL
PSHLN1
+

1
1
C4

Figure 3-4

Main Index

1
1
DCT

1.
1
L

1
NO

FE Model for 3-D Shell Approach

CHAPTER 3 85
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Table 3-2

Number of Elements in Length Direction (Benchmark 3)

Position
0 x 40mm

Number of Elements
160

40 x 60mm

10

Contact Models
In defining the contact model for the 2-D plane strain case, the sheet is modeled as a deformable body and the punch
and die are modeled as rigid bodies. Elements comprising the sheet are used to generate a deformable contact body
with ID 4 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. Contact body ID 5 is used to define the load controlled
rigid body with a control node ID 1 for the punch and contact body ID 6 is used to define the position controlled rigid
body for the die. The geometry profiles of these rigid bodies are defined using 2-D NURB curves that describe the true
surface geometry and most accurately represent the punch and die geometry. The friction factor of 0.1342 is defined
for all these contact bodies.
BCBODY
BSURF
...
BCBODY

...
BCBODY

...

4
4

2D
1

5
2D
0
0.
RIGID
1
NURBS2D -3
6
2D
0
0.
RIGID
0
NURBS2D -2

DEFORM
2

RIGID
0.
3
RIGID
0.
2

4
3
0.
CBODY2
50
0.
CBODY3
50

0
4

.1342
5

0
0.

.1342
0.

1
0.

1
0.

0
0.

.1342
0.

1
0.

-1
0.

The contact bodies for the 3-D shell models are also defined in similar way with the punch and die surfaces defined
using 3-D NURB surfaces. The following BCBODY entries are used to define contact bodies for 3-D shell model. The
control node ID 1198 is used in this case to define the load controlled rigid body for the punch.
BCBODY
BSURF
...
BCBODY

...
BCBODY

...

1
1

3D
1

2
0
RIGID
NURBS

3D
0.
1198
-19

3
0
RIGID
NURBS

3D
0.

-7

DEFORM
2

RIGID
0.
4
RIGID
0.
13

1
3
0.
CBODY2
4
0.
CBODY3
4

0
4

.1342
5

0
1.

.1342
0.

1
0.

1198
0.

50

50

14

.1342
0.

1
0.

-1
0.

50

50

4
0
1.
4

The following BCPARA bulk data entry defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis. The ID 0 on
the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the analysis and are
maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE option.
Important entries under BCPARA option include: FTYPE the friction type and the BIAS - the distance tolerance bias.
For all the models, the bias factor, BIAS, is set to 0.99. The bilinear Coulomb friction model is activated by setting
FTYPE to 6. For the models without friction, FTYPE is set as 0.
BCPARA

Main Index

0
BIAS

.99

FTYPE

86 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

The following BCTABLE entries identify how the contact bodies can touch each other. The BCTABLE with ID 0 is used
to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for contact
analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. Similar BCTABLE
options with ID 1, 2 and 3 are used to define the touching conditions for later steps in the analysis, and it is flagged
using the option BCONTACT = n (where n is the step number 1, 2 or 3) in the case control section. Two contact pairs
are defined in the BCTABLE option: one between the sheet and punch and one between the sheet and die. Both the 2D plane strain and 3-D shell models have similar BCTABLE entries.
BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

4
0
FBSH
MASTERS 5
SLAVE
4
0
FBSH
MASTERS 6

0.
0
1.+20

2
0.
0
.99

0.
0
1.+20

0.
0
.99

.1342

0.

0.

0.
.1342
0.

Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic- plastic material properties of the sheet are defined using the following MAT1, MATEP,
and TABLES1 options. The Hollomon hardening behavior, = K n with K = 550.4N mm 2 ,and n = 0.223 is
represented in the form of stress-strain data defined in TABLES1 option.
MAT1
MATEP
TABLES1

1
1
1
0.
.08
.4
.8
1.2

70500.
Table
2
194.
313.378
448.681
523.682
573.239

.02
.1
.5
.9
1.3

.342
1

1.

230.043
329.365
471.573
537.619
583.564

.04
.2
.6
1.
1.4

Isotrop Addmean
268.496
384.423
491.14
550.399
593.287

.06
.3
.7
1.1
ENDT

293.904
420.802
508.317
562.224

The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The following set of boundary conditions has been applied for both 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell models:
Symmetry conditions (i.e., no displacement in horizontal direction) have been applied to the left size of the
strip
For the position controlled rigid body used for the die surface, all degrees of freedom have been suppressed.
For the control node of the load controlled rigid body used for the punch surface, the displacement
components in horizontal directions are suppressed, while the displacement in vertical direction is specified as
a function of the time (refer to Table 3-3).

Main Index

CHAPTER 3 87
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Table 3-3 Vertical Displacement of Punch as a Function of Time


Time
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0

Vertical Displacement
0
-28.5
-28.5
0

The following data in the case control section of the input file defines the load and boundary conditions at the four
different steps of the analysis. The bulk data entries SPCD, SPCR and SPC1 are used to define the loads in these steps.
The SPCD data presented here shows the application of the imposed downward displacement of 28.5 in vertical
direction in steps 1 and 2 at node 1 for the 2-D plane strain model. A similar imposed displacement is applied at node
1198 for the 3-D shell model. The SPCR data presented here shows the application of the imposed upward relative
displacement of 10.0 in vertical direction in step 3 and its fixation in step 4 at node 927 for the 2-D plane strain model.
A similar imposed relative displacement is applied at node 1167 for the 3-D shell model.
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
NLSTEP =
BCONTACT
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
STEP 2
NLSTEP =
BCONTACT
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
STEP 3
NLSTEP =
BCONTACT
SPC = 3
LOAD = 3

1
= 1

2
= 2

3
= 3

$ Loads for Load Case : step-1


SPCADD
2
7
9
SPCD
1
1
2
SPC1
7
1
2
SPC1
9
12
1
$ Loads for Load Case : step-2
SPCD
2
1
2
$ Loads for Load Case : step-3
SPCADD
3
7
8
SPCD
3
1
2
SPCR
3
927
2
SPC1
8
2
927

-28.5
3

-28.5
9
-18.5
10.

Solution Procedure
The present analysis of metal forming and gradual spring back is carried out in four different steps on both the 2-D
plane strain and 3-D shell models. In each of these models, the analysis has been carried out for the cases with and
without friction using SOL 400 in MSC Nastran. The first step analyses the metal forming process, the second step is
used to achieve a more accurate solution before the spring back analysis starts in steps 3 and 4.
In the first step, the metal forming operation is simulated by applying a vertical downward displacement of punch. The
nonlinear procedure is defined through the following NLSTEP entry with ID 1. Here 100 indicates the total number

Main Index

88 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every
iteration; 500 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment. UP indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacement (U) and residuals (P). The 0.01 defined in the fourth line of NLSTEP indicates the
convergence tolerances of 0.01 for displacement and residual checking. The negative sign of displacement tolerance
indicates that iteration on displacements will be checked against the incremental displacement quantity instead of total
displacement.
The second step is considered to be a dummy one in which the load applied in the first step is maintained with very
fine convergence tolerances on displacement and residual. This step is used to ensure that the model reaches the good
equilibrium condition at the end of step 2 and before starting step 3 involving the more complex spring back operation.
It can be seen from the NLSTEP ID 3 that this spring back operation is done over 200 increments with a convergence
check only on displacement.
NLSTEP

1
1.
GENERAL 500
FIXED
100
MECH
UP
0
NLSTEP 2
1.
GENERAL 500
FIXED
10
MECH
UP
0
NLSTEP 3
1.
GENERAL 500
FIXED
200
MECH
U
0

1
1
-0.01
0

10
0.01

1
10
1
-0.0001 0.0001
0
1
1
-0.01
0

PFNT

-1

PFNT

-1

10
PFNT

-1

To restrict rigid body movement during the springback step-3, a spring with very small stiffness (1e-5) is added at the
free end using the following CELAS1 and PELAS cards.
CELAS1
PELAS

851
2

2
1.E-5

927

Results
The characteristic deformed stages from the 2-D plane strain analysis without friction and with friction during the
forming step are shown in Figure 3-5. The deformed shapes during the release in various stages are shown in
Figure 3-6.

Main Index

CHAPTER 3 89
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Figure 3-5

Main Index

Various Deformed Stages during Forming Step

90 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

Figure 3-6

Various Deformed Stages during Spring Back Step

In the analysis without friction, contact is initially present between the sheet and the lower section of the punch. Near
the end of the deformation, the sheet separates at the lower section of the punch and gets in contact with the lower
section of the die. As soon as this contact is detected, the sheet is further bent into the final shape and the required force
in the force displacement history curve increases (Figure 3-5). In the analysis with friction, the deformation behavior
is different. The tangential forces due to friction result in a stretching of the sheet causing contact between the punch
and the sheet to be present during the complete forming history.
The characteristic load displacement curves for the analysis from SOL 400 without friction and with friction are shown
in Figure 3-7. The differences in the shape of the curves are caused by the different contact conditions at the end of
the forming stage.

Main Index

CHAPTER 3 91
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

2D Plane Strain MD Sol 400


Punch Force (N)

350
300

No Friction

250
200
150

With Friction

100
50
0

10

-50

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Figure 3-7

Load Displacement Diagram for 2-D Plane Strain Model

Observe that the unloading stage is analyzed in two steps. In the first unloading step the punch and the strip are moved
simultaneously in upward direction. This releases the strip from the die, while it remains in contact with the punch. In
the second unloading step the strip is fixed in vertical direction while the punch is moved further upward to its original
position. This gradually releases the strip from the punch and allows it to spring back to its final configuration. Note
that the fixation of the strip is such that there are no reaction forces after it has lost contact with both the die and the
punch. This, of course, is a requirement in order to capture the proper spring back behavior. The fixation primarily
serves to suppress rigid body motions of the model during the unloading stage.
The characteristic values of the angles at the end of the forming stage and after removal of the tool are listed in
Table 3-4.
Table 3-4

Characteristic Angles during Forming and Release Process (2-D Plane Strain Model)

Friction Coefficient

Forming Angle

Angle After Release

20.42

46.24

0.1348

20.35

54.56

A comparison of the results obtained with Marc and SOL 400 of MSC Nastran is shown in Figure 3-8 (no friction)
and Figure 3-9 (friction). In the last figure, a comparison is also made with the experimental result. The results from
SOL 400 are found to be on the higher side, particularly towards the end of forming. The results exhibit more
oscillations in the load displacement curve and this is caused by the use of hard contact approach in Marc and SOL
400. It should be noted that no experimental data points are reported for the unloading.

Main Index

92 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

2D Plane Strain No Friction


Punch Force (N)

300
250

No Friction Marc
200
150
100

No Friction MD SOL 400

50
0

10

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Figure 3-8

Load Displacement Curves from Marc and SOL 400 (without friction)
2D Plane Strain With Friction

Punch Force (N)

300

SOL 400
Marc

250
200
150

Experimental

100
50
0

10

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Figure 3-9

Load Displacement Curves from Marc and SOL 400 (with friction)

The results of analyses from 3-D shell models have been compared with the plane strain analysis for both the cases
with and without friction. The load displacement curves for these two models are shown in Figure 3-10 (no friction)
and Figure 3-11 (friction=0.1348).
2D & 3D No Friction
Punch Force (N)

300

3D

250
200
150

2D

100
50
0

10

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Figure 3-10

Main Index

Comparison of Plane Strain and Shell Analyses (no friction)

CHAPTER 3 93
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

2D & 3D With Friction


Punch Force (N)

300
250
200
150

3D

100

2D

50
0

10

15

20

25

30

Punch Displacement (mm)

Figure 3-11

Comparison of Plane Strain and Shell Analyses (friction = 0.1348)

The resulting values of the characteristic angles are listed in Table 3-5 (no friction) and Table 3-6 (with friction). For
the case with friction, the results are compared with experimental predictions from Numisheet 2002. The predictions
of SOL 400 from both 2-D plane strain case and 3-D shell models are found to match well with the experiment.
Table 3-5

Comparison of Angles for Plane Strain and Shell Approach (no friction)
Forming Angle

Angle After Release

Plane strain

20.42

46.24

Shell

20.38

46.67

Table 3-6

Comparison of Angles for Plane Strain and Shell Approach (Friction 0.1348)
Forming Angle

Angle After Release

Plane strain

20.35

54.56

Shell

20.45

54.07

19.6 to 21.0

53.4 to 55.8

Numisheet

Modeling Tips
One of the complicating characteristics in this benchmark problem is a very local contact between the plate and the
curved shoulders of the die. In fact, the contact is almost a point (2-D) or line (3-D) contact with a large amount of
sliding. Contact is only verified between the nodes of the plate and the rigid dies. Hence, in the discrete steps of the
displacement history, points can be identified where no contact is detected; especially, if large elements are used near
the shoulder of the die.
The following are some guidelines and tips for modeling this benchmark:
A fine mesh has to be used to describe the contact of the nodes of the sheet with the die properly
A smooth representation of the die has to be chosen, either in an analytical form or by a piecewise linear curve
using a high number of segments

Main Index

94 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 3

The unloading behavior is characterized by removal of the tools and at the same time adding boundary
conditions preventing the possibility of rigid body movement.
The unloading behavior should preferably be done in a number of steps. Note that in these steps low values of
the normal and, consequently, the friction forces are present which makes it difficult to obtain a converged
solution
Numerical damping is often recommended to stabilize the solution, but it can be shown that this greatly
influences the accuracy of the solution.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_03a.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 2-D plane strain model (without friction)

nug_03b.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 2-D plane strain model (with friction)

nug_03c.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 3-D shell model (without friction)

nug_03d.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 3-D shell model (with friction)

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 25 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.
Original
Position

Punch

Sheet
Final
Position
W
R2
R3

Figure 3-12

Main Index

Die

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 4: 3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Main Index

3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Summary

Introduction

Required Solution

FEM Solutions

General Analysis Tips

Input File(s)

Video

102

96
97
97

97

102

102

96 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 4

Summary
Title

Chapter 4: 3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Contact features

Geometry

3-D continuum (units: mm)


L1 = 200
L2 = 20
R1 = 50
R2 = 100
H = 100
t = 10

Receding contact area


Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable contact
Friction along the contact surface
L1
R2
H

R1

F
F

Material properties

E pin = 210kN mm 2 , E sheet = 70kN mm 2 , sheet = pin = 0.3

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis
Linear elastic material
Geometric nonlinearity

Displacement boundary
conditions and
applied loads

Symmetric displacement constraints (quarter symmetry).


Left side of sheet is fixed.
Two equal point forces, resulting in a total force on the pin of 100kN .

Element type

3-D Continuum - 8-node linear elements

Contact properties

Deformable-to-deformable bodies contact


Coefficient of friction = 0.1

FE results

1. Plot of contact pressure against angle


2. Plot of tangential stress against angle
3. Plot of relative tangential slip against angle .
Displacement X (mm)
0.8
Pin_x

0.7
0.6

Strip_x

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Main Index

Angle (degrees)
0

60

120

180

240

300

360

CHAPTER 4 97
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Introduction
This application example evaluates the performance of contact algorithms at curved boundaries between deformable
bodies. A cylindrical pin is located in the cylindrical hole of a strip. The diameters of the hole and the pin are identical.
Two equal point forces are applied to the center of the end surfaces of the pin. It is assumed that the tangential contact
forces can be described with a Coulomb friction model using friction coefficient 0.1. Due to the symmetry condition,
a quarter of the assembly is sufficient for the finite element analysis.

Required Solution
The displacement components and contact normal and tangential forces are of interest. In addition, the relative
tangential slips along the contact surfaces of the two bodies as functions of angle (see Figure 4-1) are also worth
investigating. One analysis is conducted with MSC.Nastran SOL 400 with standard HEX elements and compared with
available advanced HEX elements. In the current version of MSC Nastran SOL 400, the advanced HEX elements are
defined by a PSOLID entry pointing to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry.

Figure 4-1

Angle Definition in Requested Displacement Field

FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastran solution sequence 400 for the 3-D case. First, the advanced
3-D elements are used to conduct the analysis with contact and friction. In comparison, the same analysis is also
conducted with the standard 3-D solid elements.
The contact, material/geometry, solution/convergence schemes and other parameters are explained below.

Contact Parameters
The element mesh using the 3-D solid element is shown in Figure 4-2. The contact body named as cbody1 (shown
in pink) represents the pin. The contact body named as cbody2 defines the strip. A point load (black arrow) is applied
at the center point of top end of the pin. It should be noted that the symmetry has been taken into consideration.

Main Index

98 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 4

Figure 4-2

FE Model for the Numerical Solution

In the input data file, the contact bodies are defined as below:
BCBODY
BSURF
.
BCBODY
BSURF
.

1
1

3D
1

DEFORM
2

1
3

0
4

.1
5

2
2

3D
2296

DEFORM
2297

2
2298

0
2299

.1
2300

6
-1
2301

7
2302

The BCBODY with ID 1 defines the pin as a three-dimensional deformable body. The BCBODY with ID 2 defines the
sheet also as a three-dimensional deformable body. Furthermore, BCBODY 2 is described as an analytical body by set
value of 1 at the 8th field.
The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below define the touch conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
1
FBSH
MASTERS 2
1
SLAVE
1
1
FBSH
MASTERS 2

0.
1
1.+20

1
0.
0
.99

.1

0.
1
1.+20

1
0.
0
.99

.1

0.

0.

0.

0.

As shown above, BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the contact touching conditions at the start of the analysis. Zero
(0) identifies the case number. The BCTABLE entry is mandatory for the contact analysis with SOL 400. Also, the
options (BCONTACT with ID 0 and BCPARA with ID 0) are all applied at the start of the analysis. For the loading
analysis defined as load case 1 under the case control section, the contact touching conditions are redefined by options
of BCTABLE, BCPARA, and BCONTACT with ID 1. In this example, the BCPARA is only defined once because the
parameters specified herein are applied through the analysis from the beginning unless some of these parameters are
redefined by BCTABLE entry with ID 1. It should be mentioned is that the BIAS parameter is defined as 0.99 (the
default value is 0.9).

Main Index

CHAPTER 4 99
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

BCPARA

0
BIAS

.99

FTYPE

Material/Geometry Parameters
The both bodies in this analysis are defined as isotropic elastic materials. The Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio are
defined as:
MAT1
MAT1

1
2

210000.
70000.

.3
.3

1.
1.

As shown above, the material IDs are given as 1 and 2 for the pin and the sheet, respectively.

Case Control Parameters


There is a single loading sequence in the analysis. The control parameters are defined by the NLPARM option. As
shown below, SUBCASE with ID 1 defines all necessary conditions applied to the analysis which includes bulk data
options: TITLE, NLPARM, BCONTACT, SPC, LOAD, and requested output information. Particularly, it is necessary to
note the analysis control options NLPARM, NLMOPTS, and the parameter LGDISP. For the FE analysis with SOL 400,
the advanced 8-node 3-D continuum elements are well designed for this type of analysis with large strain and large
displacement. In this example, the NLMOPTS option defines that assumed strain formulation is used. The LGDISP
parameter indicates that geometric nonlinearity includes the stiffness of follower forces. NLPARM defines the loading
schemes used for the analysis. Here, the full Newton-Raphson method is used. The total number of loading increments
is set to 10. The maximum iteration for each increment is set to 25. The default convergence scheme is used and NO
for output of analysis results for intermediate loading steps except for the results at the end of the last loading
increment.
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PRINT)=ALL
BOUTPUT (PRINT)=ALL
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED
PARAM
LGDISP 1
NLPARM 1
10
PFNT
25
NO

The element type is defined by the PSOLID and PSLDN1 bulk data options as shown below where (C8 SOLI L)
defines the 3-D continuum solid element with linear integration scheme.
PSOLID
1
PSLDN1
1
+
C8
+
C20 SOLI

Main Index

1
1
SOLI

0
L

+
+

100 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 4

Results
Numerical solutions have been done with current versions of MSC Nastran SOL 400 and Marc. As seen in Figure 4-3,
a relatively coarse mesh is used for the strip and a fine mesh is used for the pin. The nodes on the pin surface are defined
as slave nodes and the surfaces of the strip are specified as master contact surface in this analysis. In order to describe
the contact body more accurately, the contact surface of the strip is defined analytically. Therefore, a smoother surface
(Coons Patch) is used during the analysis for the strip.

Figure 4-3

Contact Normal Forces on the Contact Surfaces

The resulting contact normal nodal forces are shown in Figure 4-4. The peak value in the contact normal force is found
to be around 1933 N. The peak contact tangential force is found to be around 193 N, which equals to F n . That is
consistent with the coefficient of friction applied during the analysis.

Figure 4-4

Contact Friction Forces on the Contact Surfaces

The displacement in x and y directions along the circular edge of the pin (slave or contacting surface) are shown as
function of the angle in Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6, respectively.

Main Index

CHAPTER 4 101
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Displacement X (mm)
0.8
Pin_x

0.7
0.6

Strip_x

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Angle (degrees)
0

60

Figure 4-5

120

180

240

300

360

Displacement (x) along the Circular Edge of the Pin and the Strip

Displacement Y (mm)
0.10
0.08
Strip_y

0.06
0.04

Pin_y

0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06

Angle (degrees)
0

60

Figure 4-6

120

180

240

300

360

The Displacement (y) along the Circular Edge of the Pin and the Strip

For the comparison, another solution is obtained by using the existing solid element available in SOL 400. This
element type is defined by PSOLID option only. The results are almost identical. Figure 4-7 compares of the
displacement contours obtained by MSC Nastran SOL 400 with the advanced 3-D solid elements and the standard 3D solid elements (without PSLDN1 option). It shows that both results are extremely close.

(a)

Figure 4-7

Main Index

(b)

Displacement Contours Obtained by Two Different Solid Elements in SOL 400

102 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 4

General Analysis Tips


Convergence control: While the nonlinearity is quite mild in this problem, it is suggested to use both
displacement and residual convergence check due to the nonlinearity introduced by contact. Also, the full
Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is recommended for all SOL 400 analyses because the degree of
nonlinearity may be significant.
In this example, the body surface of the pin is defined as slave nodes for the contact search against the master
contact surface. Generally speaking, the contact body with finer mesh should be defined as slave contact
surface because it is easy to be detected when the slave nodes touch the master surface. Also, caution must be
used when choosing the BIAS value. Smaller BIAS value may be used to give better contact accuracy, but
may increase computation cost significantly if too small a value is applied.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_04am.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction advanced lower-order planar elements

nug_04an.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction lower-order planar elements

nug_04bm.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction advanced higher-order planar elements

nug_04bn.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction higher-order planar elements

nug_04cm.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction advanced higher-order hexahedral elements

nug_04cn.dat

3-D loaded pin with friction higher-order hexahedral elements

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

L1
R2
H

R1

F
F

Figure 4-8

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 5: Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge

Main Index

Bilinear Friction Model:


Sliding Wedge

Summary

Introduction

Analytical Solution

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

109

104
105
105

105
108
108

104 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 5

Summary
Title

Chapter 5: Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge

Contact features

Bilinear stick-slip friction behavior


Deformable-deformable contact
Friction along the contact surface
Comparison of linear and quadratic elements

Geometry

1.0
4.0
A

gy
px

1.2
1.3

0.7
6.0

1.0

X
Z

Material properties

E up = 2.06 10 Pa , up = 0.3 , up = 1 kg m
11

E low = 2.06 10

Pa , low = 0.3 , low = 1 kg m

, K spring = 119.5 N/m

Linear elastic material


Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

All displacement components of the nodes in the lower face of the lower wedge are
fixed; u z = 0 m of two nodes on the upper wedge with contact between upper and lower
wedge

Applied loads

Gravity load g y = 764.5 N ; pressure load p x = 1250 Pa and 693.375 Pa

Element type

3-D solid with 4 -node linear and 10-node parabolic tetrahedral elements

Contact properties

Friction coefficient = 0.3

FE results

1. Deformed configuration at the end of the second STEP


2. Plots of x-displacement of point A
x-displacement (m)

0.0012
0.0010

Quadratic Elements

0.0008
0.0006

Linear Elements

0.0004
0.0002
0.0000
-0.0002
-0.0004
-0.0006

Main Index

% of load

50

100

150

200

CHAPTER 5 105
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge

Introduction
This problem verifies and validates the behavior of the bilinear friction model. A more detailed description of the
bilinear friction model can be found in the Release Notes for MSC Nastran. The fundamental control parameter of this
friction model is the so-called relative sliding displacement below which (elastic) sticking is simulated. This parameter
can be user-defined by specifying RVCNST on the BCPARA option. Otherwise, MSC Nastran determines the default
value as a function of the average edge length of the elements in the contact bodies.
This example was originally proposed by NAFEMS as a 2-D large sliding contact and friction example. Here, we use
a modified version of the problem: namely 3-D instead of 2-D and an alternating load instead of a linearly increasing
load.
A large displacement is expected in this solution but the strains will be pretty small. Assuming the motion as rigid
body, it can be predicted analytically as shown in the NAFEMS documentation (NAFEMS Benchmark Tests for Finite
Element Modeling of Contact, Gapping and Sliding, 2001).
First, a gravity load is applied to the whole model. Then, a positive pressure p x is applied as such that point A will
have displacement u x = 1 m . The next step, a negative pressure is applied as such that point A will have displacement
u x = 1 m . The last step is again an application of positive pressure p x . The applied pressure p x will be determined
analytically.
The analysis results are presented with linear and parabolic elements.

Analytical Solution
Assuming a rigid body motion and neglecting the loss of energy due to friction, the relation among the total force on
the upper wedge in the x- and y-direction ( F x and F y ), the friction coefficient ( ), the wedge angle ( , the total spring
stiffness ( K ) and the positive displacement ( u x ) of the upper wedge is:
F x 1 tan + F y + tan
K = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------u x 1 tan

With tan = 0.1 , = 0.3 , F x = 1500 N , F y = 3058 N (based on g y = 764.5 N ) and u x = 1 m , the total spring stiffness
( K ) is 239 N/m . Thus, the applied p x that correlates with is 1250 Pa . This load is applied during the second step.
Alternatively, with the given value of K , tan , and F y , F x = 832.8 N results in a displacement of the upper wedge
( u x = 1 m ). p x that correlates with this F y is F x = 693.375 N . This pressure is applied in the third step. The fourth
step is again the introduction of p x = 1250 Pa .

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 5-1. The
colored regions of the wedges have been identified as contact bodies. Contact body IDs 1 and 2 are identified as a set
of elements of upper and lower wedge, respectively as:

Main Index

106 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 5

BCBODY
BSURF
...

1
1

3D
42

DEFORM
107

1
118

0
132

.3
194

236

239

2
2

3D
1

DEFORM
2

2
3

0
4

.3
5

and
BCBODY
BSURF
...

Figure 5-1

Element Mesh applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
0
MASTERS 2
1
SLAVE
1
0
MASTERS 2

BCTABLE

0.
0

1
0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.
0

1
0.
0

0.

0.

0.

Thus, any deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.
To activate contact with Coulomb friction, FTYPE must be set to 6 in BCPARA option (the only supported Coulomb
friction model). The contact separation option is based on relative stresses. It is done by setting IBSEP = 4.
BCPARA

0
FTYPE

IBSEP

3-D tetrahedral elements are used in this analysis.


PSOLID
PSOLID

1
2

1
2

The two material properties are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio defined as
MAT1
MAT1

Main Index

1
2

2.06+07
2.06E+11

.3
.3

1.
1.

CHAPTER 5 107
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge

The nonlinear procedure used for the analysis:


PARAM
NLPARM
NLPARM

LRGDSIP 1
1
1
2
25

FNT
FNT

UV
UV

Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the Newton-Raphson iteration
strategy and the default convergence tolerance for displacement (relative to the incremental displacement) will be
used.
The simulation is eventually controlled by the case control section which consists of four STEPS.
STEP 1
LABEL
...
STEP 2
LABEL
...
STEP 3
LABEL
...
STEP 4
LABLE
...

= Gravity Load
= Px is 1250
= Px is -694
= Px is again 1250

The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 5-2. After the second step, as seen in
Figure 5-2, the upper wedge moves in the x-direction one meter as predicted analytically.
deformed

undeformed

ux =

Figure 5-2

1.0

Deformed Structure at the End of the Second Step (magnification factor = 1)

The displacement plot of point A, for linear and parabolic elements, is shown in Figure 5-3. It is clearly seen that the
upper wedge moves alternately from u x = 1 m to u x = 1 m and then back to u x = 1 m as expected using the analytical
solution. The result of the linear element is nearly the same as that of the parabolic elements. As clearly seen from this
figure, during (linear) sticking contact, the displacement of the upper wedge varies linearly.

Main Index

108 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 5

x-displacement (m)

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2

% of load

50

100 150 200 250 300 350 400

-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
x-displacement (m)

0.0012
0.0010

Quadratic Elements

0.0008
0.0006

Linear Elements

0.0004
0.0002
0.0000

% of load

50

100

150

200

-0.0002
-0.0004
-0.0006

Figure 5-3

Displacement Plot for Point A (Representing the Displacement of the Upper Wedge)

Modeling Tips
It is very important to have accurate coordinates for those points that are located on the both sides of the contact
interfaces. Failure in representing accurate smooth surfaces may lead to unexpected contact behavior. That is why the
coordinate of the grid points both for models with linear and parabolic elements are expressed in the extended format
of MSC Nastran.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_05a.dat

Linear Elements

nug_05b.dat

Quadratic Elements

Main Index

CHAPTER 5 109
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 47 minutes and explains how the steps
are performed.

1.0
4.0
A

gy
px

1.2
1.3

0.7
6.0

1.0

X
Z

Figure 5-4

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 6: Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending

Main Index

Laminated Strip under


Three-point Bending

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

112

Modeling Tips

114

Input File(s)

Video

115

111
112

114

112

CHAPTER 6 111
Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending

Summary
Title

Chapter 6: Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending

Geometry

2-D Shell (units: mm)


0o fiber direction

0.1
0.1
0.1

0o
90o
0o

0.4

90

0.1
0.1
0.1

0
90oo
0

y
10

x
10

15

15

10

10 N/mm

1
x

12 = 0.4

E 1 = 100GPa

all dimensions in mm

G 12 = 3GPa

E 2 = 5GPa

G 13 = 2GPa

E 3 = 5GPa

G 23 = 2GPa

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Three-point bending test

Applied loads

Line load of 10N m m

Element type

2-D shell
3-D solid composite

FE results

11 13 u z Compared with NAFEMS solution

Main Index

Material properties

Quantity

Units

NAFEMS

CQUAD4
linear

CQUAD4
PSHLN1

CHEXA
PCOMPLS
-ASTN

CHEXA
PCOMPLS-L

11 at E

MPa

684

683

683

685

664

13 at D

MPa

-4.1

-4.1

-4.1

-4.1

-4.2

u z at E

mm

-1.06

-1.06

-1.06

-1.06

-1.02

112 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 6

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model composite laminated material both using shell and solid elements. A
laminated strip is subjected to a three-point bending test, due to symmetry only a quarter of the structure needs to be
modeled. Stresses and displacements are computed and compared to a reference solution.

Requested Solutions
The stresses and displacements of a composite laminated strip under three-point bending configuration are calculated
in MSC Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (U.K.):
Test R0031/1 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995.

FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for the configuration shown in
Figure 6-1. The composite strip comprises seven lamina, with lamina thicknesses and orientation as shown in the
figure. Only one quarter of the structure is modeled using symmetry conditions along the mid span and center of the
longitudinal direction. Each lamina is modeled as one layer is the composite. For the model using shell elements, this
is done using the PCOMP entry
PCOMP

1
1
1
1
1
1

.00001
.1
.4
.1
.00001

0.
90.
90.
90.
0.

YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

0.
.09999
.1
.1
.09999

1
1
1
1

0o fiber direction

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

YES
YES
YES
YES

0.1
0.1
0.1

0o
90o
0

0.4

90

0.1
0.1
0.1

0o
90o
0o

y
10

x
10

15

15

10

10 N/mm

E
C

1
x

Figure 6-1

Main Index

all dimensions in mm

Laminated Strip in a Three-point Bending Configuration

CHAPTER 6 113
Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending

For the model using composite brick elements, this is done using the PCOMPLS entry. Please note that the layer
orientation is defined relative to the coordinate system defined in the CORDM field of this entry.
PCOMPLS

1
C8
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1
SLCOMP
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
L
.00001
.09999
.1
.1
.4
.1
.1
.09999
.00001

0.
0.
90.
0.
90.
0.
90.
0.
0.

For the model using solid shell elements this is done using the PCOMPLS entry
PCOMPLS

1
C8
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1
SLCOMP
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
ASTN
.00001
.09999
.1
.1
.4
.1
.1
.09999
.00001

0.
0.
90.
0.
90.
0.
90.
0.
0.

Note that in these models two very thin extra layers are added, they have the same properties as the layer they are
connected to. These two layers are added to calculate the stress mentioned in the reference table (Table 6-1) at the
correct position.
Table 6-1

Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending


CHEXA
CHEXA
CQUAD4 CQUAD4 PCOMPLS PCOMPLS
linear
PSHLN1

Quantity

Units

NAFEMS

11 at E

MPa

684

683

13 at D

MPa

-4.1

u z at E

mm

-1.06

-ASTN

-L

683

685

664

-4.1

-4.1

-4.1

-4.2

-1.06

-1.06

-1.06

-1.02

The material is orthotropic, with the following properties:


E 1 = 100GPa

12 = 0.4

G 12 = 3GPa

E 2 = 5GPa

23 = 0.3

G 13 = 2GPa

E 3 = 5GPa

31 = 0.02

G 23 = 2GPa

For the model using the shell elements this is defined as


MAT8

Main Index

100000. 5000.

.4

3000.

3000.

2000.

1.-4

114 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 6

And for the model using the solid composite elements this is defined as
MATORT

1
3000.
-1

100000. 5000.
2000.
2000.

5000.

.4

.3 .02 1.-4

Two types of shell elements are analyzed. The default CQUAD4 and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations.
The latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry
PSHLN1
+

1
C4

DCT

NO

For analysis of shell-like structure with composite material, the TSHEAR option on the NLMOPTS entry has to be given
to obtain a parabolic transverse shear distribution across the thickness of the element.
NLMOPTS TSHEAR

TSHEAR

A line pressure of 10N mm is applied, this pressure is translated to point loads on the finite element mesh.
Table 6-1 compares the results of the different models with the reference solution, the data is taken from the f06 file.
The stress at E is linearly interpolated from the centroid of the first two elements close to the symmetric line.

Modeling Tips
When modeling composite structures that support large deformation and nonlinear material behavior (activated with
the PSHLN1 or PCOMPLS entry) it is recommended to set the TSHEAR parameter on the NLMOPTS entry. This will
result in a more parabolic shear distribution through the thickness, and in the output of interlaminar stresses. When
using CHEXA elements for analysis of shell-like structure under bending deformation, it is recommended to use solid
shell elements instead of linear composite brick elements.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_06n.dat

Linear Elements

nug_06m.dat

Linear Elements using PSHLN1 entry

nug_06c.dat

Linear Composite Elements

nug_06d.dat

Solid Shell Elements

Main Index

CHAPTER 6 115
Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

0o fiber direction

0.1
0.1
0.1

0o
90oo
0

0.4

90o

0.1
0.1
0.1

0
90oo
0

y
10
x
10

15

15

10

10 N/mm

D
E

1
x

Figure 6-2

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

all dimensions in mm

Chapter7: Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

Main Index

Wrapped Thick Cylinder under


Pressure and Thermal Loading

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Input File(s)

Video

120

117
118

118
119

118

CHAPTER 7 117
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

Summary
Title

Chapter 7: Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

Geometry

2-D Shell (units: mm)


Cylinder length= 200
Cylinder radius:
inner side = 23
mid side = 25
outside = 27

27

23

25

200

all dimensions in mm

z=0

Material properties

Inner Cylinder
= 0.3

E = 210GPa

= 2.0 10

Outer Cylinder
E 1 = 130GPa

12 = 0.25

G 12 = 10GPa

11 = 3.0 10 6 C

E 2 = 5GPa

13 = 0.25

G 13 = 10GPa

E 3 = 5GPa

23 = 0

G 23 = 5GPa

22 = 2.0 10 5 C
33 = 2.0 10 5 C

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Axial displacement zero at z = 0 .

Applied loads

Pressure of 200MPa and temperature rise of 130C

Element type

2-D shell

FE results

Hoop stress compared with NAFEMS solution


Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
CQUAD4 CQUAD4
Quantity

Units

NAFEMS

linear

PSHLN1

at r = 24 mm

MPa

1483

1414

1414

at r = 26 mm

MPa

822

875

875

at r = 24 mm

MPa

1309

1236

1236

at r = 26 mm

MPa

994

1053

1053

STEP 1

STEP 2

Main Index

ria
ate
ic m
rop tion
t
o
a
or th orient

118 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 7

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model pressure and thermal loading for composite laminated material. A
thick cylinder is loaded with both pressure and a temperature increase. Stresses are calculated and compared to a
reference solution.

Requested Solutions
The Hoop stress at the inner and outer cylinders is calculated under pressure loading and under both pressure loading
and thermal loading in MSC Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods
and Standards (U.K.): Test R0031/2 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995

FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the configuration shown in Figure 7-1. The
cylinder consists of two layers with layer thickness and orientation as shown in Figure 7-1. The axial displacement is
set to zero at z = 0 . Only one eighth of the model is analyzed with the appropriate symmetry boundary conditions.
The two layers are modeled using the PCOMP entry, where the thickness of both layers is 2 mm
PCOMP

1
1

2.

0.

YES

0.
2.

0.
0.

YES

al

teri
ma
c
i
p
otro ation
or th orient

27

y
z

23

25

200
x

all dimensions in mm

z=0
Figure 7-1

Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

Each lamina is modeled as one layer in the composite. The inner cylinder (layer 1) is isotropic and the outer cylinder
(layer 2) is orthotropic. The material properties for the inner cylinder are
E = 210GPA , = 0.3 , = 2.0 10 5 C

Main Index

CHAPTER 7 119
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

and for the outer cylinder are


E 1 = 130GPa

12 = 0.25

G 12 = 10GPa

11 = 3.0 10 6 C

E 2 = 5GPa

13 = 0.25

G 13 = 10GPa

E 3 = 5GPa

23 = 0

G 23 = 5GPa

22 = 2.0 10 5 C
33 = 2.0 10 5 C

and are entered using the MAT1 and MAT8 entry, respectively.
Two types of shell elements are analyzed: the CQUAD4 default and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations. The
latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry.
PSHLN1
+

1
C4

DCT

NO

The analysis is performed in two analyses steps. In the first step, a uniform pressure of 200MPa is applied on the
inside of the cylinder. In the second step, both this pressure and a temperature rise of 130C is applied.
Table 7-1 compares the Hoop stress in the inner and outer cylinders for the two examples for the two analyses steps
with the reference solution at r = 24mm and r = 26mm . The NAFEMS Hoop stress at r = 23mm and
r = 25mm are averaged to compare at r = 24mm for the inner cylinder and similar for r = 26mm for the outer
cylinder.
Table 7-1

Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading

Quantity Hoop Stress

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

Units

NAFEMS

Linear

PSHLN1

at r = 24 mm

MPa

1483

1414

1414

at r = 26 mm

MPa

822

875

875

at r = 24 mm

MPa

1309

1236

1236

at r = 26 mm

MPa

994

1053

1053

STEP 1

STEP 2

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_07n.dat

Linear Elements

nug_07m.dat

Linear Elements using PSHLN1 Entry

Main Index

120 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 7

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

ria
ate
ic m
rop tion
t
o
a
or th orient

27

y
z

23

25

200
x

all dimensions in mm

z=0

Figure 7-2

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 8: Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading

Main Index

Three-layer Sandwich Shell


under Normal
Pressure Loading

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

123

Modeling Tips

125

Input File(s)

Video

126

122
123

126

123

122 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 8

Summary
Title

Chapter 8: Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading

Geometry

2-D Shell (units: in)


Length= 10
Width = 10
Thickness = 0.806

z
face sheet
0.028

uniform normal
pressure

core
C

10

0.750

E
0.028

face sheet

10
y

simply supported
on all four edges

all dimensions in inches

Material properties

Face sheets
6

E 1 = 10 10 Psi 12 = 0.3 G 12 = 1.875 10 Psi


6

E 2 = 4 10 Psi 13 = 0 G 13 = 1.875 10 Psi


E 3 = 1 10 Psi 23 = 0 G 23 = 1.875 10 Psi
Core
E 1 = 10Psi 12 = 0

G 12 = 10Psi
4

E 2 = 10Psi 13 = 0 G 13 = 3 10 Psi
4

E 3 = 10Psi 23 = 0 G 23 = 1.2 10 Psi

The values within


the parenthesis are
chosen to have a
complete 3-D
material model
necessary for the
solid elements.

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Plate is simply supported fixed at four corners

Applied loads

Pressure of 100Psi applied to the top face (most positive in the z-axis)

Element type

2-D shell, 3-D solid shell

FE results

Stresses and displacements compared with NAFEMS solution


Three-layer Sandwich Shell Results
Quantity Units NAFEMS

Main Index

CQUAD4
Linear

CQUAD4

CHEXA

u z at C

in

-0.123

-0.123

PSHLN1
-0.122

PCOMPLS
-0.122

11 at C

kpsi

34.45

34.029

34.212

33.932

22 at C

kpsi

13.93

13.294

13.167

13.406

12 at E

kpsi

-5.07

-5.040

-5.006

-5.020

CHAPTER 8 123
Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model pressure loading of a square composite three layer sandwich flat shell.
Stresses and displacements are calculated and compared to a reference solution.

Requested Solutions
Stresses and displacements are calculated at the surface of the composite three layer sandwich flat shell in MSC
Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (NAFEMS):
Test R0031/3 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995.

FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the configuration shown in Figure 8-1. The
plate consists of three layers, a core layer and two face sheets covering this layer. Thicknesses of the layers are shown
in Figure 8-1. Only one quarter of the part is analyzed with the appropriate symmetry boundary conditions, and the
two edges on the boundary of the plate are fixed. The three layers are modeled using the PCOMP entry, where the
thickness of both layers is 0.028 in.
PCOMP

1
1
1

.028
.028

0.
0.

YES
YES

0.
.75

0.
0.

YES

z
face sheet
0.028

uniform normal
pressure

core
C

10

0.750

E
0.028

A
10
y

simply supported
on all four edges

face sheet

all dimensions in inches

Figure 8-1

Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading

Each lamina is modeled as one layer in the composite. The materials for the face sheets and core have the following
orthotropic properties:

Main Index

124 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 8

Face sheets
6

E 1 = 10 10 Psi 12 = 0.3 G 12 = 1.875 10 Psi


6

E 2 = 4 10 Psi 13 = 0 G 13 = 1.875 10 Psi


E 3 = 1 10 Psi 23 = 0 G 23 = 1.875 10 Psi
and the core
E 1 = 10Psi 12 = 0

G 12 = 10Psi
4

E 2 = 10Psi 13 = 0 G 13 = 3 10 Psi
4

E 3 = 10Psi 23 = 0 G 23 = 1.2 10 Psi


These properties are entered using the MAT8 entry.
Two types of shell elements are analyzed: the CQUAD4 default and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations. The
latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry
PSHLN1
+

1
C4

DCT

NO

For modelling with solid shell elements, the standard CHEXA elements are used to define the element connectivity.
To activate the solid shell elements, PCOMPLS entry has to be used for assigning the property of the CHEXA.
PCOMPLS 1
C8

-1

SLCOMP ASTN

.028 0.

.75

.028 0.

0.

For shell-like structure with composite materials, the TSHEAR option on the NLMOPTS entry has to be given to obtain
a parabolic shear distribution for composite layers in shells. This is particularly important for this structure because
the inner core resists deformation in shear.
NLMOPTS TSHEAR

TSHEAR

A uniform pressure of 100MPa is applied on the top surface of the shell.


Table 8-1 shows the comparison of the face sheet stresses and midspan displacement with the NAFEMS results.

Main Index

CHAPTER 8 125
Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading

Table 8-1

Three-layer Sandwich Shell Results

Quantity

Units

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

CHEXA

NAFEMS

Linear

PSHLN1

PCOMPLS

u z at C

in

-0.123

-0.123

-0.122

-0.122

11 at C

kpsi

34.45

34.029

34.212

33.932

22 at C

kpsi

13.93

13.294

13.167

13.5406

12 at E

kpsi

-5.07

-5.040

-5.006

-5.020

Figure 8-2

Deformed Shape of the Model with Solid Shell Elements

Modeling Tips
When modeling composite structures using shell elements that support large deformation and nonlinear material
behavior (activated with the PSHLN1 entry), it is recommended to set the TSHEAR parameter on the NLMOPTS entry.
This will result in a more parabolic shear distribution through the thickness, and in the output of interlaminar stresses.

Main Index

126 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 8

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_08n.dat

Linear Elements

nug_08m.dat

Linear Elements using PSHLN1 Entry

nug_08d.dat

Solid Shell Elements

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Figure 8-3

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 9: Bird Strike On Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

Main Index

Bird Strike on Prestressed


Rotating Fan Blades

Summary

128

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Model Details

129

FEM Solution

130

Results

Modeling Tip

Input File(s)

129

133
134
135

129

128 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 9

Summary
Title

Chapter 9: Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

Features

Bird Strike On Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

Geometry

Units: inches

2
44.2

D = 1.8
t = 0.2

D = 27.2
0.0266 < t < 0.0403

6.24

D = 2.36

Material properties

Fan: Piecewise linear plastic material (MATD024)


Bird: Elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material (MATD010)

Boundary conditions

Prestress analysis:
One end of blade is fully fixed.
1/3 and 1/2 span of rotor are fixed to x and y translational and rotational directions
Impact analysis:
One end of blade is fixed to x, y and z translational directions.
1/3 and 1/2 points of rotor are fixed to x and y translational directions
Details are explained in FEM solutions section.

Applied loads

Prestress analysis:
Fan: 8000 rpm using RFORCE option (rotational static force)
Impact analysis:
Fan: 8000 rpm using TIC3 option (rotational initial speed) and SPCD2 option
(enforced motion)
Bird: Initial velocity of 7692 inch/s (437 m.p.h.) using TIC option.
Details are explained in FEM solutions section.

Element type

Fan: 4-node shell element


Bird: 8-node hexahedral element (Impact analysis only)

FE results

Prestress analysis:
Plot of final stage of implicit run nastin - ASCII result file
for initial state values are included.
Impact analysis:
Plot of each stage (t = 1.52 ms shown here)

Main Index

t = 1.52 ms

CHAPTER 9 129
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

Introduction
Aerospace companies have performed bird strike test simulation to predict the impact-resistance properties of the
aircraft structure. This is an example of a bird (made by solid elements) impacting against rotating fan blades using a
sequential implicit-explicit technique. First, using the implicit solver, the initial condition (stress and displacement) on
the blades and rotor was calculated followed by transient loading of bird impact, which was simulated using the
explicit solver.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis was performed to demonstrate the pre-stressed fan blade out method. The rotational inertia
effects were taken into account in implicit analysis and the resulting stress, strain and displacements were computed.
Next, the results were added to the explicit analysis as initial condition.

Model Details
Materials
Fan: Piecewise linear plastic material (MATD024)
= 4.14e-4 lbf/inch3-s2/inch, = 0.35, E = 1.60E+7 psi
y (yield stress) = 138000 psi, ET (Tangent modulus) = 100000 psi
Plastic strain failure limit = 0.2
Bird: Elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material (MATD010)
= 9E-5 lbf/inch3-s2/inch, G (Shear modulus) = 145 psi
y (yield stress) = 2.9 psi, ET (Tangent modulus) = 0.145 psi
Linear polynomial equation of state (EOSPOL
P = a + a 2 + a 3 + b + b + b 2 + b 3 E
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
= 1
0
= overall material density
0 = reference density
E = specific internal energy pur unit mass

a1 = a2 = b1 = b2 = b3 = 0
a = 4.25x10 6 psi
1

Main Index

130 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 9

FEM Solution
Boundary Condition and Applied Load
Prestress Analysis (Implicit)
The rotational velocity of blades and rotor is 8000 rpm which is applied using RFORCE option (rotational static force)
in the prestress run. The end of the rotor is fully fixed. In addition, the bearings located at 1/3 and 1/2 of distance from
the front of rotor are fixed in x, y translational as well as x, y rotational directions using SPC1 option. The applied
loading and boundary conditions of prestress analysis are shown in Figure 9-1(a).
RFORCE 1
TABLED1 321
0.
SPC1
1
SPC1
1
SPC1
1

299999

-133.3330.0

1.
.001
1.
123456 300425 THRU
1245
400058
1245
400115

0.0

1.

ENDT
300443

Impact Analysis (Explicit)


The initial rotational velocity of 8000 rpm is applied to fan blades using the TIC3 entry as well as end of rotor using
the SPC2 entry (enforced motion). The bird impact velocity of 7692 inch/s (437 m.p.h.) is applied on all the grid points
of the bird model. The boundary conditions at the end of rotor is changed to constrain x, y and z translational directions
and the bearing locations of rotor are constrained in x and y translational directions. The applied loading and boundary
conditions of impact analysis are shown in Figure 9-1 (b).

TIC
1
1000001 3
7692.
...
SPCD2
1
GRID
1
7
80
-1.
TABLED1
80
+
+
0.0
837.758
1.
837.758
ENDT
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : Disp1
SPC1
1
3
21
THRU
31
...
...
$ Initial angular velocity for rotor +fan blade
TIC3
1 299999
1.
-837.758
1
THRU
6384 300000
THRU 300018 300020 THRU

Main Index

CHAPTER 9 131
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

8000 rp
rrpm
m

Fu
Fully
ully fixed
f xed
fi
Fixed (x,y direction)
(x,y rotation)

(a) Prestress model (implicit)


8000 rp
rrpm
m
(enfo
(enforced
f rced speed))

8000 rrp
rpm
pm
(iniitiall speed)
(initial

Fixed (x,y,z direction)


Fixed (x,y direction)

437 mph
(b) Impact model (explicit)
Figure 9-1

Main Index

Boundary Conditions and Applied Loads of the Fan And Bird

132 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 9

FEM Model and Contact


The rotor, hub and fan blades are modeled by shell elements while the bird is modeled by solid elements.
Prestress Analysis (implicit)
By using the PRESTRS bulk data entry, a prestress analysis is carried out. The prestress simulation requires the
analysis to be run with double precision version of the implicit solver. Final deformations and stresses of elements are
written to a text file named input_file_name.dytr.nastin to provide initial conditions for rotor and fan blades
of the impact run. The definition of TSTEPNL is required in implicit run to determine the number of time steps and
their increment for higher fidelity of the solution.
TSTEPNL
PRESTRS

1.-5

ADAPT

10

Impact analysis (explicit):


The end time in transient run is defined by using 100 time steps at 0.4e-4 sec. for each increment. End time is the
product of these two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by MSC Nastran solver during the analysis. The time
step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
The prestress results file is prestress_rotor.dytr.nastin. The name of this file was changed to
rotor.dytr.nastin due to the long file name. It includes the results for grid points, elements and is used as initial
condition for explicit transient run. The prestress file prestress_rotor.dytr.nastin includes all geometry
information such as grids, elements and the results. Therefore, the explicit model should include only the material
properties for the structure, the new boundary conditions as well as new data for the bird.
INCLUDE rotor.dytr.nastin
TSTEPNL 1
100
.4e-4

ADAPT

10

The file rotor.dytr.nastin contains an entry called ISTRSSH. This entry specifies the prestress condition of the
shell element as defined below (see the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more details). These result values of
the prestress run are to be carried over to the impact run. When other elements types other than shells are used,
ISTRSBE, ISTRSTS, and ISTRSSO entries must be included in the nastin file.
ISTRSSH*
*
*
*
...

2275

0.000E+00
7.084E+03

6.916E+03
-3.908E+01

7.371E+03
1.150E+02

5*
*
1.480E+02*
0.000E+00*

In this analysis, adaptive contact is defined between the bird and the fan blades. The BCBODY and BCPROP entries
are used to define a symmetric (M-S, S-M) contact bodies.
BCTABLE 1
SLAVE
+
+

Main Index

8001
0
0.1

0.
0

2
0.
0

0.1
YES

0.

CHAPTER 9 133
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

+
+
+
BCBODY
BCPROP
...

MASTERS 1001
SLAVE
1001
0
0.1

MASTERS 8001
1001
3D
1001
1

0.
0

0.
0

0.1

DEFORM
2

1001
3

0
4

0.

YES

Results
Prestress Run
The results of all increments are essentially the same which indicates that the implicit calculations are stable. The
results of the last increment were written to the file prestres_rotor.dytr.nastin.

Figure 9-2

Main Index

Result Increment 5: written to the .nastin file

134 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 9

Impact run
The prestress result variables have been initialized at the begin of the analysis (Time = 0)

Figure 9-3

t = 0 ms

t = 1.00 ms

t = 1.52 ms

t = 2.00 ms

t = 3.00 ms

t = 4.00 ms

Element Mesh Applied in the MSC Nastran Simulation

Modeling Tip
The default values for shell integration points in implicit and explicit analyses are different. There are three integration
points for implicit analysis and two integration points for explicit analysis. Therefore, the shell element type for the
implicit analysis has to be modified to be consistent with that of explicit simulation.
PSHELL1 1

Main Index

BLT

GAUSS

CHAPTER 9 135
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_9a.dat

Impact analysis

nug_9b.dat

Prestress model

nug_9c.dat

Stresses and deformations of prestress model for input to


impact analysis

nug_9d.dat

Data for bird

Main Index

Chapter 10: Engine Gasket

10

Main Index

Engine Gasket

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Model Details

138

FEM Solution

139

Modeling Tip

Input File(s)

Video

145

137
138

144
145

138

CHAPTER 10 137
Engine Gasket

Summary
Title

Chapter 10: Engine Gasket

Features

Glued contact, MPCs for bolt modeling, Gasket material

Geometry

gasket ring
gasket body

Cylinder diameter: 24 mm . Engine block width, breadth and height: 93.1 mm , 70 mm and
15 mm . Cylinder head thickness: 3 mm . Bolt diameter: 8 mm . Bolt head diameter:
14 mm . Gasket ring thickness: 1 mm ; gasket body thickness: 0.9091 mm
Material properties

Linear elastic material for the engine block, cylinder head and bolts,
5

Isotropic in-plane
behavior of the gasket: E body = 120 MPa , E ring = 100 MPa , body = ring = 0 . Transverse
shear moduli of the gasket: G body = 40 MPa , G ring = 35 MPa . Out-of-plane elastic-plastic
behavior of the gasket defined by loading and unloading curves.
E engine = E head = E bolt = 2.1 10 MPa engine = head = bolt = 0.3

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Symmetry conditions in ZX-plane: u y = 0 . Bottom of engine block fully clamped:


u x = u y = u z = 0 . Glued contact between gasket and cylinder head, gasket and engine
block, and bolts and cylinder head.

Applied loads

Prescribed shortening of the bolts l = 0.175 mm .

Element type

3-D 8-node hexahedral and 3-D 6-node pentahedral solid elements

Contact properties

Glued contact with extended tangential contact tolerance at sharp corners

FE results

Bolt forces and stresses in the gasket

Main Index

138 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 10

Introduction
A gasket is assembled between an engine block and a cylinder head. The loading of the assembled structure consists
of pre-tensioning the bolts connecting the cylinder head and the engine block. Striking features in this analysis are the
MPCs used to load the bolts, the geometry and material description of the gasket, and the use of the contact algorithm
to establish contact constraints between the grids of the gasket and the cylinder head and the engine block and between
the grids of the bolts and the cylinder head.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the forces in the bolts and the response of the gasket in terms of gasket
closure versus gasket pressure.

Model Details
The gasket actually consists of two parts: the so-called gasket ring and the gasket body. These parts have different
material properties and thicknesses. Assigning different material properties is straightforward, but modeling different
thicknesses would require different finite element meshes for the ring and the body. Since this is inefficient from a
modeling perspective, it is allowed to include both parts in one connected set of finite elements and to define the
thickness difference as an initial gap. In the numerical analysis, this implies that as long as the thickness reduction of
gasket element integration points is smaller than the initial gap, there will be no stress in the thickness direction. In
Figure 10-1, a detailed view of the actual versus the modeled gasket geometry is shown.

initial gap
magnitude

Figure 10-1

True Gasket Geometry (left) and Modeled Geometry (right)

The material behavior of a gasket is generally rather complex to characterize using conventional material models.
Instead, a special gasket material model is adopted, which de-couples the in-plane and thickness behavior. The
in-plane behavior is assumed to be linear and defined by Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio. The behavior in
thickness direction is nonlinear and defined by experimentally determined loading and unloading curves, where the
gasket pressure is measured as a function of the gasket closure. This gasket closure is given by the change in distance
between the top and the bottom face of the gasket. The loading and unloading curves for the gasket ring and the gasket
body are shown in Figure 10-2.

Main Index

CHAPTER 10 139
Engine Gasket

Figure 10-2

Material Behavior in Thickness Direction for the Gasket Body and Ring

In order to apply pre-tensioning on the bolts, they are piece wise modeled by two parts, one upper and one lower part,
obtained by a fictitious cut. The grids of the lower and the upper part of this cross section are connected using MPCs
to a so-called control grid. Calling the displacement of a grid in the lower part u lower , the displacement of a grid in the
upper part u up per and the displacement of the control grid u control , then the MPC reads:
u control = u lower u upper

By assigning all the grids in the lower and upper part of the section of a bolt to the same control grid, one can easily
define the shortening of a bolt by prescribing u control . As a result, the total bolt force is found as the reaction force on
the control grid.

FEM Solution
The numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 10-3
using 3-D 8-node hexahedral and 6-node pentahedral elements. Based on symmetry, only half of the structure is
modeled.

bolt cross section

bolt cross section

Figure 10-3

Main Index

Element Mesh applied in the MSC Nastran Simulation

140 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 10

In total, four deformable contact bodies are used. The first deformable body consists of all elements of the gasket
including the gasket body and ring. The cylinder head defines the second deformable body. The third deformable body
contains the elements of the engine block. Finally, the fourth deformable body consists of the upper and lower parts
of the bolts. The deformable contact bodies are identified as 3-D bodies referring to the BSURF IDs 1, 2, 3 and 4:
BCBODY
BSURF
...
...
BCBODY
BSURF
...
...
BCBODY
BSURF
...
...
BCBODY
BSURF
...
...

1
1
292

3D
285
293

DEFORM
286
294

1
287
295

288
296

289
297

290
298

291
299

2
2
8

3D
1
9

DEFORM
2
10

2
3
11

4
12

5
13

6
14

7
15

3
3
677

3D
670
678

DEFORM
671
679

3
672
680

673
681

674
682

675
683

676
684

4
4
974

3D
967
975

DEFORM
968
976

4
969
977

970
978

971
979

972
980

973
981

In addition to the BCBODY option to define the deformable contact bodies, the BCTABLE option will be used to
indicate:
which grids are to be treated as slave grids and which as master grids in the multipoint constraints for
deformable-deformable contact;
glued contact between the gasket and the cylinder head;
glued contact between the gasket and the engine block;
glued contact between the bolts and the cylinder head.
Compared to the cylinder head and the engine block, the gasket has the finest mesh and is also relatively soft. In
general, it is recommended to use the grids of the contact body with the finest mesh as the slave grids in the MPCs
used to solve the contact problem. If the mesh density in the contact area is comparable, then the grids of the softest
body should be chosen as the slave grids. In the current simulation, grids of the gasket and the bolts are selected as
slave grids, which is done using the BCTABLE option. This option is also used to activate glued contact conditions, so
that both relative normal and tangential displacements in the contact areas are prohibited:
BCTABLE

Main Index

1
SLAVE

1
1
MASTERS 2
SLAVE
1
1
MASTERS 3
SLAVE
4
1
MASTERS 2

0.
2

3
0.
0

0.
0
0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

CHAPTER 10 141
Engine Gasket

Besides indicating the slave nodes and glued conditions, the first SLAVE MASTER combination also activates the
extended tangential contact tolerance. The reason to use this is motivated by the coarse mesh of the cylinder head (see
Figure 10-4) compared to the gasket. By activating the extended tangential contact tolerance, all grids at the top of the
gasket are found to be in contact with the cylinder head.

grid outside contact surface

Figure 10-4

Detail of the FE mesh to illustrate the delayed slide off option

In order to activate the full nonlinear formulation of the 3-D isotropic elements (cylinder head, engine block and bolts),
the nonlinear property extension of the PSOLID entry is used:
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+
MAT1

3
3
C8
5

5
0
5
1
SOLI
L
210000.

+
.3

1.

1.5-5

Where the isotropic material definition is straightforward, the gasket behavior needs more attention. Here, the MATG
entry is used. For the gasket body, the definition is:
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+
MAT1
MATG

1
1
C8
2
1

35.
TABLES1 1
0.
.108
TABLES1 2
.1
.16

2
1
SLCOMP
120.
2

0
1

L
60.
0

NO
1

+
1.
2

5.-5

.090909

52.

72.

0.
33.28

.027
.135

2.08
52.

.054
.175

8.32
56.

.081
ENDT

18.72

0.
35.84

.1225
.1675

5.04
45.36

.1375
.175

14.
56.

.1525
ENDT

27.44

The PSLDN1 entry refers to the PSOLID with ID number 1 and activates the solid continuum composite element
formulation via the SLCOMP option. The material ID number 2 of the MATG entry refers to MAT1 ID number 2 to
define the in-plane (membrane) behavior of the gasket material. The loading curve is defined by the table with ID
number 1, while the unloading curve is defined by the table with ID number 2. In general, up to ten unloading curves
can be referred to, but in this example only one unloading curve is used. The onset of irreversible behavior of the gasket
material is defined by a yield pressure of 52 MPa (see also Figure 10-2). As soon as the corresponding gasket closure

Main Index

142 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 10

has been exceeded, the unloading behavior will be interpolated between the loading and the unloading curve. The
tensile modulus (in case the gasket would be loaded in tension) is set to 72 MPa and the transverse shear modulus to
35 MPa. The initial thickness difference between the gasket ring and gasket body is reflected by the initial gap of
0.090909 mm.
The control grids for the bolt pre-tensioning, 4083 and 4095, are defined by:
GRID

4083

-36.04921.31545 20.515 5

GRID

4095

36.0492 1.31545 20.515 6

CORD2R 5

-36.04921.31545 20.515 -36.0492-40.183220.515

5.44948 1.31545 20.515


CORD2R 6

36.0492 1.31545 20.515 36.0492 -40.183220.515

77.5479 1.31545 20.515

Using these control grids, the MPC entries are:


MPC
MPC
MPC
...
...
MPC
MPC
MPC

22
4083
22
4083
22
4083

4084
1
4085
1
4086
1

1
-1.
1
-1.
1
-1.

1.

3924

-1.

1.

3930

-1.

1.

3936

-1.

22
4095
22
4095
22
4095

4104
3
4105
3
4106
3

3
-1.
3
-1.
3
-1.

1.

1966

-1.

1.

1972

-1.

1.

1978

-1.

Alternatively, the BOLT option can be used. Although the kinematic constraints involved are the same, the BOLT option
has the following advantages:
the input format is more concise;
the option is easier to use in a contact analysis.
When the MPC entries are used, the user defined MPC's may easily be conflicting with MPC's introduced by the
contact algorithm, thus causing the contact constraints to be skipped. On the other hand, when the elements at both
sides of the cross section are included in the same contact body, then the BOLT option causes the contact algorithm to
treat this cross section in a special way, Consequently, grid points at the boundary of the cross section can touch
another contact body, while grid points touching the body with the cross section can slide along this body, even when
the cross section has to be passed.
Using the same control grids as mentioned above, the input of the BOLT entries is:
BOLT

1
TOP
BOTTOM

BOLT

2
TOP
BOTTOM

Main Index

4083
3924
3966
4084
4091
4095
1918
1960
4096
4103

3930
3972
4085
4092

3936
3978
4086
4093

3942
3984
4087
4094

3948

3954

3960

4088

4089

4090

1924
1966
4097
4104

1930
1972
4098
4105

1936
1978
4099
4106

1942

1948

1954

4100

4101

4102

CHAPTER 10 143
Engine Gasket

The SPCDs defining the shortening of the bolts are:


SPCD

4083

.175

SPCD

4095

.175

The nonlinear procedure used is defined via the NLPARM entry:


NLPARM

10

FNT
10

25

UPW

YES

Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy. Convergence checking is performed based on displacements, forces, and work. For all criteria, the
default error tolerance is used. In order to avoid bi-sections, the field MAXDIV is set to 10.
Figure 10-5 shows a plot of the displacement magnitudes in the structure corresponding to the maximum pretensioning of the bolts. The expected symmetry in the solution is clearly present.

Figure 10-5

Displacement Contours at Maximum Bolt Pre-tensioning

The values of the bolt force as a function of the bolt shortening are depicted in Figure 10-6 and clearly show a
nonlinear response. The bolt force is found as the reaction force on grid 4083.

Main Index

144 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 10

5000

Bolt Force (N)

4000
3000
2000
1000
Bolt Shortening (mm)

0
0.00

0.05

Figure 10-6

0.10

0.15

0.20

Bolt Force as a Function of the Bolt Shortening

Finally, Figure 10-7 displays the gasket pressure as a function of the gasket closure, both for the gasket ring and the
gasket body. As explained before, the gasket body has an initial gap which explains that the gasket pressure remains
zero until this gap is closed. The fact that the gasket pressure seems to already be nonzero for a gasket closer smaller
than the initial gap value (0.090909 mm) is due to the finite number of steps (10). Neither the gasket ring nor the gasket
body is loaded yet beyond the yield stress.

Figure 10-7

Gasket Pressure as a Function of the Gasket Closure

Modeling Tip
Contact Body Definition
Since the mesh of the engine block and the lower part of the bolts is a continuous mesh, the automated contact
algorithm will not be able to find a unique boundary description at the interface of the engine block and the bolts. This
is reflected by messages like:
warning: node

Main Index

1407 belongs to bodies


3
4.
for the contact algorithm it will belong to body

3 only.

CHAPTER 10 145
Engine Gasket

Although, in the current example, this will not affect the results (there will be no contact detection between the engine
block and the bolts), it is generally not recommended. Instead, one should either make sure that the lower part of the
bolts are separated from the engine block or include only the upper part of the bolts in the contact body definition.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_10.dat

Engine Gasket with MPC option

nug_10_bolt.dat

Engine Gasket with BOLT option

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 47 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

bolt cross section

bolt cross section

Figure 10-8

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 11: Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

11

Main Index

Elastic-plastic Collapse of a
Cylindrical Pipe under External
Rigid Body Loading

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

154

147
148

148
153
154

148

CHAPTER 11 147
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

Summary
Title

Chapter 11: Elastic-Plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid


Body Loading

Contact features

Rigid-deformable contact; Velocity controlled rigid bodies; Elastic perfectly plastic


material; Nonlinear shell elements with large strain plasticity

Geometry

Pipe Length

= 24; Pipe Diameter = 8; Pipe Thickness = 0.4


+

Move Down
V = -2 in

R=4

Rigid
Body 2

Pipe

Rigid
Body 1

Move Up
V = 2 in

R=3

Material properties

Elastic perfectly plastic material


6

E = 3.0 10 psi = 0.3 y = 36000 psi

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis using elastic perfectly plastic material, geometric nonlinearity, and
nonlinear boundary conditions

Boundary conditions

Both ends of pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom

Applied loads

Both rigid bodies are moving towards the pipe in y-direction with a velocity of 2 in/sec.
for duration of 1 second.

Element type

4-node nonlinear thick shell element

FE results

Plot of y-displacement and total plastic strain contours


Die Load [Lbf ]

100000
80000
60000
Force Y Top

40000

Force Y Bottom
20000
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Die Displacment [in]

Main Index

148 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 11

Introduction
A model of a cylindrical pipe is subjected to crushing as rigid bodies above and below the pipe move inward towards
each other. The model is created using 2-D nonlinear thick shell elements to model the pipe and rigid surfaces above
and below the pipe. The problem attempts to quantify whether the movement of the external structures cause the
plastic collapse of the pipe. Initial contact with the external structures is expected to cause elastic deformation of the
steel pipe. Additional incremental movement potentially subjects the structure to stresses beyond the proportional limit
of the material. The yield stress defines the onset of plastic strains that may initiate the collapse of the structure walls.
This exercise illustrates several SOL 400 capabilities including large displacement analysis, contact analysis between
rigid and deformable bodies, and large strain plasticity modeled with an elastic-perfectly plastic model.

Requested Solutions
The large displacement elastic-plastic contact analysis is carried out using MSC Nastran SOL 400 for this rigid to
deformable problem. The application of the nonlinear thick shell element is demonstrated by using the nonlinear
extension PSHLN1 option for the regular PSHELL option. The following results from SOL 400 model are compared
with the results obtained from the Marc model.
Contour plot for y-displacement
Contour plot for total equivalent plastic strain

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 3-D representation of the deformable pipe
structure and two semi-circular sections of rigid pipes sections. The details of finite element model, contact simulation,
material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed in this chapter.

Finite Element and Contact Model


The finite element mesh for the pipe contains 18 elements around the circumference and 18 elements along the length
for a total of 324 elements. MSC Nastran CQUAD4 elements with material ID 1 and thickness 0.4 inches are selected
using the following PSHELL and PSHLN1 entries. The PSHLN1 entry enables SOL 400 to access the thick shell
elements with large strain capabilities. The finite element model used for this simulation is shown in Figure 11-1.
PSHELL
PSHLN1
+

Main Index

1
1
C4

1
1
DCT

.4
1
L

1
NO

CHAPTER 11 149
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

Figure 11-1

Finite Element Model used with MSC Nastran Simulation

In defining the contact model, the primary pipe section is modeled as a deformable body and the two external pipe
structures are modeled as rigid bodies. Elements comprising the deformable pipe structure are used to generate a
deformable contact body with ID 4 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. Contact body IDs 5 and 6 are
used to define the velocity controlled rigid bodies for the two semicircular sections of rigid pipes. The geometry
profiles of the rigid surfaces are defined using 3-D NURB surfaces that describe the true surface geometry and most
accurately represent the curved surfaces.
BCBODY
BSURF
...
BCBODY

...
BCBODY

4
4
5
0
RIGID
NURBS
6
0
RIGID
NURBS

...

3D
1

DEFORM
2

3D
0.

RIGID
0.

-13
-2.

3D
0.
-13
0.

10
8.1

RIGID
0.

10
-7.1

4
3

0
4

0
0.
0.
CONTACT_TOP
4
4
-5.5
-2.
0
0.
0.
CONTACT_BOTTOM
4
4
-5.5
0.

5
0.
50
8.1
0.
50
-7.1

6
1
-2.

7
0
0.

50
0
-4.66667
1
2.

0
0.

50
8
-4.66667

Furthermore, the following BCTABLE entries identify how these bodies can touch each other. BCTABLE with ID 0 is
used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE
with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section.
BCTABLE

Main Index

0
SLAVE

4
0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE
4
0
MASTERS 6

0.
0

2
0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

150 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 11

BCTABLE

1
SLAVE

4
0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE
4
0
MASTERS 6

0.
0

2
0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the
following MAT1 and MATEP options.
MAT1
MATEP

1
1

3.+7
Perfect36000.

.3

Isotrop Addmean

The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1

Loading and Boundary Conditions


Both ends of the pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom using the following entries. In addition to this, the top
and bottom rigid surfaces are given velocity vectors of 2 inches per second, and +2 inches per second, respectively
in the y-direction. This causes the upper structure to be pushed down onto the top of the pipe section and the lower
structure to be pushed up into the bottom of the pipe section at a rate of 2 inches per second for a total time of 1 second.
The velocities of these rigid bodies are defined in the BCBODY section.
SPCADD
FORCE
SPC1
SPC1

2
1
1
1

1
1
123456
123456

0
1
343

1.-16
THRU
THRU

1.
18
360

0.

0.

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM

100

PFNT

500

UPV

NO

where 100 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein
the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 500 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment and if this
were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. UPV indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacements (U) and residuals (P) and V stands for vector component which will do a maximum
component check. NO indicates that intermediate output will not be produced after every increment. The second line
of NLPARM is omitted here which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U and P
checking.

Main Index

CHAPTER 11 151
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

Results
The contour of displacement in y-direction and total equivalent plastic strain in the pipe section from SOL 400
simulations are shown in Figure 11-2 and Figure 11-3, respectively. Similar plots from the Marc simulations are
shown in Figure 11-4 and Figure 11-5, respectively. It is clear from these figures that the predictions from the SOL
400 matches closely with the prediction from Marc.

Figure 11-2

Y-Displacement Contours from SOL 400 Model

Figure 11-3

Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from SOL 400 Model

Main Index

152 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 11

Figure 11-4

Y-Displacement Contours from Marc Model

Figure 11-5

Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from Marc Model

Main Index

CHAPTER 11 153
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

Modeling Tips
PSHLN1 entry in conjunction with regular PSHELL entry allows the users to make use of the thick shell
element which is capable of handling large strain elasto-plastic applications problems. Users should also make
use of the NLMOPTS,LRGS,1 option to flag the large strain behavior of these element.
Adding the parameter,
PARAM,CDBMSG05,5

after the BEGIN BULK option will output a num-11m.t19 file that has the contact information available for
postprocessing in either Mentat or Patran. With this information, you can plot the normal contact force on the
rigid bodies (Die Forces) versus the Die Displacement as shown in Figure 11-6. The step shaped response is
due to the local collapsing of the curvature of the pipe elements. Using more elements would require smaller
step sizes.
Die Load [Lbf ]

100000
80000
60000
Force Y Top

40000

Force Y Bottom
20000
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Die Displacment [in]

Figure 11-6

Die Load versus Die Displacement

It is possible to make use of load controlled rigid body in place of the velocity controlled rigid body for this
problem. In such case, you should apply necessary displacement boundary condition at the control node of
rigid bodies to simulate its movement in y-direction.

Main Index

154 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 11

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_11m.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input

ch11.SimXpert

SimXpert input file

ch11.bdf

Associated MSC Nastran SOL 400 input from SimXpert

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Figure 11-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 12: Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

12

Main Index

Thermal/Pressure
Loaded Cylinders

Summary

156

Introduction

Required Solutions

FEM Solutions

Results

General Analysis Tips

Input File(s)

157
157

157

160

163

163

156 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 12

Summary
Title

Chapter 12: Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

Contact features

Curved contact surfaces


Deformable-deformable contact

Geometry and
description

Two eccentric cylinders:


t = 0.03
R = 0.32
R = 0.25

0.09

Material properties

Inner cylinder: Isotropic elasto-plastic; E inner = 2.2 107 psi ; in = 0.3 ,


5

Thermal expansion coefficient = 1.85 10 1 F ,

Initial yielding stress: 9900 Psi; Piece-wise

linear and isotropic work hardening rule.


Outer cylinder: Isotropic elastic, Youngs modulus is temperature dependent, initial
value E outer = 1.27 107 psi ; out = 0.3 , Thermal expansion coefficient = 1.85 105 F , no
plasticity.
Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis; Material nonlinearity (softening by temperature and hardening by


plastic deformation); Geometric nonlinearity

Displacement Boundary
conditions and applied
loads

Symmetric displacement constraint over the horizontal plane with one end of the
cylinders are fixed in the z-direction. Step 1: Thermal loading 50oF temperature change.
Step 2: Internal pressure loading; internal cylinder.

Element type

8-node linear elements

Contact properties

Deformable-to-deformable body contact without friction

FE results

Plot of stress/strain and displacement distribution after each step.

Displacement Contours after Step 2

Main Index

CHAPTER 12 157
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

Introduction
This application example evaluates the performance of an adaptive load stepping scheme in the applications of MSC.
Nastran SOL 400 for the FE analysis. Due to the symmetry condition, half of the assembly is sufficient for the finite
element analysis. This example involves thermal load, contact, material, and geometrical nonlinearity under pressure
loading. The geometry and material descriptions are given in the above summary table. There are two load steps. The
first step is to apply the thermal load by specifying the temperature changes at each node of the two eccentric cylinders.
With the thermal loading along with the given boundary conditions, the stress and strain are generated due to uneven
thermal expansion of the two cylinders. In the second loading step, a pressure is applied at the inside of the inner
cylindrical surface. Due to this pressure, the smaller cylinder expands in diameter and eventually fills the gap between
the two cylinders when the outer surface of the small cylinder progressively touches the inner surface of the outside
cylinder.
Due to the strong nonlinearity, adaptive time stepping scheme is used. By the adaptive time stepping scheme, the step
size of each increment is adjusted at the end of step that just converged.

Required Solutions
SOL 400 is used for the FE analysis of this problem. The advanced HEX element defined by PSOLID entry pointing
to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry is used. For the first loading step, the thermal strains and stresses of the two cylinders
are of the interests. For the second load step, the deformation and contact between two cylinders under pressure
loading are investigated. Due to the nonlinearity introduced by nonlinear material properties and contact, convergence
speed varies with the nonlinear deformation and changes of contact condition. In order to achieve fast and stable
analysis, the time step size is automatically adjusted according to the convergence condition. In the current version of
MSC Nastran SOL 400, this is done by adding the NLAUTO option into the input data file. For comparison purposes,
one analysis with Marc with the solid element of the same formulation as the element in SOL 400 and auto step scheme
is also conducted.

FEM Solutions
The element, contact, material/geometry, solution algorithm, and convergence schemes parameters are explained in
this chapter.

The Advanced HEX Element


The FE model is shown in Figure 12-1. As mentioned earlier, two solutions are obtained. The first solution was
obtained by using the MSC Nastran SOL 400 with the advanced HEX element, which is defined by the PSOLID and
PSLDN1 bulk data options as shown below, where (C8 SOLI L) defines the 3-D continuum solid element with linear
integration scheme.
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+

Main Index

1
1
C8

1
1
SOLI

0
L

158 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 12

Figure 12-1

The FE Model for the Numerical Solution

Contact Parameters
As shown in Figure 12-1, the contact body named as cbody1 (shown in pink) represents the inner cylinder. The
contact body named as cbody2 defines the outside cylinder. The black arrows represent the pressure applied on the
inner surface of the small cylinder (cbody1). It should be noted that only half of the whole assembly is modeled due
to the symmetry condition.
In the input data file, the contact bodies are defined deformable contact bodies as below:
BCBODY 1
BSURF

1813

BCBODY 2
BSURF

3D

3D
1013

DEFORM 1
1814

1815 1816

DEFORM 2
1014

0
1817

1818

1819

1017

1018

1019

1015 1016

The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below define the touch conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2
1
SLAVE
1
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2
2
SLAVE
1
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

As shown above, BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touch conditions at the start of the analysis. 0 identifies the
case number. This BCTABLE is mandatory for the contact analysis with SOL 400. Also, the options BCONTACT with

Main Index

CHAPTER 12 159
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

ID 0 and BCPARA with ID 0 are all applied at the start of the analysis. For each load step, the touch condition can be
defined by BCTABLE, BCPARA, and BCONTACT option.

Material/Geometry Parameters
Both bodies in this analysis are isotropic in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. Body one represents the inner
cylinder, which is also elasto-plastic. The Youngs modulus, Poisson ratio, and thermal expansion coefficient are
defined by MAT1 bulk data option. The plasticity properties are defined by MATEP with TABLES1 option. Here,
TABLES1 is associated with MATEP to defined the strain hardening rule of the material with ID 1.
MATEP
MAT1
TABLES1

1
1
1
0.
.00615

Table
2.2+7
2
9900.
20000.

3.9-4
.05

1
.3

1.

Isotrop Addmean
1.85-5

12500.
25000.

9.5-4
.1

15200.
28000.

.00295
ENDT

17500.

Body two represents the outside cylinder. As shown below, this body has a temperature dependent Youngs modulus
(see TABLEM1).
MAT1
MATT1
TABLEM1

2
2
2
0.

2.2+7
2
2.2+7

50.

.3

1.

1.85-5

1.76+7

100.

1.54+7

ENDT

The thermal expansion coefficient of the two cylinder are the same which is 0.0000185 1/oF.

Case Control Parameters


There are two loading sequences (or loading steps) in the analysis. In each loading sequence, the control parameters
are defined by the NLPARM and the NLAUTO option. The ID of the NLAUTO option is linked with the identification
number of the NLPARM option. This option must be used in conjunction with NLPARM. The NLAUTO options are
specified in the bulk data area. As shown below, load STEP ID 1 of SUBCASE ID 1 defines all necessary conditions
applied to the analysis for the first load step which includes bulk data options (TITLE, NLPARM, BCONTACT, SPC,
LOAD) and the requested output information. Particularly, it is necessary to note the analysis control options of
NLMOPTS and the LGDISP parameter. In this example, the NLMOPTS option defines LRGS to 1. It means that LARGE
STRAIN formulation is used. The LGDISP parameter indicates that geometric nonlinearity includes the stiffness of
follower forces.
NLPARM defines the parameters to control the time step and convergence schemes. In this example, PFNT means that
full Newton-Raphson method is adopted. The attempted total number of loading increments is set to 20. The maximum
iteration for each increment is set to 25. UP means the convergence scheme is set to check both the convergence of
displacements and residuals. In this loading sequence, both tolerances are set as 0.01. It is worth to note that a negative
value is set for the displacement check. The negative sign means the convergence check will be based on the
incremental displacement. And NO in the NLPARM option means that it is not required to output the analysis results
for intermediate loading steps, except the results at the end of the loading sequence. However, the total number of
loading increment may be changed according to the parameters set in NLAUTO option. In the first load step, the
deformation is relatively small. The desired number of iterations (1st field of the second line of NLAUTO option) is set
as 5. In the second load step, due to contact and large deformation, the desired number of iteration is set as 7. To set a
proper desired number of iterations is critical to achieve the solution with minimum computation time and adequate

Main Index

160 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 12

accuracy. Too large numbers may cause significant change of time step size between increments, which may cause the
solution to converge slowly or even diverging. If this happens, SOL 400 cuts the time step size back. As one of the
consequences, the analysis may need even longer computation time. To avoid this, it is recommended to set a
reasonably small value for the maximum ratio of incremental step size change between incremental steps (the 6th field
of the first line of the NLAUTO option). This parameter is set as 10 with desired number of iteration as 5 for load step
1. For the second load step, with consideration of the fact that contact and large deformation may occur, this parameter
is set as 1.2 with desired number of iterations as 7. This is particularly important in order to avoid penetration and also
to control the time step size with good balance of efficiency and accuracy.
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATICS
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 3
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = 4
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BOUTPUT (PRINT)=ALL
STEP 2
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATICS
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2
SPC = 2
LOAD = 6
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = 8
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
NLMOPTS LRGS
1
PARAM
LGDISP 1
NLPARM
1
20
PFNT
1
-0.01 0.01
0
NLAUTO
1
0.05
1.0
0.1
10.
5
1
0
0
10
$
NLAUTO
2
0.05
1.0
0.1
1.2
7
1
0
0
10
NLPARM
2
20
PFNT
1
-0.01 0.01

25
UP
0
1.0e-5 0.2
0
0

999999
0.0

1.0e-5
0
25

999999
0.0
NO

0.2
0
UP

NO

Results
Load Step One
The initial temperature of the whole assembly is set as zero (0). In the first load step, a temperature load is applied to
the inner cylinder and part of the outside cylinder (see Figure 12-2 - yellow color). Due to the thermal expansion
caused by the temperature load and the corresponding changes of the material properties, thermal strain and stress are
generated. Figure 12-3 shows the distribution of major principal stress and the equivalent stress at the end of this load
step. It is seen that the distribution of stress is uneven through the wall thickness of the outside cylinder. However, the
stress in the inner cylinder is quite uniformly distributed (see Figure 12-3(b)). This is because the inner cylinder has a

Main Index

CHAPTER 12 161
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

uniform temperature load with minimum displacement boundary constraints. Therefore, it has nearly stress-free
thermal expansion. With the adaptive loading step scheme, the analysis of this loading sequence is completed in eight
incremental steps.

Figure 12-2

Temperature Loading

(a) Major Principal Thermal Stress

Figure 12-3

(b) Equivalent Stress

Distributions

Load Step Two


This load step is to apply the pressure inside the inner cylinder. Due to the pressure loading, the inner cylinder expands
in diameter. At some point of loading, the gap between the two cylinders is closed. Figure 12-4 (a) shows the gap
between two cylinders at the beginning of this load step. Figure 12-4 (b) shows that the gap is completely closed after
the pressure is fully applied. Using the adaptive load step control, this load step is completed in 19 incremental steps.
So the total number of incremental steps for the analysis is 27 steps. The distribution of equivalent stress in the
deformed cylinders is shown in Figure 12-5. It is seen that the level of stress is higher in the inner cylinder. The lowest
stress occurs on the outside cylinder along its inner surface which is in contact with the outside surface of

Main Index

162 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 12

the inner cylinder. The lower level of stress is mainly because of the softening of material due to increased
temperature.

(a)

(b)

Figure 12-4

Change of Contact Status Between the Two Cylinders

Figure 12-5

Equivalent Stress of the Deformed Cylinders After Pressure Loading

In addition to the analysis with MSC Nastran SOL 400, Marc is also used to conduct the analysis with the same type
of element and material and boundary condition definition. The results are quite close as shown in Figure 12-6(a) and
Figure 12-6(b). The analysis by Marc takes 16 incremental steps for the first load step and another 27 incremental steps
for the pressure loading step.

Main Index

CHAPTER 12 163
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders

(a) MSC Nastran SOL 400

Figure 12-6

(b) MSC.Marc

Displacement Contours of the Cylinders After Pressure Loading

General Analysis Tips


Convergence control: While the nonlinearity is quite strong in the second load step, it is suggested to use both
displacement and residual convergence check due to the nonlinearity introduced by contact. Also, the full NewtonRaphson iteration scheme is recommended for all SOL 400 analyses because the degree of nonlinearity is typically
significant.
Adaptive step size control: The NLAUTO option with NLPARM option provides the convenient interface for user to
control the analysis procedure. Proper setting of the control parameters is very important to obtain accurate results
without losing computational efficiency. A useful tip is to use loose control over the desired number of iteration but
use tighter control over the maximum ratio of time step change allowed after each converged step.
Contact control: In this example, the FE nodes of inner cylinder part are defined as slave contact nodes. This is due
to the consideration that, during the pressure loading process, the inner cylinder will expand and intend to touch the
inner surface of the outside cylinder. In this case, the nodes on the inner cylinder surface usually have much larger
incremental displacements at each increment.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_12bm.dat

Input data for MSC Nastran SOL 400

mdug_12b3d.dat

Input data for Marc

Main Index

Chapter 13: Ball Joint Rubber Boot

13

Main Index

Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Summary

165

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solution

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

166

167

170

173

172
172

166

CHAPTER 13 165
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Summary
Title

Chapter 13: Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Contact features

Load controlled rigid bodies and friction with viscoelastic relaxation


+

Geometry

r = 0.017557 m
r=0m

Clamp 2

Knuckle

CL
Original Shape of Boot
Deformed Shape of Boot

Stud

Clamp 1
Housing

Material properties

Shear Modulus, G = 2.0 MPa - using time dependent and independent Mooney and
Ogden elastomeric material models

Boundary conditions

Housing moves to seat clamp 1; stud and knuckle move to seat clamp 2.

Element types

Axisymmetric 4-node quad element

FE results

Verify the equivalence of the two elastomeric models and underscore the importance of
time effects of material properties in elastomers. Verify the deformed shape with actual
installation.
CL

Main Index

166 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 13

Introduction
In the design of ball joints for automotive applications, the major design concern is to prevent sealing boots from
leaking. Because most ball joint failures occur as a result of corrosion, contamination or dirt ingress, causing excessive
wear. Figure 13-1 shows some typical ball joint failure modes. In practice the stud of a ball joint is subjected to axial,
oscillatory and rotational loads. Currently, most designs of sealing boots are based on design engineer's experience,
experimental tests, and/or much more simplified FEA models. In this example, we will install the boot using a 2-D
axisymmetric FEA model whereby the boot is fitted onto the housing under the large clamp, and then the stud and
knuckle moved to fit the boot onto the shaft. The deformed profile of the boot is then compared to the actual boot.
Contamination in the
grease

Wear in labyrinth from


corrosion on the pin

Contamination at the
parting line.

Figure 13-1

Ball Joint Sealing Boot Failure: Excessive Wear in Labyrinth

Solution Requirements
MSC Nastran is used to model the assembly process of the boot onto the housing and stud. Since the stiffness of the
housing, ball stud, knuckle and clamping rings is much higher than the rubber sealing boot, they are modeled with
rigid bodies. The simulation is performed as three different cases as explained below:
Cases A and B: The rubber-sealing boot material is modeled using Mooney-Rivlin (Case A) and Ogden (Case B)
material models and equivalent performance of both is studied.
Case C:

Main Index

Viscoelastic Relaxation follows the installation with Mooney as the material mode. A time
dependence of hyperelastic properties is taken into account where the viscoelasticity is represented
as linear perturbations over hyperelastic material capable of representing large strains. The
viscoelastic relaxation will drop the strain energy density by about 50% in a two hour time period.

CHAPTER 13 167
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

FEM Solution
The numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastran's solution sequence 400. The details of finite element
models, contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed next.

Finite Element Models


An axisymmetric model of the Ball Joint rubber boot is used in the simulation. The rubber boot is meshed with 845
lower-order axisymmetric solid elements.
The bulk data file entries defining the axisymmetric properties of the CQUADX elements are as follows:
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2,1,1
,C4,AXSOLID,L

Contact Models
The model has six contact bodies. The rubber boot is the deformable contact body while the housing, ball stud,
knuckle, ring small and ring large are represented as the rigid contact bodies. Each of the contact bodies is defined
through the BCBODY bulk data entry. Each rigid body is defined to contact the deformable rubber boot, and hence, six
contact pairs are defined through BCTABLE. In each contact pair, the contacting rigid body is defined as MASTER and
the deformable rubber boot is defined as SLAVE. The contact tolerance is zero and the bias factor is globally defined
for all contact pairs as 0.95. For simplicity, no friction has been included in the analysis. The BCPARA bulk data entry
is used to define the global bias factor.

Figure 13-2

Main Index

Original Axisymmetric Model

168 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 13

Material
Cases A and B:
The experimental data is fitted with a one term Mooney (commonly known as neo-Hookean) model. To demonstrate
the equivalence and accuracy of the implemented elastomer models in sol 400, both Mooney (Case A) and Ogden
(Case B) models have been used for the rubber boot. The models are made equivalent by ensuring that the bulk
modulus is the same for both models and taking care of the following:
1 = 2C10 and 1 = 2 and 2 = 2C01 and 2 = -2
It is important to note that this equivalence relation holds only one way i.e. any neo-Hookean or Mooney model can
be represented by the Ogden model in general but not vice-versa. The bulk data entry used to define the material
properties in Case A is MATHE for both Mooney and Ogden models. The properties of Mooney and Ogden materials
have been input as follows:
MATHE

MATHE

1
1.
0.
0.
1
2.
0.

Mooney
0.
0.

0.

Ogden
2.
-2.

1.

1.

0.

0.

0.

Case C:
In this case, along with the Mooney properties of Case A, a MATVE bulk data file entry is used to define the viscoelastic
properties. Here, Wdi (multiplier or scale factor for deviatoric behavior in Prony series) and Tdi (time constant for
deviatoric behavior in Prony series) need to be entered in the MATVE entry. They have been included in the input file
as follows:
MATHE

1
Mooney
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
MATVE,1,Mooney,,,0.111188,0.205057,,
,0.130683,1.71947,0.0967089,23.7532,0.0822848,273.121,0.0965449,3107.79

Loading and Boundary Conditions


All the rigid bodies are load controlled and are assembled using displacement boundary conditions.
Cases A and B:
The control node 977 of the housing is given an x-displacement of 0.00273451 in the first load case. The control node
976 of the stud is held fixed in the y-direction in the first load case and given a y-displacement of 0.0031074 in the
second load case. The control node 978 of knuckle is held stationary in the first load case and given a displacement 0.0105098 in the second load case. The clamping rings, ring large with control node 974, ring small with control node
975 are held stationary in the y-direction throughout the analysis but are allowed to translate in the x-direction.

Main Index

CHAPTER 13 169
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Case C:
All the control node displacements are applied together in the first load step (as explained in the above case) which is
followed by a step of visco-elastic relaxation.

Solution Procedure
The assembly process for the different cases has been done as follows:
Cases A and B:
In the first step, the housing is brought into place with the ball stud and knuckle held unassembled. A fixed
time stepping procedure using NLSTEP with 50 increments is used to assemble the knuckle. UPV residual
checking is used with KSTEP = -1 and the solution algorithm utilizes the full Newton-Raphson (PFNT) with
convergence check using the infinity norm (as opposed to the L-2 norm):
NLSTEP

1
1.0
general 25
fixed
50
mech
UPV

1
0
.01

10
.01

NLSTEP

2
1.0
general 25
1
10
fixed
50
0
mech
UPV
.01
.01
In the second step, both the stud and the knuckle are brought into position with the housing held in place.
Again, a fixed time stepping procedure using NLSTEP with 50 increments is used to assemble the Knuckle.
UPV convergence checking is used with KSTEP = -1.
Large displacement (PARAM, LGDISP, 2)
Large Strain analysis with updated Lagrangian approach with multiplicative decomposition of deformation
gradient (NLMOPTS,LRGS,2)
Case C:
In this case, all three housing, knuckle, and stud are brought into place in the first load step. Here, the entire analysis
is done in real time. The first load step is of 2 seconds.Again, a fixed time stepping is used with 100 increments with
each increment representing a real time of 0.02 seconds. Again the convergence technique is PFNT and UPV
convergence checking is used with KSTEP = -1. The NLSTEP entry is as follows
NLSTEP

1
2.0
general 25
fixed
100
mech
UPV

1
0
.01

10
.01

In the second load step, there are no additional loads or boundary conditions applied and the system is held in place
through the contact conditions. The assembled system thus relaxes for the next 7200 seconds. This is easily
accomplished with the adaptive time stepping scheme activated using the NLSTEP entry. The ADAPT field is employed

Main Index

170 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 13

in the NLSTEP entry to achieve this. While options like PV convergence test method and PFNT technique with
KSTEP=-1 and convergence tolerance of 0.100 are specified in the MECH option of the NLSTEP entry, the ADAPT
option is used which specifies the following:
Initial time step (=1.0e-3)
Minimum time step as a fraction of total load step time (=1.0E-5)
Maximum time step as a fraction of total load step time (=.10)
Desired number of iterations (=10)
Factor for increasing the time steps (=1.20)
Output flag (=-1)
Maximum number of increments in the current load case (=999999)
Flag for damping (=0)
Damping co-efficient (=.100E-03)
The NLSTEP entry is as follows:
NLSTEP

2
72000.0
GENERAL
25
0
ADAPT
1.0E-03 1.0E-5 .10
0 .100E-03
MECH
PV
0.00
.100

10
0

0.00

10 1.20
0
1
PFNT

.100

-1
-1

999999
1.2

Results
The installation of the boot onto the housing and stud is shown in Figure 13-3. The deformed shape is overlaid onto
the actual deformed boot geometry to validate the modeling techniques.
CL

Undeformed

Deformed
R

Figure 13-3

Main Index

Undeformed and Deformed Rubber Boot

CHAPTER 13 171
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

As expected, the knuckle force is identical for both the models as shown in Figure 13-4. In addition, the results agree
with Marc's results which have been taken as reference. Figure 13-5 shows the fall of the knuckle force due to the
subsequent relaxation associated with the viscoelastic effects. The fall is quite dramatic and consistent with the
material data. Also, it can be noticed that the SOL 400 solution is very close to the Marc reference results.
Axial Force (N)

80
70
60
50
40

Ogden (MD Sol 400)

30
Mooney (MD Sol 400)
20
Mooney (Marc)
10
0
0.000

0.002

Figure 13-4

0.004

0.006

0.008
0.010
Axial Displacement (m)

Comparison of Knuckle Force during Assembly

Axial Force (N)


80
Install

70

Mooney (MD Sol 400)

60
Mooney (Marc)
50
40
30
Relax

20
10
Time (sec)
0

Figure 13-5

Main Index

2000

4000

6000

Insertion Force History

8000

10000

172 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 13

Modeling Tips
Use of NLMOPTS,LRGS,2 and PARAM,LGDISP,2 must be included in the analysis. The KSTEP field in the NLSTEP
entry should be set to -1,especially for these kind of problems. Finally, for an efficient solution using the adaptive time
stepping scheme, the ADAPT option is used in the NLSTEP entry.
It must be noticed that additional laboratory tests (and corresponding curve fitting to get the Prony coefficients) would
need to be carried out to get the time dependence of the material properties. The need for the addition of time
dependent effects in an analysis requires judgment. In analyses involving both rolling resistance (important for
designing for fuel efficiency) or standing waves (tire blowout) in tires, viscous effects are important,; however, a
simple static loading to capture load-deflection curves does not require modeling of any time dependent effects. This
can save time and money to do the additional tests.
In general, adaptive load stepping is recommended to provide robust automatic control of the applied load even in the
presence of strong nonlinearities. In this case, however, the large amount of contact throughout loadcase one together
with the time-dependent aspects of loadcase two made fixed stepping the better option.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_13a.dat

Mooney model

nug_13b.dat

Ogden model

nug_13c.dat

Mooney model with viscoelastic properties

Main Index

CHAPTER 13 173
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Video

Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.
r = 0.017557 m
r=0m

Clamp 2

Knuckle

CL
Original Shape of Boot
Deformed Shape of Boot

Stud

Clamp 1
Housing

Figure 13-6

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 14: Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

14

Main Index

Time NVH Analysis


Chassis Example

Summary

175

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Model Details Time NVH scheme

FEM Solution

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

176

177

179
181
182

176
176

CHAPTER 14 175
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

Summary
Title

Chapter 14: Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

Features

A potentially nonlinear periodic transient dynamic response of a chassis sub-frame


analysis is followed by a fast Fourier transform to extract the modes and frequencies that
characterize the dynamic solution which is compared to traditional linear modal
analysis.

Geometry

Units: mm

G
W1= 993
W1
W2
W2= 1,182
A
L1= 1,518
F
L2= 865
L3= 927
L1
L4
L3
L2
L4= 361
Size of rectangular hollow beam: 53x111 to 53x191 depending on locations.
Thickness of shell: 3.5
Material properties

E = 2.10x10 5 N mm

Analysis type

TIMNVH analysis (SOL 700)

Boundary conditions

Free

Applied loads

Vertical impulse load applied at point A

Element type

4-node shell element

FE results

Transient response, FFT, mode shapes and frequencies

, = 0.3 , = 7.89x10 9 ton mm 3

1.00E-01

1.00E-02

901581
901641

1.00E-03

Amplitude

901697
901865
902061
902097

1.00E-04

902580
902595
902609
902797

1.00E-05

902996
903063

1.00E-06
0.00E+00

2.00E+01

4.00E+01

6.00E+01

8.00E+01

1.00E+02

1.20E+02

1.40E+02

1.60E+02

Frequency (Hz)

K
J

H
G

C
B
A

Main Index

176 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 14

Introduction
This is an example of a virtual dynamic test. A chassis of a car was modeled and a vertical impulse loading was applied
at one of front corner points. Time histories were obtained at select chassis locations and they were translated to
frequency domain by applying Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to extract mode shapes and frequencies for 12 sampling
points.

Requested Solutions
Acceleration time histories are obtained at 12 points and they are translated to a frequency domain. Dynamic properties
such as modal natural frequencies and mode shapes are then computed. The results are then compared with those of
Nastran SOL 103 for validation purposes.

Model Details Time NVH scheme


MD Nastran bdf Model (impulse loading)

SOL 700

Obtain Time-history Results


- Displacement
- Velocity
- Acceleration (default)
FFT
Time domain results -> Frequency domain results
Find and compare peaks
Extract dynamic properties:
Natural frequencies and Mode shapes
(f06 and modes.out files)

Yes
Final dynamic properties

Is acceptable?
No
Add PARAM, S700NVH1
, TIMNAT and TIMSML cards

Use primary time history or FFT results


Re-run MD Nastran SOL 700

Figure 14-1

Main Index

Flow Chart of TIMNVH Scheme

CHAPTER 14 177
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

FEM Solution
There are two models. The first model is the initial run to determine the rough dynamic properties of the structure and
second model is a re-run of the first job to find the accurate and final results using the previous time history results.

Applied Load and Selected Location for Time History


To compute the dynamic responses of the chassis, a vertical impulse load is applied at the front corner as shown in
Figure 14-2. Using FORCE and TABLED entries as shown below, a maximum of 0.01 tons impulse point loading is
applied to node 902517.
FORCE
TABLED1

3
1
-10.
10.

902517

.01

0.
0.

0.
ENDT

0.

0.

.001

0.

-1.

1.

.002

0.

The acceleration time histories at 12 points on the chassis are computed (see Figure 14-2) to obtain the modal
responses.

Load (ton)
0.010

H
G

0.005

C
B
A
Time (ms)

0.000

Figure 14-2

10

Applied Impulse Loading and Nodes Selected for Getting the Acceleration Responses

Primary Job
The end time in transient run is defined by using 100 time steps at 0.4e-4 sec. for each increment. The end time is the
product of these two entries. Notice here, the time increment is only for the first step. The actual number of time
increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by MSC Nastran solver during the analysis. The time
step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL

100

.01

ADAPT

10

TIMNVH defines the Time NVH analysis as explained below.

TIMNVH,
+, 0, 3,

Main Index

1,
1,

,
0.015,

,
0,

3,

1.0,
13,

1000.,
.0030,+

3,

0.0005,

2,+

178 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 14

The range of natural frequencies to obtain is from 1.0 Hz to 1000 Hz and translational degrees of freedom for zdirection is only considered (3). The sampling rate is 0.0005 seconds. The peaking criterion is two, which means that
a peak is selected if the amplitude of the number of increasing and decreasing points around a peak is equal or greater
than 2.
Acceleration is selected for the response (0) and translational eigenvectors are only requested as ASCII format (3).
Eigenvalues are normalized by 1.0 (1) and 0.015 is selected as CLOSE value which means if there are two modes which
distance is smaller than 0.015 Hz, it is assumed to be the same mode. ACII file format of natural frequencies and
eigenvalues are asked (0) and translational time histories of z-direction are requested (3). Frequency-amplitude data
of z-direction are requested (13) and a peak whose amplitude is less than 0.0030 times the maximum amplitude is
ignored (.0030)
+, 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
+, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996, 903063
The grid points 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996 and
903063 are selected to obtain time history responses for Time NVH analysis.
TIMNVH,1, , , 1.0,
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015,
+, 901581, 901641,
+, 902580, 902595,

1000., 3,.0005, 2,+


0, 3, 13, .0030,+
901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
902609, 902797, 902996, 903063

Re-running Job
To find the accurate modal properties, a re-run is required using the previous time history data. Only three entries are
different from the initial job;
PARAM, S700NVH,
TIMNVH and
TIMNAT
The value of PARAM, S700NVH is assigned to 1 for using the previous time history binary data (binout0000). In
TIMNVH entry, the PEAK option (in the first line) is changed from 2 to 2, which will require defining the TIMNAT entry.
TIMNAT is used to specify the natural frequencies selected from amplitude-frequency plot from the initial run. The

natural frequencies close to 35, 43, 49, 101, and 108 Hzs are obtained as the natural frequencies.
PARAM,S700NVH1,1
TIMNVH,1, , , 1.0, 1000., 3,.0005, -2,+
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015, 0, 3, 13, .0030,+
+, 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
+, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996, 903063
TIMNAT,1,35.,43.,49.,101.,108.

Main Index

CHAPTER 14 179
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

Results
There are three result files from Time Domain NVH analysis.
mode.out: Results for the natural frequencies and eigenvalues.
ampl-freq- 00901865-3.txt: amplitude-frequency output of degree of freedom =3 at grid point 901865.
time-hist- 00901865-3.txt: time history output of degree of freedom =3 at grid point 901865.
From the ampl-freq-*** files, the frequency-amplitude plots are shown in Figure 14-3. Using the plot, the modal
frequencies are specified in TIMNAT option to refine the dynamic property results.
1.00E-01

6
1 2

1.00E-02

901581
901641

1.00E-03

Amplitude

901697
901865
902061
902097

1.00E-04

902580

902595
902609
902797

1.00E-05

902996
903063

1.00E-06
0.00E+00

2.00E+01

4.00E+01

6.00E+01

8.00E+01

1.00E+02

1.20E+02

1.40E+02

1.60E+02

Frequency (Hz)

K
J

H
G

C
B
A

Figure 14-3

Main Index

Frequency-Amplitude Plots At 12 Nodes

180 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 14

36.017
35.000

43.952
43.000

67.428
-

84.722
-

101.969
101.001

Mode #

111.016
108.001

SOL 103 Frequency Hz


SOL 700 Frequency Hz

Figure 14-4

52.506
49.000

Comparison of Mode Shapes and Frequencies for SOL 103 and SOL 700

The small peaks for modes 4 and 5 are barely observable in Figure 14-3 and arise because of the selection of the type
of impulse loading. These lateral modes exhibit a low participation when the impulse loading is vertical. For a certain
set of impulse loads, certain modes may not be excited and the FFT only picks up the excited modes that significantly
participate in the transient response.

Main Index

Mode

SOL103

SOL 700

Diff(%)

Comparison

36.0170

35.0002

2.82%

Vertical motion dominant

43.9523

43.0002

2.17%

Vertical motion dominant

52.5065

49.0003

6.68%

Lateral motion dominant

67.4281

Small peak

Lateral motion dominant

84.7220

Small peak

Lateral motion dominant

101.9688

101.0005

0.95%

Vertical motion dominant

111.0159

108.0005

2.72%

Vertical motion dominant

CHAPTER 14 181
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example

Results show that even though the vertical mode shapes of modes 2 and 3 are similar, their amplitude and lateral modes
are quite different. The results are compared in Figure 14-5.

Vertical mode shape of mode 2


Figure 14-5

Vertical mode shape of mode 3

Comparison of Vertical Mode Shapes Between Mode 2 and 3

Sample Output
The final response from the FFT steps for the 12 sampling points are contained in a file called modes.out which
contains the eigenvalues (frequencies) and eigenvectors (mode shapes) in the form:
02'(6
(,*9

st

1 mode {

Sample
Grid IDS

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

} Frequency
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

x-component y-component z-component


eigenvector

Modeling Tips
To get more accurate data, options of TIMNVH and TSTEPNL entry could be changed. For example, increasing the end
time (defined as 1 second in this analysis) can result in higher resolution (the frequency increment in the frequencyamplitude plot). The resolution is determined as:
1
1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = ------------------------------------- = 1 Hz
sample end time - sample start time
1 sec 0 sec

Main Index

182 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 14

To increase the maximum frequency in the frequency-amplitude plots, the sampling rate which is defined as 0.015
seconds in this example decreases. The maximum frequency of this example is computed as:
1
1
------------------------------------------ = -------------------------------- = 133.33 Hz
1
1
--- sampling rate
--- 0.015 sec
2
2

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_14a.dat

Initial run to find rough dynamic properties

nug_14b.dat

Re-run to compute accurate dynamic properties

nug_14c.dat

SOL 103 model

Main Index

Chapter 15: Tube Flaring

15

Main Index

Tube Flaring

Summary

184

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

Input File(s)

185

185
189

185

184 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 15

Summary
Title

Chapter 15: Tube Flaring

Features

Deformable-deformable contact
Large elastic-plastic deformation

Geometry

Axisymmetric

x=r

Tube diameter = 8 inches


Tube thickness = 0.3 inches
Tube length = 8 inches
Tool apex angle = 30
Tool wall thickness = 0.6 inches
Tool length = sufficient to mode
the process

CL

x=r

CL

Material properties

Tube: Youngs modulus = 3.0e7 psi, initial yield stress = 3.6e4 psi, yield
stress at 0.1 equivalent plastic strain = 1.8e5 psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3
Tool: Youngs modulus = 4.0e7 psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3, no yielding

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

The left end of the tube is prevented from moving in the axial direction but
is free to move in the radial direction.

Applied loads

An edge load is applied to the right end of the tool (the end with a larger
diameter) to push the tool into the steel tube, then released

Element type

4-node axisymmetric elements

Contact properties

Friction between the tool and the tube is ignored in the analysis

FE results

1. Plot of tube tip versus time.


2. Contours of von Mises stress at maximum load on deformed mesh
3. Contours of plastic strain on deformed mesh after load removal
0.5

Radial Displacement Point A (in)

0.4
0.3

0.2
x=r

0.1

CL

Time (s)
0.0
0.0

Main Index

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

CHAPTER 15 185
Tube Flaring

Introduction
A cone-shaped flaring tool is pushed into a cylindrical tube to permanently increase the diameter of the tube end. The
goal of the analysis is to determine whether the final shape of the tube, after the entire process, meets the objective.
The nonlinear nature of the problem, along with the irreversible characteristics, makes it impossible to know in
advance the load required to drive the tool into the tube. As a result, multiple runs through the analysis cycle may be
necessary to achieve the final objective of the analysis.
This problem demonstrates the use of MSC Nastran SOL 400 to analyze a contact problem involving deformabledeformable contact and large elastic-plastic deformations.

Requested Solutions
The requested solutions include the curve of the tube diameter at the right end as a function of loads and the deformed
shape of the tube and the tool along with the distributions of von Mises stresses and plastic strains.

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh (shown in Figure 15-1)
using axisymmetric elements.

x=r
y

Figure 15-1

Finite Element Mesh

There are two contact bodies. One is the tube and one is the tool. The two contact bodies with ID 3 and 4 are identified
as selected elements of the tube and the tools respectively as:
BCBODY
BSURF
...

3
3
115

2D
109
116

DEFORM
110
117

4
4
32

2D
25
33

DEFORM
26
34

4
27
35

111
118

112
119

113
120

114

and
BCBODY
BSURF
...

Main Index

0
28
36

29
37

30
38

31
39

186 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 15

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

3
0
fbsh
MASTERS 3
SLAVE
4
0
fbsh
MASTERS 3
1
SLAVE
3
0
fbsh
MASTERS 3
SLAVE
4
0
fbsh
MASTERS 3

0.05
0
0.05
0

0.05
0
0.05
0

2
100.
0
0.8
100.
0
0.8
2
100.
0
0.8
100.
0
0.8

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

Axisymmetric elements are defined with CQUADX along with PLPLANE and PSHLN2 entries:
PLPLANE
PSHLN2
+
+
+
+
+
$ Pset:
CQUADX
CQUADX

1
1
1
1
C3
AXSOLID
C4
AXSOLID
C5
IPS
C6
AXSOLID
C8
AXSOLID
"pshell.1" will
109
1
110
1

1
L
L
L
Q
Q
be imported as: "plplane.1"
10
144
145
1
144
146
147
145

+
+
+
+
+

The Youngs modulus and Poissons ratios for the tube and the tool are defined as:
MAT1*
*
MAT1*
*

1
1.
2
1.

3.+7

1.15385+7

.3

4.+7

1.53846+7

.3

The yield stresses along with the hardening are defined respectively as:
MATEP
1
Table 36000.
TABLES1,1,2,,,,,,,+,
+,0.,36000.,0.1,180000.,ENDT,

Isotrop Addmean

The NLPARM entry is used to define the nonlinear analysis iteration strategy. There are two load steps: loading and
unloading. One hundred (100) uniform time increments are used to solve each load steps. The stiffness matrix will be
updated at each iteration (full Newton-Raphson iteration strategy).
NLPARM

100

PFNT

25

YES

NLPARM

100

PFNT

25

YES

Main Index

CHAPTER 15 187
Tube Flaring

The tube diameter at the right end of the tube gradually increases during the analysis as the load increases and reaches
the maximum of 0.4316 inches. The final tube radial displacement after unloading is settled at 0.4093 inches. See
Figure 15-2 for the curve of tube diameter as a function of time (load). The entire analysis procedure can be repeated
with various load levels to achieve the desired final tube diameter. The curve is not smooth at the loading path because
of the discrete finite elements. It can be improved by refining the finite element meshes.

0.5

Radial Displacement Point A (in)

0.4
0.3

0.2
x=r

0.1

CL

Time (s)
0.0
0.0
Figure 15-2

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Curve of Tube Diameter as a Function of Time

The deformed mesh and the distribution of von Mises stress at the time the applied load reaches maximum are shown
in Figure 15-3. It can be observed that the stresses are concentrated in two areas: the tip of deflection where the tube
made contact with the tool and in the area where the tube is deformed.

Main Index

188 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 15

x=r

Figure 15-3

Deformed Mesh and Distribution of von Mises Stress at Maximum Load

The deformed shape of the tube and the tool along with the distribution of plastic strains at the end of the analysis are
shown in Figure 15-4.

x=r

Figure 15-4

Main Index

Deformed Mesh and Distribution of Equivalent Plastic Strains at the End of Analysis

CHAPTER 15 189
Tube Flaring

Input File(s)
File
nug_15.dat

Main Index

Description
Tube flaring input file.

Chapter 16: Cup Forming Simulation

16

Main Index

Cup Forming Simulation

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

General Analysis Tips

Input File(s)

Video

199

191
192
192

192

199

198

CHAPTER 16 191
Cup Forming Simulation

Summary
Title

Chapter 16: Cup Forming Simulation

Contact features

3-D Shell-Rigid contact


Velocity-Controlled Rigid bodies modeled using NURBS
Friction along deformable-rigid interfaces

Geometry

3-D shell elements (units: mm)


Blank Radius= 90
Shell Thickness = 1
Three Rigid Tools
Punch
Die
Holder

Material properties

Aluminium alloy with isotropic properties


E sheet = 70000N mm 2 , sheet = 0.3 , yo = 191.1 N/mm2

Analysis type

Quasi static analysis using


elasto-plastic material with isotropic work-hardening
reduced integration shell elements
nonlinear boundary conditions

Displacement boundary
conditions

Symmetry displacement constraints (quarter symmetry)

Element type

3-D shell
4-noded reduced integration elements

Contact Data

Rigid punch moved up by 40 mm into the workpiece


Stationary die and holder with uniform gap of 1 mm between them
coefficient of friction = 0.05

FE results

1. History plots of contact body forces for punch, die, and holder
2. Plot of equivalent plastic strains and equivalent stresses in the workpiece
3. Distribution of contact normal and friction forces on workpiece
Force (N)
25000
20000
15000

Die Force

10000
5000
0
0.0
-5000

Holder Force
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-10000
-15000
-20000

Main Index

1.0

Time (s)
Punch Force

192 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 16

Introduction
A cylindrical cup drawing test is simulated with a circular punch and blank. The test is simulated for a 1 mm thick
aluminium sheet modeled by one-point shell elements and using an isotropic elasto-plastic material with workhardening. Only a quarter section of the cup is analyzed. A schematic view of the cup drawing process is shown in
Figure 16-1. The simulation demonstrates various capabilities available in MSC Nastran SOL 400 to simulate large
strain processes including robust and efficient shell elements, large strain material and geometric nonlinearity, and
automated contact algorithms that can handle large amounts of sliding and friction.
R2
DIE
R4

t0
R0

R3
R1

HOLDER

PUNCH

Figure 16-1

R1=50.0, R2=51.25, R3=9.53, R4=7.14


(Unit: mm) (Blank size: Ro = 90.0, to = 1.0)

Schematic for Cylindrical Cup Drawing Process

Requested Solutions
The contact forces on the rigid tools, workpiece, and the stress/plastic strain contours in the workpiece are of interest.
The availability of the large-strain shell elements in SOL 400 (by using suitable PSHLN1 extensions to the PSHELL
entry) are demonstrated. Analytical rigid tools that capture curved geometries accurately are modeled and friction
between the workpiece and these rigid tools is simulated. The solutions presented include:
History plot of the contact forces acting on the rigid punch, die, and holder
Contact normal forces and friction forces acting on the workpiece
Plastic strain and equivalent stress contours in the workpiece

FEM Solutions
The contact, material/geometry, convergence and other parameters used for the cup drawing simulated herein are as
follows.

Contact Parameters
The contact bodies are shown in Figure 16-2. The first body is the deformable workpiece; the second, third and fourth
bodies are the rigid punch, rigid die, and rigid holder, respectively. The gap between the holder and die is 1 mm. All

Main Index

CHAPTER 16 193
Cup Forming Simulation

the rigid bodies are defined with analytical surfaces using the NURBS option. Friction coefficient is taken as 0.05 for
all surfaces.
BCBODY
BSURF
BCBODY

BCBODY

BCBODY

7
7
1
0
RIGID
2
0
RIGID
3
0
RIGID

3D
19

DEFORM
20

7
21

3D
0.

RIGID
0.
27

0.
PUNCH

3D
0.

RIGID
0.
27

0.
DIE

3D
0.

RIGID
0.

0.
HOLDER

0
22

23

24

25

0
0.

0.

1
0.

0
40.

0
0.

0.

1
0.

0
0.

0
0.

0.

1
0.

0
0.

BCBODY with user ID 7 is identified as a three-dimensional deformable body with associated BSURF ID 7. BCBODY
with ID 1 is identified as the rigid punch. It is specified as a velocity controlled body and is moved with a Z velocity
of +40 mm per unit time (identified in red on the BCBODY definition above). BCBODY with ID 2 is identified as the
die and BCBODY with ID 3 is identified as the holder. These are specified as zero velocity bodies and are held
stationary through the analysis.

Figure 16-2

Contact Bodies used For Cup Drawing Simulation

The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below identify the touching conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE

Main Index

1
SLAVE

7
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2
SLAVE
7
0
FBSH

0.0
0
0.0
0

3
50.
0
0.95
50.
0
0.95

0.05

0.

0.05

0.

194 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 16

MASTERS 3
SLAVE
7
0
FBSH
MASTERS 1

0.0
0

50.
0
0.95

0.05

0.

BCTABLE with ID 1 is used in conjunction with the BCONTACT = 1 case control option to define the touching
conditions between the bodies in the forming step. Three sets of contact parameters are defined in the above table: the
first set for the workpiece-holder, the second set for the workpiece die, and the third set for the workpiece punch. The
contact parameters for all sets are identical in this problem though they can be varied for each set if needed. The
friction coefficient is defined as 0.05, the bias factor as 0.95, and the separation force as 50 N. The definition of a nondefault separation force bears more explanation - during the sheet forming process, especially at the early stages, nodes
tend to chatter (contact, separate, back into contact, etc.). Using the default separation force (maximum residual force
in the solution) allows a significant amount of chattering and leads to increased iterations and smaller steps. Specifying
a larger separation force reduces this chattering and reduces the number of iterations for the solution. It should be noted
that care should be taken in specifying the non-default separation force; it should not be so large that it prevents
physical phenomena like earing, etc.

The BCPARA bulk data entry defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis:
BCPARA

0
FTYPE
NLGLUE

6
1

BIAS
FNTOL

9.5E-01
5.E1

Note that ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE = 6 (bilinear Coulomb friction), BIAS = 0.95
(distance tolerance bias), FNTOL = 50 (separation force). A program calculated default (1/4 of the shell thickness)
is used for the distance tolerance (ERROR) is not defined on the BCPARA option.

Material/Geometry Parameters
An isotropic elasto-plastic material with work-hardening is used for the workpiece. MAT1 is used to define the elastic
properties and MATEP in conjunction with TABLES1 is used to define the initial yield stress and work-hardening
properties:
MAT1

70000.

.3

MATEP

Table

1.
Isotrop Addmean

$ Stress/Strain Curve : plas


TABLES1 1
2
0.
191.1
.0333333249.772 .0666667293.962 .1
......

327.244

It should be observed that a 2 is used in the third field of the TABLES1 option to indicate that the data corresponds to
stress vs. plastic strain (as opposed to stress vs. total strain). Only the first line of the work-hardening data is indicated
here. The plastic strains are specified up to 1.0 in the actual table. The following should be noted: For the large strain
problem being simulated herein, TABLES1 data is interpreted by the program as Cauchy stress versus true plastic
strain. Also, if the actual plastic strains in the analysis exceed the maximum value in the table, the work-hardening
slope calculated using the last two values of plastic strain is used for extrapolating.

Main Index

CHAPTER 16 195
Cup Forming Simulation

Reduced integration shell elements are used herein. They are identified by the PSHELL option in conjunction with the
PSHLN1 option.
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell
PSHELL
1
1
1.
1
1
PSHLN1,1,1
,c4,dct,lrih

where the MAT1 primary material is pointed to by MID1/MID2/MID3 entries of the PSHELL option, a shell thickness
of 1.0 is specified on the PSHELL option, the C4 field DCT of the PSHLN1 option indicates that thick 4 noded shell
elements are to be used and LRIH of the PSHLN1 option indicates that reduced integration elements are to be used.
These elements have three global displacements and three rotations as the nodal degrees of freedom. Bilinear
interpolation is used for the coordinates, displacements, and rotations. MITC4 shell geometry with the ANS (assumed
natural strain) method in conjunction with a physical stabilization scheme in used in the formulation of the reduced
integration element. These elements with a one-point quadrature scheme are able to undergo large rotations without
any artificial correction for warping. The large strain formulation for the element is flagged through the
PARAM,LGDISP,1 in conjunction with the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 bulk data entries. The former option indicates that
a large displacement analysis with follower force effects is to be conducted. The latter option indicates that additional
large strain parameters are to be flagged for the shell elements. Note that for large strain elasto-plastic applications
using elements pointed by the PSHLN1, PSLDN1, PSHLN2 entries, NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 is a mandatory option.
As is customary for all Nastran shell elements, a material coordinate system is defined herein for each of the shell
elements. This orientation is defined through the THETA/MCID option on the CQUAD4 option:
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

19
20

1
1

40
41

22
23

3
22

4
40

0
0

In the current example, the basic coordinate system (ID 0 indicated in red on the CQUAD4 options above) is projected
onto the plane of the element. The resulting axes define the X-Y-Z orientation of the material coordinate system in the
elemental plane.

Convergence Parameters
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLPARM entry:
NLPARM

100

PFNT

30

NO

where 100 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the
stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 30 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment and. if this
were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. U indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacements (U). NO indicates that no intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The
second line of NLPARM is omitted here, which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U
checking. It should be noted that, by default, the PFNT checking used herein conducts displacement checking over
incremental displacements and is generally more stringent than FNT checking which conducts displacement checking
over weighted total displacements.

Main Index

196 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 16

Note that P checking (checking on residuals) has not been conducted in this example. The normal P check in SOL 400
compares the weighted residuals with the weighted external loads and checks that the tolerance (default = 0.01) is
satisfied. In this problem, external loads are absent since the punch imposes displacement boundary conditions on the
workpiece. Under these circumstances, SOL 400 normally checks residuals in the current iteration versus residuals in
previous iterations. However, due to frequent separations, residuals and displacements oscillate significantly and the
check of current weighted residuals versus previous weighted residuals causes a large number of unnecessary recycles.
Due to these reasons, displacement checking alone is conducted in this problem.

Case Control Parameters


Some of the case control entries to conduct these analyses are highlighted as follows: SUBCASE 1 indicates the case
being considered and STEP 1 indicates the step being considered within the case. BCONTACT = 1 is used to indicate
the contact parameters for SUBCASE 1. NLPARM = 1 is used to flag the nonlinear procedure for SUBCASE 1. In
addition to regular output requests like DISPLACEMENTS, STRESSES, the option that is required for contact related
output in the F06 file is BOUTPUT. It should be noted that with the BOUTPUT option, one can obtain normal contact
forces, frictional forces, contact normal stress magnitudes and contact status for the contact nodes.

Results
The history plot of the rigid tool contact forces in the Z direction are presented in Figure 16-3. Two trends are
noteworthy: The contact forces are in equilibrium; i.e., the contact force exerted by the punch on the workpiece is in
equilibrium with the contact forces transferred by the workpiece to the holder and die. Note also that as the punch
pushes the blank upwards (+Z direction), the predominant tendency is for the sheet to contact the die. However,
portions of the sheet separate from the die and make intermittent contact with the holder.
In order to verify the accuracy of the SOL 400 solution, the total punch force obtained from SOL 400 is compared with
the corresponding solution obtained from MSC.Marc in Figure 16-4. It is seen that the history of the forces match quite
well and are within about 2% of each other.
Force (N)
25000
20000
15000

Die Force

10000
5000
0
0.0
-5000

Holder Force
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Time (s)

-10000
-15000

Punch Force

-20000

Figure 16-3

Main Index

History Plot of Contact Tool Forces in Z Direction during Cup Drawing Process

CHAPTER 16 197
Cup Forming Simulation

30000

Total Punch Force (N)

25000
SOL 400

20000

Marc

15000
10000
5000

Time (s)
0
0.0

0.2

Figure 16-4

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Comparison of Total Punch Force vs. Time for MSC.MARC and SOL 400

The equivalent plastic strain contours at the outermost fiber of the workpiece and the corresponding equivalent stress
contours at the end of the cup forming process are plotted in Figure 16-5. It is noted that maximum plastic strains are
of the order of 45% and the peak values occur along the die radius. The portion of the workpiece held between the die
and the holder is the most highly stressed. Also, the circumferential variation of the quantities is negligible, thereby
confirming the axisymmetric nature of the problem being simulated.

Figure 16-5

Equivalent Plastic Strains and Equivalent Stresses in Workpiece at End of Cup Forming
Process

The contact normal force and friction force from the center to the outer edge of the workpiece along a radial line of
nodes is plotted in Figure 16-6. It can be noted that the peak contact normal forces occur at the punch radius and the
next peak is at the die radius. Friction force are of the order of F n , where is the friction coefficient = 0.05.
30000

Total Punch Force (N)

25000
SOL 400

20000

Marc

15000
10000
5000

Time (s)
0
0.0

0.2

Figure 16-6

Main Index

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Contact Normal Force and Friction Force as a function of Radial Coordinate for Workpiece

198 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 16

F06 Output
A number of case control options (DISPLACEMENTS, SPCFORCES, STRESS, NLSTRESS, BOUTPUT) are used (see
nug_16is.dat). This, in conjunction with the YES or NO option for INTOUT on the NLPARM entry, allows
extensive output of relevant quantities in the F06 file:
Contact normal forces, normal stresses and frictional forces at the contact nodes of the Workpiece are
produced via the BOUTPUT option. BOUTPUT = ALL produces output for all contact nodes. BOUTPUT
= N where N is a set number would restrict output to only those contact nodes that belong to set N.
BOUTPUT = NONE suppresses all contact related output in the F06 file.
For the nonlinear output format (requested by NLSTRES), average values of the stress components, strain
components, equivalent stress, and equivalent plastic strain are produced for the top and bottom fibers. For
each layer, the integration point values are averaged over the number of integration points and presented in
the F06 file. For the one-point elements used herein, the average is the same as the gauss point value. It
should be noted that for the large-strain elasto-plastic problem simulated herein using the
NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option, the output stresses are the Cauchy stresses and the output strains are the
logarithmic strains.

General Analysis Tips


The PSHLN1 option in conjunction with the PSHELL option allows the users to flag the 3-D shell elements.
These elements perform well for large-displacement/large rotation/large strain applications. 3-noded or
4-noded shell topologies and thin-shell or thick-shell formulations can be chosen. 4-noded shell elements
flagged through the C4 field of PSHLN1 offer options of thick-shell full integration, thick-shell reduced
integration, and thin-shell full integration. Reduced integration 4-noded elements are chosen in the present
problem for efficiency and robustness purposes.
For large strain elasto-plastic applications, use should be made of the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option to flag
appropriate element behavior.
In the present problem, the shell is supported between a die and holder. The uniform gap between the die and
holder matches the original thickness of the workpiece. Any increase in this thickness is prevented by the
rigid tools and normal stresses through the thickness would be introduced. This violates the plane stress
assumption for the shell element. For such double-sided applications, an alternate element to use is the solid
shell element. This element uses continuum element topology while offering the benefits of shell bending. It
can be flagged through the PSOLID option in conjunction with the C8, BEH=SLCOMP, INT=ASTN field on
the PSLDN1 option.
For deformable-rigid body contact, an important consideration is the definition of the interior and exterior
sides of the rigid body. The rigid body should be aligned such that its exterior side is facing the contacting
deformable body. The interior side is the one formed by applying the right-hand rule along a rigid patch. If the
rigid body is incorrectly aligned, it needs to be flipped before running the analysis.

Main Index

CHAPTER 16 199
Cup Forming Simulation

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_16is.dat

3-D Shell Elements - PSHLN1 used along with PSHELL to flag nonlinear
reduced integration elements. Isotropic elasto-plastic material properties

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 27 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Figure 16-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 17: Double-sided Contact

17

Main Index

Double-sided Contact

Summary

201

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

Results

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

202
202

202

206
206

248

210

CHAPTER 17 201
Double-sided Contact

Summary
Title

Chapter 17: Double Sided Contact

Contact features

Deformable-deformable contact with bilinear friction, large strain plasticity, and work
hardening

Geometry

2-D Plane Strain assumptions

Five at
1.0 each
1.5

0.5
0.5
0.5

1.5

Material properties

Elastic-plastic material with isotropic strain hardening. The stress-strain curve is defined
in the materials section. The material properties are:
6

E = 31.75 10 psi = 0.268 psi y = 80730 psi

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis using: elastic plastic material, geometric nonlinearity, and


nonlinear boundary conditions

Boundary conditions

Nodes on left-hand side are constrained in x-direction and nodes on bottom side are
constrained in y-direction

Applied loads

Nodes on the top side are given the imposed displacement of -0.6 inch in y-direction

Element type

4-node nonlinear plane strain element

FE results

Deformed shapes at several steps, contours of von Mises stress, and total equivalent
plastic strain

Stress Contours Last Increment

Main Index

202 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Introduction
This problem demonstrates MSC Nastrans ability to perform multibody contact analysis, incorporating automated
double-sided contact with friction between the contact surfaces for linear plane strain elements. For these types of
contact problems, it is not necessary to assign either body as a master or slave.

Requested Solutions
The large displacement elastic-plastic contact analysis is carried out using MSC Nastran for a deformable-todeformable contact problem with friction. The application of the nonlinear plane strain element is demonstrated by
using the nonlinear extension PSHLN2 option along with the PLPLANE option. The following results from the MSC
Nastran model are compared with the results obtained from the Marc model.
Deformed shapes at steps 10, 20 and 30
Contour plot for equivalent plastic strain

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 2-D representation of the contact
simulation between two deformable bodies. The details of finite element model, contact simulation, material, load,
boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed below.

Finite Element and Contact Model


The finite element mesh for each of the two deformable bodies contains 60 elements and 79 nodes. MSC Nastrans
2-D plane strain solid elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PLPLANE and PSHLN2 entries.
The second line of the PSHLN2 option enables SOL 400 to access the 4-node plane strain elements using the regular
CQUAD4 elements. This element can be used for both linear and nonlinear applications. When used for linear
applications, the assumed strain formulation should be activated for this element using the
NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED bulk data entry to get good bending behavior. This assumed strain option should not be
used for the applications involving large strain plasticity as in the case of the present problem. The finite element
model used for this simulation is shown in Figure 17-1.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1
C4

Main Index

1
1
PLSTRN

1
L

CHAPTER 17 203
Double-sided Contact

Figure 17-1

Finite Element Model used with MSC Nastran Simulation

In defining the contact model, the elements comprising the deformable bodies are used to generate a deformable
contact bodies with ID 1 and 2 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. The friction factor of 0.07 is defined
for both these contact bodies.
BCBODY
BSURF
...
BCBODY
BSURF
...

1
1

2D
61

DEFORM
62

1
63

0
64

.07
65

66

67

2
2

2D
1

DEFORM
2

2
3

0
4

.07
5

Furthermore, the following BCTABLE entries identify how these bodies can touch each other. BCTABLE with ID 0 is
used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE
with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis and is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section. The 0 defined for the first field (ISEARCH) of third data line of BCTABLE
indicates that double-sided contact will be used for this contact pair. With this double contact option, SOL 400 will
consider another contact pair for the analysis with body 1 as master and body 2 as slave in addition to the contact pair
defined in the BCTABLE option.
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

Main Index

0
SLAVE

1
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2
1
SLAVE
1
0
FBSH
MASTERS 2

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.9

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.9

.07

0.

0.

.07

0.

0.

204 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

The BCPARA bulk data entry shown defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis.
BCPARA

0
FTYPE

BIAS

0.9

The ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE the friction type and the BIAS - the distance
tolerance bias. As a general recommendation, BIAS is set to 0.9 (note that the default value of BIAS is 0.9). For the
frictional case, FTYPE is set to 6 (bilinear Coulomb model).

Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic-plastic material properties of the deformable bodies are defined using the following
MAT1 and MATEP options. The stress-strain curve for this material is defined in TABLES1 which is referred in MATEP
option. Figure 17-2 shows the stress-strain diagram defined in TABLES1.
MAT1
1
3.175+7
.268
MATEP
1
TABLE
1
TABLES1 1
2
*
0.000000000e+0 8.073000000e+4
...
*
*

7.000000000e-2
ENDT

200000

1.595880000e+5

7.4-4

5.13-6

1.000000000e-5

8.096400000e+4

2.200000000e-1

1.753830000e+5

Stress (Psi)

150000

100000

Plastic Strain (1)


50000
0.00
Figure 17-2

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

Stress-Plastic Strain Curve of the Material

The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 205
Double-sided Contact

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The loads and boundary conditions are applied using the following SPCD and SPC1 options. SPCD options are used
to impose the displacement of -0.6 inch for the nodes on the top side. The nodes on the left-hand side are constrained
in x-direction and nodes on the bottom side are constrained in y-direction. These constraints are defined using the
SPC1 options. Figure 17-3 shows the loads and boundary condition applied on the model.
SPCADD
2
3
4
5
$ Enforced Displacements for Load Set : yu0
SPCD
1
104
2
-.6
105
2
-.6
SPCD
1
106
2
-.6
107
2
-.6
SPCD
1
108
2
-.6
109
2
-.6
SPCD
1
130
2
-.6
131
2
-.6
SPCD
1
132
2
-.6
133
2
-.6
SPCD
1
134
2
-.6
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : x0
SPC1
5
1
35
40
45
50
55
61
67
73
79
80
86
92
98
104
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : y0
SPC1
3
2
25
26
27
28
29
30
51
52
53
54
55
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : yu0 (just to trigger s-set)
SPC1
4
2
104
105
106
107
108
109
130
131
132
133
134

Figure 17-3

Load and Boundary Conditions Shown on FE Mesh

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM

Main Index

30
0.01

PFNT

25

YES

206 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

where 30 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein
the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 25 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment. P indicates
that convergence will be checked on residuals (P). YES indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every
increment. The 0.01 defined in the second line of NLPARM indicates the convergence tolerances of 0.01 for
residual checking.

Results
The deformed shape at steps 10, 20, and 30 observed from both Marc and SOL 400 models are compared in
Figure 17-4. The equivalent plastic strain contours observed at step 30 from Marc and SOL 400 runs are presented in
Figure 17-5 and Figure 17-6. It is clearly observed from these pictures that, the predictions from SOL 400 matches
closely with the predictions from Marc.

Modeling Tips
PSHLN2 entry in conjunction with regular PLPLANE entry allows the users to make use of the plane strain
elements using regular Nastran elements CQUAD4, CQUAD8, and CTRIA6. Users should make use of the
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1 option to flag the large strain behavior of these elements.
The value of 0 for ISEARCH parameter in BCTABLE defines the double sided contact for this problem.
Assigning the value of 1 for ISEARCH parameter will define single sided contact for this problem, and this
will not work properly in this case. The nug_17w.dat input file shows this wrong way of contact definition
for this problem and Figure 17-7 shows how SOL 400 works in such situations.

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 207
Double-sided Contact

Marc - Step 10

Marc - Step 20

Marc - Step 30

Figure 17-4

Main Index

SOL 400 - Step 10

SOL 400 - Step 20

SOL 400 - Step 30

Deformed Shape Plots at Steps 10, 20, and 30

208 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Figure 17-5

Plastic Strain Contour from Marc

Figure 17-6

Plastic Strain Contour from MSC-Nastran SOL 400

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 209
Double-sided Contact

Figure 17-7

Main Index

Penetration with Wrong Contact Definition

210 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
e. Length = m, Mass = kg, Time = s, Temperature = Kelvin, and Force = N

b
d
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 211
Double-sided Contact

Create a Part for the body_lower


a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, enter body_lower
d. Click OK:
e. Observe body_lower in the Model Browser Tree

a
b

c
e

Main Index

212 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create Mesh for the body_lower


a. Meshing tab: 3-4 Point Mesh
b. Points: X,Y, Z Input: 0,-1.5,0;2,-1.5,0;2,0,0;0,0,0, click OK
X,Y, Z Input: 2,-1.5,0;5,-1.5,0;5,0,0;2,0,0, click OK
X,Y, Z Input: 0,0,0;2,0.0,0;1,1.5,0;0,1,0, click OK
c. For n1, enter 5
d. For n2, enter 4
e. For n3, enter 5
f. For n4, enter 4
g. Click OK

b
c

d
e
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 213
Double-sided Contact

Merge Equivalent Nodes in the body_lower


a. Nodes/Elements tab: Equivalence
b. Entities: Select All
c. Click OK
d. Click OK

a
a

Main Index

214 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create a Part for the body_upper


a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, enter body_upper
d. Click OK:
e. Observe body_lower in the Model Browser Tree

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 215
Double-sided Contact

Copy Mesh from body_lower to body_upper


a. Tools: Transform
b. Select Create Part
c. Select Reorient

Main Index

216 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Copy Mesh from body_lower to body_upper (continued)


a. Pick: check Make Copy
b. Select Elements
c. Click All
d. Select Create Source LCS
e. Select XYZ
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate: enter 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0; click OK
g. Select Create Target LCS
h. Select XYZ
i. For X,Y,Z Coordinate: enter 5 1.5 0 4 1.5 0 5 0.5 0; click OK
j. Click Done
k. Click Exit

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 217
Double-sided Contact

Create Stress-strain Curve from Excel File


a. Copy stress-strain data from Excel file mat_nug17.xls

Main Index

218 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create Stress-strain Curve from Excel File (continued)


a. Materials and Properties tab: Isotropic
b. Click Plastic Strain
c. Right click Row 1 Column 1
d. Select Paste Table
e. Click OK

a
b
c

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 219
Double-sided Contact

Create Material Properties


a. Fields/Tables tab: NastranBDF TABLES1
b. For Name enter Iso_1
c. For Youngs Modulus enter 3.175e7
d. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.268
e. For Density enter 0.00074
f. Click Advanced

b
c
d
e
f

Main Index

220 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create Material Properties (continued)


a. Right click Add Constitutive Model
b. Select Elasto Plastic
c. Click Stress-Strain Data
d. For Stress-Strain Data, select TABLE_1
e. Click OK

a
b

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 221
Double-sided Contact

Define Property Data for lower_body


a. Materials and Properties tab: Plane
b. For Name enter prop_body_lower
c. For Entities, select body_lower from Model Browser tree
d. Click Advanced
e. For Corner Element Keyword, select C4
f. Click OK

b
c

Main Index

222 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Define Property Data for upper_body


a. Materials and Properties tab: Plane
b. For Name enter prop_body_upper
c. For Entities, select body_upper from Model Browser tree
d. Click Advanced
e. For Corner Element Keyword, select C4
f. Click OK

b
c

e
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 223
Double-sided Contact

Define Contact Body for lower_body


a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. For Name enter def_body_lower
c. For Type, select Deformable Surface
d. For Entities, select body_lower from Model Browser tree
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. Click OK
g. Observe def_body_lower in the Model Browser Tree

b
c
d
e
b
f

Main Index

224 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Define Contact Body for upper_body


a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. For Name enter def_body_upper
c. For Type, select Deformable Surface
d. For Entities, select body_upper from Model Browser tree
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. Click OK
g. Observe def_body_upper in the Model Browser Tree

b
c
d
e
b
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 225
Double-sided Contact

Define Contact Table


a. LBCs tab: Table
b. Select Deactivate All
c. Set Touching Condition for body 1 to 2
d. For Distance Tolerance, enter 0
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. For Individual Contact Detection, select Double Sided
g. For Bias Factor, enter 0.9
h. Click OK

b
c

d
e
f
g

Main Index

226 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Define Boundary Conditions


a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select Pin
c. For Name, enter fix-x
d. For Entities, select nodes at left edges of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at left edges of the model
f. For Translation, select Tx
g. Click OK

a
b

c
d
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 227
Double-sided Contact

Define Boundary Conditions (continued)


a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select Pin
c. For Name, enter fix-y
d. For Entities, select nodes at left edges of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at left edges of the model
f. For Translation, select Ty
g. Click OK

a
b

c
d
f
g

Main Index

228 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Define Boundary Conditions


a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select General
c. For Name, enter disp-y
d. For Entities, select nodes at top edge of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at top edge of the model
f. For Translation, select Ty
g. For Ty, enter -0.6
h. Click OK

a
b

c
e
d
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 229
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File


a. Right click FileSet
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter nug-17
d. For Solution Type, select SOL 400
e. For Solver Input File, specify the fine name and its path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK

a
b
c

d
e
f

Main Index

230 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Load Cases
b. Select Create Global Loadcase
c. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 231
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


Select Contact Table for Loads in Global Loadcase
a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Contact Table
c. For Selected BCTable, select BCTABLE_1
d. Click OK

Main Index

232 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Loadcase Control
b. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. For Stiffness Update Method: select Pure Full Newton (PFNT)
d. Unselect Use Default Tolerance Setting
e.Click Load Error and for Load Tolerance, enter 0.01
f. For Intermediate Output Control, select Every computed load increment
(YES)
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close

a
b
c

f
g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 233
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Double click on Loadcase Control
b. Select Stepping Procedure Parameters
c. For Number of Steps: enter 30
d. Click Apply
e.Click Close

d
e

Main Index

234 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Lbcs
c. For Selected Lbcs: using the Control Key and the Mouse, select fix-x, fix-y, disp-y
from the Model Browser tree
d. Click OK

a
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 235
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Contact Tables
c. For Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser tree
d. Click OK

b
d

Main Index

236 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Output Request
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Displacement Output Request
d. Check Suppress Print
e. Click OK

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 237
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Right click on Output Request
b. Select Elemental Output Requests
c. Select Create Nonlinear Stress Output Request
d. Check Suppress Print
e. Click OK

a
b

Main Index

238 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. For Large Displacement: select Large Disp. and Follower Force
d. Click Apply
e. For Large Strain Formulation: select Hypoelasticy and Additive Plasticity for
Large Strain Formulation
f. Click Apply
g. Click Close (not shown)

a
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 239
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Contact Detection Parameters
c. For Bias on Distance Tolerance, enter 0.9
d. Click Apply
e. Select Contact Friction Parameters
f. For Type: select Bilinear Coulomb
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close (not shown)

a
c
b

e
f
g

Main Index

240 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Output File Properties
c. For Nastran DB Options: select Master/DBALL
d. For Binary Output: select OP2
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close (not shown)

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 241
Double-sided Contact

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. File: Save
b. Right click on nug-17
c. Select Run
d. After completion of job, select Save
e. File: New

e
a

Main Index

242 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File


a. Results tab: Deformations
b. For Deformed display scaling., select True
c. Plot Data: Plot type, select Deformation
d. For Results cases, select the last increment
e. For Results Type, select Displacements, Translational
f. Click Update

f
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 243
Double-sided Contact

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)


a. Click Animate
b. Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
c. Results entities: Results type: select Displacements, Translational
d. Click Update

d
c
a

Main Index

244 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)


a. Animation tab
b. Click Pause icon to stop animation

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 245
Double-sided Contact

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)


a. Results: Fringe
b. Click Animate
c. Results entities: Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
d. Results entities: Results type: select Contact Status
e. Fringe tab: Display settings tab: Element edge display,
Display, select Element edges
f. Label attributes, select color of labels
g. Click Update

d
c

f
e

Main Index

246 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

Main Index

CHAPTER 17 247
Double-sided Contact

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)


a. Results: Fringe
b. Click Pause icon to stop animation
c. Plot Data tab: Results type: select Logarithmic Strains
d. Derivation: select von Mises
e. Click Update

e
c

Main Index

248 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 17

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_17.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input

nug_17w.dat

Same as nug_17.dat, but the contact is defined in a wrong way in BCTABLE

ch17.dat

MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for SimXpert

ch17.SimXpert

Corresponding SimXpert input file

Main Index

Chapter 18: Demonstration of Springback

18

Main Index

Demonstration of Springback

Summary

Introduction

Reference Solution

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

255

250
251

251
254
254

251

250 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 18

Summary
Title

Chapter 18: Demonstration of Springback

Contact features

Rigid-deformable contact, velocity driven rigid cylinder, load controlled rigid cylinder,
and release of a contact bodies

Geometry

Rigid cylinder, D = 0.4375 in


A

Material properties

E = 10.6 10 psi = 0.33 y = 4.29 10 psi

Elastic plastic material with work-hardening


Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Left side is constrained with u x = 0


A spring is used to constrain the motion in the y-degree of freedom
Contact between rigid cylinder and the deformable body

Applied loads

Two types of load introduction will be used:


Constant velocity vx = 0.1125 applied on the rigid body
Control node ux = 0.1125 applied on the load controlled rigid body

Element type

2-D 4-node plane strain elements

Contact properties

Friction coefficient =0.2

FE results

Contour of equivalent stress at the end of forming, equivalent stress after the springback;
displacement history of point A.
X-Displacement (in) Point A

0.20
forming

springback

0.15

0.10
MD Nastran Sol400
MSC.Marc

0.05

% of Load

0.00

Main Index

50

100

150

200

CHAPTER 18 251
Demonstration of Springback

Introduction
Significant permanent deformation and large strains occur during the forming step by moving a cylindrical rigid body
into the metal structure. The metal structure springs back upon removal of the cylindrical rigid body using the contact
table definition.

Reference Solution
MSC.Marc 2005r3 will be used to create a reference solution.

FEM Solutions
The finite element model is shown in Figure 18-1. There are two contact bodies: one deformable and one rigid body.
BCBODY
BSURF
...
BCBODY

...

1
1

2D
1

DEFORM
2

4
0
RIGID
NURBS2D
.85875

2D
0.
0
-7
.51775

RIGID
0.
72
4

1
3
0.
CYL
50
.85875

0
4

1
1.

0.1125

1
0.

0
0.

.95525

The deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes. The
rigid cylindrical body is defined using 2-D NURBS line.
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other. Since the master body
is a rigid one, this actually means that the deformable body is the slave one.
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
0
MASTERS 4
1
SLAVE
1
0
MASTERS 4

0.
0

1
0.
0

.2

0.

0.

0.
0

1
0.
0

.2

0.

0.

During the springback analysis, the contact forces on the deformable body due to the contact with the rigid body are
removed immediately. It is done using BCMOVE option. To prevent the two bodies cylinder reclaims contact, a new
BCTABLE has to be defined that does not include the cylinder.
BCMOVE
BCTABLE

2
4
2

RELEASE 0
1

The geometric nonlinear analysis is requested using the following LGDISP parameter. The large strain option is also
set in this model
PARAM
NLMOPTS

Main Index

LGDSIP
LRGSTR

1
1

252 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 18

To activate the friction behavior, the user should use the BCPARA option as follows:
BCPARA

0
FTYPE

Figure 18-1

Finite Element Mesh

Plane strain elements for large strain elastic-plastic analyses are chosen by the PSHLN2 entry referring to the
PLPLANE entry on the CQUAD4 option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1

1
1

The material property is isotropic and elastic-plastic with hardening. The Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and
plasticity parameters are defined as follows:
MAT1
MATEP
TABLES1
*

1
1
1
0.

1.06+7
TABLE
2

.33
1
42900.

ISOTROP ADDMEAN
0.001733

43110.2

The nonlinear procedure used during the forming and springback are set using the following options:
NLPARM
NLPARM

1
2

30
1

PFNT
PFNT

U
U

Here the PFNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy, and the default displacement convergence tolerances will be used.
The simulation process is controlled by the case control section. The first step is the forming process and the second
one is the springback analysis:
BCONTACT=0
SPC = 2
STEP 1
TITLE=Forming Step
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
LOAD = 1

Main Index

CHAPTER 18 253
Demonstration of Springback

STEP 2
TITLE=Springback Step
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2

BCONTACT=0 is meant to bring both bodies just in contact. Since there is no explicit external load applied in this
analysis, a dummy LOAD is introduced in the case control parameters.

The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 18-2 along with the von Misses stress
contour. The maximum stresses are located at the expected location.

UNDEFORMED

DEFORMED

Figure 18-2

Deformed Configuration with von Misses Stress Contour at the End of the Forming Step

The deformation after the springback analysis is shown in Figure 18-3. There is significant permanent deformation
during the forming process as obviously seen from this figure. The von Misses stresses of the residual stresses are also
plotted.

UNDEFORMED

DEFORMED

Figure 18-3

Main Index

Deformed Configuration with von Misses Stress Contour After the Springback

254 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 18

The displacement of point A is plotted versus time (percentage of load) in Figure 18-4 illustrating the elastic
springback upon unloading the structure. This behavior is compared with a reference plot obtained with MSC.Marc
2005r3. The result of MSC Nastran matches the referenced one very nicely.
X-Displacement (in) Point A

0.20
forming

springback

0.15

0.10
MD Nastran Sol400
MSC.Marc

0.05

% of Load

0.00

50

Figure 18-4

100

150

200

Displacement Plot for Point A During Forming and Springback Step

Modeling Tips
Force control applied via a control node associated with the rigid cylinder may be used instead of displacement (or
equivalently velocity) control. Using this technique, the release of the load requires less difficulty with the contact
table (please see nug_18b.dat). In terms of CPU time, removing the rigid body from contact table is more efficient
since there is no need to do contact manipulation (please see nug_18c.dat).

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_18a.dat

Velocity driven rigid body

nug_18b.dat

Load controlled rigid body without BCMOVE

nug_18c.dat

Load controlled rigid body with BCMOVE

Main Index

CHAPTER 18 255
Demonstration of Springback

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

UNDEFORMED

DEFORMED

Figure 18-5

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 19: 3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

19

Main Index

3-D Indentation and Rolling


without Friction

Summary

257

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

258
258

258

307

262

CHAPTER 19 257
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Summary
Title

Chapter 19: 3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Contact features

Deformable, and two rigids


Load controlled motion

Geometry

3-D Solid (units: in)


Block length = 20
Block height = 12
Block width = 10
Cylinder diameter =10
Cylinder width = 18

Material properties

E block = 17.5Mpsi

block = 0.3

Body_1
Body_2
Body_3

yield = 35kpsi

Elastic-plastic material
Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis; two analyses steps are preformed

Boundary conditions

Displacement constraints to prevent rigid body modes


Contact between block, cylinder and surface

Applied loads

Load controlled motion of cylinder


Step 1 u z = 6.25in
Step 2 u z = 6.25in u x = 5in r y = 0.5rad

Element type

3-D solid

FE results

Deformed structure plot comparing MSC Nastran results with Marc

Total Eq. Plastic Strain

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CHAPTER 19

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to perform metal forming analyses. A rigid cylinder is pressed into an elasticplastic material and, in the second loading stage, it is rolled. Large plastic deformation is anticipated in this analysis.

Requested Solutions
To model this large plastic deformation, additive plasticity with mean normal return is used. This is activated in MSC
Nastran using the NLMOPTS bulk data entry, nonlinear material options, and then choosing LRGSTRN,1. Together
with this option, nonlinear property extensions for the PSOLID entry should be used. This can be done by activating
the PSLDN1 bulk data entry and selecting the required properties.

FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh (Figure 19-1) using solid
elements (contact body ID 1). The dimensions of the workpiece are 20 x 10 x 12 inches. The radius of the cylinder is
10 inches, the width 18 inches, and the cylinder is placed on top of the workpiece at its center. The cylinder (contact
body ID 2) is modeled as a rigid using NURBS to define the surface. The plane which supports the workpiece is also
defined as a rigid (contact body ID 3).
BCBODY
BSURF
...

1
1 1

3D

DEFORM
3

and
BCBODY
...

2
226
RIGID

3D
0.
227

3
0
RIGID

3D
0.

RIGID
0.

0.
BODY_2

0
1.

.1
0.

1
0.

227
0.

0
1.

.1
0.

1
0.

0
0.

and
BCBODY
...

RIGID
0.

0.
BODY_3

Thus, a deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.

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CHAPTER 19 259
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Figure 19-1

Element Mesh applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
2
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
3
0
MASTERS 1
1
SLAVE
1
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
2
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
3
0
MASTERS 1
2
SLAVE
1
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
2
0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE
3
0
MASTERS 1

0.
0

3
0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

3
0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

3
0.
0

0.
0
0.
0

0.

0.

.1

0.

.1

0.

0.

.1

0.

.1

0.

0.

0.

0.
0

0.

0.

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

Solid elements suitable for large deformation analyses are chosen by the PSLDN1 entry referring to the PSOLID entry
on the CHEXA option as shown below.
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+

Main Index

1
1
C8

1
1
SOLI

0
1

260 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 19

The material property for all the elements is elastic-plastic, with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and initial yield
stress defined as
MATEP
MAT1

1
1

Perfect35000.
1.75+7

Isotrop Addmean

.3

The rigid cylinder (contact body 2) is load controlled. This means that two nodes define the motion of the rigid. One
node defines the translational degrees of freedom and one node defines the rotational degrees of freedom. The motion
of the cylinder is first in the -z-direction, and, after this, it rolls around its y-axis in the x-direction. This motion is
prescribed by defining two analyses steps. Node 227 is for the translational motion, and node 226 for the rotational
motion. Note that in step 2, the cylinder rotates both around the y-axis and moves in the x-direction, making a rolling
movement.
SPCD
SPCD
SPCD
SPCD

1
2
2
2

227
227
227
226

3
3
1
2

-6.25
-6.25
5.
.5

The nonlinear procedure used is:


NLPARM
NLPARM

1
0.01
2
0.01

25
0.01
25
0.01

0.01
0.01

PFNT
10
PFNT
10

200

UP

YES

200

UP

YES

Here PFNT is selected to update the stiffness matrix every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson iteration procedure.
Convergence checking is on displacements and forces. Note that MAXITER is set to 200 and MAXDIV is set to 10 to
avoid that bisections occur, since too many bisections may increase the overall solution time.
Two stages of the deformation are shown in Figure 19-2 and Figure 19-3. Figure 19-2 shows the deformation after the
first step where the cylinder has moved in the -z-direction. Figure 19-3 shows the deformation after the second step
when the cylinder also has rolled in the x-direction.

Figure 19-2

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Deformed Structure Plot after the First Load Step.

CHAPTER 19 261
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Figure 19-3

Deformed Structure Plot after the Second Load Step.

A comparison with MSC.Marc is made. Figure 19-4 shows a superposition of the deformed mesh of Nastran (black)
and the deformed mesh of Marc (purple).

Figure 19-4

Main Index

Comparison of Deformed Structure Plot Of MSC Nastran (black) and Marc (purple) after the
Second Load Step.

262 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 19

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


Specify the Model Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. For Basic Units, specify the model units
Length = in; Mass = lb; Time = s; Temperature = rankin, Force = N
d. Click OK

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Parts
a. Assemble tab
b. Parts, select Create Part
c. For Name, type Solid_Block
d. Click Apply
e For Name, type Rigid_Body1
f. Click Apply
g. For Name, type Rigid_Body2
h. Click OK
i. Right click Solid_Block; select Set Current

a
b

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264 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 19

Create Surface
a. Geometry tab
b. Surface, select Filler
c. For Method, select Points
d. For Points, enter 0,0,0;20,0,0;20,10,0;0,10,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e Click Apply
f. Click Cancel

a
b

c
d
f

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Mesh
a. Meshing tab
b. Automesh, select Surface
c. For Surface to mesh, select the surface
d. For Size, enter 2.5
e Click Apply
f. Click Cancel

a
b

d
c

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CHAPTER 19

Create 3-D Mesh


a. Meshing tab
b. Sweep, select Normal
c. For Shell Elements, select all elements created (draw a box around graphic)
d. For Distance, enter 12
e For Layers, enter 4
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel
h. Select FE Shaded with Edges
a
b

c
c
d
e
f

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Delete Quads
a. Hide 3-D elements
b. Edit, select Delete
c. Pick window, select Elements
d. Select the quads displayed with a window (draw a box around graphic)
e Pick window, click Done
f. In Delete? window, click Yes
g. Pick window click Exit
h. Show 3-D elements

a
h

d
c

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CHAPTER 19

Create Surface
a. Right click Rigid_Body1; select Set Current
b. Geometry tab
c. Curve: select From Points
d. Create, select Polyline
e. Method, select 2 Points
f. For Points, enter -30,-30,0;50,-30,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel

b
c

d
e
f

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Circle
a. Geometry tab: Surface: select Normal
b. Width, enter 80 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
c. Check Reverse direction
d. Select the curve
e. Click Apply
f. Click Cancel

b
d
c

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CHAPTER 19

Create Surface
a. Right click Rigid_Body2; select Set Current
b. Geometry tab: Curve: select Arc
c. Method, select Direction-Radius
d. Radius: enter 10 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e. Select Axis Y
f. Check Create Circle
g. Enter Center Point: 10,14,22 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
h. Enter Start Point: 0,0,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
i. Click Apply
j. Click Cancel
To rotate your graphic to match the one shown below, click on the Rotate Icon, put the cursor
on the graphic, hold the left mouse button, and rotate the graphic for different views.

b
c
d
e

f
g

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Cylinder
a. Geometry tab: Multi: select Sweep
b. Along, select Axis
c. Select Axis Y
d. Length Of Sweep, enter 18 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e. Entities: select the curve
f. Check Delete Entities to Sweep
g. Check Reverse Direction
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel

b
c
d

f
g
i

h
e

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CHAPTER 19

Create Control Nodes


a. Nodes/Elements tab
b. Create, select Node
c. Locations: enter 20,-1,15;10,9,22 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
d. Click Apply
e. Click Cancel

a
b

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Material
a. Materials and Properties tab
b. Material, select Isotropic
c. Name: enter Mat_1
d. Young Modulus: enter 1.75e7
e. Poissons Ratio, enter 0.3
f. Click Advanced and Add Constitutive Model
g. Click Elasto Plastic
h. Select Perfectly Plastic
i. Initial Yield Stress, enter 35000
j. Click Apply
k. Click Cancel

a
b

c
d
e

f
g

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CHAPTER 19

Create Properties
a. Materials and Properties tab
b. 3D Properties, select Solid
c. Entities: select Solid_Block
d. Material: select Mat_1
e. Click Advanced
f. Select Non Linear
g. Corner elements keyword: HEXA, select C8
h. Element structural behaviour: HEXA, select SOLID
i. Integration scheme: HEXA, select L
j. Click Apply
k. Click Cancel

a
b

d
c

g
h
i
j

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Define Contact Bodies


a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Deformable Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Solid_Block
d. Type: select Deformable Solid
e. Pick Entities: select Solid_Block
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel

a
b

c
d

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CHAPTER 19

Define Contact Bodies (continued)


a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Rigid Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Rigid_1
d. Type: select Rigid Surface
e. Pick Entities: select SURFACE/2
f. Click Body
g. Contact Condition: select No Symmetry Condition
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel

a
b

c
d
e

f
g

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Define Contact Bodies


a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Rigid Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Rigid_2
d. Type: select Rigid Surface
e. Pick Entities: select SURFACE/3
f. Click Body
g. Contact Condition: select No Symmetry Condition
h. Click Motion
i. Motion Control: select Load
j. First Control Node: select Node/227
Second Control Node: select Node/226
k. Click Apply
l. Click Cancel

g
h
i

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CHAPTER 19

Define Contact Table


a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Contact Table icon
c. Click Apply
d. Click Cancel

a
b

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Constraints
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc1
d. Uncheck Ty and Tz
e. Entities: activate pick nodes
f. On the left edge of the block, select 25 nodes with a window
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel

a
b

c
e

d
e

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CHAPTER 19

Create Constraints (continued)


a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc2
d. Uncheck Tx and Tz
e. Entities: activate pick nodes
f. On the left front corner of the block, select 5 nodes
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel

a
b

c
e

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Constraints (continued)


a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc3
d. Entities: activate pick nodes
e. On the left edge of the block, select 2 (226 and 227) control nodes
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel

a
b

c
d

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CHAPTER 19

Create Enforced Displacement


a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd1
d. Entities: select NODE/227
e. Uncheck Tx, Ty, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Tz: enter -6.25
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel

a
b

d
e

d
f

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Create Enforced Displacement (continued)


a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd2
d. Entities: select NODE/227
e. Uncheck Ty, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Tx: enter 5
g. Tz: enter -6.25
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel

a
b

d
f
e

g
e

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CHAPTER 19

Create Enforced Displacement (continued)


a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd3
d. Entities: select NODE/226
e. Uncheck Tx, Tz, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Ty: enter .5
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel

a
b

f
e
e

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Analysis Setup
a. Model Browser, right click FileSet
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. Solution Type: select SOL400
d. Solver Input File: select NewJob.bdf
e. Uncheck Create Default Layout
f. Click OK

a
b

c
d
e

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CHAPTER 19

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Model Browser, New Job, right click Load Cases
b. Select Create Loadcase
c. Uncheck Auto Select LBCs Set
d. Click OK
e. Model Browser: New Job, right click Load Steps
f. Select Create Loadstep
g. Name: enter Step1
h. Uncheck Auto Select LBCs Set
i. Click OK

j. Repeat the above procedure to create Step2

a
e

h
i

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Model Browser, New Job, double click Solver Control
b. Click Analysis Options
c. Large Strain Formulation: select Hyperelasticity and Additive Plasticity w/Mean
Normal Return
d. Click Apply
e. Click Output File Properties
f. Nastran DB Options: select Master/DBALL
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close

c
f

g
d

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CHAPTER 19

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Step1, double click Load Step Control
b. Analysis Control, click Generic Control
c. Check Locally Define Generic Control Parameters
d. Maximum Iterations for each Increment, enter 200
e. Click Apply
f. Click Convergence Criteria for Mechanical Analysis
g. Check Locally Define Convergence Criteria Parameters
h. Check Displacement Criteria; Tolerance for Displacement Criteria,
enter 0.01
i. Check Load Criteria; Tolerance for Load Criteria, enter 0.01
j. Click Apply

f
h
d

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Analysis Control, click Stepping Control Parameters
b. Check Locally Define Stepping Control Parameters
c. Stepping Type: select Fixed
d. Number of Increments: enter 25
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close

b
a

c
d

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CHAPTER 19

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Step2, double click Load Step Control
b. Analysis Control, click Generic Control
c. Check Locally Define Generic Control Parameters
d. Maximum Iterations for each Increment, enter 200
e. Click Apply
f. Click Convergence Criteria for Mechanical Analysis
g. Check Locally Define Convergence Criteria Parameters
h. Check Displacement Criteria; Tolerance for Displacement Criteria,
enter 0.01
i. Check Load Criteria; Tolerance for Load Criteria, enter 0.01
j. Click Apply

g
f
h
i

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Analysis Control, click Stepping Control Parameters
b. Check Locally Define Stepping Control Parameters
c. Stepping Type: select Fixed
d. Number of Increments: enter 25
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close

b
c

a
d

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CHAPTER 19

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Step1, right click LBCContainer
b. Select Lbcs
c. From the Model Browser, select spc1, spc2, spc3, and spcd1
d. Click OK
e. Right click LBCContainer, select Contact Table
f. Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser
g. Click OK

b
e

c
d

f
g
f

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Analysis Setup (continued)


a. Step2, right click LBCContainer
b. Select Lbcs
c. From the Model Browser, select spc1, spc2, spc3, spcd2, and spcd3
d. Click OK
e. Right click LBCContainer, select Contact Table
f. Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser
g. Click OK

b
e

c
f
d

Main Index

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CHAPTER 19

Requesting Output Parameters


a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Displacement Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

a
b

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Requesting Output Parameters (continued)


a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Contact Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

c
d

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CHAPTER 19

Requesting Output Parameters (continued)


a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Elemental Output Request
c. Select Create Element Stress Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

b
c
d

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Requesting Output Parameters (continued)


a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Elemental Output Request
c. Select Create Nonlinear Stress Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

For Step2, repeat the Step1 procedure for Requesting Output Parameters.

Main Index

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CHAPTER 19

Run the Deck


a. Right click NewJob
b. Click Run

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Postprocessing
a. File: Attach Results
b. File Path: select MASTER
c. Attach Options: Results
d. Click OK

b
c
d

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CHAPTER 19

Postprocessing (continued)
a. Results tab
b. Click Deformation
c. Plot Data tab
d. For Plot Type, select Fringe
e. Result cases, select Step1
f. Result type, select Displacements, Translational
g. Derivation, select Magnitude
h. Click Update

a
b

d
e

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Postprocessing (continued)

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CHAPTER 19

Postprocessing (continued)
a. For Plot Type, select Deformation
b. Result cases, select Step 1
c. Result types, select Displacements,Translational
d. Click Update

c
b

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Postprocessing (continued)

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CHAPTER 19

Postprocessing (continued)
a. Results tab
b. Click Deformation
c. Plot Data tab
d. For Plot Type, select Fringe
e. Result cases, select Step2
f. Result type, select Displacements, Translational
g. Derivation, select Magnitude
h. Click Update
i. Model Browser, uncheck Deform 01

a
b

d
e

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3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction

Postprocessing (continued)

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CHAPTER 19

Postprocessing (continued)
a. For Plot Type, select Deformation
b. Result cases, select Step 2
c. Result type, select Displacements,Translational
d. Click Update

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Postprocessing (continued)

Input File(s)
File
nug_19.dat

Main Index

Description
Linear Elements using PSLDN1 Entry

Chapter 20: Composite Fracture and Delamination

20

Main Index

Composite Fracture and


Delamination

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solution

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

316

309
310

312
314
316

312

CHAPTER 20 309
Composite Fracture and Delamination

Summary
Title

Chapter 20: Composite Fracture and Delamination

Features

VCCT based crack propagation


Cohesive zone modeling

Geometry

6
R = 0.5
1.1
0.078
0.6

0.9

0.9

0.6

Initial Crack

Material properties

Isotropic elastic material:


E = 5000 ksi, = 0.3
Cohesive material for interface elements: Exponential model used
Cohesive energy = 4.409 lb/in; critical opening displacement = 0.005 in

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Simply supported as shown in the diagram above

Applied loads

Prescribed vertical displacement

Element type

4-node plane strain; 4-node interface

VCCT properties

Direct crack propagation by releasing glued contact.


Crack growth resistance = 4.409 lb/in

FE results

1. Plot of deformed shape for VCCT model.


2. Plot of deformed shape for interface element model
3. Force-displacement curve at applied load.
250
Cohesive zone
VCCT

Reaction force

200

150

100

50

Main Index

0.05

0.1
Vertical displacement

0.15

0.2

310 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 20

Introduction
This example models a honeycomb (core) structure with a face sheet between which exists an initial delamination. A
hole is drilled in the core part, where a prescribed displacement is applied to the face sheet in order to study the effect
of delamination of the face from the core.
A plane strain assumption has been used and, for simplicity, the same isotropic material is used for the two parts.
The delamination is modeled in two ways:
With glued contact and crack growth using the VCCT option.
With interface elements using a cohesive zone model.
Figure 20-1 illustrates the VCCT model. The face sheet is glued to the core. The center part of the face sheet is omitted
from the contact body and thus defines the initial cracks. The grid IDs defining the crack tips are shown in Figure 20-2.

Figure 20-1

Definition of Contact Bodies for the VCCT Model

The model using interface elements is shown in Figure 20-3. Here, we do not use contact; instead, there are interface
elements between the core and the face which share the grids from the existing meshes. The interface elements have
zero thickness, but they are shown with finite thickness in Figure 20-3 (the face part has been moved downwards for
better illustration).
For the VCCT model, a crack growth resistance is specified. The energy release rate is calculated for each crack at
each load level. When this energy release rate is larger than the crack growth resistance, the crack will grow. The
growth is accomplished by releasing the glued contact at the crack tip. The next grid along the interface is
automatically identified and a new calculation of the energy release rate is performed, and the check for growth
repeated. This continues at constant load until either the crack reaches a free boundary or the energy release rate is
below the crack growth resistance.

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Composite Fracture and Delamination

grid 2381

grid 1136

Figure 20-2

Grids for VCCT definition.

Figure 20-3

Delamination Model with Bottom Part moved Downwards to Show the Location of the
Delamination Elements

Main Index

312 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 20

With the interface elements and the cohesive material model, the growth of the delamination occurs by increased
damage in the interface elements. Damage could occur at any point along the interface, but in this case, the largest
stresses occur where the initial delamination ends, so the largest damage will happen here. When the interface elements
have sustained full damage at all integration points, they no longer contribute to the stiffness of the structure.

Requested Solution
Requested results are the force-displacement curve of the point where the prescribed displacement is applied and the
amount of growth of the initial delamination.

FEM Solutions
MSC Nastrans SOL 400 has been used in the analysis.
The VCCT option is specified in the bulk data as:
VCCT

VCCT

2381
1
1136

1
4.409
0

2
4.409
0

The grid IDs 2381 and 1136 are located as shown in Figure 20-2
Plane strain elements are chosen by the PLPLANE entry on the CQUAD4 option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1
PSHLN2 1
+
C4

1
1
PLSTRN

1
L

+
+

The delamination elements are defined with the CIFQUAD entry, and the corresponding cohesive property and material
are defined as:
MCOHE
+
PCOHE

4.409

2
.500E-02
2
2

where the exponential option is used for the cohesive material model.
The nonlinear iterative control is specified as:
NLSTEP
+
+
+

2
GENERAL 30
FIXED
100
MECH
PV

1.
1

0
0.01

PFNT

+
+
+

Fixed time stepping procedure with total time of 1 is used. Maximum 30 iterations are allowed for each increment.
Total 100 numbers of increments are used for fixed time stepping. Output for every single increment is written to the
result file. For convergence criterion load equilibrium error with vector component method (PV) is used. Convergence
tolerance of 0.01 is used. Pure Full Newton-Raphson Method is used (PFNT) as an iteration method.

Main Index

CHAPTER 20 313
Composite Fracture and Delamination

The deformed shape at the final load for the two cases is shown in Figure 20-4. It can be seen that the amount of growth
of the delamination is the same for the two models. The cohesive zone variant shows the stretched interface
elements. They are, at this point, fully damaged and do not contribute to the structural stiffness.
Figure 20-5 shows a plot of the reaction force versus the prescribed displacement. Here, we clearly see the difference
between the two approaches. For VCCT, the interface is rigid until crack growth occurs. The jumps in the reaction
force indicate when a new node is released. With a finer mesh, the curve would be smoother. The cohesive zone model
shows a different behavior. The initial stiffness is lower as a result of the properties of the cohesive material. Here the
interface layer is relatively soft, and the growth of the delamination is smooth. By adjusting the properties of the
cohesive material one can adjust the initial stiffness of the interface layer. Thus, the VCCT approach models the
interface as rigid while the interface element approach models an elastic interface with initially zero thickness.
The values used for the crack growth resistance and the cohesive energy are the same in the two model. This makes
sense since these quantities are related both correspond to the energy needed to break the connection.

a) VCCT

b) Cohesive Zone

Figure 20-4

Main Index

Deformed Shape at Final Load for the Two Models

314 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 20

250
Cohesive zone
VCCT

Reaction force

200

150

100

50

Figure 20-5

0.05

0.1
Vertical displacement

0.15

0.2

Reaction Force vs. Vertical Displacement

Modeling Tips
Both models could be done with higher-order elements for increased accuracy. When glued contact is released in the
VCCT model, the midside grid is released whenever a corner grid is released. Hence, although this would give an
increased general accuracy of the solution, it would not improve the jagged nature of the force-displacement curve.
Some notes on mesh design. In the VCCT model, the meshes on both sides of the glued interface have matching nodes.
One of the two grids at the crack tip is identified in the VCCT input. It does not matter which one of the two that is
used. It is allowed to use nonmatching meshes for VCCT based crack growth. Figure 20-6 shows an example. Here,
the bottom part is glued to the top part (the bottom part is the touching side and the top part the touched side). In this
case, it is important that the grid of the touching part is chosen for the VCCT input. This is the grid that would be
released in case of crack growth. The touching part should be the part with a finer mesh density.
The current interface element model does not use contact. The interface elements and the other elements share nodes.
In order to allow a model with independent meshes, one can also use glued contact here. See Figure 20-7 for an
example. The interface elements are shown with finite thickness for clarity. The top part of the interface elements are
glued to the top part of the model and the bottom part of the interface elements to the bottom part. This way, all three
parts can be modeled independently. Similar to the VCCT example above, the touching body (in this case the interface
elements) should have a finer mesh density.

Main Index

CHAPTER 20 315
Composite Fracture and Delamination

crack tip grid


Figure 20-6

Example of Mesh for VCCT with Nonmatching Mesh Densities

Figure 20-7

Example of Mesh for Cohesive Zone Model with Nonmatching Mesh Densities

Main Index

316 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 20

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_20v.dat

Model using the VCCT option

nug_20d.dat

Model using delamination elements

nug_20d.bdf

Model using delamination elements for video

nug_20d_start.SimXpert

Starting model for SimXpert video

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 47 minutes and explains how the steps
are performed.
6
R = 0.5
1.1
0.078
0.6

0.9

0.9

Initial Crack

Figure 20-8

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

0.6

Chapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

21

Main Index

Occupant Safety and


Airbag Deployment

Summary

318

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Results

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

Animation

319
319

319

322

361
361

323

318 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Summary
Title

Chapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Features

Airbag Deployment with Occupant

Geometry

Material properties

Unit dimensions: mm, kg, ms, KN,


GPa, K, J

Car frame:

Rigid

Airbag:

Fabric (MATD034)
Density = 8.76E-07
Ea = 0.3; Eb = 0.2
nab= 0.2; Gab = 0.04
CSE = 1; EL = 0.06; PRL = 0.35
LRATIO = 0.1; DAMP = 0.4

Initial airbag gas: Density = 1.2E-9; Pressure = 0.000101; Temperature = 294.34


Gamma gas constant = 1.4; R gas = 286.98; CP gas = 1004
Inflator:

Rigid
R gas inflator = 353.78; CP gas inflator = 1191
The Inflator Mass Flow Rate and the Temperature of the gas as a
function of time are defined by tables.

Dummy:

Hybrid 3 - 50 (LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_Rigid.50th

Seatbelt:

fabric (MATD034) and seatbelt material (MATDB01)

Analysis type

Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)

Boundary conditions

Fixed except an airbag and a dummy

Applied loads

Initial velocity 15 mm/ms to a dummy.


Prescribed Mass Flow Rate and Temperature of Inflator Gas

Element type

1-D beam element, 2-D shell element, 3-D solid element

FE results

Main Index

Plots of deformed shapes at various steps.

CHAPTER 21 319
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Introduction
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would be
exerted on the passenger. For people of average size, the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag method
where a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as Out-ofPosition (OOP), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow is
not uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used to
accurately simulate the gas jet, and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gas
dynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to predict the behavior of an airbag and an occupant dummy during crash
simulation.

FEM Solution
The units of this model are mm, kg, msec, KN, GPa, K, and J.TSTEPNL describes the number of time steps (20) and
time increment (2 msec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here that the time
increment is only for the first step, and in this analysis, it is overruled by the addition of an initial time step parameter:
PARAM, DYINISTEP, 1.E-7.
The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by SOL 700 during the
analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL 1 20

2.

AIRBAG instructs SOL 700 to create an airbag using either the full gas dynamic (CFD) method or using a uniform gas
bag method. Here, the CFD method will be used. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the
INFLATOR key word.

AIRBAG
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

3
CFD

7
ON
1
1.2E-9
NONE
INITIAL0.000101 294.34
INFLATOR
9
1
353.78
1191.
GAS
2
0.0 0.02897CONSTANT
GAS
4
0.0 0.0235CONSTANT

20.

20.

286.98
2

1004.

1004.
1191.

MATD034 represents SOL 700 Material #34. It is used to model fabric material.

Main Index

20.
1.

320 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

For the airbag and the Seatbelt the following fabric materials are used respectively:
MATD034
0.2
+
1.
+
0.0
+
0.0
+
0.0
MATD034
+
+
+

8.76E-7

0.3

0.2

0.04
0.35
3.

0.06
0.0
0.0
0.0
292

1.E-6

0.1

0.4
0.0

0.0
1.
0.0

0.0
2.9

0.0
2.9

0.0

The ends of the Seatbelt are modeled with Seatbelt elements (CBELT), Seatbelt property (PBELTD), and Seatbelt
material (MATDB01). The loading and unloading curves (force vs. strain) are defined in the following tables:
MATDB01
TABLED1
+
0.1
+
ENDT
TABLED1
+
ENDT

293

61

4.2

1.E-6
0.0
0.5

62

61
0.0

0.45

6.7
7.6

0.0

62
0.05

0.0

3.
1.7

1.00

8.2

1.00

8.2

The dummy is modeled by using many element types and joints: CPENTA, CHEXA, RBJOINT, RBJSTIFF, CBAR,
CBEAM, HGSUPPR, CSPR, PSPRMAT, MAT1, MATRIG, and several of MATD0**.
EOSGAM defines the ideal gas inside the airbag.

EOSGAM

1.4 286.98

Bulk Data Entries that Define Contact Relations and Contact Bodies
BCTABLE defines Master-Slave as well as self contact.

BCTABLE
1
+
SLAVE 1
+
+
+
+
+
+
MASTERS
+
SLAVE
5
+
+
0.3
+
+

Main Index

0.5

2
1

0.5
0.3

SS2WAY
2

+
YES+

CHAPTER 21 321
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

+
+
+
..

MASTERS

1.

20.

1.

YES+

BCBODY is a bulk data entry that defines a flexible or rigid contact body in 2-D or 3-D. It could be specified with a
BSURF, BCBOX, BCPROP, or BCMATL entry.

BCBODY
BCBODY
..

1
5

3D
3D

DEFORM
DEFORM

2
13

Two types of entries are used to define 3-D contact bodies.


BPROP and BSURF define 3-D contact regions by element properties and a contact surface or body by element IDs,

respectively.
BCPROP
..
BSURF
..

6
2527

1
THRU

THRU
10922

2516

Using the BCTABLE and several BCBODY, BCSEG, and BCSURF entries, the following contacts are defined as:
Contact
Number

Slave

Master

Airbag

Airbag

Pelvis

Connection bones to legs

Neck ring

Neck

Ribs

Torso

Ribs

Breast

Airbag

Dummy upper parts

Seatbelt

Torso - lower body - neck

Lower body

Chair

Feet - hands

Frame

Airbag

Frame

10

Boundary conditions are specified for the car frame, and chair. Because the car frame is rigid, enforced motion entry
(SPCD2) is used.
$ Constraint for Frame chair floor
SPCD2
6
RIGID
MR289
SPCD2
6
RIGID
MR289
SPCD2
6
RIGID
MR289
SPCD2
6
RIGID
MR289

Main Index

1
2
3
5

0
0
0
0

555
555
555
555

1.
1.
1.
1.

322 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

SPCD2
SPCD2
TABLED1 555
+
0.

6
6

RIGID
RIGID
0.

MR289
MR289
1000.

6
7
0.

0
0
ENDT

Results

Figure 21-1

Main Index

Occupant and Airbag at Various Positions

555
555

1.
1.

CHAPTER 21 323
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


In this example, a folded airbag and its interaction with a dummy with a seat belt are shown. Also, an animation of the
deformation of the airbag and the displacement of the dummy is shown.
To enter the MSC Explicit Workspace:
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. File: Save As
c. File name: airbag
d. Click Save

Main Index

324 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Specify the Model Units


a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. Click Standard Units
d. Select the line with mm, kg, ms, ...
e. Click OK
f. Return to User Options screen and click OK

a
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 325
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Specify Input/Output
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Input/Output
c. Click Nastran Structures
d. Unselect Reduce Parts
e. Click Apply
f. Click GUI Options
g. Click Solver Card
h. Click OK

b
c

g
f

Main Index

326 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Import the Airbag Model


a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Look in: AIRBAG
d. Select airbagconstant_new_spiral_simx.bdf
e. Click Open

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 327
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Import the Airbag Model


a. Tools: Transform
b. Select Rotate
c. R.Axis: For X, enter 0; for Y, enter 1; for Z, enter 0
d. For Angle, enter 90
e. Select Elements
f. Click All
g. Click Done
h. Click Exit

d
a

f
g

Main Index

328 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Check the Airbag Data


To rotate the airbag Rigid Wall.
a. Right click Rigidwall Planar_2
b. Click Properties
c. Modify WALL: For XP, enter -1.5; for ZP, enter 0; for NX, enter 1; for NZ, enter 0
d. Click Modify

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 329
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Check the Airbag Data (continued)


To Change Damping Coefficient Fabric Material
a. Right click Material MATDO34
b. Click Properties
c. For DAMP, enter 0.4
d. Click Modify

a
b

Main Index

330 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Import Dummy Model


a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RigidFE.50th.dat
d. Click Open

a
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 331
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Import Car Frame Model


a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select Body_Final.bdf
d. Click Open
e. Right click Model Views, select Right

a
c

Main Index

332 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Import Car Frame Model (continued)


a. View: Entity Display
b. Select Coordinate Frames Shown
c. Select Rigid Elements
d. Select Unreferenced Nodes Shown

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 333
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Dummy Positioning
a. Safety: Positioner Panel
b. Select Parts by clicking Torso
c. Dummy Positioning: select Dummy H-Point
d. For H Point Location, change X to 560; change Y to -279.90; change Z to 55
e. For Rotation, change Y to 10; change Z to 180

b
d

Main Index

334 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Dummy Positioning (continued)


a. Component Positioning: For FullArm_UpDown_, change X to -10.00 (do once for each arm)
b. For lower_arm_right, change Z to -90.0
c. For lower_arm_left, change Z to -90.0
d. For neck_head, change Y to 7.0

a
b

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 335
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Dummy Positioning (continued)


a. Component Positioning: For Upper_leg_left, Curr. X = 5.00
b.For lower_leg_left, change to -21.0
c. For upper_leg_right, Curr. X = 10.00
d. For lower_leg_right, Curr. X = -32.00
e. For foot_right, change to 15.0
f. Click Exit
g. Right click Render, select FE Shaded

b
c

Main Index

336 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Create Seat Belt


Plot dummy and chair only:
a. Right click LSTC.H3.022908_..., select Show Only
b.Right click PSHELL_2468_..., select Show
c. Tools: Options, Window
d. Color: Entity, select Edge Color, Gray
e. Click OK
f. Shift Right mouse, Screen Rotate

a
b
b

f
c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 337
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Create Seat Belt (continued)


Create seat belt:
a. Safety: Route Seat Belt
b.Click Torso
c. Click Pelvis
d. Click Upper Leg Left
e. Click Done
f. Click Node 1
g. Click Node 2
h. Click Node 3
i. Click Done
j. Click Exit

a
f

h
c
d

g
e

Main Index

338 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Check Seat Belt: Shell Property


Create seat belt:
a. Right click SeatBeltShellMaterial
b.Click Exit
c. Right click SeatBeltShellProperty
d. Double click MID
e. Select SeatBeltShellMaterial 290
f. Click OK
g. Click Modify

a
b
c

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 339
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Check Seat Belt: 1D Element Property


Create tables for seat belt load and unloading curves (Force vs. Strain):
a. Field/Tables: TABLED1
b. Click ADD six times to make six rows
c. Fill in X-Y values
d. Click Update
e. Click Create
f. Click Exit
g. Repeat a. through d. for the second table except for step b.
For step b., click ADD two times to make two rows

d
e

Main Index

340 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Check Seat Belt: 1D Element Property (continued)


Add tables for seat belt load and unloading curves (Force vs. Strain) to SeatBeltMaterial:
a. Right click SeatBeltMaterial
b.Double click LLCID
c. Select TABLED1_60_60
d. Click OK
e. Double click ULCID
f. Select TABLED1_61_601
g. Click OK; then click Modify
h. Right click SeatBeltProperty
i. Double click MID1
j. Select SeatBeltMateriaL 291
k. Click OK; then click Modify

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 341
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

a
e

c
g

i
k

j
k

Main Index

342 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Delete Imported Simulation Data and Some Incorrect


Contact Definitions
a. Under LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RidigFE.50th.dat tree, right click Simulation; select Delete
b. Under LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RidigFE.50th.dat tree, select DEFORM_5 through
BCTABLE (click and Shift click); right click and select Delete
c. Under eulerbagconstant new spiral simx.bdf tree, select BCPROP_1 through BCPROP
(click and Shift click); right click and select Delete

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 343
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Check Duplicate IDs


a. Tools: ID Management
b.Select Duplicate ID Manager
c. Click OK

Main Index

344 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Create Contact Bodies


a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. Name: Deform_2; click PSOLIDD_72_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_79_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_3; click PSOLIDD_49_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_50_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_4; click PSOLIDD_25_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_26_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_28_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_29_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_86_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_262_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_263_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_264_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_265_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_267_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_268_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...;
Click Apply
e. Name: Deform_5; click PSOLIDD_10_...; click Apply

b Pelvis

c Axes

e Ring Neck
d Ribs

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 345
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Create Contact Bodies (continued)


a. Name: Deform_6; click PSOLIDD_25_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_26_...;
click PSOLIDD_28_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_29_...;
click PSOLIDD_268_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...; click Apply
b. Name: Deform_7; click PSOLIDD_65_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_8; click PSOLIDD_98_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_9; click PSOLIDD_263_...; click Apply
e. Name: Deform_10; click PSOLIDD_18_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_65_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_72_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_93_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_68_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_69_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_70_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_71_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_267_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_268_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...; click Apply
f. Name: Deform_11; click SeatBelt_Shell; click Apply

b Torso

a Ribs Shoulder
c

d Breast

c Plate Neck
e

e Dummy

Main Index

f Seatbelt

346 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Create Contact Bodies (continued)


a. Name: Deform_12; click PSHELL_22468_...; click Apply
b. Name: Deform_13; click PSOLIDD_73_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_74_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_75_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_76_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_79_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_14; click PSHELL_2376_...; Ctrl click PSHELL_2377_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_15; click PSOLIDD_80_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_87_;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_70_; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_71_; click Apply
e. Name: Deform_16; click PSOLIDD_65_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_72_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_93_...; click Apply

b Lower Body

a Chair
c

d Hands Feet
c Frame
e

e Body

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 347
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Modify BCTABLE
a. Right click: BCTABLE_1; select Properties
b. # NGROUP = 10
c. Click # NGROUP
Group 0 : Airbag - Airbag (Imported) (not shown)
Group 1 : Pelvis - Leg Bones
d. Double click +c19 IDSLAV,1
e. Click and select Deform2_2; click OK
f. Click +c19 FRIC,1, enter 0.3
g. Click +c25 METHOD,1, select SS2WAY
h. Click +c27 SOFT,1, select 2
i. Click +c29 SFS,1, enter 1; click +c29 SFM,1, enter 1;
click +c29 AUTO,1, select Yes
j. Double click +c36 IDMA,1
k. Click and select Deform3_3; click OK
Continue with Groups 2 through 9 (see the following page)
l. Click Modify

Main Index

348 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

h
i

j
l

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 349
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Modify BCTABLE (continued)


Contact: Contact Table -> BCTABLE
Contact

Main Index

GROUP

IDSLAVE

FRIC

Method

SOFT

SFS

SFM

AUTO

IDMA

airbag

0.3

ss2way

yes

Pelvis
bones

0.3

ss2way

yes

Ring plate
neck

0.45

ss2way

yes

Ribs torso

0.3

ss2way

yes

Ribs
breast

0.3

ss2way

yes

Airbag
dummy

0.3

ss2way

yes

10

seatbelt
dummy

11

0.3

blanks

yes

16

Dummy
chair

13

0.3

ss2way

yes

12

Dummy
frame

15

0.3

ss2way

yes

14

Airbag
Frame

0.3

ss2way

yes

14

350 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Define SPCD2 for Chair-ground-frame


a. Fields/Tables: Tabled: TABLED1
b. Click Add twice to make two rows
c. In Row 1, for X, enter 0.; for Y, enter 0.0; in Row 2, for X, enter 1000.; for Y, enter 0.0
d. Click Create
e. Click Exit

c
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 351
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Define SPCD2 for Chair-ground-frame (continued)


a. Click LBC, select Part BC, select B Presc Motion Rigid
b. Right click Part, select Material
c. Click [020] MAT_RIGID
d. Ctrl click PSHELL_2468_Body_Final.bdf,
PSHELL_2377_Body_Final.bdf,
PSHELL_2376_Body_Final.bdf
e. Click Done
f. Click D1, D2, D3, D5, D6, D7
g. Click SPCD2
h. Double click LCID
i. Click TABLED_62 62; click OK
j. Click Store
k. Click Exit
l. Click Exit

a
b

d
f

e
l
g

Main Index

352 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Initial Dummy Velocity


a. Right click LSTC.H3..., click Show Only
b. Click LBC, select Nodal BC, click Initial Transient Condition
c. Click Define App Region
d. Using the mouse, select the complete dummy in the window
e. Click XVEL, enter -15
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit2

b
d

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 353
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Create SimXpert Analysis File


a. In the Model Browser, right click eulerbagconsta.......
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. Click Solver Input File
d. For File name:, enter Chapter21
e. Click Save
f. Click OK
g. Observe that there is a Newjob in the Model Browser tree

Main Index

354 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Displacement Output Request
and click Delete
b. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Element Output Request
and click Delete
c. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Loadcase Control
and click Properties
d. For Ending Time:, enter 40
e. For Number of Time Steps:, enter 20
f. Click Apply

c
a

b
d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 355
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Export the SimXpert Analysis File


a. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Newjob
b.Click Export

Analysis Deck Corrections


This step becomes obsolete as soon as the following CRs are solved:
CR 1-136647181 : BCTABLE issues Airbag-Dummy
CR 1-192117741 : Incorrect numbering Seatbelt elements
Edit Chapter21.bdf and modify the following values:
Row 12 : BCONTACT = 1
1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$
Row 39833 : CBELT
50001
2470
79297
80456
0
0.0
Row 39834 : CBELT

Main Index

50002

2470

79267

80457

0.0

356 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Run MSC Nastran Solver


a. Double click the desktop icon
b. For the input file, select Chapter21.bdf
c. Click Open
d. Click Run

b
a

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 357
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Access the MSC Nastran Analysis Results File


Access the results by attaching the d3plot file.
a. File: Attach Results
b. Click File Path icon
c. Select Chapter21.dytr.d3plot
d. Click Open
e. Click OK

a
b
c

Note: If SimX cant access the results, do the following:


File -> Save
File -> New
File > Attach Results
Attach Options: BOTH
OK

Main Index

358 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Access the MSC Nastran Analysis Results File (continued)


Change the model visualization.
a. Right click Model Views; click Right
b. Right click on the vertical line (wall); click Hide
c. Right click Render; click FE Shaded with Edges
d. Click Hide Unreferenced nodes

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 359
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Animate a Deformed Plot


Create a deformed plot with animation
a. Results: Deformation
b. To select all Result Cases, click ch21a.dytr
c. Result type: select Displacement Components
d. Click Deformation
e. For Deformed display scaling, select True
f. For Deformed shape, Render style, select Shaded
g. For Deformed shape, Edge color, select cyan
h. Click Plot Data
i. Click Animate
j. Click Update

c
i

Updated (Deformed)

h
Original

f
g

Main Index

360 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 21

Animate a Deformed Plot (continued)


Animation

Main Index

CHAPTER 21 361
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Input File(s)
File

Description

Chapter21.dat

MSC Nastran input file for airbag FSI


example

Body_Final.bdf

Frame model

eulerbagconstant_new_spiral_simx.bdf

Airbag model

LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RigidFE.50th.dat

Dummy model

Animation
Click on the link below to play the animation.

Figure 21-2

Main Index

Deployment of Airbag Animation

Chapter 22: Multi-Compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment

22

Main Index

Multi-compartment Side
Curtain Airbag Deployment

Summary

363

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Airbag Analysis Scheme

FEM Solution

Results

Input File(s)

364

364

366
367

364
364

CHAPTER 22 363
Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment

Summary
Title

Chapter 22: Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment

Features

Deploy Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag

Geometry

Fix

Gas supply bag

Compartment

Inflator

=
gth
Len

2m
0.75

Material properties

See Summary of Materials.

Analysis type

Transient explicit dynamic analysis

Boundary conditions

Fixed at brackets

Applied loads

Prescribed pressure and temperature of inflator gas

Element type

Airbag:
2-D triangular shell element
Airbag gas: 3-D solid element (automatically generated)

FE results

60 m
t = 0.3
Heigh

Main Index

364 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 22

Introduction
.The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the simulation of a multi-compartment airbag; a capability is introduced
in MSC Nastran SOL 700 (SOL 700). AIRBAG, GRIA, and EOSGAM are added in Bulk Data entries to support the
capability.

Requested Solutions
The airbag has five compartments. These compartments are folded, and each compartment is connected to the gas
supply bag through a large hole. An inflator is modeled next to the gas supply bag. The gas jet is initiated from the
inflator and running into the gas supply bag. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to the brackets attached to the gas
supply bag. The simulation time is 0.04 seconds.

Airbag Analysis Scheme


MD Nastran SOL 700 Airbag Model (bdf)

SOL 700

Obtain Binary Results


-

Deformation (AIRBAG)

CFD result (GAS)

FEM Solution
The units of this model are kg for weight, meter for length, second for time, and Kelvin for temperature.
TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (0.0004 seconds) of the simulation. End time

is the product of the two entries. Notice here, the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL

Main Index

100

.0004

ADAPT

10

CHAPTER 22 365
Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment

One inflator and five compartment AIRBAG entries are defined. An AIRBAG entry instructs SOL 700 to create an
airbag using either the CFD method (full gas dynamics) or using a uniform gasbag method. Here, the full gas dynamic
method is used for all airbag definitions. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the INFLATOR
key word. Outflow is defined by adding LARGHOLE to the inflator which is connected to the five different compartment
airbag. Details of an AIRBAG entry are described below:
Airbag 1 is the definition of the inflator airbag.
The CFD option defines CFD related data. Gamma law equation of state is defined referring the EOSGAM 3 field.
AIRBAG
+

1
CFD

25
3

1.527

0.009

0.009

0.009

+
+

Using the INITIAL option, initial conditions of gas property inside an airbag are defined. Initial pressure is 101,325
N/m2, initial temperature is 293 K, initial gamma gas constant is 1.4 and initial R gas constant is 294 Nm2/s2/K.
+

INITIAL 101325. 293.

1.4

294.

The INFLATOR option is used to define gas property from an inflator. Mass flow rate is defined referring a table data
(TABLED1). Temperature of inflowing gas is 350 K, a scale factor of available inflow area is 0.7, the gamma gas
constant of the inflator gas is 1.557, and the R gas constant of the inflator gas is 243 Nm2/s2/K.
+
+

INFLATOR1001
1.557

1
243.

350.

0.7

+
+

The LARGEHOLE option defines the compartment location where gas flows into. In the example below, the first field,
LARGHOLE 301 indicates that gas flows through surface 301 into the compartment with ID 2. A scale factor of inflow
area is 1.0, meaning that 100% of the gas flows in. Five LARGEHOLEs definitions are used to model the gas flow inside
the five airbag compartments.
+
+
+
+
+

LARGHOLE301
LARGHOLE302
LARGHOLE303
LARGHOLE304
LARGHOLE305

2
3
4
5
6

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

+
+
+
+

AIRBAG entries from 2 to 6 define the compartments in the airbag.

AIRBAG
+
+

2
35
CFD
3
INITIAL 101325. 293.

1.527
1.4

0.011
294.

0.011

0.011

+
+

EOSGAM defines the ideal gas inside the airbag. This entry is used for each airbag definition. The gamma law gas
equation of state is defined by EOSGAM. The pressure p is defined as:
= 1 e

where is a constant, e is specific internal energy per unit mass, is overall material density. A constant of 1.517
and R gas constant of 226.4 m2/s2/K are used in this model.

Main Index

366 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 22

EOSGAM

1.517

226.4

The GRIA entry defines the final unstretched configuration of a deployed bag. All IDs of GRIA entries must be the
same as the IDs of GRID entries.
GRIA
...

.0009375-.626128 .230000

Summary of Materials
Inflator airbag: fabric material (MATD034):
density=

783 kg/m3

Ea

(Youngs Modulus - longitudinal direction) = 2.6e+08

Eb

(Youngs Modulus - transverse direction) = 2.6e+08

(Poissons ratio - longitudinal direction) = .3

(Poissons ratio transverse direction) = .3

Compartment airbag: null material (MATD009):


density=

783 kg/m3

(Youngs Modulus) = 2.6e+08

(Poissons ratio) = .3

Initial condition of airbag gas:


density)

= 1.527 kg/m3

Initial temperature = 293 K


Initial pressure = 101,325 N/m2
Initial gamma gas constant = 1.4
Initial R gas constant = 294 Nm2/s2/K

Results
There are two types of results files: ARC and d3plot. The ARC file is the original MSC.Dytran binary result file and
includes the results for the Euler elements (fluid). d3plot is the native LS-DYNA result file format.

Main Index

CHAPTER 22 367
Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment

t=0

t=2

t=4

t=6

t=8

t = 10

t = 20

t = 30
Airbag
Deformed Shape

Time (ms)

t = 40

Figure 22-1

Euler
Adaptive Mesh

Deformed Shape Airbag and Adaptive Euler Mesh

Input File(s)
File
nug_22.dat

Main Index

Description
MSC Nastran input file for multi-compartment airbag FSI example

Chapter 23: Bolted Plates

23

Main Index

Bolted Plates

Summary

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

380

369
370

372
379
379

370

CHAPTER 23 369
Bolted Plates

Summary
Title

Chapter 23: Bolted Plates

Contact features

Deformable-deformable contact
No friction

Geometry

Material properties

Units: mm
Large plate 60x20x6
Small plate 20x20x2
Bolt hole radius = 5
Bolt shaft radius = 4
Bolt head radius = 6
Bolt head thickness = 2
Nut thickness = 2
Nut outer radius = 6

Y
Z

X
X
1

Y
4

E plates = 210kN mm 2 , E bolt = 21kN mm 2 , plates = bo lt = 0.3 , plates = 10 C

, Linear

elastic material
Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Small plate is supported at one side. Normal contact conditions applied between the two
plates and between the large plate and the bolt, glued contact between the small plate and
the nut. Rigid rotation and translation of the plates is suppressed

Applied loads

Load step 1: Bolt is fastened by pre-tension force F = 200N .


Load steps 2-4: Cyclic loading of plates. Two different cases:
uniform pressure P = 0.125MPa
thermal load, temperature increase T = 50C

Element type

3-D solid 8-node linear elements

FE results

1. Deformed shape and von Mises stress distribution


2. Plot of bolt forces

Main Index

370 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

Introduction
A small and a large steel plate are bolted together. Initially, the smaller plate is in full contact on one side with the
larger plate. The opposite side of the smaller plate is supported. Furthermore, the bolt head is touching the larger plate
and the nut is glued to the smaller plate. It is assumed that the material behavior for both the plates and the bolt is linear
elastic.
In the first load step, the bolt is fastened by applying a pre-tension force ( F = 200N ) to the bolt in the basic Z-direction.
In three subsequent load steps, the bolt is locked (that is, further shortening of the bolt is suppressed) and the plates
are subjected to cyclic loads. Two types of loads will be presented: a mechanical load that consists of a uniform
pressure equal to P = 0.125MPa applied to the larger plate and a thermal load in which temperature of the plates is
increased by T = 50C .

Solution Requirements
Two solutions, one involving a uniform pressure equal to P = 0.125MPa applied to the larger plate and one involving
a temperature increase by T = 50C of the two plates, are:
Bolt shortening during fastening in the first load step
Bolt forces during the loading cycle
Bolt stresses
These solutions demonstrate:
Bolt modelling
That the bolt force is largely unaffected by the applied pressure to the larger plate
That the bolt force increases with increasing temperature of the plates, due to thermal expansion
The analysis results are presented with linear elements.

Bolt Modeling
In various engineering applications, it is necessary to define a pre-stress in, for example, bolts or rivets before applying
any other structural loading. A convenient way do this is via multi-point constraints. The idea is to split the element
mesh of the bolt across the shaft in two disjoint parts, such that duplicate grid points appear at the cut, and to connect
the duplicate nodes again by multi-point constraints (see Figure 23-1). The constraints are chosen such that an overlap
or a gap can be created between the two parts in a controllable way. If the motion of the parts is somehow constrained
in the direction in which the gap or overlap is created, then an overlap (a shortening of the bolt) will introduce a
tensile (pre-)stress in each of the parts and a gap (an enlongation of the bolt) will result in a compressive stress.
The multi-point constraints have one slave and two master grid points. The slaves are the grid points at the cut from
the bottom part of the bolt (see Figure 23-1). The first master grids are the corresponding grid points from the top part
of the bolt on the other side of the cut. The second master in the constraints is a unique third grid point, called the
control grid point of the bolt. This is often a free grid point (that is, not part of the element mesh) and is shared by all
multi-point constraints on the cut.

Main Index

CHAPTER 23 371
Bolted Plates

top part

top part
mesh split

top grids
(first master)

MPCs
control grid
(second master)

bottom grids
(slave)

bottom part
undeformed
Figure 23-1

F1,bot

Fcontrol
F2,bot

u1,bot

u2,bot

ucontrol

(overlap) ucontrol
u1,top

u2,top

F1,top

F2,top

bottom part
deformed

Pre-stressing a Structure by Creating an Overlap Between the Top and the Bottom Part
Using Multi-Point Constraints.

The multi-point constraints impose the following constraint equations on the model:
u bo t u t op u control = 0 .

in which u bo t , u top and u control are the displacement degrees of freedom of a grid point from the bottom part, its
corresponding grid from the top part and the control grid point, respectively. It immediately follows from this equation
that u control is the displacement difference of the bottom and top grids and is equal to the size of the overlap or gap
between the parts. Hence, by enforcing the displacements of the control grid point, an overlap or gap of a particular
size can be created between the two parts.
It can be shown (see, for instance, MSC.Marc 2010 Volume A: Theory and User Information, Chapter 9, Section
Overclosure Tying), that if the multi-point constraints are set up as outlined above, the force on the control grid
point equals the sum of the forces on the grid points from the bottom part as well as minus the sum of the forces on
the grid points from the top part:
F control =

F bot

= F top .

Hence, the force on the control grid point is the total force on the cross-section of the bolt. By applying a (pre-tension)
force to that grid point, the total force on the cross-section can be prescribed. Moreover, if the shortening of the bolt
is prescribed via an enforced displacement on the control grid point, then the reaction force on that grid point is equal
to the total force on the cross-section of the bolt.
Note that both types of boundary conditions on the control grid point can be combined in a single analysis as
demonstrated in this example. In the first load step, the pre-tension force will be applied to the control grid point of
the bolt. This results in a certain amount of shortening of the bolt. At the end of the first load step, the amount of
shortening is recorded and is kept constant in subsequent load steps, via a single point constraint on the control grid
point.

Main Index

372 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

Grid 1903
Bolt
Large Plate

Small plate
Nut

Figure 23-2
Note:

Element Mesh and Multi-Point Constraints applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran
The gap between the top and bottom parts of the bolt in the picture on the right is purely for visualization
purposes. In reality, the gap is closed although the duplicate grids remain.

There are two ways to define the multi-point constraints for bolt modeling in the bulk data: each constraint can be
defined explicitly via the MPC option or the entire set of constraints can be defined via the BOLT option. The latter has
been designed specially for bolt modeling and has several advantages over explicit MPCs:
Provides a much more concise input than explicit MPCs;
Generates all the required multi-point constraints on all displacement and rotational degrees of freedom
automatically;
Ensures continuity of the temperature field across the cut in the thermal passes of coupled analyses;
Requires no special provisions in a contact analysis (see below).

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 23-2
using 3-D solid linear elements. The bolt and the nut are assumed to be rigidly connected and are modeled as a single
physical body. To fasten the bolt, the element mesh of the bolt is split into two parts across the shaft and the 41 grid
point pairs on both sides of the cut are connected by multi-point constraints of the form discussed in the preceding
section. Grid ID 1903 acts as the control grid of the bolt.
Two versions of the input are considered. In the first version, the BOLT option is used to generate the multi-point
constraints on the cut. In the second version, the constraints are defined explicitly via the MPC option.
The BOLT option requires a bolt ID (5000), the ID of the control grid of the bolt (1903) and the grids at the cut from
the top and bottom parts of the bolt. The latter must be entered pair-wise in the TOP and BOTTOM section of the option:
the i-th TOP grid should correspond to the i-th BOTTOM grid.
BOLT

Main Index

5000

1903

CHAPTER 23 373
Bolted Plates

TOP

1862
1869
1876
1883
1890
1897
341
425
1394
1478
1620
1759

BOTTOM

1863
1870
1877
1884
1891
1898
353
437
1406
1490
1632
1771

1864
1871
1878
1885
1892
1899
365
449
1418
1502
1644
1783

1865
1872
1879
1886
1893
1900
377
461
1430
1572
1656
1795

1866
1873
1880
1887
1894
1901
389
473
1442
1584
1668
1807

1867
1874
1881
1888
1895
1902
401
485
1454
1596
1680
1819

1862

-1.0

1862

-1.0

1862

-1.0

1863

-1.0

1863

-1.0

1863

-1.0

1868
1875
1882
1889
1896
413
497
1466
1608
1747

The equivalent input using explicit MPCs reads:


MPC

MPC

MPC

MPC

MPC

MPC

...
$
MPCADD

100
8
16
24
32
40

341
1903
341
1903
341
1903
353
1903
353
1903
353
1903
1

9
17
25
33
41

1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
2
10
18
26
34

1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
3
11
19
27
35

4
12
20
28
36

5
13
21
29
37

6
14
22
30
38

7
15
23
31
39

Contact
The main problem with the use of explicit MPCs is that in a contact analysis, the constraints may conflict with the
multi-point constraints due to contact. Special provisions have to be made in the contact setup to avoid that the slave
grids of the MPCs can come in contact with other contact bodies. Furthermore, due to the cut in the mesh, it is difficult
for grid points of other contact bodies that touch the bolt surface, to slide across the cut from the bottom part of the
bolt to the top part or vice versa. The BOLT option addresses both issues, provided that the two parts of the bolt are in
the same contact body. Conflicts with contact constraints are avoided and grid points that touch the surface of the bolt
can slide without difficulties across the cut.
For the present model, the two methods are compared. To avoid problems in the MPC version between the explicit
MPCs and the contact constraints, the radius of the bolt shaft is slightly smaller than the radius of the holes in the plates,
such that contact between the shaft and plates will not occur.
The three physical components of the model (the two plates and the bolt with the nut) have been selected as contact
bodies. The contact bodies are identified as the set of elements in the respective components:
$ contact body: bolt and nut
BCBODY
1
3D DEFORM
BSURF
1
167
168
...
$ contact body: small plate
BCBODY
2
3D DEFORM

Main Index

1
169
2

170

171

172

173

374 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

BSURF
2
139
140
...
$ contact body: large plate
BCBODY
3
3D DEFORM
BSURF
3
1
2
...

141

142

143

144

145

3
3

The two parts of the bolt are in same contact body (ID=1).
The BCTABLE entries shown below identify the admissible contact combinations, select the slave and master body for
each combination, and set associated parameters. It is important to note that:
The first contact body (bolt and nut) must be selected as the slave (or contacting) body. Since the contact
algorithm detects contact between the grid points at the surface of the slave (or contacting) body and the faces
of the elements at the surface of the master (or contacted) body, the body with the finer element mesh in the
contact region generally should be selected as the slave body and the body with the coarser mesh as the
master, as this results in more points in contact and thus a better description of the contact conditions than
with the opposite definition. The ISEARCH entry is set to 1 to force search order from the slave body to the
master.
The bolt can touch the plates and the plates can touch each other.
The IGLUE entry is set to 1 for contact between the nut and the smaller plate to activate glued contact
conditions (that is, no sliding and no separation) between these two contact bodies.
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

1
1
MASTERS 2
SLAVE
1
1
MASTERS 3
SLAVE
2
1
MASTERS 3
1
SLAVE
1
1
MASTERS 2
SLAVE
1
1
MASTERS 3
SLAVE
2
1
MASTERS 3

0.
0

3
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.
0

3
0

0.
0

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

Materials and Properties


The 3-D solid elements with large strain capability available on MSC Nastran SOL 400 are chosen by the PSOLID and
PSLDN1 entries on the CHEXA option as shown below.
$ plates
PSOLID* 1
PSLDN1* 1
$
$ bolt and nut
PSOLID* 2
PSLDN1* 2

Main Index

1
1
2
2

CHAPTER 23 375
Bolted Plates

The large strain capability and assumed strain formulation (for improved bending behavior) for these elements are
activated via the NLMOPTS option.
NLMOPTS ASSM
ASSUMED
LRGSTRN 1

The two materials are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio and thermal expansion defined as:
$ plates
MAT1*
1
*
1.000000E+00
$ bolt and nut
MAT1*
2

2.100000E+05
1.000000E-05

3.000000E-01

2.100000E+04

3.000000E-01

Loads, Boundary Conditions and Load Steps


The loading sequence consists of four load steps. In the first load step. The pre-tension force in the basic Z direction
is applied to the control grid point of the bolt via a FORCE option, as follows:
$ bolt-force
FORCE
1

1903

200.

0.

0.

1.

At the end of the load step, the shortening of the bolt due to the applied pre-tension force is recorded and kept constant
in subsequent load steps by a single-point constraint on the displacement of the control grid in the basic Z direction:
$ bolt-lock
SPC1
5

1903

Throughout the analysis, the displacements of the control grid in the basic X and Y directions are suppressed by a
single-point constraint:
$ bolt-xy
SPC1
4

12

1903

In all four load steps, the full load is applied in a single increment. The nonlinear procedure used in the load steps is:
NLPARM
+
+

1
.01
0

1
.01

PFNT

50

UP

NO

Here, the PFNT option is selected to activate the pure Newton-Raphson iteration strategy. Convergence of the nonlinear iteration process is checked on both displacements and forces, using tolerances equal to 0.01.

Results
The shortening of the bolt due to the pre-tension force applied in the first load step is listed in Table 23-1. The solution
obtained with an equivalent Marc 2005 model is included for reference. This shortening is recorded at the end of the
first load step and kept fixed in the subsequent load steps. It is apparent from this table that the MPC version and the
BOLT version produce identical results.

Main Index

376 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

Table 23-1

Bolt Shortening During Fastening in the First Load Step


MSC Nastran
(MPC)

MSC Nastran
(BOLT)

Marc 2005r3

0.0054

0.0054

0.0054

bolt shortening

Pressure Load
The pressure load is applied in a cyclic fashion to the large plate in the final three load steps. The plate is loaded in
load steps 2 and 4 and unloaded in load step 3. The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 500) as well as the
equivalent von Mises stress distribution at the end of the final load step are shown in Figure 23-3. A plot of the bolt
force in the basic Z direction is depicted in Figure 23-4. Note that in the first load step, the bolt load is the externally
applied pre-tension force; whereas in subsequent load steps, the bolt load is the reaction force on the control grid point.

Figure 23-3

Main Index

Deformed Structure Plot and von Mises Stress Distribution at Maximum Load Level Due to
the Pressure Load (magnification factor = 500)

CHAPTER 23 377
Bolted Plates

200

Bolt Force [N]

150

100

50

MSC.Marc 2005 r3
MSC Nastran
1

Load Step

Figure 23-4

Bolt Forces During Loading Cycle by Pressure Load.

In Figure 23-4, the MSC Nastran solution (blue dots) is compared with the solution obtained by MSC.Marc 2005 r3
(the solid line). The good agreement between the two solutions is apparent.
This plot demonstrates the well-known fact that the bolt force is unaffected by the pressure applied to the plate. Due
to a slight bending of the larger plate under the pressure load, however, the bolt force is not exactly constant.

Main Index

378 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

Thermal Load
The thermal load is applied in a cyclic fashion to both plates. The plates are heated in load steps 2 and 4 and cooled
down in load step 3. The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 100) as well as the equivalent von Mises stress
distribution at the end of the final load step are shown in Figure 23-5. A plot of the bolt force in the basic Z direction
is shown in Figure 23-6. Again, the MSC Nastran solution (blue dots) is compared with the solution obtained by
MSC.Marc 2005 r3 (the solid line) and the agreement of the two solutions is apparent.

Figure 23-5

Deformed Structure Plot and von Mises Stress Distribution at Maximum Load Level Due to
the Thermal Load (magnification factor = 100)
n

300

250

Bolt Force [N]

200

150

100

50

MSC.Marc 2005 r3
MSC Nastran
1

Load Step

Figure 23-6

Main Index

Bolt Forces During Loading Cycle by Thermal Load.

CHAPTER 23 379
Bolted Plates

In this load case, the bolt force increases with increasing temperature due to thermal expansion of the plates. It
decreases again to the pre-stress force after cooling down.

Modeling Tips
Multi-point constraints provide a convenient way to fasten bolts. Either the shortening of the bolt or the total force in
the cross-section of the bolt can be controlled via enforced displacements or forces on the control grid point of the bolt.
These two types of boundary conditions can be combined in one simulation in which the bolt is first pre-stressed and
then loaded by other mechanical or thermal loads.
The BOLT option provides a convenient way to generate the required multi-point constraints. It can be used
conveniently in a contact analysis, provided that the two parts of the bolt are in the same contact body.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_23p_bolt.dat

Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic pressure load (BOLT version)

nug_23p.dat

Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic pressure load (MPC version)

nug_23t_bolt.dat

Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic thermal load (BOLT version)

nug_23t.dat

Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic thermal load (MPC version)

Main Index

380 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 23

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 58 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.
Units: mm
Large plate 60x20x6
Small plate 20x20x2
Bolt hole radius = 5
Bolt shaft radius = 4
Bolt head radius = 6
Bolt head thickness = 2
Nut thickness = 2
Nut outer radius = 6

Figure 23-7

Main Index

Y
Z

Video of the Above Steps

X
X
1

Y
4

Chapter 24: Friction Between Belt and Pulley

24

Main Index

Friction Between Belt


and Pulley

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Analytical Solution

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tip

Input File(s)

Video

389

382
383
383
383

384
387
389

382 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 24

Summary
Title

Chapter 24: Friction Between Belt and Pulley

Contact features

Geometry

3-D (units: mm)

(Slightly) changing contact area


Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable and deformable-rigid contact
Friction between deformable bodies

Pulley outer radius = 0.55


Pulley inner radius = 0.25
Out of plane pulley thickness = 0.3
In plane belt thickness = 0.05
Out of plane belt thickness = 0.2
Initial angle spanned = /2 rad

r1

y
z

Material properties

13

r2

t
x

10

E pulley = 1.0 10 Pa E belt = 1.0 10 Pa pulley = belt = 0.3

Linear elastic material


Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

An 180o section of the pulley is modeled, which is clamped along the inner radius using
glued contact conditions. On both ends of the belt, load-controlled rigid bodies are
defined and connected to the belt using glued contact conditions. The forces F and R
are external and reaction forces on the control nodes. On the loaded control node we have
u x = u y = 0 , while on the other control node u x = u y = u z = 0 .

Applied loads

Point load F y = 1.0 105 N

Element type

3-D 20-node hexahedral solid elements

Contact properties

Different coefficients of friction between belt and pulley: = 0.05 , = 0.15 and
= 0.25

FE results

Main Index

Reaction force for each value of the friction coefficient

CHAPTER 24 383
Friction Between Belt and Pulley

Introduction
A belt is positioned around a pulley such that a 90o section of the pulley is contacted. One end of the belt is fixed; the
other end is loaded by a tensile force with magnitude F = 1.0 105 . It is assumed that the material behavior for both the
belt and the pulley is linear elastic. Although this problem can be solved by a 2-D approximation, a full 3-D model is
chosen here in order to show the characteristic behavior of 3-D parabolic hexahedral elements in a contact analysis
involving friction. An analytical solution for the case with Coulomb friction is known.

Requested Solutions
Analyses will be carried out for three different values of the friction coefficient: = 0.05 , = 0.15 , and = 0.25 .
With a constant value of the applied load, the reaction force will decrease for increasing values of the friction
coefficient. This reaction force is the primary requested quantity, as this can be easily compared with an analytical
solution.

Analytical Solution
Assuming Coulomb friction between the belt and the pulley, the principle of rope friction according to the EulerEytelwein formula provides a relation between the magnitude F of the applied force, the magnitude R of the reaction
force, the angle spanned by the belt and the friction coefficient between the belt and the pulley:
F
R = -------
e

With F = 1.0 105 and = --- , the theoretical value of the magnitude of the reaction force R is listed in Table 24-1 for
2

various values of the friction coefficient .


Table 24-1

Reaction Force for Various Values of the Friction Coefficient (Theory)

Friction Coefficient

Reaction Force R

0.05

9.2447x104

0.15

7.9008x104

0.25

6.7523x104

Main Index

384 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 24

FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 24-1
using 3-D 20-node hexahedral elements. Assuming that the deformations of the pulley are small and localized around
the contact area, only an 180o section has been modeled. In total, there are five contact bodies: two deformable and
three rigid. The rigid bodies will be used to easily apply the boundary conditions (single point constraints and forces).

load controlled
rigid body

fixed rigid body;


glued contact

load controlled
rigid body

Figure 24-1

Element Mesh applied in MSC Nastran Simulation

The first deformable body consists of all elements of the belt, where the second deformable body consists of all
elements of the pulley. The body number IDs of the belt and the pulley are 1 and 2, respectively. These deformable
contact bodies are identified as 3-D bodies referring to the BSURF IDs 1 and 2:
BCBODY
BSURF

BCBODY
BSURF

Main Index

1
1
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
2
2
82
90
98
106
114
122
130

3D
1
9
17
25
33
41
49
57
65
73
3D
75
83
91
99
107
115
123
131

DEFORM
2
10
18
26
34
42
50
58
66
74
DEFORM
76
84
92
100
108
116
124
132

1
3
11
19
27
35
43
51
59
67

4
12
20
28
36
44
52
60
68

5
13
21
29
37
45
53
61
69

6
14
22
30
38
46
54
62
70

7
15
23
31
39
47
55
63
71

2
77
85
93
101
109
117
125
133

78
86
94
102
110
118
126
134

79
87
95
103
111
119
127

80
88
96
104
112
120
128

81
89
97
105
113
121
129

CHAPTER 24 385
Friction Between Belt and Pulley

The first rigid body is a half cylinder described as a NURBS surface and will be used to clamp the grids on the inner
radius of the pulley. Its body ID number is 3 and it is identified as:
BCBODY

3
0
RIGID
NURBS

...

3D
0.

RIGID
0.

0
0.
1.
0.
0
1
RIG-INNER
-7
13
4
4
50
.176777 -.176777 0.
.324015 -.029538
.237263 .222631 0.
.0306021.24812

1
0.

0
0.

50
0.
0.

The second and the third rigid bodies are load controlled rigid bodies. A load controlled rigid body is associated with
a control grid, which can be used to apply forces and/or single point constraints. In the current analysis, two flat load
controlled rigid bodies are used. They will be glued to both ends of the belt and their control grids will be used to
prevent a rigid body motion in the basic z-direction, to apply the external force on the belt and to transfer the belt load
to the fixed control grid. The load controlled rigid bodies are identified as:
BCBODY

...
BCBODY

4
0
RIGID
NURBS

3D
0.
526
-2
-.2
-.2

5
0
RIGID
NURBS

3D
0.
527
-2
.55
.55

...

RIGID
0.

2
.6
.6

RIGID
0.

2
-.2
-.2

0.
RIG-R
2
.05
.25
0.
RIG-F
2
.05
.25

0
1.

0.

1
0.

50
.55
.55

50
.05
.25

0
1.

0.

1
0.

2
.6
.6

50
-.2
-.2

50
.05
.25

2
-.2
-.2

526
0.
4

527
0.
4

Note that the control grids have the IDs 526 and 527.
The BCTABLE option will be used to indicate:
which grids are to be treated as slave nodes and which as master grids in the multipoint constraints for
deformable-deformable contact;
the friction coefficient between the belt and the pulley;
glued contact between the pulley and the half cylinder;
glued contact between the load controlled rigid bodies and the belt.
The entries of the BCTABLE option are defined as:
BCTABLE

1
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS

Main Index

1
1
2
1
0
5
1
0
4
2
0
3

0.
0

4
0.

.05

0.

0.

0.
1

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.
1

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

0.
1

0.
0

0.

0.

0.

386 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 24

The first SLAVE MASTERS combination indicates that the grids of deformable body 1 are treated as slave grids when
contact is established with body 2. The friction coefficient is set to 0.05.
The other SLAVE MASTERS combinations activate glued contact between the bodies with body ID numbers 1 and 5,
1 and 4, and 2 and 3, respectively.
The bilinear Coulomb friction model will be activated using the BCPARA option (FTYPE = 6); this option is also used
to indicate that the separation behavior is based on stresses (IBSEP = 4), which is necessary in a contact analysis
involving quadratic elements:
BCPARA

NBODIES 5

IBSEP

FTYPE

In order to activate the full nonlinear formulation of the 20 node hexahedral elements, the nonlinear property extension
of the PSOLID entry is used. For the materials defining the belt (material ID number 1) and the pulley (material ID
number 2), this results in:
MAT1
MAT1
PSOLID
PSLDN1
PSOLID
PSLDN1

1
2
1
1
2
2

1.+9
1.+13
1

.3
.3

1.
1.

The nonlinear procedure used is:


NLPARM

1
1.e-4

1
1.e-4

1.e-4

FNT
10

25

UPW

YES

Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy. Convergence checking is performed based on displacements, forces and work. The error tolerance
is set to 10-4 for all criteria. Note that the MAXDIV field is set to 10 to avoid that bisections occur, since too many
bisections may increase the overall solution time.
The obtained values of the reaction forces are listed in Table 24-2, together with the relative error compared to the
analytical solution. The numerical and analytical solutions turn out to be in good agreement.
Table 24-2

Numerical Solutions and Relative Errors

Friction Coefficient

Reaction Force R

Error (%)

0.05

9.2314x104

0.14

0.15

7.9476x104

0.59

0.25

6.8448x104

1.37

Main Index

CHAPTER 24 387
Friction Between Belt and Pulley

Modeling Tip
Convergence Behavior
A nonlinear analysis involving contact and friction may need several iterations to fulfil the convergence requirements.
In such inherently nonlinear analyses, it may be advantageous to increase the number of criteria needed to force a
bisection. As discussed above, this number (MAXDIV on the NLPARM option) has been set to 10 instead of the default
value 3. The tables below show the convergence behavior with the increased value (Table 24-3) and the default value
(Table 24-4). The increased value clearly reduces the overall number of Newton-Raphson iterations and thus the
analysis wall time. When looking at Table 24-3, iteration 9 reaches displacement, load and work errors which are
within the required tolerances. The extra iterations needed are caused by the fact that some grids of the belt which are
initially in contact with the pulley, separate because of tensile contact stresses. After separation of these grids, a new
solution with a smaller number of contact constraints has to be found.
Table 24-3

Convergence Behavior with MAXDIV=10 (

Load Factor

Step

Iteration

Disp. Error

Load Error

Work Error

1.000

1.00E+00

1.70E-01

1.70E-01

1.000

7.76E+00

3.54E-01

1.58E+00

1.000

6.61E+02

2.31E+01

6.17E+02

1.000

2.12E+02

1.80E+02

1.30E+04

1.000

8.61E-02

2.78E+01

7.33E+00

1.000

3.12E-03

1.70E-01

4.67E-02

1.000

2.60E-04

4.31E-03

3.50E-03

1.000

7.87E-06

4.09E-05

1.34E-04

1.000

3.92E-06

9.30E-07

5.09E-05

1.000

10

3.39E+00

1.41E-02

4.30E+00

1.000

11

4.26E-02

2.05E-03

6.67E-01

1.000

12

2.42E-03

3.31E-02

3.33E-02

1.000

13

8.19E-06

2.26E-05

1.30E-04

1.000

14

4.93E-06

1.61E-06

6.57E-05

Main Index

388 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 24

Table 24-4

Convergence Behavior with MAXDIV=3 (

Load Factor

Step

Iteration

Disp. Error

Load Error

Work Error

1.0000

1.00E+00

1.70E-01

1.70E-01

1.0000

7.76E+00

3.54E-01

1.58E+00

1.0000

6.61E+02

2.31E+01

6.17E+02

1.0000

2.12E+02

1.80E+02

1.30E+04

0.5000

1.00E+00

9.36E-02

9.36E-02

0.5000

8.06E+02

2.96E-01

3.12E+02

0.5000

5.62E+02

3.36E+01

6.19E+02

0.5000

8.37E+01

8.70E+01

1.92E+02

0.5000

3.27E-02

1.91E+00

8.84E-02

0.5000

8.88E-04

2.22E-02

2.19E-03

0.5000

1.27E-04

2.24E-04

2.84E-04

Main Index

0.5000

2.93E-06

6.83E-06

8.15E-06

0.5000

1.94E+00

1.02E-02

2.71E-01

0.5000

10

2.89E-02

1.31E-03

6.47E-02

0.5000

11

3.25E-04

7.79E-03

5.95E-04

0.5000

12

2.44E-05

8.00E-06

5.31E-05

1.0000

5.60E-01

2.26E-01

1.27E-01

1.0000

1.25E+02

2.32E+02

7.04E+03

0.7500

1.25E+02

2.32E+02

7.04E+03

0.6250

1.25E+02

2.32E+02

7.04E+03

0.5625

1.25E+02

2.32E+02

7.04E+03

0.5312

3.86E-01

6.06E-01

3.32E-01

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

0.9688

16

4.10E-03

1.92E-02

6.62E-03

0.9688

16

7.84E-05

4.16E-04

1.37E-04

0.9688

16

9.70E-06

4.13E-06

1.67E-05

1.0000

17

3.58E-02

5.91E-03

2.16E-04

1.0000

17

4.49E+00

7.24E-01

6.56E+00

1.0000

17

3.37E-03

1.27E-02

5.40E-03

1.0000

17

6.27E-05

2.93E-04

1.08E-04

1.0000

17

7.94E-06

2.83E-06

1.34E-05

CHAPTER 24 389
Friction Between Belt and Pulley

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_24_1.dat

Friction coefficient 0.05

nug_24_2.dat

Friction coefficient 0.15

nug_24_3.dat

Friction coefficient 0.25

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 25 minutes and explains how the steps
are performed.

Figure 24-2

Main Index

Video of the steps above

Chapter 25: Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

25

Main Index

Modal Analysis with


Glued Contact

Summary

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solutions

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

397

391
392

392
397
397

392

CHAPTER 25 391
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

Summary
Title

Chapter 25: Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

Contact features

Glued Contact between two bodies with dissimilar meshes


Stress Free Projection
Contact tolerance bias factor = 0.0

Geometry

Shroud outside diameter = 0.46 m


Hub diameter = 0.26 m
Width = 0.12 m
Shroud thickness = 0.02 m

d2

d1

Material properties

E = 210 10 Pa , = 0.3 , = 7850kg m 3

Linear elastic material


Analysis type

Modal analysis using SOL 103

Boundary conditions

Free-Free
Glued contact between vanes and shroud

Applied loads

None

Element type

8-node hexahedral elements


10-node tetrahedral elements

FE results

Natural frequencies and mode shapes

Main Index

Mode Shape 7 @ 1,130 Hz

Mode Shape 8 @ 1,131 Hz

Mode Shape 9 @ 1,168 Hz

Mode Shape 10 @1,774 Hz

392 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 25

Introduction
The shrouded vanes shown in Figure 25-1, consisting of twelve vanes with a central hub and an outer shroud, uses
contact to join dissimilar meshes during a modal analysis. The hub and vanes contain higher-order tetrahedral elements
while the shroud has linear hexahedral elements. The glued contact parameters preclude separation after initial contact
and change the original coordinates of the nodes in contact to insure stress free contact between the dissimilar meshes.

Figure 25-1

Shrouded Vanes Model

Requested Solutions
The modal analysis assumes free-free boundary conditions and returns ten natural frequencies and their associated
mode shapes of which the lowest six correspond to rigid body motion.

FEM Solutions
An eigenvalue analysis has been performed with MSC Nastrans SOL 103 for the element mesh shown in Figure 25-2.
The vanes and the hub are modeled using higher order tetrahedral elements while the shroud is modeled using linear
hexahedral elements. Contact body ID 1 is identified as all the elements making the vanes and hub whereas contact
body ID 2 is identified as the elements making the shroud respectively as:
BCBODY
BSURF
...

1
1

3D
10000

DEFORM
10001

1
10002

0
10003

10004

10005

10006

2
2

3D
100000

DEFORM
100001

2
100002

0
100003

100004

100005

100006

and
BCBODY
BSURF
...

Main Index

CHAPTER 25 393
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

Figure 25-2

FEA Mesh for the Shrouded Vanes Model

The BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies are glued to each other:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

2
1
MASTERS 1
1
SLAVE
2
1
MASTERS 1

0.
1

1
0.
0

0.

0.

0.
1

1
0.
0

0.

0.

The BCTABLE option shows that contact body ID 2, the shroud, has been selected as the touching body, the SLAVE,
whereas contact body ID 1, the vanes, has been selected as the touched body, the MASTERS. This selection is due to
the fact the average element size for the vanes in the contact area is slightly larger than that of the shroud as shown in
Figure 25-3. The IGLUE parameter of the BCTABLE option activates the glue option. The JGLUE parameter is turned
off to ensure that no nodes separate once in contact. Additionally, the ICOORD parameter is turned on to modify the
coordinates of the nodes in contact to ensure stress-free initial contact.
The BCPARA entries activate the quadratic contact option and indicate that a bias factor of 0 (actually a small nonzero
number of 1 x 10-16) has been selected:
BCPARA 0
NBODIES 2
MAXENT
IBSEP 2
BIAS 1.-16

Main Index

13824

MAXNOD

18348

394 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 25

Figure 25-3

Relative Element Size Between the Shroud and Vanes in the Contact Area

The vanes and the shroud are both modeled using the same material. The material properties are isotropic and elastic
with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and density defined as
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : inner_mat
$ Description of Material :
MAT1
1
2.1+11
$ Material Record : outer_mat
$ Description of Material :
MAT1
2
2.1+11

.3

7.85+3

.3

7.85+3

The Lanczos procedure is selected for the real eigenvalue problem using the METHOD and EIGRL entries in which ten
modes are desired:
METHOD=13
...
EIGRL,13,,,10

The obtained modes are listed in Table 25-1. The first six modes are rigid body modes. Mode shapes 7 to 10 are shown
in Figure 25-4.
Table 25-1

Obtained Modes and Frequencies

Mode

Frequency (Hz)

6.911939E-04

6.290693E-04

4.908829E-04

4.434468E-04

2.943299E-04

7.051053E-05

Main Index

CHAPTER 25 395
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

Table 25-1

Obtained Modes and Frequencies (continued)

Mode

Frequency (Hz)

1.130332E+03

1.131441E+03

1.168441E+03

10

1.774218E+03

Mode Shape 7 @ 1,130 Hz

Mode Shape 8 @ 1,131 Hz

Mode Shape 9 @ 1,168 Hz

Mode Shape 10 @1,774 Hz

Figure 25-4

Main Index

Mode Shapes and Corresponding Frequencies

396 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 25

To check the efficacy of gluing dissimilar messes on natural frequencies, Test 53 (Selected Benchmarks for Natural
Frequency Analysis, Abbassian, F, Dawswell, D J, and Knowles, N C, NAFEMS Ref R0015, 1987) was performed on
glued mesh below.
Title

Simply-Supported Solid Annular Plate, Axisymmetric Vibration

Contact features

Glued Contact between two bodies with dissimilar meshes


Stress Free Projection

Geometry and Mesh


Geometry

R
A
o

= 10

4.2 m

0.6 m
1.6 m

Gluing
Surface

Mesh

Material properties

E = 200 10 Pa , = 0.3 , = 8000kg m 3

Linear elastic material


Analysis type

Modal analysis using SOL 103

Boundary conditions

u = 0

Element type

10-node tetrahedral elements, 20-node hexahedral elements

for all nodes on axial planes of symmetry. u z = 0 along section AA

FE results
fref

18.583 Hz

fref

fMD =

18.666 Hz

fMD = 140.03 Hz

= 140.15 Hz

fref

358.29 Hz

fref

629.19 Hz

fMD =

362.71 Hz

fMD =

658.97 Hz

224.56 Hz

Flexural
Mode 5

Extensional
Mode 3

Flexural
Mode 4

224.16 Hz

Flexural
Mode 2

fMD =
r

Flexural
Mode 1

Main Index

fref

CHAPTER 25 397
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact

Modeling Tips
Glued contact with no separation ensures that nodes do not separate once in contact. Stress-free initial contact modifies
the coordinates of the nodes in contact to close any gaps between the two bodies. Quadratic contact allows midside
nodes to participate in the glued contact. Insuring that the dissimilar meshes join properly requires there are no
artificial stresses induced by nodes slightly off the contact surface, and the displacement field is completely continuous
across the contact surface.
This technique of gluing dissimilar meshes together facilitates faster model building by not requiring the meshes to
be contiguous across all nodes. Furthermore, as in this application example, joining different element types assists
modeling flexibility.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_25_1.dat

Linear Hexahedral and Parabolic Tetrahedral Elements

nug_25_2.dat

Glued Annular Plates NAFEMS Test #53

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately two minutes and explains
how the steps are performed.

Figure 25-5

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 26: Interference Fit Contact

26

Main Index

Interference Fit Contact

Summary

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Analytical Solution

FEM Solution

401

Modeling Tips

403

Input File(s)

Video

404

399
400

403

400

400

CHAPTER 26 399
Interference Fit Contact

Summary
Title

Chapter 26: Interference Fit Contact

Contact features

Deformable-deformable contact
Contact interference

Geometry

Valve insert inside radius, a = 15.5 mm


Valve insert outside radius, b + h = 20 + 0.05 mm
Cylinder head valve insert opening radius, b = 20 mm

a
b+h

Material properties

CL

E head = 224 kN/mm

E seat = 125 kN/mm

hea d = 0.26

s eat = 0.25

Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Some nodes on the periphery of the cylinder head are fixed


Contact between cylinder head and valve insert includes an initial interference fit

Applied loads

None

Element type

10-node tetrahedron elements

Contact properties

Coefficient of friction = 0.15 with an interference shrink of 0.050 mm.

FE results

Plots of radial and hoop stresses versus radial distance from valve center
Radius (mm)

15
0

16

17

18

19

20

21
246621

249166

246823

-100

Radial Stress
Radial Stress FEA

246815

247999

247587

248815
246622

246615

-200
248830

249221

Hoop Stress FEA

-300

Hoop Stress

Main Index

246821

Y, r

Stress (MPa)

246619

246816

248604

248019

-400
-500

248024

246820

248039

246617

400 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 26

Introduction
The interference fitting of a valve insert into a cylinder head recess is to be simulated. The general arrangement is
shown in Figure 26-1. The compressive interference between the valve insert external radius and the cylinder head
valve recess opening is 0.05 mm. Only a portion of the relatively stiff cylinder head is modeled. An approximate
analytical solution for the stress in the valve insert can be found from a deformation analysis of thick-walled cylinders
subject to symmetric external loading.

Figure 26-1

Valve Insert Fitted into Cylinder Head

Solution Requirements
A single solution is sought and the average hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert are compared to a thick cylinder
solution assuming the cylinder head is rigid. Comparison plots include average hoop and radial stresses plotted along
the radial distance from the value center for the predicted and analytic solutions.

Analytical Solution
An estimate for the hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert can be obtained from the analytical solution of a twodimensional plane stress (axial stress assumed to be zero) thick walled cylinder with prescribed displacement on its
external radius. The analytical solution assumes the cylinder head is rigid and the radial displacement of the insert at
its external radius is equal to the interference fit.
The thick walled cylinder solution only varies with radius, r , where the radial displacement, u , becomes the solution
C
of d --1- d ur = 0 or u r = C 1 r + -----2- . The stresses are then determined from the radial displacement as,
dr r dr

C
E
- 1 + C 1 1 -----2 rr = ------------------2
r
1
C
E
- 1 + C 1 + 1 -----2 = ------------------2
r
1

Main Index

subjected to the boundary conditions, u b = h = 0.05 mm and rr a = 0 .

CHAPTER 26 401
Interference Fit Contact

This yields the analytic solutions of


bh 1 + a 2 + 1 r 2u r = --------- -----------------------------------------------------r 1 + a 2 + 1 b 2
Ebh
a 2- 1 --- rr = --------------------------------------------------------- 1 + v a 2 + 1 b 2
r2
2
Ebh
- 1 + a---- = --------------------------------------------------------- 1 + v a 2 + 1 b 2
r2

FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastran's SOL 400 for the element mesh (shown in Figure 26-2)
using higher order tetrahedron elements. The contours show the two contact bodies defined in this analysis.

Figure 26-2

FEA Model for Interference Fit

Contact body id 1 is identified by the element property IDs 1 and 3 for the cylinder head while contact body ID 4 is
identified by the element property ID 2 for the valve insert as:
BCPROP
BCBODY
...

1
1

4
4

3D

DEFORM

DEFORM

and
BCPROP
BCBODY
...

3D

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other:
BBCTABLE

Main Index

0
SLAVE

4
1
MASTERS 1

0.3
1

1
0.
0

.0

0.

0.

402 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 26

BCTABLE

1
SLAVE

4
1
MASTERS 1

1
0.
0

0.
0

.15

0.050

0.

Additionally, BCTABLE ID 1 shows the coefficient of friction to be 0.15 and the interference closure to be 0.05 mm.
BCTABLE ID 1 is referenced in the BCONTACT entry of the STEP case control command:
STEP 1
BCONTACT=1
SUBTITLE=FRETTAGE
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 10

Although there are no forces applied in this problem, a dummy LOAD = n case control is required for SOL 400.
Figure 26-3 plots the FEA and analytical solutions for the hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert against the radius
from the valve center. An arbitrary cross-section (high noon position of Figure 26-1) of the valve insert along the free
surface was chosen to pick the FEA stresses. The results of the analytical and FEA solutions are in general agreement.
Radius (mm)

15
0

16

17

18

19

20

21
246621

249166

246815

247999
246823

-100

Radial Stress
Radial Stress FEA

247587

248815
246622

246615

-200
248830

249221

Hoop Stress FEA

-300

Hoop Stress

246821

Y, r

Stress (MPa)

Figure 26-3

246619

246816

248604

248019

-400
-500

248024

246820

248039

246617

Hoop and Radius Stress versus Radius From Valve Center

Several factors may have contributed to the difference in results. The analytical solution assumes a perfectly shaped
insert with prescribed displacements on the outside radius. On the other hand, the portion of the cylinder head that is
modeled using FEA is a nonsymmetric deformable body, which makes the FEA results slightly nonuniform across the
circumference as shown in Figure 26-4. The valve insert is in contact with the cylinder head not only across the insert's
cylindrical surface but across its bottom surface as well. In addition, the shape of the cross-section of the valve seat
disc has a slant edge on its top free surface.

Main Index

CHAPTER 26 403
Interference Fit Contact

Figure 26-4

Slightly Nonuniform Hoop Stress in Valve Insert

Modeling Tips
This application example holds the insert in position by contact and friction. Take out friction, and the insert may (or
may not) pop out - in which case, the best thing is to add some soft springs, or a very small amount of friction to hold
it in place in the axial direction. Using the parabolic tetrahedral elements allows for good contact detection of the
cylindrical surface which yields a very smooth contact condition between the two bodies.
If the interference distance is small compared to the element size, the default contact tolerances will probably be ok;
however, it is possible that the interference fit will end up larger than the contact distance tolerance and contact will
be missed (one reason for a spotty stress plot). The remedy is to specify a distance tolerance equal to the interference
fit for the contact pair in the table, as well as a bias of 0.99 in general.

Input File(s)
File
nug_26s4.dat

Main Index

Description
Parabolic Tetrahedral Elements With Friction

404 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 26

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

a
b+h

CL

Figure 26-5

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 27: Large Sliding Analysis of a Buckle

27

Main Index

Large Sliding Contact Analysis


of a Buckle

Summary

406

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

407
407

412

416

415
416

410

406 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

Summary
Title

Chapter 27: Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

Features

Deformable-deformable contact, bilinear, Coulomb friction model, Hookean, isotropic


elastic material, adaptive time stepping, solid elements with assumed strain formulation

Geometry

168 mm

X
Z

247

y
metr
Sym
Half

mm

Material properties

E = 10GPa , = 0.4

Analysis characteristics

Quasi-static analysis using: adaptive time stepping and geometric nonlinearity due to
large displacement

Boundary conditions

Sliding, frictional contact with: ends fixed for second contact body and contact between
the two deformable bodies with = 0.1

Applied loads

Prescribed displacements for the end nodes of the first contact body with two load cases:
insertion (clipping) and removal of the buckle

Element type

8-node solid element with assumed strain formulation

FE results

1. History plot of y-displacements for specific nodes


2. Normal and frictional contact force comparison of Nastran and Marc
3. Load displacement curves comparison between the frictional and frictionless cases
Fx

Fx

1000

Fx (N)

500
0.5

1.0

Time (s)

-500

Frictionless
Frictional

-1000
-1500

Insert

Remove

-2000
Fx

Main Index

1.5

Fx

CHAPTER 27 407
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of MSC Nastran SOL 400 to do a frictional contact problem. An ostensibly
simple geometry poses a substantial challenge for the contact algorithm due to the large sliding involved between the
two deformable bodies. Sudden changes in the motion path pose a challenge to the ability of the contact algorithm to
correctly place the node on the contact surface while respecting the various geometric details in the problem.
Due to large bending stresses in the deformed configuration, assumed strain formulation is used with the 8-node
hexahedral elements. The material is elastic and the original geometry without residual stresses is recovered upon the
complete removal of the loading.
From elementary strength of materials analysis, the tip deflection for beam bending can be written as:
= PL 3 3EI

where P is the applied load, L is the length of the beam, I is the moment of inertia and E is the Youngs modulus.
The normal stress along the beam cross section varies in the thickness direction as:
xx = M t I

where M is the moment and t is the thickness coordinate. It must be noted that the above solution only holds for small
displacements and uniform cross section.

Modeling Details
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 3-D representation of a belt buckle with
a deformable-to-deformable contact between the two pieces of the buckle. The details of finite element model, contact
simulation, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed below.
The case control section of the input contains the following options for nonlinear analysis:
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
TITLE=Insertion (Clipping)
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PLOT,SORT1)=ALL
STEP 2
TITLE=Removal
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2
SPC = 6
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PLOT,SORT1)=ALL

Main Index

408 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

The analysis contains a single subcase with two steps. The two steps comprise of individual load sequences consisting
of insertion (clipping) and removal of the belt buckle. Each step has a definition of convergence control option via
NLPARM, contact table and parameters via BCONTACT, applied displacements (or single point constraints) via SPC
and the displacements and stress results for the .f06 (output) file. A zoomed-in view of the cross section of the model
shown in Figure 27-1 consists of an outer piece modeled as body 2, the buckle, while the inner piece is modeled as
body 1, the insert.

Figure 27-1

Geometry and a Zoomed-in View of a Belt Buckle

Large displacement effects are included in the nonlinear analysis using the option:
PARAM

LGDISP

While the assumed strain formulation is flagged using the option:


NLMOPTS,ASSM,assumed

The NLMOPTS field triggers the assumed strain formulation which provides a better bending behavior of the
continuum elements. This alleviates the difficulty associated with spuriously large shear stresses induced due to
bending moment. The LGDISP field indicated the use of large displacement, large rotation kinematics of the element.
This is adequate when the analysis consists of Hookean elastic material; however, incase of large deformation
plasticity or other inelastic models, the LRGSTRN parameter should be used in the NLMOPTS option (for more details
on its usage, please refer to : Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming of this manual).

Element Modeling
Besides the standard options to define the element connectivity and grid coordinate location, the bulk data section
contains various options which are especially important to do nonlinear analysis. The nonlinear extensions to

Main Index

CHAPTER 27 409
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

lower-order solid element, CHEXA can be activated by using the PSLDN1 property option to the regular PSOLID
property option in the manner shown below:
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+
C4

1
1

1
1
SOLI

0
1
L

+
+

The PLSLDN1 option allows the element to be used in both large displacement and large strain analysis and has no
restrictions on the kinematics of deformation unlike the regular CHEXA elements with only PSOLID property entry.
The standard CHEXA elements are more suitable for large rotations but small strain analysis due to their linear
formulation in co-rotational system. While the difference may be small or even negligible in elastic analysis, use of
any inelastic material model would certainly require the use of these options.

Modeling Contact
The BCPARA defines the number of bodies in contact with maximum number of contact entities (e.g., patches), nodes
on the periphery of the contact surfaces and contact parameters like friction type (in this case node based, bilinear
Coulomb model), friction coefficient, bias factor, and type of contact procedure used.
BCPARA

0ERROR

0.005BIAS

0.99FTYPE

It must be mentioned that the contact procedure being used (flagged via ISPLIT flag) is iterative penetration checking
procedure and must always be used for robustness in a quasi-static analysis.
Friction has been flagged via the FTYPE field where a 6 denotes the bilinear, Coulomb model. The friction coefficient
is 0.1 and is included in contact body definition with BCBODY option or the contact tables using the BCTABLE option.
Another significant point is the use of BIAS in frictional problems. The bias factor measures the non-dimensionalized
distance on both sides of the contact surface which is used to make a decision if the node is in contact or not, based on
whether the node falls within this band defined by contact zone tolerance. Ideally, it should be 1.0 or as close to it.
However, due to the possibility of excessive iterations in case of even very slight penetration, the bias is kept as zero
or, in other words, a slight penetration is accepted. While a bias of zero works well for nonfrictional problems, it can
be a detriment for frictional problems which require the bias to be set as close to one as possible in order to avoid a
fictitious tangential force on the node which can cause non convergence of the solution. Finally, the ERROR parameter
denotes the contact zone tolerance. The default value is about 1/20th of the smallest element size for a solid element.
In this case, it has been chosen to be an even smaller value of 0.005.
To identify how the contact bodies can touch each other, the BCTABLE option is used. BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to
define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for contact
analysis and it is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE with
ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using BCONTACT
= 1 in the case control section. Also, the SLAVE-MASTER combination defines that the nodes for body 1 are nodes
belonging to the slave body. This, in literature, is referred by various terminologies as either contacting body nodes or
tied nodes (imagining the situation of multi-point constraints). The nodes belonging to body 2 are said to belong to the
master body which are also referred to as the contacted body nodes or the retained nodes (imagining the situation of
multi-point constraints)
BCTABLE

SLAVE
MASTERS 1

Main Index

0.
0

0.
0

.1
0

0.

410 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

BCTABLE

SLAVE

0.
0

MASTERS 1

0.
0

.1
0

0.

The definition of the contact bodies (defined as body 1 and 2 in Figure 27-1) consists of the bulk data entries. The
BCBODY option defines the deformable body including the body ID, dimensionality, type of body, type of contact
constraints and friction etc. while the BSURF identifies the elements forming a part of the deformable body as:
BCBODY
BSURF

2
3D
DEFORM
2
2
50000
50001
50002
50003
50007
50008
50009
50010
50011
50015
50016
50017
50018
50019
50023
50024
50025
50026
50027
(list of element forming this body)

2
50004
50012
50020
50028

50005
50013
50021
50029

50006
50014
50022
50030

Material Modeling
The isotropic, Hookean elastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the following MAT1
option as follows:
MAT1

10000.

0.4

Isotropi

The Youngs modulus is taken to be 10 GPa with a Poissons ratio of 0.4.

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The displacements for body 2 are fixed at the end in the following manner:
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : right_fixed_xyz
SPC1
5
123
100056 THRU
100074
SPC1
5
123
100446 THRU
100464

The loading involves application of displacement controlled boundary conditions as follows:


SPCADD
2
1
8
5
$ Enforced Displacements for Load Set : case1_left_xyz
$ Dummy Force Required to Activate the Following Enforced Displacements
FORCE
1
50084
0.
.57735 .57735 .57735
SPCD
1
50084
1
85.
50085
1
85.

A total X displacement of 85 mm is applied to body 1. The application of the loads or displacements is such that the
total load applied at the end of the loading sequence is given in the input.

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM
NLAUTO

1
0.01
1
10

20
.01
0

FNT
1.

.1

1.2

50

UV

ALL

1.-5

.5

FNT represents Full Newton-Raphson technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP (field
after FNT) is left blank and in conjunction with FNT, it indicates that the program will determine if the stiffness needs

Main Index

CHAPTER 27 411
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

to be reformed between the end of the load step and the start of next load increment. Fifty (50) is the maximum number
of allowed recycles for every increment and, if this were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the
increment repeated. UV indicates that the maximum norm of vector component of the incremental displacements will
be checked for convergence. ALL indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The
second line of NLPARM indicates that a tolerance of 0.01 will be used for displacement based convergence checking.
NLAUTO defines the parameters in the adaptive load stepping scheme. The initial load step is 1% of the total load. It
must be noted that, for many problems including plasticity of complicated contact conditions in the early stages of the
analysis, this must be a very small percentage (typically 0.5%). The smallest and largest ratio between the steps is 0.1
and 1.2, respectively, while the minimum value of the step is 10 5 . Finally, the desired number of recycles is kept at
ten which is the default in SOL 400. If this number is chosen to be very small, then the step size is cut to a smaller size
for convergence to be achieved and there will be larger number of steps. If this number is very large, then the load step
will allow more iterations for convergence in the same step.

The number of increments is provided in the third field of the NLPARM option. It is also worth noting that removing
the NLAUTO option results in a constant load step procedure with a total of 20 load increments per step (thus, a total
of 40 for the analysis).
Alternately another nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLSTEP entry like:
NLSTEP
+
+
+

ADAPT
MECH

1.
1.00E-2
0
PV

1.E-5
0.0002

0.10
0.1

1.2
PFNT

999999

+
+
+

Adaptive time procedure with total time of 1 is used. Initial time step of 0.01 is used as fraction of total time. It means
the initial load step is 1% of the total load. It must be noted that, for many problems including plasticity of complicated
contact conditions in the early stages of the analysis, this must be a very small percentage (typically 0.5%). The
maximum number of recycles allowed for each increment are 10 and minimum is 1. The desired number of recycles
per increment is 4. If this number is chosen to be very small, then the step size is cut to a smaller size for convergence
to be achieved and there will be larger number of steps. If this number is very large, then the load step will allow more
iterations for convergence in the same step.The smallest and largest ratio between the steps is 0.1 and 1.2, respectively,
while the minimum value of the step is 1E-5. Output is written to result file for every single increment.

Main Index

412 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

Results
Figure 27-2 shows the sequence of the analysis with a close-up view of the buckle. It can be seen that the clip slides
on top of the protrusion of the static frame without any penetration. It is quite remarkable that even with the large
motion as well as large sliding contact per load increment between the two deformable contact bodies, the analysis
shows a robust behavior.
A vector plot of the comparison of normal and frictional contact forces with the Marc results is presented in
Figure 27-3 and Figure 27-4, respectively. The contact forces for SOL 400 and Marc agree very well in both
magnitude and direction.

Figure 27-2

Main Index

Various Stages of Insertion of the Clip

CHAPTER 27 413
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

(a) SOL 400

Figure 27-3

Comparison of Contact Normal Forces

(a) SOL 400

Figure 27-4

(b) Marc

(b) Marc

Comparison of Contact Frictional Forces

Next, the load displacement for the frictional and frictionless cases are compared in Figure 27-5. Only the X direction
forces are plotted versus time. It is always recommended to perform a frictionless analysis (nug_27f.dat)
whenever possible to aid in the understanding of the affect of adding friction. As expected, for the frictionless case,
the load displacement curve is symmetric about the center line (between the insertion and removal steps). Deformed
geometry is shown at various peaks of the curve and, as intuition would suggest, the peak forces correspond to the
point of maximum bending. Addition of the non-conservative friction forces destroys the symmetry and the peak
insertion force increases compared to the peak force in removal. The removal of the clip generates less pull-out force
compared to the push-in force. Also, the insertion force starts reducing due to frictional forces aiding the motion as
opposed to resisting the motion as the sliding switches from the convex part to the concave part of the contact surface.

Main Index

414 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

Fx

Fx

1000

Fx (N)

500
0.5

1.0

1.5
Time (s)

-500

Frictionless
Frictional

-1000
-1500

Insert

Remove

-2000
Fx

Figure 27-5

Fx

Load Displacement Curve for the Frictional and Frictionless Cases

Checking the finite element analysis with a hand calculation assists both in understanding the FEM as well as the
E t
physics of the simulation. Solving elementary equations mentioned earlier for the bending stress yields, = --3- ----------2
2 L

where is the tip displacement shown in Figure 27-6 during the insertion of the clip.
Inc: 17
Time: 4.250e-001

4.213e+002

L=8

3.368e+002

0 mm

2.524e+002
1.679e+002
= 20 mm

8.349e+001
-9.664e-001

2 t = 6 mm

-8.542e+001
-1.699e+002
-2.543e+002
-3.388e+002
Y

-4.232e+002

lcase1
Comp 11 of Stress

Figure 27-6

Verify FEM with Simple Calculation

Performing the calculation of the bending stress at the outer fibers of the thinnest section gives,
2
2
3 10x10 9 N m 20mm 6mm
N
m
3 E 2 t
N
- = 4.69 x10 8 ------ ------------------ = 469 ----------- .
= --- -------------------= --- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2 10 3 mm
2
2
2 L2
80mm
m
mm

The value of 469N mm 2

agrees closely to the corresponding bending stresses in Figure 27-6 of 423N mm 2 . As expected, the linear solution
presents an upper-bound to the actual stresses.

Main Index

CHAPTER 27 415
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle

Modeling Tips
The two most important aspects in the analysis comprise of the inclusion of assumed strain enhancements to the
standard element formulation and the choice of contact and time stepping scheme parameters use of adaptive load
stepping scheme, and its associated parameters. The former is important due to presence of bending stresses in the
structure which can manifest themselves as (sometimes large) spurious shear stresses. This is a purely numerical
artifact due to the standard, displacement based finite element chosen which can be ameliorated by the use of an
assumed strain enhancement to the standard element.
Among the numerical parameters affecting the convergence of the job, the two most important parameters for this kind
of analysis are the contact bias and maximum number of recycles for the adaptive stepping scheme.
In contact analysis with friction, it is important to use a high bias (preferably 0.99) for frictional problems for improved
convergent results. In many cases (although, not in this problem, nug_27b.dat), it can decrease the number of
iterations as well.
Next is the contact zone tolerance. Typically, a default value is 1/20th the smallest length of solid element. If the
contact zone is too big, then there could be a loss of accuracy due to acceptance of penetrated nodes or large amount
of recycling due to contact nodes separating. However, reducing the contact zone tolerance may not always yield the
reduction in the number of iterations. In fact, in certain problems where there are not many separations expected,
reducing to a very small number can even increase the number of iterations due to contact detection and scaling of
incremental displacements in the iterative penetration checking algorithm in contact.
It is also worth noting that the adaptive load stepping improves the speed and accuracy of the analysis quite
significantly for this problem due to its intelligent choice of time steps based on the convergence parameters. This
adequately demonstrates the strength of the adaptive stepping in tough problems where the smart algorithm adjusts the
increment size based on the kinematics of deformation, contact constraints, and convergence rates rather than the fixed
time stepping where the only alternative is to cut down the existing increment size in case of non convergence in the
specified number of recycles.
It is also noted that a very high or very low number of desired number of recycles can either invoke an excessive
number of iterations or induce cutbacks during the analysis. For example, decreasing the desired number of recycles
to may increase the number of increments. Due to a large amount of sliding and significant contact nonlinearity, a large
number of recycles, in general, are expected for most increments. Therefore, a high number of desired recycles proved
to be useful in this particular example. However, in problems with milder material and/or contact nonlinearities where
only a few iterations per increment are expected, a smaller number of desired recycles can yield faster results. This
difference can result in notable savings of the computing time for large jobs.
Flat rigid surfaces can be glued to the ends of the buckle and insert to control the insertion and extraction of the insert
in and out of the buckle. The advantage of this modeling technique is that the total insertion and extraction force
component, Fx, can be easily determined as shown in Figure 27-5, since all of the forces acting on rigid bodies are
resolved to a single force and moment vector acting at the position of the rigid bodies.
Finally, since the buckle has a plane of symmetry, it is cost effective to only model the half of the model say above this
plane of symmetry.
Note:

Main Index

For contact problems, artificial damping can improve the speed of convergence and stability of the
analysis as seen in nug_27c.dat.

416 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 27

Input File(s)
File

Description

mug_27.dat

Marc input for fixed time

nug_27.dat

MSC Nastran input for fixed time stepping

nug_27a.dat

MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping with bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.0
(default), desired number of recycles = 20 (default = 10)

nug_27b.dat

MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.0 (default), contact zone tolerance =
0.005, desired number of recycles = 20 (default = 10)

nug_27c.dat

MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.005,
desired number of recycles = 20

nug_27b.bdf

Input file similar to nug_27b.dat above with half symmetry use in the video

nug_27_star
t.SimXpert

MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.005,
desired number of recycles = 20

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 47 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

168 mm

X
Z

247

Figure 27-7

Main Index

mm

y
metr
Sym
Half

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 28: Model Airplane Analysis

28

Main Index

Model Airplane
Engine Analysis

Summary

Introduction

Required Solution

FEM Solution

Input File(s)

Video

428

418
419

419
427

419

418 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

Summary
Title

Chapter 28: Model Airplane Engine Analysis

Contact features

Deformable-deformable contact - glue contact; Segment - Segment Contact


Gasket material
Bolt modeling with BOLT entry

Geometry
66

Units: mm
33

82

Eq. Stress At Pressure

Material properties

Linear elastic material (Steel) for the engine block, plug, and bolts:
E = 2.1 10 5 MPa , = 0.3

Linear elastic material (aluminium) for the cylinder head:


E = 7.0 10 4 MPa , = 0.3

Isotropic in-plane behavior or the gasket body:


E = 120MPa , G = 60MPs

Isotropic in-plane behavior of the gasket body:


E = 100MPa , G = 50MPa

Out-of-plane pressure-over closure curves are used for the gasket body and gasket ring
using loading and unloading curves.
Analysis type

Quasi-static analysis

Boundary conditions

Some nodes on the outer boundaries on the engine block are constrained in all directions

Applied loads

Step 1: Enforces displacement of 0.25 mm on the bolts using BOLT.


Step 2: Pressure load of 16 MPa

Element type

4-node tetrahedron elements


8-node CHEXA to model the gasket

Contact properties

Glue contact, segment to segment contact


Extended tangential contact tolerance at sharp corners

FE results

Displacement of the engine model, Load history chart for bolt


Contact pressure and forces on the gasket

Main Index

CHAPTER 28 419
Model Airplane Engine Analysis

Introduction
The model airplane engine analysis consists of a cylinder head, a engine block, a gasket, bolts, and a plug. The gasket
is assembled between the head and the block. The problems demonstrates how the solution sequence 400 of MSC
Nastran can be used for a typical analysis for engine involving the nonlinear pressure-over closure relationship of the
gasket material and bolt pre-tension load. Glued contact is used to establish contact between the different parts of this
engine model.

Required Solution
The nonlinear analysis involving large displacement and gasket nonlinearity is carried for the model airplane engine
to find the forces in the bolts and contact forces in the gasket. While the deformations are relatively small the Large
Displacement activates the initial stress capability which is required for proper modeling of the gasket and the bolts.

FEM Solution
MSC Nastrans nonlinear solution sequence SOL 400 is used to analyze the engine model under the bolt and pressure
loads in two steps. The details of finite element models, contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and
solution procedure are discussed in the following sections.

Finite Element Model


The finite element model used for the 3-D solid approach is shown in Figure 28-1. The model consists of 88293
CTETRA element and 468 CHEXA elements. MSC Nastrans 4-node tetrahedral elements are used for block using
the following PSOLID and PSLDN1 options. Head, bolts, and plug are also models with 4-node tetrahedral elements.
PSOLID
PSLDN1

1
1

Figure 28-1

Main Index

1
1

Finite Element Model for Model Airplane Engine

420 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

Using the following PSOLID and PSLDN1 options, the gasket body is modeled using MSC Nastrans 8-node
hexahedral gasket elements. Here, the gasket material is referred to by the material ID 5.
PSOLID
PSLDN1

5
5
C8

3
3
SLCOMP

0
1
L

The gasket ring is also modeled in a similar way using the different material ID 6.
PSOLID
PSLDN1

5
5
C8

6
6
SLCOMP

0
1
L

Contact Model
For the contact definition, various parts of the model airplane engine are defined as deformable contact bodies. the
following BCBODY and BSURF entries show the contact body definition for the gasket.
BCBODY
BSURF

1
4

3D
70172

DEFORM
THRU

4
70639

The contact bodies for other parts of the model as also defined in a similar way. Figure 28-2 presents the details of
different contact bodies defined for the model airplane engine.

Zoomed view of contact parts


without head and block

Figure 28-2

Details of the Different Contact Bodies

The following BCTABLE entries identify how the contact bodies can touch each other. The BCTABLE with ID 1 is used
to define contact conditions at the first step of the analysis. Since there is no difference in the contacts in Second Step
the same BCTABLE with ID 1 is used to define the contact conditions for second step in the analysis, and it is flagged
using the option BCONTACT = 2 in the case control section. Glued contact is used for all the six contact pairs defined

Main Index

CHAPTER 28 421
Model Airplane Engine Analysis

in the BCTABLE option. Delayed sliding is enabled for the contact pairs involving gasket by choosing the value 2 for
the field ICOORD.
BCTABLE

1
SLAVE

1
1
4
1
1
5
2
1
4
2
1
5
3
1
4
4
1
5

MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS

0.0
2

0.0
2

0.0
0

0.0
0

0.0
0

0.0
0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Material
The linear isotropic elastic properties of the steel and aluminium materials are defined using the following MAT entries.
Steel properties are used for block, bolts and plug and aluminium properties are used for cylinder head.
MAT1
MAT1

1
2

210000.
70000.

.3
.3

7.86-6
2.7-6

1.-5
2.4-5

The in-plane membrane properties of gasket body (ID 3) and gasket ring (ID 4) materials are defined using the
following MAT1 entries. The nonlinear pressure-over closure relation for the gasket body (ID 3) and gasket ring (ID
5) are defined using the following MATG entries.
MAT1
MAT1
MATG

3
4
5

120.
100.
3

60.
50.
0

MATG

35.
6

0.05
4

35.

0.0

9.99E-7
1.99E-6
1
2
3

5.E-5
0.0001

52.

72.

42.

64.

Figure 28-3 shows the pressure-over closure properties for the gasket materials. The following TABLES1 entries
(referred in the MATG entries) are used to define these nonlinear gasket properties.
$ Displacement Dependent
TABLES1
1
+
0.0
0.0
+
0.108
33.28
$ Displacement Dependent
TABLES1
2
+
0.1
0.0
+
0.16
35.84
$ Displacement Dependent
TABLES1
3
+
0.0
0.0
+
0.104
26.88
$ Displacement Dependent
TABLES1
4
+
0.12
0.0
+
0.168
30.72

Main Index

Table : body_loading
0.027
2.08
0.054
0.135
52.
0.175
Table : body_unloading

8.32
56.

0.081
ENDT

0.1225
5.04 0.1375
0.1675
45.36
0.175
Table : ring_loading

14.
56.

0.1525
ENDT

0.026
1.68
0.052
0.13
42.
0.18
Table : ring_unloading

6.72
48.

0.078
ENDT

12.
48.

0.162
ENDT

0.138
0.174

4.32
38.88

0.15
0.18

+
18.72+
+
27.44+
+
15.12+
+
23.52+

422 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

Gasket Pressure (MPa)


60
Body

Loading Curve Body

50
40

Unloading Curve Body

Ring

Loading Curve Ring


Unloading Curve Ring

30
20
10
0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Gasket Closure (mm)


Figure 28-3

Pressure-over Closure Relations for Gasket Materials

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The analysis for the model airplane engine is carried out in two steps. In the first step, a pre-tension load is applied on
bolts. In the second step, a pressure load is applied in the part of head and gasket. Some nodes on the outer boundaries
on the block are constrained in all directions. Figure 28-4 shows these boundary conditions applied in both Steps 1
and 2.

Figure 28-4

Main Index

Constraints used in Steps 1 and 2

CHAPTER 28 423
Model Airplane Engine Analysis

The following data in case control section of the input file defines the load and boundary conditions at the two different
steps of the analysis. The bulk data entries SPCD, SPC1, and PLOAD4 are used to define the boundary condition and
loads in these steps. Bolt pretension loading is simulated using BOLT.
In order to define Pre-Stress in Bolts, Bolt modeling is carried out using BOLT entry. BOLT
consists of combination of two pairs, TOP and BOTTOM nodes set. The key idea is to split the
element mesh of the bolt across the shaft in two disjoint parts, such that duplicate grid points
appear at the cut, and to create an overlap or gap between the two parts via multi-point
constraints. If the motion of these parts is somehow constrained in the direction in which the
gap or overlap is created, then an overlap (shortening) will introduce a tensile (pre-) stress
in each of the parts and a gap (elongation) will result in a compressive stress. This technique
is more elaborated in Chapter 23: Bolted Plates.
However the internal MPC equations are generated between the TOP and BOTTOM nodes to
a free node which is also called as Control node. The BOLT entry for Bolt_1 is defined as
follows:
BOLT
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

TOP

89847

BOTTOM

38083
38271
38278
38285
38292
38299
38306
22467
22463
22341
22475
22482
21641

38272
38279
38286
38293
38300
38307
22459
22461
22816
22465
21643
21640

38273
38280
38287
38294
38301

38274
38281
38288
38295
38302

38275
38282
38289
38296
38303

38276
38283
38290
38297
38304

38277+
38284+
38291+
38298+
38305+

22466
22814
22480
22472
22469

22470
22813
22458
22471
22479

22481
22478
22477
22275
22468

22817
22474
22473
21642
21644

22460+
22462+
22464+
22476+
22815+

Here 89847 indicates the BOLT ID; 38083 indicates the Control node ID; TOP indicates the set of node IDs and BOTTOM
indicates the bottom node IDs. Similarly the remaining 3 bolts are defined as follows:
BOLT
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
BOLT
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Main Index

TOP

89848

BOTTOM

TOP

89849

BOTTOM

38007
38308
38315
38322
38329
38336
38343
20192
21825
21826
20205
20193
19871

38309
38316
38323
38330
38337
38344
20191
21828
20185
19867
20190
20206

38310
38317
38324
38331
38338

38311
38318
38325
38332
38339

38312
38319
38326
38333
38340

38313
38320
38327
38334
38341

38314+
38321+
38328+
38335+
38342+

20194
20184
20196
20199
19868

21827
20186
20188
20197
20203

20202
20187
20189
20201
20198

22544
20838
20183
19870
20200

20195+
20207+
21829+
19869+
20204+

38084
38345
38352
38359
38366
38373
38380
20324
20322
20308
20327

38346
38353
38360
38367
38374
38381
20318
19721
20305
20317

38347
38354
38361
38368
38375

38348
38355
38362
38369
38376

38349
38356
38363
38370
38377

38350
38357
38364
38371
38378

38351+
38358+
38365+
38372+
38379+

20320
20311
20312
22008

20321
20325
20313
20328

20309
20304
20315
20326

20310
22009
20316
20306

20307+
21808+
20319+
20323+

424 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

+
+
BOLT
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

TOP

89850

BOTTOM

22451
20314

19722
19719

22007

19723

22006

22005

19720+

38085
38382
38389
38396
38403
38410
38417
21071
21089
21065
22539
22542
22543

38383
38390
38397
38404
38411
38418
21069
21074
21067
21070
21083
21397

38384
38391
38398
38405
38412

38385
38392
38399
38406
38413

38386
38393
38400
38407
38414

38387
38394
38401
38408
38415

38388+
38395+
38402+
38409+
38416+

21068
21066
21398
22541
21399

21080
21073
21075
21072
21081

21078
21086
21087
21395
21085

21076
21401
22540
21082
21084

21077+
21400+
21088+
21079+
21326+

The SPCD data is used for applying the imposed displacement of 0.25 mm in the vertical direction in Steps 1 and 2 at
the controlled nodes for bolts. The lateral displacements at these four control nodes are constrained.
STEP 1
$! Step name : Bolt_Preload
SPC = 30
LOAD = 31
BCONTACT = 1
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
NLSTEP = 2
STEP 2
$! Step name : Static_Pressure
SPC = 31
LOAD = 32
BCONTACT = 1
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
NLSTEP = 3
...
SPCD
31
38083
3
SPC1
31
3
38083
SPCD
31
38007
3
SPC1
31
3
38007
SPCD
31
38084
3
SPC1
31
3
38084
SPCD
31
38085
3
SPC1
31
3
38085
...
SPC1
9
123
987
SPC1
9
123
2453
...
PLOAD4
1
85127
16.
...
PLOAD4
2
55616
16.
...

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

THRU

2465
24238

23579

15870

15071

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure for the Step 1 is defined through the following NLSTEP entry with ID 2.
NLSTEP specifies the convergence criteria, step size control between coupled loops and step/iteration control for each
physics loop in MSC Nastran SOL 400. NLSTEP entry is represented as follows:
NLSTEP

Main Index

2
GENERAL 50
FIXED
10
MECH
P

1.
1

0.01

PFNT

CHAPTER 28 425
Model Airplane Engine Analysis

Here, 1. Indicate the total Time for the Load case; GENERAL indicates the keyword for parameters used for overall
analysis; 50 indicates the maximum number of iterations per increment; FIXED indicates the fixed stepping is to be
used; 10 indicate the number of increments for fixed stepping; 1 indicates interval for output. Every increment will be
saved for output; MECH indicate the keyword for parameters for mechanical analysis; P indicates the load convergence
criteria; 0.01 indicates convergence tolerance for load; PFNT indicates the Modified Full Newton Raphson Technique
for updating stiffness matrix. The fields MAXQN, MAXLS, and MAXBIS are set to zero to disable the Quasi Newton, line
search, and bisection techniques in the iterative process.
Similar NLSTEP option with ID 3 is used for Step 2.
NLSTEP
3
1.
GENERAL 50
FIXED
10
1
MECH
P
0.01
PFNT

Segment to Segment Contact method is activated using BCPARA. Here METHOD indicates the Global Contact type;
SEGSMALL indicates the Small Segment-to-Segment Contact. If, in BCTABLE, there are multiple GLUE with different
SLAVE entries, then NLGLUE, 1 must be used.
BCPARA

0 METHOD

SEGSMALL NLGLUE

Results
The variation of the bolt forces at grid points 38007,38083,38084 and 38085 as a function of the bolt shortening is
shown in Figure 28-5. This clearly shows a nonlinear response. The normal contact forces in gasket are shown in
Figure 28-6.

Figure 28-5

Main Index

Bolt Force as a Function of Bolt Shortening

426 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

Figure 28-6

Normal Contact Forces in Gasket

The displacement contours of the engine model in y-direction at Steps 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 28-7 and
Figure 28-8.
The pressure-closure output for the gasket element 70582 is presented here from the f06 output file at the end of Step
2. It is observed that the pressure for this gasket element exceeded the yield pressure of 52 MPa and this result in a
plastic closure of 0.12 mm.
ELEMENT ID
70582

Figure 28-7

Main Index

PLY ID
1

INT. PT. ID
1
2
3
4

PRESSURE
7.805712E+01
8.207688E+01
7.722001E+01
8.107123E+01

CLOSURE
1.997745E-01
2.024191E-01
1.992237E-01
2.017574E-01

Displacement Contours in y-direction at Step 1

PLASTIC CLOSURE
1.200000E-01
1.200000E-01
1.200000E-01
1.200000E-01

CHAPTER 28 427
Model Airplane Engine Analysis

Figure 28-8

Displacement Contours in y-direction at Step 2

Figure 28-9

Von Mises Stress Contours for Node-Segment and Seg-Seg method

Input File(s)
File
nug_28m.bdf

Main Index

Description
MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for model airplane engine

428 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 28

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 44 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

66

Units: mm
33

82

Eq. Stress At Pressure

Figure 28-10

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 29: Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Optimization

29

Main Index

Rapid Road Response


Optimization of a Camaro
Model using Automatic
External Superelement
Optimization

Summary

430

Introduction

Requested Solutions

Optimization Solutions

Modeling Tip

Input File(s)

431

438
439

432
433

430 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 29

Summary
Title

Chapter 29: Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic
External Superelement Optimization, AESO

Features

Grids
Total degrees of freedom
Degrees of freedom in residual
Elements
Subcases
Frequencies

23K
137K
7K
37K
2
3

Geometry

Material properties

Mild Steel (E = 2x107 Psi, nu = 0.28, rho = 7.835x10-5 lbf-s2/in4)

Analysis type

Modal/Direct Frequency Analysis

Boundary conditions

See the asm file, aeso9.asm, containing boundary connection data

Element type

CQUAD4, CTRI3, CROD

Loads

Random inputs applied on left and right suspension, including cross-correlation (see
Figure 29-2)

FE results

5.0E -0 3

S u m m ed A c celeratio

4.0E -0 3

3.0E -0 3
S UM Init
S um fina l
2.0E -0 3

1.0E -0 3

0.0 E +0 0
4

10

F req u en cy (H z )

Main Index

12

14

CHAPTER 29 431
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement

Introduction
The purpose of the example is to illustrate how to run an Automatic External Superelement Optimization, AESO, job
and to demonstrate significant performance gain can be achieved with AESO. Learn more about the capability, consult
MSC Nastran Design Sensitifity and Optimization Users Guide. It is assumed that the reader is experienced in
performing modal frequency analysis. The discussion of the analysis modeling is kept to minimum.
The Camaro model is provided by General Motor Corp (Figure 29-1). Random inputs are applied on left and right
suspension, including cross-correlation (Figure 29-2). The road response optimization task is solved by varying spring
constants of the engine mount to achieve maximum ride comfort. Both a regular (or a single shot) optimization run
and an AESO run are performed. The efficiency and accuracy of the solutions are compared between two approaches.

Figure 29-1

Camaro Model

1.60E-02

Input Spectra

1.20E-02
LEFT SUSP

8.00E-03

RIGHT SUSP
REAL L/R

4.00E-03

IMAG L/R

0.00E+00
4

10

12

14

-4.00E-03
Frequency

Figure 29-2

Main Index

Input Load Power Spectra

432 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 29

Requested Solutions
The task will be solved in three design scenarios that are described in detail in the Optimization Solution section. Each
of three cases is solved by a single run approach and the AESO run approach. Then, the results and performance data
are compared between two approaches. It has been observed that the single shot run may fail with signal = 11 message
in the log file when design cycle is greater than 1 due to some modeling issue. However, this behavior does not show
up in the AESO runs. In this document, the results from good single shot runs will be presented but the input file is
not included.
The AESO approach should demonstrate that
accurate and very efficient solution can be obtained
the reduced model allows to perform re-analyses and/or optimization tasks many times rapidly
much larger performance gain is achieved with Analysis=DFREQ

Main Index

CHAPTER 29 433
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement

Optimization Solutions
Case A
This design case is to minimize the sum of RMS acceleration at drivers seat and passengers seat while limiting the
PSD response at steering column by varying nine spring constants of the engine mount. Listing 1 shows the required
design model set up for Case A.
Listing 1 Design model set up for Case A
...
DESOBJ = 1020
DESSUB = 101
...
BEGIN BULK
$ design model set up
DESVAR 11
K5307 1.0
0.01
3.0
......
K5018 1.0
0.01
3.0
DESVAR 24
DVCREL1
5307
CELAS2 5307
K
11
1246.3
......
DVCREL1
5018
CELAS2 5018
K
24
1120.
FREQ1 4
6.0
0.1
60
$ LHS - Acceleration at Driver's seat
DRESP1 1033
ACC1033
RMSaccl
3
620
1033
$ RHS - Acceleration at Passenger's seat
DRESP1 2033
ACC2033
RMSaccl
3
620
$
$ sum of RMS accelerations at Driver's and Passenger's seats
DRESP2 1020 sumrms 1020
dresp1 1033
2033
DEQATN 1020 object(driver,pass) = driver + pass
$
DRESP1 9105
ACC9005
PSDACCL
620
3
MAX
DCONSTR
101
9105
2.5e-3
DOPTPRM
DESMAX 20
P1
1
P2
15
conv1 5.e-3

2033

9005

Each AESO job requires two separate runs: an AESO creation run and an AESO assembly run.
To activate an AESO creation run, you need to add the following user input to a regular optimization job (bold face in
Listing 2): 1) an FMS ASSIGN statement that specifies the file name for the assembly run that will be generated from
the AESO creation run and 2) a keyword on DOPTPRM entry, autose = 1 that activates an AESO creation run.

Main Index

434 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 29

Listing 2 Required user inputs for activating AESO creation run


assign aeso='test9_2.dat'
.....
begin bulk
doptprm
desmax
5
delx
0.2
delp

p1

1
P2
0.8 autose

15
1

After the creation run is complete, search for the user information message 9181 in the f06 file that indicates a
successful run.
^^^
^^^ USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 9181 (FEA)
^^^ THE JOB IS TERMINATED FOR AN AUTO
EXTERNAL CREATION RUN
^^^

The input file for the assembly run (aeso9_2.dat) is automatically generated from the creation run. Its Bulk Data
section contains the residual model (or the design model) while the Control Section is the identical copy from the
original optimization job. Some special contents in an assembly run are shown in bold face in Listing 3. The FMS
ASSIGN statement references the Nastran Master database file and the DBLOCATE statement identifies the data block
that contains various boundary matrices. The INCLUDE statement includes an assembly file that include boundary
connection data. Notice that the AUTOSE = 1 request on the DOPTPRM entry added for the creation run has been
changed to AUTOSE = 0.
Listing 3 Special contents in an assembly file
nastran buffsize=
65537
nastran rseqcont=1
assign se1=
'./test9.MASTER'
dblocate datablk(EXTDB) logical=se1, CONVERT(SEID=1)
SOL 200
CEND
......
BEGIN BULK
include './test9.asm'
DOPTPRM DESMAX 5
P1
1
P2
15
0
AUTOSE
DELX
0.2
DELP
0.8

Figure 29-3 shows that the sum of RMS is reduced from the initial value of 0.154 to the final of 0.130 by the road
response optimization. Table 29-1 compares the accuracy of the results and performance in terms of Clock time
between the regular approach and the AESO approach and clearly shows that the AESO is able to obtain the same final
design but with one fifth of the time spent by a single shot run.

Main Index

CHAPTER 29 435
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement

5.0E -0 3

S u m m ed A c celeratio

4.0E -0 3

3.0E -0 3
S UM Init
S um final
2.0E -0 3

1.0E -0 3

0.0 E +0 0
4

10

12

14

F req u en cy (H z )

Figure 29-3

Sum of RMS Reduced from 0.154 to 0.130

Table 29-1

Results and Performance Data for Case A

Case A

Initial
OBJ

Final
OBJ

Init. Max
Const

Init. Max
Const

# Design
Cycle

Clock Time
(Minute)

Single Shot Run

0.1534

0.0639

0.1329

-0.2102

37

AESO Creation
Run
AESO Assembly
Run

Main Index

5
0.1534

0.0639

0.1319

-0.2102

ASEO Total

Performance
Ratio

436 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 29

Case B
This case minimizes the RMS acceleration at Drivers seat and maintains frequency dependent limits on PSD
acceleration at drivers seat by varying nine spring constants of the engine mount. Listing 4 shows the required design
model set up for Case B.
Listing 4 Design Model Set up for Case B
...
DESPBJ = 1033
DESSUB = 101
...
BEGIN BULK
$ design model set up
$ Desin
$
DESVAR
......
DESVAR
DVCREL1

model set up
11

K5307

1.0

0.01

3.0

24
5307
11

K5018
CELAS2
1246.3

1.0
5307

0.01
K

3.0

......
DVCREL1 5018
CELAS2 5018
K
24
1120.
$ LHS - Driver's seat to floor (Response for Objective to be minimized)
DRESP1 1033
ACC1033
RMSaccl
3
620
1033
DRESP1 1133
ACC1033
PSDACCL
620
3
1033
DCONSTR
101
1133
1133
DOPTPRM
DESMAX 20
P1
1
P2
15
conv1 5.e-3
TABLED1 1133
0.0
1.0e03 6.0
1.0e-3 7.0
1.7e-3 8.0
1.7e-3
12.0
2.0e-4 endt

Notice that in Case B, the design objective now is to minimize an RMS acceleration at Driver's seat while limiting
maintaining the frequency dependent limits on the PSD acceleration at Driver seat. The rest of the analysis model is
kept the same. Therefore, the outputs from the creation run for Case A can be reused here except replacing the
objective and constraints for Case A (Listing 1) with that for Case B formulation (Listing 4).
Figure 29-4 shows that the RMS acceleration at Driver's seat is reduced from the initial of 0.071 to the final of 0.058.
Table 29-2 compares the accuracy of the results and performance dat between the regular approach and the AESO
approach. Again, AESO achieves the same final design as the single shot run. Since no creation run is required because
it can reuse the results from the Case A's creation run, the speed up by the AESO run vs. a single shot run for Case B
is a factor of 33.

Main Index

CHAPTER 29 437
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement

P asse n g er A cce lera

3.0E-03
2.5E-03
2.0E-03
2033 Init

1.5E-03

2033 Final

1.0E-03
5.0E-04
0.0E+00
4

10

12

14

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 29-4

RMS Reduced from 0.071 to 0.058

Table 29-2

Results and Performance Data for Case B

Case B

Initial
OBJ

Final
OBJ

Init. Max
Const

Final Max
Const

# Design
Cycle

Clock Time
(Minute)

Single Shot Run

0.0713

0.0586

0.2855

-0.0025

14

33

AESO Creation
Run
AESO Assembly
Run

0
0.0713

0.0584

0.2855

-0.0201

ASEO Total

Performance
Ratio

33

Case C
This case is exactly the same as Case A except the frequency response is solved by the Direct Frequency Analysis
Solver. Specifically, the ANALYSIS=MFREQ Case Control command in Case A is replaces by ANALYSIS=DFREQ
command in Case C.
Therefore, the same discussions presented for Case A can be directly applied here. Table 3 compares the results and
performance data between a single shot run and shows the relationship to Case C. Again, the final design from AESO
agrees well with that from a single shot run. However, the performance gain by AESO is a factor of 40.

Main Index

438 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 29

In fact, the assembly run could be run directly by assessing the database file and asm file and the assembly run file
generated from the creation run for Case A since these files are identical if ANALYSIS=MFREQ or ANALYSIS=DFREQ.
Therefore, the performance gain would be a factor of 244 (i.e. 244=244/1) assuming the time spent by the assembly
run for Case B is still five minutes.
Table 29-3

Results and Performance Data for Case C

Case A

Initial
OBJ

Final
OBJ

Init. Max
Const

Init. Max
Const

# Design
Cycle

Clock Time
(Minute)

Single Shot Run

0.1535

0.1327

-0.0631

-0.2073

244

AESO Creation
Run
AESO Assembly
Run

5
0.1534

0.1327

-0.0636

-0.2062

ASEO Total

Performance
Ratio

40

Modeling Tip
This section provides some guideline or modeling tips for performing AESO tasks:
Only database option is supported in AESO. No op2 or punch option is supported.
The nondesigned part is treated as a single part component and can not be further partitioned.
The performance gain achieved by an AESO job depends on the size of the analysis model, the ratio of the
design model size vs. the analysis model size and number of boundary points shared by designed part and
nondesigned part. A general rule of thumb is that the relative ratio should be less than 10%. The smaller the
ratio, the more performance gain can be achieved.
The UIM 7824 from the creation run lists the size of your analysis model and design model (in terms of
number of the grid points). DRATIO may be adjusted for a larger or smaller residual model.

Submit the AESO creation run with SCR=NO option to store the Nastran database. An assembly run does not
require that option.
It is recommended to use Matrix domain based domain decomposition (domain solver acms(partopt=dof) for
large scale normal modes or model frequency tasks, say the total number of degrees of freedom is half million
or higher.

Main Index

CHAPTER 29 439
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement

ASSIGN AESO=fn is required in the creation to define a file name of the assembly file. Directly assigning
the original job name to filename should be avoided. A good practice is to add some suffix to the original file
name such as myjob_2nd.dat where myjob is the original file name.
General guidelines or limitations to the manual External Superelement analysis also apply to AESO.
Refer to the MSC Release Guide for more guidelines and limitations.

Input File(s)
Case A
File
nug_29.dat

Description
BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization

Case B
File
nug_29b.dat

Description
BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization.

Case C
File
nug_29c.dat

Main Index

Description
BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization

Chapter 30: Paper Feeding Example

30

Main Index

Paper Feeding Example

Summary

441

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Results

Input File(s)

442

442

446
446

442

CHAPTER 30 441
Paper Feeding Example

Summary
Title

Chapter 30: Paper Feeding Example

Geometry

Material properties

See Summary of Materials

Analysis type

Transient explicit dynamic analysis

Boundary conditions

Fixed at each pinch and drive.


Fixed at the center point of each guide.

Applied loads

1. Angular velocity to each pinch.


2. Translational force to each pinch for deleting a gap between a pinch and driver.
3. Gravitational acceleration.

Element type

0-D
1-D
2-D
3-D

concentrated mass element


spring and damper element
shell element
solid element

Contact properties
FE results
t = 0 sec

t = 0.1 sec

t = 0.2 sec

t = 0.3 sec

t = 0.4 sec

Main Index

442 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 30

Introduction
The paper feeding analysis is done to predict the paper jamming and capacity of the printer. In this example, angular
velocities are applied on five rollers to feed the paper in the printer. There are 31 contact body definitions to simulate
the paper feeding process. Total time of simulation is 0.4 seconds.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the printer behavior. The angular velocity of each drive and pinch is
defined such that a 1500 mm/s circumferential velocity is created. The rotational velocities are applied sequentially at
center node of the drive starting from drive 1 through drive 5 by defining Tables and SPCD. Gravity is also taken into
account. To push a drive to the paper, a load is applied at the center of each driver.

FEM Solution
The printer consists of 21 parts as shown in Figure 30-1.
entrance

drive_1
paper

upper guide_1
upper guide_5

upper guide_4
pinch_5

pinch_4
upper guide_3

pinch_1
lower guide_1

pinch_3

lower guide_5
drive_5
lower guide_4

pinch_2
drive_2

drive_4

guide_2
drive_3

Figure 30-1

lower guide_3

Analysis Model

Using the BCTABLE and several CBODY and BCSUFT entries, the following 31 contacts are defined.
Contact
Number

Slave

Master

Contact
Number

Slave

Master

1 (self contact)

paper

paper

17

paper

entrance

paper

drive_1

18

paper

lower guide_1

drive_1

pinch_1

19

paper

upper guide_1

Main Index

CHAPTER 30 443
Paper Feeding Example

Contact
Number

Slave

Contact
Number

Slave

pinch_1

drive_1

20

paper

guide_2

paper

drive_2

21

paper

lower guide_3

drive_2

pinch_2

22

paper

upper guide_3

pinch_2

drive_2

23

paper

lower guide_4

paper

drive_3

24

paper

upper guide_4

drive_3

pinch_3

25

paper

lower guide_5

10

pinch_3

drive_3

26

paper

upper guide_5

11

paper

drive_4

27

paper

pinch_1

12

drive_4

pinch_4

28

paper

pinch_2

13

pinch_4

drive_4

29

paper

pinch_3

14

paper

drive_5

30

paper

pinch_4

15

drive_5

pinch_5

31

paper

pinch_5

16

pinch_5

drive_5

Master

Master

TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (0.004 sec.) of the simulation. End time is

the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL

100

.004

ADAPT

10

The enforced angular velocities are applied to all pinches and drivers. The nodes, located on the circumference of each
drive and pinch, are rigidly connected to the center node using RBE2 entry. Each enforced angular velocity is defined
to have the same circumferential velocity (1500 mm/sec.) at the tip of drivers and pinches using SPCD2. The angular
velocities vary depending on the diameter of drivers and pinches. The boundary conditions are applied only to pinches.
A combination of spring and damper elements, CDAMP1D and CELAS1D, connect the fixed node and the center node
of pinches. To close the gap between all the drives and the pinches, two vertical forces are applied, in opposite
directions by using a combination of FORCE and Table entries. The magnitude of the load is predefined at each drive
location. The boundary condition and enforced motion at each pinch are shown as Figure 30-2.
In the cases of the drive_1 and dirver_5, their diameters are 25 and 15 mm, respectively. The angular velocity of
drive_1 is applied as 120 radian/sec. (25/2120 = 1500 mm/sec.). And 225 radian/sec. is applied to driver_5.
The example below shows how to define the boundary conditions and the enforced angular velocity of pinch_1.

Main Index

444 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 30

Various angular velocities are


applied to get 1500 mm/sec
circumferential velocity.

RBE2
Translational force is applied

Damper

Figure 30-2

Spring

Boundary Condition And Enforced Angular Velocity At Pinch

Node 21002 is fully fixed and connected to the center node 21001 using CELAS1D and CDAMP1D. The coefficients
of the spring and damper are 4.9 N/mm and 196 Nsec /mm, respectively. Node 21001, the center node of the pinch_1,
is fixed except in the y-direction to which a spring and a damper are connected.
PELAS
CELAS1D
PDAMP
CDAMP1D
$
SPC1
SPC1

18
21001
19
21002
8
1

4.9
18
196.
19
13456
123456

21001

21002

21001

21002

21001
21002

The circumference nodes are connected to the center node 21001 rigidly using RBE2.
RBE2

55003
1006

...

21001
1007

123456
1008

1001
1009

1002
1010

1003
1011

1004
1012

1005
1013

At the center node, angular velocity 120 is applied to negative z angular direction. And, at the same node, translational
force is applied as well.
TLOAD1
LSEQ
SPCD
FORCE

19
1
21
4

20
20
21001
21001

21
6
0

Summary of Materials
Paper - Linear elastic material:
E

(Youngs Modulus) = 3e+6 N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .3

density=

Main Index

8.4e-7 kg/m3

VELO
-120.
9800.

1
0.

1.

0.

CHAPTER 30 445
Paper Feeding Example

Rubber 1 - Linear elastic material:


E

(Youngs Modulus) = 1e+4. N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .49

density=

1.5e-6 kg/m3

Rubber 2 - Linear elastic material:


E

(Youngs Modulus) = 3e+4. N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .49

density=

1.5e-6 kg/m3

Pinch and driver - Linear elastic material:


E

(Youngs Modulus) = 7e+5. N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .3

density=

2.7e-6 kg/m3

Entrance and guide - Linear elastic material:


E

(Youngs Modulus) = 3.e+5. N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .3

density=

Main Index

7.86e-6 kg/m3

446 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 30

Results
t = 0 sec

t = 0.1 sec

t = 0.2 sec

t = 0.3 sec

t = 0.4 sec

Figure 30-3

Paper at Various Positions

Input File(s)
File
nug_30.dat

Main Index

Description
MSC Nastran input file for printer feeding
example

Chapter 31: Wheel Drop Test

31

Main Index

Wheel Drop Test

Summary

448

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Results

Input File(s)

449

449

453
453

449

448 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 31

Summary
Title

Chapter 31: Wheel Drop Test

Geometry

Impact block: 375 mm 125 mm 100 mm


Tire: Outer diameter = 635 mm
Width = 260 mm

Material properties

See Summary of Materials

Analysis type

Transient explicit dynamic analysis

Boundary conditions

Fixed condition at the center of wheel.


Constraining to y- and z-direction

Applied loads

Translational velocity applied to the impact block

Element type

2-D shell element


3-D solid element

Contact properties
FE results

Main Index

CHAPTER 31 449
Wheel Drop Test

Introduction
This is an example of a wheel drop test as required in automotive industry to comply with government regulations. In
this test a rigid block of 540 Kg is dropped at 13 on a wheel. The drop velocity is 2052.8 mm/seconds. Several
contacts are defined to predict the interaction between wheel, tire and the rigid block.
The 13 impact test is one of the requirements mandated by JWL (Japan Light Wheel Alloy). JWL is a set of standards
defined by the Japanese Government to ensure the vehicle's safety for aluminum road wheels. Every wheel must pass
the 13 drop test to meet government regulations before it is introduced in the market. These standards are generally
accepted worldwide for most road conditions.
The main purpose of test is to predict the stability of the vehicle when the tire hits a curb. The joint or the interface
area of the spoke and the rim is an important structural area where it usually experiences high stress concentration. An
acceptable wheel design is when there are no separation of tire and wheel (air leak) and acceptable range of stress and
strain values during the droptest.
This test has become even more important due to the recent trend of a larger and wider wheel with low profile tire
combination. The reason is that there is lower air volume than the standard OE (Original Equipment) and therefore the
inner rim section is subjected to higher stress levels.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the behavior of a wheel and tire. The rigid block drops from 15 mm
above the tire and wheel at 13 degrees. The impact velocity of the block is 2052.8 mm/seconds.

FEM Solution
The original test setup uses a 540 kg rigid block that is dropped at 230 mm height. However, in order to reduce the
analysis time, a small gap of 15 mm is used between the wheel and the block while the initial velocity of the block is
adjusted to 2052.8 mm/sec. The original test set up and analysis model are compared in Figure 31-1.
Four Contacts are defined between:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rigid block and tire


Rigid block and wheel
Tire and wheel
Self contact of tire

Total time of simulation is 0.04 seconds.

Main Index

450 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 31

230 mm

2052.8 mm/sec
15 mm

13

(a) 13 degree impact test

(b) Analysis model

Figure 31-1

13 Impact Test and Analysis Model

TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (4.e-4 sec) of the simulation. End time is the
product of the two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.

TSTEPNL

100

4.-4

ADAPT

10

Two different boundary conditions are applied. First, the fixed boundary condition is applied at the center of the wheel
as shown in Figure 31-2. Second, the impact block is restrained in translation directions except to move vertically in
the x-direction. The two boundary conditions are defined below.
SPC1
...
SPC1
...

123456

864

874

875

23

60001

THRU

60108

Red part is fixed

Figure 31-2

Main Index

Boundary Condition of Wheel

876

882

883

CHAPTER 31 451
Wheel Drop Test

The initial velocity applied to the impact block is defined by TIC option.
TIC

60001

-2052.8

...
The material of the tire is rubber composite and its definition needs special attention. The tire consists of seven shell
and seven solid properties as shown in Figure 31-3. Each shell property is defined by PCOMP entry that describes a
composite material laminates. The shell composite properties use orthotropic materials defined by MAT8 and the solid
properties use a rubber material model defined by MATD027. The examples are described as below.
PCOMP
...
PSOLID
...
MATD027
...
MAT8
...

310
301

.5

90.

0.

YES

250

250

250
0.

1.1-9

.49

4167.

301

199700.

4400.

.148

0.

0
.1938
4400.

1.1-9

To model the internal pressure of the tire, the PLOAD4 entry is used to apply 1 N/mm2. The pressure at the cross section
of tire is shown in Figure 31-3.
PLOAD4
...

Figure 31-3

232401 1.

200105

210101

Tire Cross Section and Internal Pressure

The Hourglass Suppression Method is used to prevent hourglass behavior of the tire by using HGSUPPR entries.
HGSUPPR, 200, SOLID, 200, 1,
, ,
, 0
...

Main Index

, 0.040

452 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 31

Summary of Materials
Impact block - Rigid material:
E

(Youngs Modulus) = 2.1e+5 N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .3

density=

1.152e-7 tonne/mm3

Wheel: Elasto-Plastic material


E

(Youngs Modulus) = 7.e+4. N/mm2

(Poissons ratio) = .27

density=
y

2.7e-9 tonne/mm3

(yield stress) =250 N/mm2

(tangent plastic modulus) = 200 N/mm2


pu (ultimate plastic strain) = .15
ET

Tire: Composite materials


Details are explained in FEM solution section

Main Index

CHAPTER 31 453
Wheel Drop Test

Results
The results show plastic strains only on the wheel.

Figure 31-4

Equivalent Stress Contours in Wheel

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_31.dat

MSC Nastran input file for wheel impact test example

Main Index

Chapter 32: Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash

32

Main Index

Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash

Summary

455

Introduction

Requested Solutions

FEM Solution

Results

Input File(s)

456

456

458
458

456

CHAPTER 32 455
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash

Summary
Title
Geometry

Material properties

Chapter 32: Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash


Width= 1,954 mm
Length= 5,454 mm
Height= 1,841 mm

Three different material types are used:


Elastic material: MAT1
Elasto-plastic material: MATD024
Rigid material: MATD020
Almost all structures are made by elasto-plastic material
(Youngs modulus) = 2.1e+5. N/mm2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
E

(density) = 7.89e-9 tonne/mm3


pu (ultimate plastic strain) = .9

Analysis type

Transient explicit dynamic analysis

Boundary conditions

Fixed condition of the rigid wall

Applied loads

Initial velocity of 5000 mm/sec. defined for the pick-up truck

Element type

1-D beam element


2-D shell element
3-D solid element

FE results

Main Index

t = 90 ms

456 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 32

Introduction
Auto companies perform crash tests simulation to increase safety of the vehicles and comply with government
regulations such as those of FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards). This is an example of a pick-up truck
frontal crash at 15 m/s (34 m.p.h.) against a rigid wall. To model the simulation, contact was defined between the truck
and the rigid wall to predict the stress and deformations of the structure.

Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the behavior of a pick-up truck during crash simulation.

FEM Solution
Three contacts are defined in the simulation:
1. The truck and rigid wall surface
2. The truck tires and the ground surface
3. Self contact for the truck to avoid penetration among various components
SET is an executive control entry in SOL 700 that defines a set that contains some grid points. The set will later be
referred by the CSPOT entry in the bulk entry section.

SET
..

990009

105843

105655

TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (10) and Time Increment (9.e-3 sec.) of the simulation. End time is the

product of the two entries. Notice here, the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL 20

10

9e-3

To define a 3-D contact region, BCPROP and PSURF are used. BCPROP and PSURF specify a contact body by
element properties and element IDs, respectively.
BCPROP
..
BSURF
..

10

11

12

10

11

105038

105039

Concentrated masses are defined by CONM2 entry.


CONM2

1990624 91344

1e-06

Rigid nodes which are attached to a reference node are defined by RBE2 entry.
RBE2
..

104247

123456

104272

104614

104615

Applied forces and motions in the model are gravitational force and the initial velocity on the truck.

Main Index

CHAPTER 32 457
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash

GRAV defines acceleration vectors for gravity or other acceleration loading.

GRAV

9806.

0.

0.

-1.

Initial velocity of the pick-up truck is given. All nodes of the truck have an initial velocity specified by the TIC entry.
TIC defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient analysis. Both displacement and
velocity values may be specified at independent degrees of freedom.
TIC

15000.

Boundary conditions are limited to the rigid wall and ground. All nodes of the rigid wall and the ground have been
constrained in all the degree of freedom.
SPC1

123456

990803

THRU

991384

Spot weld definition is used at several points. CSPOT is used to define spot-weld with several types of failure criteria.
Normal force criterion at failure (1.e+8 N) is applied to the spot weld entry. The number of a specific SET defined in
the executive control section is referred in the entry.
CSPOT

990009

990009

..

1e+08

MATD20M is used to merge MATD020 rigid bodies into one assembly for SOL 700 only.

MATD20M 181
..

180

221

182

183

RBJOINT defines a Joint between two rigid bodies. This entry supports 14 different types of rigid joint. This analysis
has two different types of rigid joint. REVOLUTE type describes the revolute joint type which allows only axial rotation
with other degrees of freedom fixed. UNIVERS type describes the universal joint type which allows all rotational

degrees of freedom with all translational degrees of freedom fixed.

Main Index

458 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 32

Results
t = 0 ms

t = 25 ms

t = 50 ms

t = 75 ms

t = 90 ms

Figure 32-1

Deformation History

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_32a.dat

MSC Nastran main analysis input file

nug_32b.dat

Pick-up truck model file

nug_32c.dat

Definition of rigid connection file

Main Index

Chapter 33: Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections

33

Main Index

Beams: Composite Materials


and Open Cross Sections

Summary - Composite Beam

460

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solution

462

Modeling Tips

463

Input File(s)

Summary - VKI and VAM Beam Formulations

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solution

Input File(s)

461
461

464

466

467
468

466

465

460 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 33

Summary - Composite Beam


Title
Geometry

Chapter 33: Composite Beam


Straight Cantilever Beam with load (Fy or Fz) applied at Free-End

Y, Ye

Fy

Fz
X, Xe

Z, Ze

Element coordinate (Xe, Ye, Ze) coincides with Basic Coordinate (X,Y,Z)

Material properties

Linear elastic orthotropic material using MAT8


Assumptions: E33 = 0.8E22; 13= 23= 12
Theta on PCOMP/PCOMPG specifies the angle between X-axis of material coordinate
and X-axis of element coordinate.

Analysis type

Linear static analysis

Boundary conditions

Cantilever configuration

Applied loads

Bending

Element type

CBEAM3

FE results

Converted PBEAM3 from PBMSECT


Stress recovery - screened based on max failure index
bdf file for FE mesh of cross section shown here

Main Index

CHAPTER 33 461
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections

Introduction
Composite materials have found increasing applications in many applications and slender structures like rotor blades
or high-aspect-ratio wings may be modeled in one-dimension as a 1-D beam provided the complex cross sectional
properties (ultimately represented as a 2-D finite element mesh) can be captured properly. Here, a new way for
composite beam analysis is introduced. The Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM) computes the properties of a
beams arbitrary cross section containing composite materials. VAM, the mathematical basis of VABS, splits a general
3-D nonlinear elasticity problem for a beam-like structure into a two-dimensional (2-D) linear cross-sectional analysis
and a 1-D nonlinear beam analysis. For details on VAM, refer to Yu, W., Volovoi, V., Hodges, D. and Hong, X.
Validation of the Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis (VABS), AIAA Journal, Vol. 40, No. 10, 2002
(available at http://www.ae.gatech.edu/people/dhodges/papers/AIAAJ2002.pdf). VAMs key benefit lies in the ability
to model a beam made of composite material with only 1-D elements, namely CBEAM3.

Solution Requirements
In general, the solution requires the layup of composite material and the description of this general or arbitrary cross
section. PCOMP entries are used to provide the composite layup and PBMSECT entry is utilized to describe the profile
of cross section and the link to the composite layup via PCOMP. An example is shown as follows:
$
$ Composite case
PBMSECT 32
1
OP
0.015
OUTP=101,C=101,brp=103,c(1)=[201,pt=(15,34)]
pcomp
101
-0.1
5000.
hill
0.0
501
0.05
0.0
501
0.05
501
0.05
-45.0
501
0.05
501
0.05
0.0
pcomp
201
5000.
tsai
0.0
501
0.05
-45.0
501
0.05
501
0.05
0.0
$MAT1
501
3.6
.3
mat8,501,2.0e7,2.0e6,.35,1.0e6,1.0e6,1.0e6,0.0,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.0,2.3e5, 1.95e5, 13000., 32000., 12000.

90.0
45.0
45.0

SYM

The theta field on PCOMP is utilized to specify the angle between the X-axis of the material coordinate and the X-axis
of the element coordinate. A cutout of the FEM mesh at the intersect of OUTP=101 and BRP=103 illustrates the ply
layup shown in Figure 33-1.

Main Index

462 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 33

PCOMP 201 -45, 45, 0, 0, 45, -45


Z

P 0
C
O 45
M -45
P
90
1
0 0
1

Figure 33-1

P
0 C
45 O
-45 M
P
90 1
0
0
1

Intersection of Ply Layups 101 and 201

FEM Solution
The converted PBEAM3 for PBMSECT,32 is as follows:
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9B)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM3 ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - .
PBEAM3
32
0 4.7202E+00 8.3059E+01 2.9578E+01 -1.5664E+01 3.2316E+01 0.0000E+00
1.8014E+01 4.2136E+00 1.7100E+01 -2.7858E+00 3.8881E+00 -3.5404E+00 4.7202E+00 2.6994E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
1.2253E+08 -2.1160E+05 8.1193E+04 -2.4761E+06 -3.7193E+06 7.9049E+06 -2.1160E+05 2.1792E+06
-1.7859E+06 1.9780E+07 5,4643E+05 -3.5845E+05 8.1193E+04 -1.7859E+06 2.7228E+07 1.7190E+07
2.9835E+04 2.1407E+06 -2.4761E+06 1.9780E+07 1.7190E+07 2.2332E+08 5.8182E+06 -1.2186E+06
-3.7193E+06 5.4643E+05 2.9835E+04 5.8182E+06 2.1349E+09 -4.0706E+08 8.9040E+06 -3.5845E+05
2.1407E+06 -1.2186E+06 -4.0706E+08 7.5602E+08

Note that the MID field of above PBEAM3 has value of 0 which is a flag for using the Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix stored
from the seventh line of PBEAM3. Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix includes cross sectional and material properties. The
cross-sectional shape and the FE mesh is shown in Figure 33-2. The coordinate shown in the figure matches with
element coordinate.

Main Index

CHAPTER 33 463
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections

Figure 33-2

Cross-sectional Shape and the Corresponding FE Mesh

Full cross sectional stress recovery can be performed with PARAM,ARBMSS,YES in bulk data and FORCE=setid in
case control. The stresses screened based on maximum failure index is shown as follows:
1

VAB ALGORITHM USING CORE OF PBMSECT


TRANSVERSE TIP LOAD

S T R E S S E S

I N

ELEMENT
ID

GRID
ID

PLY
ID

NORMAL-1

302
102
1301

2
2
2

2.468E+01
1.685E+01
1.588E+01

FLAG

MARCH

6, 2007

MSC Nastran

3/ 6/07

PAGE

14

SUBCASE 1

L A Y E R E D

D I R E
NORMAL-2

C O M P O S I T E

C T
S
NORMAL-3

1.601E+01 2.670E+00
1.619E+01 -7.230E-01
1.594E+01 -7.167E-01

E L E M E N T S

T R E S S E S
SHEAR-12
SHEAR-23

( BEAM3 )

FAILURE
MAXIMUM
SHEAR-13 THEORY FAIL. INDEX

2.323E+01 4.991E-01 3.724E+00


1.993E+01 -1.377E-01 -5.572E-01
1.938e+-1 -1.162e-01 -5.280e-01

TSIA-WU
TSAI-WU
TSAI-WU

7.161E-04
7.258E-04
7.193E-04

STRENGTH
RATIO
4.035E+02
4.470E+02
4.569E+02

Modeling Tips
CBEAM3 is considered a straight beam if PID points to PBMSECT ID. The third point is ignored during the formation
of element matrices. During data recovery, the stresses for the third point are computed based on the forces recovered
which may not be correct.
PARAM,ARBMSTYP,TIMOSHEN must be present to access VAM for composite beam.

Main Index

464 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 33

Input File(s)
File
Vabcore1.dat

Main Index

Description
Composite beam with MAT1.

CHAPTER 33 465
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections

Summary - VKI and VAM Beam Formulations


Title
Geometry

Chapter 33: VKI and VAM Beam Formulations


Straight Cantilever Beam with load (Fy or Fz) applied at Free-End

Y, Ye

Fy

0.04
X

Fz

0.5

1.0

X, Xe

Z, Ze

Element coordinate (Xe, Ye, Ze) coincides with Basic Coordinate (X,Y,Z)

Material properties

Linear elastic isotropic material

Analysis type

Linear static analysis

Boundary conditions

Cantilever configuration

Applied loads

Bending load with forces applied at free end

Element type

CBEAM, CBEAM3

FE results

Converted PBEAM/PBEAM3 from PBMSECT


bdf file for FE mesh of cross section
Stress recovery - screened based on max failure index

Z
X

Results

Main Index

Isotropic with VKI

Isotropic with
VAM

Composite with
MAT1 using VAM

Disp at free end

49.987

49.974

49.977

Smax at fixed end

74974

74956

75351

466 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 33

Introduction
In MSC Nastran, there are two formulations to compute sectional properties. Both formulations use the finite element
method. The first one is named after its third party vender, VKI, which solves a series of equations (see documentation
of PBMSECT in Quick Look Guide) to obtain sectional properties. The other formulation is Variational Asymptotic
Method (VAM), see attached for details on VAM Theory. While VKI formulation is for isotropic material only, VAM
is capable to compute beam sectional properties for isotropic and composite material.

Solution Requirements
PBMSECT bulk data entry is utilized to describe the shape of I section and PARAM,ARBMSTYP is used to control the
selection of formulation. Note that default value for PARAM,ARBMSTYP select VKI formulation to compute sectional
properties of arbitrary cross section with isotropic material. However, PARAM,ARBMSTYP,TIMISHEN must be present
in the bulk data section if PBMSECT entry with Core and/or Layer keywords exists in the file.
$ to select VAM
PARAM,ARBMSTYPE,TIMOSHEN
.
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
$ Section profile
$
$ 1 -- 2 -- 3
|
|
$ 4 -- 5 -- 5
$
point
1
-0.50
0.23
point
2
0.00
0.23
point
3
0.50
0.23
point
4
-0.50
-0.23
point
5
0.00
-0.23
point
6
0.50
-0.23
$
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
SET1
101
1
2
5
6
SET1
201
2
3
SET1
102
5
4
$
$ Ply properties
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
$MAT8
501
20.59e6 1.42e6 0.42
0.89e6 0.89e6 0.89e6
$MAT1
501
1.+7
.3
$
$ isotropic case using T keyword
PBMSECT 31
1
OP
+
OUTP=101,t=0.04,BRP(1)=201,BRP(3)=102
$
$ isotropic case using C and MAT1
PBMSECT 32
OP
+
OUTP=101,CORE=301,CORE(1)=[101,PT=(1,2)],CORE(2)=[202,PT=(5,6)],+
BRP(1)=201,CORE(3)=[201,PT=(2,3)],
+
BRP(3)=102,CORE(3)=[102,PT=(5,4)]

Main Index

CHAPTER 33 467
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections

FEM Solution
The converted BEAM for PBMSECT,31 from VKI is as follows:
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9A)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBEAML/PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - FINITE ELEMENT METHOD.
PBEAM3
31
1 9.6800E-02 4.4896E-03 6.6689E-03 -8.0299E-19 5.2448E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
1.5197E-01 6.9769E-01 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 3.6170E-04 3.6170E-04
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 4.1043E-11 7.5134E-10 4.1043E-11 7.5134E-10

The converted BEAM/PBEAM3 for PBMSECT,31 and 32 from VAM is as follows:


*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9A)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBEAML/PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - FINITE ELEMENT METHOD.
PBEAM3
31
1 9.6800E-02 4.4902E-03 6.6696E-03 0.0000E+00 5.5566E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
1.5346E-01 7.0201E-01 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 3.5121E-04 3.4121E-04
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9B)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM3 ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - .
PBEAM3
32
0 9.6800E-02 4.4902E-03 6.6696E-03 0.0000E+00 5.5566E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
9.6800E+05 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 2.6041E+05
-5.9944E-04 1.5708E-04 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 -5.9944E-04 5.6910E+04 -7.1497E-05
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 4.4898E+04 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 6.6693E+04

Note that the MID field of above PBEAM3 has value of 0 which is a flag for using the Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix stored
from the seventh line of PBEAM3. Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix includes cross-sectional and material properties. The
cross-sectional shape and the FE mesh is shown in Figure 33-3.

Z
X

Figure 33-3

Main Index

Cross sectional Shape and the Corresponding FE Mesh

468 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 33

Regular beam stresses at extreme point from different formulation is shown in following table.
Isotropic with VKI

Isotropic with VAM

Composite with
MAT1 using VAM

Disp at free end

49.987

49.974

49.977

Smax at fixed end

74974

74956

75351

Results

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_33a.dat

Isotropic and Composite beam with MAT1 using VAM

nug_33b.dat

Isotropic beam using VKI

Main Index

Chapter 34: Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

34

Main Index

Topology Optimization MBB


Beam and Torsion

Summary - Beam

470

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Modeling Tips

Summary - Torsion

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

471
471

474
476

477

482
483

477

470 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Summary - Beam
Title

Chapter 34: Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

Topology optimization
features

Geometry

Compliance minimization
Mass target
Checkerboard free
Minimum member size control
Mirror symmetry constraints
Units: m
12 x 2 x 0.01 Plate

P = 200.0 N

(Symmetry)

(Mesh 4800 Elements)

Material properties

Youngs Modulus = 2x105 MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3

Analysis type

Static analysis

Boundary conditions

Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point.

Applied loads

A concentrated force = 100.0 N (half model)

Element type

4-node liner QUAD elements

Topology result

Material distribution
)

P = 200.0 N

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 471
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

Introduction
An MBB beam example (a half model shown in Figure 34-1) is used to demonstrate (a) basic MSC Nastran topology
optimization capabilities without manufacturing constraints, (b) minimum member size control, and (c) mirror
symmetry constraints. The structural compliance (i.e., total strain energy) is minimized with a mass target 0.5 (i.e.,
50% material savings). The loading and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 34-1. The structure is modeled with
4800 CQUAD4 elements.
P = 100.0 N

Figure 34-1

MBB Beam

Solution Requirements
This MBB beam is well accepted by academic and industry for topology optimization validation.
Design Model Description
Objective:

Minimize compliance

Topology design region:

PSHELL

Constraints:

Mass target = 0.5 (i.e., mass savings 50%)


(a) Minimum member size control and/or
(b) Mirror symmetry constraints

These solutions demonstrate:


A distinct design can be obtained by MSC Nastran topology optimization with checkerboard free algorithm
(as default)
The minimum member size is mainly used to control the size of members in topology optimal designs.
Preventing thin members enhances the simplicity of the design and, hence, its manufacturability. Minimum
member size is more like quality control than quantity control.
By using symmetry constraints in topology optimization, a symmetric design can be obtained regardless of
the boundary conditions or loads.

Main Index

472 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Optimization Solution
Basic compliance minimization
The input data for this example related to topology optimization model is given in Listing 1. A TOPVAR =1 Bulk Data
entry is used to define a topological design region. XINIT=0.5 on the TOPVAR entry matches the mass target
constraint so that the initial design is feasible. The rest values on the TOPVAR entry are default values that are
recommended for general topology optimization applications. Type one design responses DRESP1 = 1 and 2 identify
compliance and fractional mass, respectively. DCONSTR= 1 specifies the mass target. DESOBJ=1 in Case Control
Command selects DRESP1=1 entry to be used as a design objective (minimization as default) and DESGLB selects the
design constraint DCONSTR= 1 to be applied in this topology optimization task.
Listing 1 Input File for MBB Beam

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
DCONSTR 1
2
.5
TOPVAR,
1 ,
Tshel,
Pshell, , , , ,
DRESP1
1
COMPL
COMP
DRESP1
2
FRMASS
FRMASS

Figure 34-2 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed and remeshed by using Patran. This optimal design
is very clear without any checkerboard effect. It is noticed that there are some small members.

Figure 34-2

MBB Beam Topology Design

Minimum Member Size Control


The MBB beam (shown in Figure 34-1) is used here to demonstrate the minimum member size control capability.

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 473
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

The input data for this example related to topology optimization with minimum member size is given in Listing 2.
The minimum member size value is defined by the TDMIN = 0.5 parameter on the DOPTPRM entry and corresponds
to the length of 10 elements.
Listing 2 Input File for MBB Beam with Minimum Member Size

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
DOPTPRM, TDMIN, 0.5
DCONSTR 1
2
.5
TOPVAR,
1 ,
Tshel,
Pshell, , , , ,
DRESP1
1
COMPL
COMP
DRESP1
2
FRMASS
FRMASS

The Figure 34-3shows the topology optimized result with minimum member size TDMIN=0.5. Compared the design
shown in Figure 34-2, this design with minimum member size is obviously much simpler and there are no tiny
members at all.

Figure 34-3

MBB Beam Topology Design with Minimum Member Size

Mirror Symmetric Constraints


Since the loads applied on the MBB beam are not symmetric, the topology optimized designs Figures 34-2 and 34-3
are not symmetric. The MBB beam is employed again to demonstrate the mirror symmetric constraint capability that
enforces the design to be symmetric about a given plane.
To apply symmetric constraints on designed properties, users need to create a reference coordinate system using a
rectangular coordinate system CORD1R or CORD2R. In this example, grid 10001 (location x=3, y=1, and z=0) is
defined as the origin. Grid 10002 (x=3, y=1, and z=1) lies on the z-axis, and grid 1003 (x=4, y=1, and z=0) lies in the
x-z plane. CORD1R CID=1 defines a reference coordinate system. A continuation line SYM enforces the property
PSHELL=1 to be symmetric about the planes YZ and ZX in the reference coordinate system CID=1. In addition, a
minimum member size TDMIN=0.15 is applied. The input data for this example is given in Listing 3.

Main Index

474 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Listing 3 Input File for MBB Beam with Mirror Symmetry Constraints

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
CORD1R
1
10001
GRID
10001
GRID
10002
GRID
10003
TOPVAR, 1
, Tshel,
, SYM
,
1 ,
, TDMIN, 0.15
DRESP1
1
COMPL
DRESP1
2
FRMASS
DCONSTR 1
2

10002
3.
3.
4.
Pshell,
YZ
,
COMP
FRMASS

10003
1.
0.0
1.
1.0
1.
0.0
, , , ,
1
ZX

.5

Figure 34-3 shows the topology optimal result with symmetric constraints and minimum member size.

Figure 34-4

MBB Beam with Symmetric Constraints and Minimum Member Size

Modeling Tips
The quality of the results of a topology optimization task is a strong function of how the problem is posed in MSC
Nastran. This section contains a number of tips:
A DRESP1=COMP is introduced to define the compliance of structures for topology optimizations. The
response is usually used as an objective to maximize structural stiffness in static analysis problems.
A DRESP1=FRMASS is introduced to define the mass fraction of topology designed elements. The
DRESP1=WEIGHT is the total weight of all structural and nonstructural mass. For topology optimization tasks,
a DRESP1=FRMASS response is recommended to define a mass reduction target in a design constraint.

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 475
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

The POWER field on the TOPVAR entry has a large influence on the solution of topology optimization
problems. A lower POWER often produces a solution that contains large grey areas (area with intermediate
densities 0.3 0.7). A higher value produces more distinct black and white (solid and void) designs. However,
near singularities often occur when a high POWER is selected.
A TCHECK parameter on DOPTPRM is used to turn on/off the checkerboard free algorithm. This default
normally results in a better design for general finite element mesh. However, if high order elements and/or a
coarser mesh is used, turning off the filtering algorithm may produce a better result.
The TDMIN parameter is mainly used to control the degree of simplicity in terms of manufacturing
considerations. It is common to see some members with smaller size than TDMIN at the final design since the
small members have contributions to the objective. Minimum member size is more like quality control than
quantity control. It is in general recommended that TDMIN should not be less than the length of 3 elements.
Maximum design cycle DESMAX=30 (as default) is often required to produce a reasonable result. More design
cycles may be required to achieve a clear 0/1 material distribution, particularly when manufacturability
constraints are used.
There are many solutions to a topology optimization: one global and many local minimization. It is not
unusual to see different solutions to the same problem with the same discretization by using different
optimization solvers or the same optimization solver with different starting values of design variables.
In a multiple subcase problem, a DRSPAN Case Control Command can be used to construct a weighting
function via a DRESP2 or DRESP3. For example, a static and normal mode combined problem, the objective
can be defined as
c1
0
obj = weight1 ----- + weight2 -----
c 0
1

where weight1 and weight2 are two weighting factors. c 1 is the calculated compliance and 1 is the calculated
eigenvalue via DRESP1 definition. c 0 and 0 are the initial value of these responses.
To obtain a rib pattern by topology optimization, a core non-designable shell element thickness must be
defined together with two designable above and below the core thicknesses. That is, add two designable
elements for each regular element.
If some elements are disconnected on the final topology design proposal, the mass target may be too small to
fill the design space.

Main Index

476 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Summary - Torsion
Title

Chapter 34: A Torsion Beam

Topology optimization
features

Compliance minimization
Mass target
Checkerboard free
Minimum member size control
Mirror symmetry constraints

Geometry

P = 1000
+
P = 1000

Units: m
Length = 16 and width = 4 and height = 4

Material properties

Youngs Modulus = 2.1x105MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3, density = 1.0

Analysis type

Static analysis

Boundary conditions

Cantilever

Applied loads

A pair of twisting forces = 1000.0 N at the free end

Element type

8-node HEXA elements

Topology result

Material distribution
)

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 477
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

Introduction
A torsion beam is used here to demonstrate the extrusion and casting constraints. Figure 34-5 shows the FEM model
of the torsion beam. A pair of twisting forces is applied on one end while the other end is fixed. 2048 CHEXA elements
are used for this model. The objective is to minimize the structural compliance with mass target of 0.3 (i.e., 70%
material savings).

P = 1000
+
P = 1000

Units: m
Length = 16 and width = 4 and height = 4

Figure 34-5

Torsion Beam

Solution Requirements
This torsion beam is utilized to show MSC Nastran topology optimization extrusion and casting
constraint capabilities.
Design Model Description
Objective:

Minimize compliance

Topology design region:

PSOLID

Constraints:

Mass target = 0.3 (i.e., mass savings 70%)


(a) Extrusion constraints
(b) Casting constraints with one or two dies

Three solutions demonstrate:


By using extrusion constraints in topology optimization, a constant cross-section design along the given
extrusion direction can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.
The use of casting constraints can prevent hollow profiles in topology optimization so that the die can slide in
a given direction. One or two die options are available for selection.
Some combined manufacturing constraints are allowed in topology optimization to achieve design goal.

Main Index

478 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Optimization Solution
Extrusion Constraints With One Die
If is often to see some topology optimized designs can contain cavities that are not achievable or require a high cost
manufacturing process. For example, the result from the torsion beam without manufacturing constraints is shown in
Figure 34-6. Clearly, this topology design proposal is not achievable by casting.

Figure 34-6

Torsion Beam without Manufacturing Constraints

The extrusion constraints enforce a constant cross-section design along the given extrusion direction. The input data
related to imposing an extrusion constraint along the z-axis in the basic coordinate system (as the default option) is
given in Listing 4.
Listing 4 Input File for Torsion Beam with Extrusion

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1
2
Frmass
FRMASS

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 479
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

DRESP1
DCONSTR
TOPVAR,
,
PSOLID

1
1
1
EXT
1

,
,

COMPL
COMP
2
TSOLID,
,
1
0

.3
PSOLID, .3, , , ,
Z

Figure 34-7 shows the topology optimized result with extrusion constraints. It is obvious that the design has a constant
cross-section along the z-axis.

Figure 34-7

Torsion Beam with Extrusion Constraints in Z-Axis

Casting Constraints with One Die


A torsion beam (shown in Figure 34-5 is used here to demonstrate the combination of one die casting
manufacturability constraints and mirror symmetric constraints.
The casting constraints with one die option enforce that the material can only be added to the region by filling up in
the given draw direction from the bottom (or, stated another way, that voids extend from the top surface and do not
reappear in the die direction). To apply casting constraints and symmetric constraints on designed properties, a
reference coordinate system CID=1 is defined by using a rectangular coordinate system CORD1R. A CAST
continuation line defines casting constraints in the Y direction and one die is a default option. Another SYM
continuation line defines symmetric constraints about the YZ plane. The input data related to the topology
optimization model is given in Listing 5.

Main Index

480 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Listing 5 Input File for Torsion with One Die

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1
2
Frmass
FRMASS
DRESP1
1
COMPL
COMP
DCONSTR 1
2
.3
CORD1R
1
5
167
7
PSOLID
1
1
0
TOPVAR,
1 ,
TSOLID,
PSOLID,
,
CAST,
,
SYM,

.3, , , ,
1
1 ,
Y, , YES
1 ,
YZ

Figure 34-8 shows the topology optimized result with one die casting constraints. It is observed that the design
material is added by filling up in the Y direction from the bottom. In addition, the design is symmetric about the YZ
plane in the reference coordinate system CID=1.

Figure 34-8

Main Index

Torsion Beam with One Die Casting Constraints in Y Direction

CHAPTER 34 481
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

Casting Constraints with Two Dies


A torsion beam (shown in Figure 34-5 is also used here to demonstrate two die casting manufacturability constraints.
The input for two die casting constraints is similar to the one die option in Example 5. Here, the difference is that 2
are selected for the DIE field on the TOPVAR entry. The input data related to imposing two die casting constraints is
given in Listing 6.
Listing 6 Input File for Torsion with Two Dies

DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1
2
Frmass
FRMASS
DRESP1
1
COMPL
COMP
DCONSTR 1
2
.3
CORD1R
1
5
167
7
PSOLID
1
1
0
TOPVAR,
PSOLID

1 ,
1

,
,

TSOLID,
PSOLID, ,
CAST,
1 ,
SYM ,
1 ,
1

,
Y,
YZ

1
2, YES

Figure 34-9 shows the topology optimized result with two die casting constraints. It is observed that the design
material grows from the splitting plane in opposite directions along the y-axis specified in the reference coordinate
system CID=1. The splitting plane is determined by optimization and in this case corresponds to the

Main Index

482 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 34

Figure 34-9

Torsion Beam with Two Die Casting Constraints in Y-Axis

Modeling Tips
It is recommended that a base line topology optimization job (without any manufacturability constraints) be
carried out before a topology optimization solution with manufacturability constraints. Benefits are:
a. a topology optimization without restriction may result in a better design
b. the design proposal from the no restriction run may give some hints for imposing manufacturability
constraints.
Topology optimization with manufacturability constraints often needs more material to fill the design space.
Therefore, the design with manufacturability constraints usually requires a relatively bigger mass target (less
material savings) than the one without manufacturability constraints.
The casting constraints may have difficulty dealing with a design model that has one or more non-smoothed
boundary surfaces to be designed. It is recommended to use smooth surfaces for topology designed boundary
surfaces.

Main Index

CHAPTER 34 483
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_34a.dat

Basic compliance minimization

nug_34b.dat

Minimum member size

nug_34c.dat

Mirror symmetry constraints

nug_34d.dat

Extrusion constraints

nug_34e.dat

One die casting constraints

nug_34f.dat

Casting constraints with two dies

Main Index

Chapter 35: Engine Mount Topology Optimization

35

Main Index

Engine Mount Topology


Optimization

Summary

485

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Optimization Solution

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

486

490
490

487
487

CHAPTER 35 485
Engine Mount Topology Optimization

Summary
Title

Chapter 35: Engine Mount Topology Optimization

Topology optimization
features

Averaged compliance minimization


Multiple TOPVAR entries
Multiple load cases
Displacement constraints

Geometry
Link

Front Mount Beam

Front Mount Beam


Trunnion
Front Mount Ring

Thrust Strut

Material properties

Youngs Modulus = 2.05x105 MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3

Boundary conditions

Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point.

Applied loads

14 load cases (forces)

Element type

HEXA, PENTA, TETRA, and RBE3

Topology result

Material distribution
)

Main Index

486 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 35

Introduction
The main goal is to minimize the compliance of the engine-front-mount-beam (shown in Figure 35-1) with mass target
0.3 (material savings 70%) and displacements within a range (-0.6, 0.6) at selected 5 grids. The analysis model has 14
load cases. The finite element model is shown in Figure 35-2. There are 62306 HEXA elements, 703 PENTA elements,
31 TETRA elements, and 5 RBE3 elements.

Link

Front Mount Beam


Trunnion
Front Mount Ring

Thrust Strut

Figure 35-1

Front-Mount-Beam

Front Mount Beam

Figure 35-2

Main Index

Front-Mount-Beam FE Model

CHAPTER 35 487
Engine Mount Topology Optimization

Solution Requirements
Design Model Description
Objective:

Minimize averaged compliance

Topology design region:

PSOLID = 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, and 10

Constraints:

Constraints:

Mass target = 0.3 (i.e., mass savings 70%)


Displacements at grid points 76095, 76096, 76419, 76420,
and 76421 for all 14 load cases within the range (-6.0, 6.0)

This solutions demonstrates:


The averaged compliance can be used for topology optimization problems with multiple load case to achieve
an efficient design concept.
Multiple topological design parts are allowed.
Displacement constrains can be well treated in topology optimization.

Optimization Solution
The input data related to the topology optimization model is given in Listing 7.
The TOPVAR entries define five topological design parts with XINIT (initial design)=0.3 that matches the mass target
so the initial design is feasible (reduce CPU time spent on optimizer).
In order for a structural response to be used either as an objective or a constraint, it first must be identified on a DRESPi
Bulk Data entry. The DRESP1 entries 200-213, for example, identify the compliance. DRSPAN and SET Case Control
Commands are then used to select one compliance DRESP1 entry for each subcase that are used in DRESP2=1000
response. The equation response DRESP2=1000 with the attribute FUNC=AVG spans all subcases to calculate averaged
compliance of the structure. A DESOBJ Case Control Command selects DRESP2=1000 to be an objective.
DRESP1=500 defines a fractional mass response. This mass target is imposed by the upper bound on the DCONSTR=50
entry. As always, fractional mass constraints should be applied at the global level in a design optimization by using
DESGLB. Separate DRESP1 entries 1 -5 identify displacements responses at gird points. There responses are
constrained by the bounds set using a corresponding set of DCONSTR entries.

Listing 7 Input File for Engine Mount


analysis=statics
set 1 = 200
set 2 = 201
set 3 = 202
set 4 = 203
set 5 = 204
set 6 = 205
set 7 = 206
set 8 = 207
set 9 = 208

Main Index

488 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 35

set 10 = 209
set 11 = 210
set 12 = 211
set 13 = 212
set 14 = 213
DESOBJ = 1000
DESGLB = 50
DESSUB = 1
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
$ ==================================================================
$ ==================================================================
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = 1
DRSPAN = 1
SUBCASE 2
LOAD = 2
DRSPAN = 2
SUBCASE 3
LOAD = 3
DRSPAN = 3
SUBCASE 4
LOAD = 4
DRSPAN = 4
SUBCASE 5
LOAD = 5
DRSPAN = 5
SUBCASE 6
LOAD = 6
DRSPAN = 6
SUBCASE 7
LOAD = 7
DRSPAN = 7
SUBCASE 8
LOAD = 8
DRSPAN = 8
SUBCASE 9
LOAD = 9
DRSPAN = 9
SUBCASE 10
LOAD = 10
DRSPAN = 10
SUBCASE 11
LOAD = 11
DRSPAN = 11
SUBCASE 12
LOAD = 12
DRSPAN = 12
SUBCASE 13
LOAD = 13
DRSPAN = 13
SUBCASE 14
LOAD = 14
DRSPAN = 14
$ ===================================================================

Main Index

CHAPTER 35 489
Engine Mount Topology Optimization

BEGIN BULK
$ *******************************************************************
$
Written by : MSC/NASTRAN
$
Version
: 4.51
$
Translator : MSC/NASTRAN
$
From Model : D:\users\mulf\bmwroll\fmb.mod
$
Date
:
$ *******************************************************************
$
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678
$DCONSTR 1
20
6.
6.1
$23456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
$DCONADD 1
15
16
17
18
19
21
22
$
23
24
25
50
DCONSTR 1
1
-6.
6.0
DCONSTR 1
2
-6.
6.0
DCONSTR 1
3
-6.
6.0
DCONSTR 1
4
-6.
6.0
DCONSTR 1
5
-6.
6.0
DCONSTR 50
50
.3
TOPVAR,
1 ,
psolid,
Psolid, .3, , , ,
1
TOPVAR,
2 ,
psolid2,
Psolid, .3, , , ,
2
TOPVAR,
3 ,
psolid3,
Psolid, .3, , , ,
3
TOPVAR,
4 ,
psolid8,
Psolid, .3, , , ,
8
TOPVAR,
5 ,
psolid9,
Psolid, .3, , , ,
9
TOPVAR,
6 ,
psolid10,
Psolid, .3, , , , 10
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP1 50
w
FRMASS
DRESP1
1
d
disp
123
76095
DRESP1
2
d1
disp
123
76096
DRESP1
3
d2
disp
123
76419
DRESP1
4
d3
disp
123
76420
DRESP1
5
d4
disp
123
76421
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP1, 200,
COMP1,
COMP
DRESP1, 201,
COMP2,
COMP
DRESP1, 202,
COMP3,
COMP
DRESP1, 203,
COMP4,
COMP
DRESP1, 204,
COMP5,
COMP
DRESP1, 205,
COMP6,
COMP
DRESP1, 206,
COMP7,
COMP
DRESP1, 207,
COMP8,
COMP
DRESP1, 208,
COMP9,
COMP
DRESP1, 209,
COMP10,
COMP
DRESP1, 210,
COMP11,
COMP
DRESP1, 211,
COMP12,
COMP
DRESP1, 212,
COMP13,
COMP
DRESP1, 213,
COMP14,
COMP
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP2
1000
COMPL
AVG
DRESP1
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213

Main Index

490 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 35

A topology result shown in Figure 35-3 is obtained by MSC Nastran. The topology optimization design proposal is
smoothed by Patran.

Figure 35-3

Front-Mount-Beam Topology Optimization Proposal

Modeling Tips
If multiple mass targets (multiple DRESP1=FRMASS) are used, it is recommended each TOPVAR's initial
value XINIT matches its corresponding mass target.

Input File(s)
File
nug_35.dat

Main Index

Description
Minimize averaged compliance/displacement constraints

Chapter 36: Wheel Topology Optimization

36

Main Index

Wheel Topology Optimization

Summary

492

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

493

495
495

493

492 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 36

Summary
Title

Chapter 36: Wheel Topology Optimization

Topology optimization
features

Cyclical symmetry constraints

Geometry

Material properties

Youngs Modulus = 1.0x107 Pa, Poissons ratio = 0.3, density = 1.0

Boundary conditions

Fixed at some points

Applied loads

Force = 1000.0 N in direction of gravity

Element type

HEXA, RBE3

Topology result

Material distribution
)

Main Index

CHAPTER 36 493
Wheel Topology Optimization

Introduction
A wheel model shown in Figure 36-1 is used to demonstrate MSC Nastran topology optimization cyclical symmetry
capabilities. The wheel is modeled with six-sided solid elements (118156 CHEXA). The wheel outer layers and bolts
are nondesignable. One load case is considered. The structural compliance is minimized (i.e., minimize the total strain
energy of the structure) with a mass target 0.1 (i.e., remove 90% of the material). Although the load is not cyclically
symmetric about the Y-axis, the design is required to be cyclically symmetric about the Y-axis with five segments.

Figure 36-1

Wheel FE Model

Solution Requirements
Design Model Description
Objective:

Minimize averaged compliance

Topology design region:

PSOLID (blue)

Constraints:

Constraints:

Mass target = 0.1 (i.e., mass savings 90%)


The design is forced to be cyclical symmetry about the Yaxis with five segments.

This solutions demonstrates:


By using cyclical symmetry constraints in topology optimization, a rotational symmetric design can be
obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.
CASI solver provides a major speed up for large 3-D problems in static analysis.

Main Index

494 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 36

Optimization Solution
The input data for this example related to topology optimization model is given in Listing 8. The coordinate system
(CORD2R = 1) is created to be used to specify cyclical symmetric constraints. The field CS (cyclical symmetric axis)
on the SYM line is Y-axis with NCS (number of cyclical symmetric segments) = 5. It is noticed that SMETHOD=
ELEMENT is used to select CASI iterative solver. The CASI iterative solver released in MSC Nastran can provide a
major speedup in the solution of large static analyses.
Listing 8 Input File for Wheel
DESOBJ = 10
DESGLB = 1
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SMETHOD = ELEMENT
SUBCASE 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
BEGIN BULK
CORD2R
1
10.512 33.3312 12.9921 -22.209833.3312 4.88385
28.388 33.3313 -19.7297
DCONSTR 1
2
.1
TOPVAR
1
PSOLID PSOLID .1
2
SYM
1
Y
5
DRESP1
2
FRM
FRMASS
DRESP1
10
COMP
COMP
Figure 36-2 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed by using Patran. It is noticed that cyclical symmetry
is obtained even though the loading is not cyclically symmetric.

Figure 36-2

Main Index

Wheel Topology Design

CHAPTER 36 495
Wheel Topology Optimization

Modeling Tips
CASI solver is limited to compliance minimization topology optimization problem only.
The cyclical symmetry constraints can also be used for rotational parts <60. In addition, the starting surface
must be XY plane for cyclical symmetric CS=X, YZ plane for CS=Y; ZX plane for CS=Z, respectively. The
cyclical symmetric segment (NCS) must also be defined in 360 for this case. For example, a 90 rotational
part has three segments, NCS must be set to NCS=12 in 360.

Input File(s)
File
nug_36.dat

Main Index

Description
Cyclical symmetry constraints

Chapter 37: Local Adaptive Meshing

37

Main Index

Local Adaptive Meshing

Summary

497

Introduction

Modeling Details

Mesh Refinement Process Definition

Material Modeling

Loading and Boundary Conditions

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

498
499

502

507

506
507

500

501

502

501

CHAPTER 37 497
Local Adaptive Meshing

Summary
Title

Chapter 37: Local Adaptive Meshing

Features

2-D structure mesh refinement


Region to be refined defined by property identifier
Mesh adaptivity criterion based on error indicator
Free-Free structure

Geometry
H = 0.4 m
d = 0.2 m
s = 0.02 m
F = 280 N

max
F

nominal

Material properties

E = 69GPa , = 0.33 , = 3200kg/m

Analysis characteristics

Linear static analysis using local adaptive meshing functionality

Boundary conditions

Automatic inertia relief (INREL = -2)

Applied loads

Tensile axial loading acting on the shortest edge of the plate (F = 280 N)

Element type

4-node, 3-node 2-D elements (QUAD4/TRIA3)

FE results

1. Stress at the most critical point for each refinement cycle

2. Stress concentration factor to compare with theoretical results


Stress Concentration
2.5
Kt=

max
nominal

Theoretical (2.157)
Numerical

2.0

Refinement Cycle

1.5

Main Index

498 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 37

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of the mesh refinement capability to converge on the correct solution in terms
of stress distribution. A very simple structure has been considered to enable a comparison between theoretical and
numerical results.
F
Theory, based on net section, states that if the nominal stress nom = --------------------is defined as the stress acting on the net
H d s

section (defined as the section that results from the difference between the width of the plate and the diameter of the

nom

max
- , where max is the actual stress
hole), then the stress concentration factor due to the presence of the hole is k t = -----------

at the critical point. The stress concentration factor can be calculated from the empirical relationship shown in
Figure 37-1.

Kt
3.0

d
d
d

kt = 2 + 0.284 1 0.600 1 + 1.320 1


H
H
H

2.5

2.0

1.5
d
H
1.0
0.00
Figure 37-1

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

Graphical Representation of Stress Concentration Factor versus d/H

The theoretical results and input data are shown in Table 37-1.
Table 37-1

Input Data and Theoretical Results

Applied
Stress
Load
Concentration
(N)
Factor
Geometrical Data (m)

Main Index

Nominal
Stress (Pa)

Maximum
Stress (Pa)

kt

nom

max

280.0

0.4

0.2

0.02

2.157

70000.0

150990.0

CHAPTER 37 499
Local Adaptive Meshing

Modeling Details
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 101 for a 2-D representation of a freefree plate with a hole in its central region. The details of finite element model, contact simulation, material, load,
boundary conditions and solution procedure are discussed below.

Figure 37-2

Initial Finite Element Model with Zoom in the Critical Region

The initial finite element model consists of:


M O D E L
NUMBER OF GRID
NUMBER OF CQUAD4
NUMBER OF CTRIA3

S U M M A R Y
POINTS
=
ELEMENTS =
ELEMENTS =

964
872
12

The case control section of the input contains the typical entries for a linear static analysis. The only command that
has been added to activate the mesh refinement is HADAPT. This, in turn, specifies the use of the bulk data entries,
HADAPTL and HADACRI that control all the refinement process (see next section for details):
ECHO = NONE
HADAPT = 1
PARAM
POST
0
PARAM,INREL,-2
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=First mesh
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
Furthermore, the INREL parameter has been included with a value of -2 to activate the automatic inertia relief
process. It is needed (automatic or manual) because the structure is in free-free conditions (unrestrained). The output
request for displacement has been considered only to check the congruency of the deformation while the stress output
is what we really need for comparison with the theoretical results.
The Bulk Data Section contains the standard options for a linear static analysis plus the specific option for mesh
refinement control.

Main Index

500 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 37

Mesh Refinement Process Definition


The following options have been added to the standard linear static analysis Bulk Data section to define the mesh
refinement process:
$---------------------------------------------------------------------$
C A R D S
F O R
R E F I N E M E N T
$---1---$---2---$---3---$---4---$---5---$---6---$---7---$---8---$---9--HADAPTL
1
7
1
PROP
2
1
+
HADACRI
1
1
0.9
$----------------------------------------------------------------------

The HADAPTL option specifies the local adaptive mesh refinement control parameters. In particular, referring to the
specific name associated to each field in the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide, the process has been defined in this
way:
REPEAT = 7 (5th field): maximum number of refinement cycles executed before the process is stopped
CRITID = 1 (6th field): associated HADACRI option identifier
WHEREMET = PROP (7th field): method used to specify the mesh refinement region subjected to the adaptivity
criteria referenced in the associated HADACRI. PROP means that all the elements associated to a specific
property option are considered by the refinement process
WHEREID = 2 (8th field): Identifier of the mesh refinement region subjected to the selected adaptivity criteria.
Considering the WHEREMET value and the elements used in the finite element model, all the elements
associated to PSHELL which identifier is 2 will be involved in the refinement process
SNAPMETH =1 (9th field): Method to project, snap, or relax new grid points on mid-edge or mid-face during
the refinement process. The selected value allows the projection onto a smooth approximation of the analysis
domain boundary interpolated from the mesh boundary.
MAXLEVEL = default (2nd field in the second physical option for HADAPTL): Maximum refinement level
allowed for each individual element in the mesh. No elements will be refined to a level higher than the
specified value. The default value is equal to that one defined in the REPEAT field.
The HADACRI option specifies the mesh adaptivity criterion and the corresponding parameters. In this case, the
method based on a scalar error indicator has been chosen (TYPE = 1 in the 3rd field). According to this criterion a
scalar error indicator Ee is computed in the finite element mesh and an element e will be refined if:
2

Ee
--------------------------------1
N
1
2
F 1 ---- E f
N
f =1

where N is the total number of elements in the element set to which it belongs and F 1 is the value specified in the 4th
field of this option (in the specific case F 1 = 0.9 ). Note that the elemental error indicator is computed using the grid
point stresses following the procedure utilized by the ELSDCON Case Control command.

Main Index

CHAPTER 37 501
Local Adaptive Meshing

Material Modeling
Isotropic elastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the following MAT1 option as follows:
MAT1

6.9+10

.33

3200.

The Youngs modulus is taken to be 6.9 GPa with a Poissons ratio of 0.33. Mass density ( = 3200 Kg/mm3) has
also been specified to support the inertia relief process. Note that the results are not affected by the value included
in this field.

Loading and Boundary Conditions


No boundary conditions have been defined because the structure is not constrained.
The loading involves application of concentrated forces (to simulate uniform load distribution) at the nodes located on
the shortest edges of the plate:
$ Loads for Load Case : Case_2
LOAD
2
1.
1.
1
1.
3
1.
5
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Central_NEG
FORCE
1
252
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
253
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
254
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
255
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
256
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
257
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
258
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
735
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
736
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
737
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
738
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
739
0
20.
-1.
0.
FORCE
1
740
0
20.
-1.
0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Central_POS
FORCE
3
504
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
505
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
506
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
507
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
508
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
509
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
510
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
959
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
960
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
961
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
962
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
963
0
20.
1.
0.
FORCE
3
964
0
20.
1.
0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Ends_POS
FORCE
4
503
0
10.
1.
0.
FORCE
4
958
0
10.
1.
0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Ends_NEG
FORCE
5
251
0
10.
-1.
0.
FORCE
5
734
0
10.
-1.
0.

Main Index

1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

502 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 37

Solution Procedure
According to the HADAPTL and HADACRI control options, the refinement process starts with a preliminary calculation
(CYCLE = 0 or ANALYSIS number 1) using the initial finite element model. Then, the refinement process starts and
continues up to a number of cycles equal to REPEAT (3rd field in HADAPTL). During these cycles, each element
involved will be refined up to MAXLEVEL value (2nd field in the second physical option in HADAPTL).
As result of each refinement cycle the following files will be generated (xxxx.bdf is the generic name of the input
file and):
xxxx.n.bdf It contains the grid points, the elements and the MPC options related to the refined mesh
created at the specific refinement cycle
xxxx.n.xdb It contains the model and the results for the specific refinement cycle.
where n is the number of the generic refinement cycle.
Furthermore, the standard files xxxx.log, xxxx.f04, xxxx.f06 are generated. In the last one, it is possible to read
some information about the refinement process show in the example below:
^^^-----------------------------------------------------^^^GLOBAL NUMBER OF ELEMENTS:
1096
^^^AVERAGE ERROR INDICATOR:
1.766260E+03
^^^CHANGE IN AVERAGE ERROR INDICATOR: 5.402161E-01 %
^^^-----------------------------------------------------^^^* * * E N D O F A N A L Y S I S #:
2
* * *
^^^-----------------------------------------------------by which it is possible to verify how it is proceeding and when the specific cycle is finished.

Results
The first result to analyze is the way in which the finite element mesh is changed during the refinement cycles. In the
figure below all the refined models are summarized. Note that the MPC relationships used to establish the congruency
between regions with different meshes are not displayed to make the images clearer.

Main Index

CHAPTER 37 503
Local Adaptive Meshing

Refinement Cycle 1

Refinement Cycle 2

Refinement Cycle 3

Refinement Cycle 4

Refinement Cycle 5

Refinement Cycle 6

Refinement Cycle 7

Figure 37-3

Main Index

Refined Finite Element Models

504 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 37

Looking at the refined meshes obtained in the subsequent cycles, it can be seen how important it is to activate a
projection onto a smooth approximation of the analysis domain boundary from the mesh boundary (SNAPMTHD field
in HADAPTL option). In fact, it avoids the creation of kinks that create two problems:
Driving the refinement process around the geometrical singularities
Generating stress concentration in the singular regions
Displacement output has been required only to verify the correctness of the solution in terms of deformed structure.
The use of PARAM.INREL,-2 enables a meaningful deformed structure in the case of free-free boundary conditions
(Figure 37-4). The deformation seems to be congruent with the applied loads.

Figure 37-4

Deformed Structure

Also, the stress distribution is as we expect.

Figure 37-5

von Mises Stress Distribution Relative to the Last Refinement Cycle

The stress level in the critical point is compared with the theoretical one and the relative stress concentration factor is
calculated. The resulting data are summarized in the following table together with other general information related
to refinement effects on mesh size and error indicator.
The error percentages are calculated according to the following relationship:
Calculated value Theoretical value
Error% = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100
Theoretical value

while, as already mentioned, the stress concentration factor is calculated as:


max
k t = ---------- nom

Main Index

CHAPTER 37 505
Local Adaptive Meshing

Referring to Table 37-1, the theoretical values for maximum stress and stress concentration factor are:
Maximum Stress

= 150990 N/m2

Nominal Stress

= 70000 N/m2

Stress Concentration Factor = 2.157

Table 37-2

Results Comparison

Refinement
Cycle

Global
Number of
elements

Average
Error
Indicator

Maximum
von Mises
Stress
(N/mm2)

Stress
Concentration
Factor

Stress
Concentration
Factor Error
(%)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

880
1100
1568
2900
6476
16326
41060
98996

1756.77
1766.26
1582.74
1211.11
838.27
530.66
338.77

115461.46
130292.07
137223.50
141407.04
145797-84
148861.35
150535.57
150545.23

1.649
1.861
1.960
2.020
2.083
2.127
2.151
2.151

-23.53
-13.71
-9.12
-6.35
-3.44
-1.41
-0.30
-0.29

Two important considerations can be seen in Table 37-2:


The evaluated stress concentration factor is close to the theoretical one. The relative error is about 0.3%.
The differences between two subsequent maximum stresses decreases increasing the refinement level
(Figure 37-6).

Main Index

506 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 37

Stress Concentration
2.5
Kt=

max
nominal

Theoretical (2.157)
Numerical

2.0

Refinement Cycle

1.5

Figure 37-6

Theoretical/Numerical Stress Concentration Factor Comparison

Modeling Tips
Some suggestions can be helpful to define the best refinement process:
The refinement can be limited using the field MAXLEVEL in the HADAPTL option. None of the elements in the mesh
will be refined to a level larger than MAXLEVEL. Limiting this process is necessary to avoid run-away refinement. In
this example, the default value (MAXLEVEL = REPEAT) has been used not only to test the right convergence towards
the theoretical stress but also the limited improvement introduced in the latest refinement cycles.
Kinks (e.g., sharp internal corners that lack C 1 continuity) should be avoided in order to limit their influence:
on the refinement process (if they exist, the refinement is concentrated around the geometrical singularities)
on results (avoiding kinks prevents fictitious stress singularities)
Kinks can be controlled defining SNAPMTHD = 1 in the HADAPTL option. In this example, the relaxation/projection
method has been activated for the grid points created by the procedure; to verify its positive effect, change SNAPMTHD
from 1 to 0 and see how the refinement process behaves. The refined meshes are concentrated along the geometrical
singularities (sharp corners or kinks of a polygonal hole) and the results (the maximum value always increases) will
continue to subdivide elements near the kinks.

Main Index

CHAPTER 37 507
Local Adaptive Meshing

Setting SNAPMTHD = 1 ensures the geometry of the hole is correctly represented during the refinement process. By
creating a cylindrical coordinate system at the center of the hole, all the grid points that have been generated on the
boundary are all at R = 0.1 m, exactly the radius of the circle (the error is on the fifth decimal digit). It confirms the
need to use the SNAPMTHD = 1 relaxation/projection procedure.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_37.dat

MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example

nug_37.bdf

MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example used in video

nug37.SimXpert

MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

H = 0.4 m
d = 0.2 m
s = 0.02 m
F = 280 N

max
F

nominal

Figure 37-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 38: Landing Gear

38

Main Index

Landing Gear

Summary

509

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solution

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

510

510

517

521

520
520

510

CHAPTER 38 509
Landing Gear

Summary
Title

Chapter 38: Landing Gear

Contact features

Frictionless Deformable-Deformable Contact


Glued Contact for non-matching meshes

Geometry
DRAG STRUT

UPPER CYLINDER

GAS SPRING

SIDE STRUT

SIDE STRUT PIVOT


DRAG STRUT PIVOT

UPPER LINK SPACER

UPPER LINK PIVOT

UPPER TORQUE LINK

AXLE

APEX SPACER

TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT


LOWER TORQUE LINK
INNER CYLINDER
LOWER LINK SPACER

Material properties

Youngs Modulus = 3.0x107 Psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3

Boundary conditions

Pinned Connections with/without Glued Contact SOL 400


)

P I N NE D C O N NE C T I O N S

Element types

HEXA, TETRA, BAR

FE results

Verify the contact conditions (GLUE and nonGLUE)

Main Index

510 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

Introduction
This test case demonstrates contact analysis using MSC Nastran. Two types of contact conditions between components
are considered:
glue contact
nonglue contact
In the first one, the contact is maintained for all the analysis after it occurs. In other words, nodes in contact are not
allowed to separate whereas, in the second one, separation can change depending on the loading conditions.
Large displacement/rotation and nonlinear materials are not taken into account in this example.

Solution Requirements
The numerical analysis is performed to demonstrate the behaviors of the 3-D surface contact solution into MSC
Nastran. In particular, the simultaneous presence of glue, nonglue surface contact is considered. The deformed
structure, the satisfaction of the relative motion between components, and the stresses in the contact regions are
considered as result of the analysis.

FEM Solution
FEM solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400. The details of finite element models,
contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed.

Finite Element Models


The structure consists of different components that have been modeled independently taking into account that
matching meshes are not needed in the contact regions.
Due to geometrical behaviors:
The pins and the spacers have been modeled by 8-node HEXA elements
4-node TETRA elements have been used to model the remaining components. Note that fine meshes have
been used for these components in order to avoid the rigidity of such kind of element associated with this type
of element.
For the axle, two BAR elements have been used. In this way the proper load has been applied in the middle grid point.
No LGDISP parameter has been defined and therefore no geometrical nonlinearity is considered.

Main Index

CHAPTER 38 511
Landing Gear

Contact Models
In defining the contact regions for the structure, the components are modeled as deformable bodies. In particular, 15
contact bodies have been defined by specific BCBODY and BCSURF entries (each couple of options has been defined
using the same identifier). Note that each of them has been defined considering all the elements belonging to the
specific components.
Table 38-1

Contact Body General Information

BCBODY/BSU

Component Name

Elements

Drag Strut

217804 - 237802

Drag Strut Pivot

159301 - 160572

Gas Spring

160575 - 161534

Inner Cylinder

200218 - 217803

Lower Link Pivot

157797 - 158596

Lower Torque Link

277629 - 297917

Side Strut

237803 - 257846

Side Strut Pivot

159717 - 160332

Torsion Link Ape Pivot

158597 - 159300

10

Upper Cylinder

161663 - 200217

11

Upper Link Pivot

156997 - 157796

12

Upper Torque Link

257847 - 277628

13

Lower Link Spacer

161551 - 161582

14

Upper Link Spacer

161599 - 161630

15

Apex Spacer

161647 - 161662

Each contact body has been defined in the same way so, as an example, one set of options is used to define one of them
that has been listed:
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: lower_link_spacer
BCBODY
13
3D
DEFORM 13
0
BSURF
13
161551 161552 161553 161554
161558 161559 161560 161561 161562
161566 161567 161568 161569 161570
161574 161575 161576 161577 161578
161582

161555
161563
161571
161579

-1
161556
161564
161572
161580

161557
161565
161573
161581

In the above BCBODY option, the 3-D (third field) elements mentioned in the BSURF which identifier is 13 (look at
the fifth field) define the contact body number 13. Furthermore:
The fourth field defines the general behavior of the contact body. In this case, it is a deformable contact body
The null value in the sixth field means that symmetric penetration or double side contact check is considered.
The contact is verified symmetrically and both the contact surfaces are checked for penetration and, also, if
we need to define a MASTER and a SLAVE in any case.

Main Index

512 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

The empty seventh field forces a null friction coefficient. It means that no tangential forces are generated
when the contact condition occurs, unless these bodies are glued together.
The negative value in the eighth field allows activating the analytic option for a deformable body. It is used in
this case because the part of each component involved in the contact process is cylindrical and therefore is
simple to represent it analytically. In this way, the contact is represented in the best way.
After the definition of the contact bodies, each couple of bodies that could be in contact must be defined in the
BCTABLE option. In this entry, one of the contact bodies is defined as the MASTER while the other one is the SLAVE.
The contact behaviors are completely defined. An example of the option format used in this case is listed below:
BCTABLE

1
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE

1
0
FBSH
2
2
0
FBSH
10
3
0
FBSH
4
3
0
FBSH
10

MASTERS
...
...
SLAVE
12
0
FBSH
MASTERS 14
SLAVE
12
0
FBSH
MASTERS 15

4.-2
0
1.+20

19
0.
0
0.

4.-2
0
1.+20

0.
0
0.

0.

4.-2
0
1.+20

0.
0
0.

0.

4.-2
0
1.+20

0.
0
0.

0.

4.-2
0
1.+20

0.
0
0.

0.

4.-2
0
1.+20

0.
0
0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

It can be checked how the nineteen contact regions (look at the fifth field of the above BCTABLE option) are defined
in the same. The only difference is in the eighth field of the option where the SLAVE option is defined. In fact, we can
see a unit or null value. If a unit value is defined, the two contact surfaces must be glued. It means that the glue option
is activated and all the degrees of freedom of the nodes are tied in case of deformable-deformable contact once the
node comes in contact. In general, if the unit value is defined, all degrees of freedom are MPCd in the deformabledeformable contact once the grids have come in contact. To turn on the general SOL 400 contact algorithm the entry:
BCPARA, 0, NLGLUE,1
is used. It should be taken into account that if, in SOL 400 on the BCTABLE, there are multiple GLUE and nonGLUE
entries associated with different SLAVE entries, then, the above option must be used. It is the case in this example.
A null value activates the standard contact conditions. It means that a SLAVE node can move only over the MASTER
contact surface when it comes in contact (except if glued). In this case, if the general load condition leads to the
separation of the contact bodies, the slave node start again to move without constraints. Note that in this entry different

Main Index

CHAPTER 38 513
Landing Gear

contact parameters (the distance below which the node is considered in contact, friction coefficient, separation force,
stress friction limit, contact tolerance bias, etc) can be defined for each contact region.
The BCTABLE entry is activated by BCONTACT option in the Case Control section. Note that in this case, a
BCONTACT = 0, defined above the subcase level activates the corresponding BCPARA,0 and BCTABLE,0 entries
defined in the Bulk Data Section. It allows to initially identify contacting bodies. Note that in SOL 400, a
BCONTACT = 0 is allowed above all subcases but is not required. Any of the contact Bulk Data entries that allow a 0
and have a 0 value ID field are automatically sensed by SOL 400 with or without a BCONTACT = 0 command. The
contact regions are summarized in the table below.
Table 38-2
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Main Index

Contact Body General Information (ID in Parenthesis)


SLAVE Component
(BCBODY ID)
Drag Strut (1)
Drag Strut Pivot (2)
Gas Spring (3)
Gas Spring (3)
Inner Cylinder (4)
Inner Cylinder (4)
Inner Cylinder (4)
Lower Link Pivot (5)
Lower Torque Link (6)
Lower Torque Link (6)
Lower Torque Link (6)
Side Strut (7)
Side Strut Pivot (8)
Torsion Link Apex Pivot
Upper Cylinder (10)
Upper Cylinder (10)
Upper Link Pivot (11)
Upper Torque Link (12)
Upper Torque Link (12)

MASTER Component
(BCBODY ID)
Drag Strut Pivot (2)
Upper Cylinder (10)
Inner Cylinder (4)
Upper Cylinder (10)
Lower Link Pivot (5)
Upper Cylinder (10)
Lower Link Spacer (13)
Lower Torque Link (6)
Torsion Link Apex Pivot
Lower Link Spacer (13)
Apex Spacer (15)
Side Strut Pivot (8)
Upper Cylinder (10)
Upper Torque Link (12)
Upper Link Pivot (11)
Upper Link Spacer (14)
Upper Torque Link (12)
Upper Link Spacer (14)
Apex Spacer (15)

GLUE
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
-

514 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

DRAG STRUT
DRAG STRUT PIVOT

DRAG STRUT PIVOT


UPPER CYLINDER

LOWER LINK PIVOT


LOWER TORQUE LINK

Figure 38-1

GAS SPRING
UPPER CYLINDER

LOWER TORQUE LINK


TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT

LOWER TORQUE LINK


LINK LOWER SPACER

Glued Contact Regions Panels a-e, Nonglued Contact Panel f

Looking at the behaviors of the defined contact regions, it can be checked that:
The gas spring is attached in its upper end to an internal surface of the UPPER cylinder. This system can
move along their common axis according to the non-glued contact regions defined between them and the
INNER cylinder.
The torsion link apex pivot is rigidly connected to the LOWER torque link while a nonglued contact region is
defined between the first body contact and the UPPER torque link. Also, the APEX SPACER is in the same
contact condition. Considering the null friction coefficient, this modeling solution allows to avoid any
singularity maintaining the relative rotational motion between the two links.
The rigid link pivot is rigidly connected to the LOWER torque link but it is connected by nonglued contact
region with the INNER CYLINDER. It is the same modeling solution than the above one.
The two struts are rigidly connected to the UPPER cylinder.
The two torque links (UPPER and LOWER) can rotate around the axes of the two pivots that connect each of
them respectively with the UPPER and the INNER cylinders.

Main Index

CHAPTER 38 515
Landing Gear

Figure 38-2

Possible Relative Motion Between the Different Components

Material
The isotropic elastic material properties of the steel used for all the components have been defined by the
following MAT1.
MAT1

3.+7

.3

7.3-4

Nonlinear behaviors of the material are not considered.

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The set of boundary conditions (SPC = 2) defined in the model simulates hinges between some components and the
ground. In particular, they are positioned in the upper ends of the:
Drag Strut
Side Strut
Upper Cylinder
The following options are used to define this boundary condition:
SPCADD
...
SPC1

123

108520

108521

313468

313469

313470

313471

The braking load condition is considered. It consists of:


Concentrated forces and moments applied to the middle point of the axle. They define three different loads
acting on this component:

Main Index

516 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

Brake drag
FORCE
MOMENT

1
3

314410
314410

0
0

60000.
0.

-1.
.57735

0.
.57735

0.
.57735

314410
314410

0
0

0.
.57735
1.335+6 0.

.57735
1.

.57735
0.

314410
314410

0
0

140000. 0.
0.
.57735

0.
.57735

1.
.57735

Brake side moment


FORCE
MOMENT

4
5

Brake vertical
FORCE
MOMENT

6
7

FX
X

MY
X

Figure 38-3

FZ
X

Pressure Load Applied to the Axle

Breaking Pressure in the inner part of the Upper Cylinder (Load sets from 8 to 11)
PLOAD4
PLOAD4
PLOAD4
...
PLOAD4
PLOAD4

Figure 38-4

Main Index

11
11
11

164669 1190.4
164864 1190.4
166091 1190.4

33161
33236
55196

7479
7156
49965

10
10

199542 1190.4
199546 1190.4

54157
105944

106392
106130

Pressure Load Applied to the Axle

CHAPTER 38 517
Landing Gear

All these loads are combined by LOAD Bulk data entry to define the applied static load condition
LOAD

2
1.
1.

1.
5
9

1.
1.
1.

1
6
10

1.
1.
1.

3
7
11

1.
1.

4
8

Solution Procedure
In the present analysis, contact is the only nonlinearity. It means that the provided load condition generates small
displacements and only the stresses are in the linear elastic part of the stress-strain curve of the material. As
consequence, no geometrical and material nonlinearity are taken in account. Furthermore, looking at the geometries,
the contact conditions seems to be not so complicated, It simplifies the approach to be used in the analysis.
First of all no STEP is defined under the SUBCASE level.
BCONTACT = 0
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(plot)=ALL
$ SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(plot)=ALL
BOUTPUT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
NLPARM = 1
The nonlinear procedure is defined through the following NLPARM entry with ID 1.
NLPARM

FNT

PV

YES

Here:
Only one increment is considered.
FNT represents the Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration.
PV indicates that convergence will be checked on vector component (V) of the residuals (P). In this V method,
convergence checking is performed on the maximum vector component of all components in the model.
YES indicates that intermediate output is produced after every increment.

Results
No results to compare are available for this test case so what has been obtained by the calculation will be checked from
a qualitative viewpoint. The maximum total displacement occurs in the bottom part of the inner cylinder, close to the
axle (where the concentrated loads are applied).

Main Index

518 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

Figure 38-5

Undeformed and Scaled Deformed Structure

To check how the contact is working it is possible to take advantage of a procedure that in MSC Nastran allows storing
all the contact results into the database. In fact it is not possible to obtain these data into XDB (PARAM,POST,0) or
OUTPUT2 (PARAM,POST,-1) postprocessing files while adding the keyword:
scr = post
in the Nastran command line, all the results, including the contact ones, are stored into the database. They are retrieved
into MSC Patran selecting:
Action

Access Results

Object

Attach Entities

Method

Result Entities or Both

in the Results Window.


The following results can be displayed for contact regions
Contact Status
Friction contact force, Magnitude
Normal contact force, Magnitude
Contact force, Friction
Contact force, Normal
Contact stress, Friction 1
Contact stress, Friction 2
Contact stress, Normal
It is possible to understand which components are in contact displaying the Contact Status output. As first example
some of the contact regions belonging to the lower and upper torque links will be considered.
Looking at the Contact Status Contours in Figure 38-7 and taking into account the contact regions behaviors (as
summarized in Figure 38-6) we can say that:
Both the contact bodies regions (MASTER and SLAVES) are highlighted.

Main Index

CHAPTER 38 519
Landing Gear

The contact status in the UPPER TORQUE LINK-TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT nonglued contact
region put in evidence how the deformation of the structure determines the contact only in a limited part of
the bodies.
A good contact modeling is recognized by a congruent representation of the Contact Status output in the
MASTER and SLAVE contact bodies. In particular in case of glued contact a continuous contact status contour
should be displayed. A different representation could highlights problems in the geometries of the contact
bodies.
UPPER LINK PIVOT
- SLAVE in contact region with UPPER TORQUE LINK (GLUED)
- MASTER in contact region with UPPER CYLINDER

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7256,21/,1.$3(;3,927
6/$9(LQFRQWDFWUHJLRQZLWK833(572548(/,1.
0$67(5LQFRQWDFWUHJLRQZLWK/2:(572548(/,1. */8(' 

Figure 38-6

Upper and Lower Torque Links Connections

$3(;63$&(5
121*/8(' 

7256,21/,1.$3(;3,927

0$67(56/$9(

/2:(572548(/,1.
0$67(56/$9(
833(572548(/,1.

Figure 38-7

*/8(' 

First Contact Status Contour Plot Example

A nonclear situation is displayed for the nonglued contact between UPPER TORQUE LINK and TORSION APEX
PIVOT. In fact, the contact status is differently represented in the corresponding contact regions of the two
components. Probably, the combined effects of the deformation and the different element types in the two components
determine it.

Main Index

520 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 38

Differently, in case of nonglued contact regions defined in the UPPER CYLINDER-UPPER LINK PIVOT
connection the contact status seems to be represented correctly (see Figure 38-8). In fact, there is a complete
congruency between the two regions that are in contact.
833(5&</,1'(5
121*/8(' 
0$67(56/$9(

833(5/,1.3,927

Figure 38-8

Second Contact Status Contour Plot Example

Modeling Tips
Important behaviors of this example are the definition of glued and nonglued contact regions and the effects of contact
geometries to obtain good results. Contact is only verified in a qualitative viewpoint by the analysis of the Contact
Status output.
The following are some guidelines and tips for modeling this benchmark:
The geometry of a contact surface should be defined property in order to avoid problems when it touches
another surface contact.
The density of the mesh affects the results in the contact region in particular in case of contact surfaces with
nonplanar shape and in which different types of elements are used.
Use the Contact Status output to check if the contact is working properly (use scr=post in the Nastran
command line to obtain this kind of output).

Input File(s)
File
nug_38.dat

Main Index

Description
MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for the landing gear model

CHAPTER 38 521
Landing Gear

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 40 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Figure 38-9

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 39: Brake Squeal Analysis

39

Main Index

Brake Squeal Analysis

Summary

523

Introduction

Modeling Details

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Reference

Video

524
524

529

531

531
531

531

CHAPTER 39 523
Brake Squeal Analysis

Summary
Title

Chapter 39: Brake Squeal Analysis

Contact features

Contact friction induced dynamic instability leading to brake squeal

Geometry

Units: mm, kg, sec

R = 144

Back_Plate
Insulator

Model Courtesy of
Dr. Lin Jun Seng of TRW
Automotive

Pad
Rotor

Z
X

t = 20

Material properties

Back plate E = 2.07x108 kg/(mm-sec2), = 0.28, = 7.82x10-6 kg/mm3


Insulator: E = 2.07x108 kg/(mm-sec2), = 0.28, = 7.82x10-6 kg/mm3
Pad: Anisotropic Organic Material
Rotor: E = 1.25x108 kg/(mm-sec2), = 0.24, = 7.2x10-6 kg/mm3

Boundary conditions

Constraints to simulate caliper guided brake pad motion


Contact between the two deformable bodies with = user selected

Applied loads

Piston pressure normal to pad surface

Element types

8-node solid element HEXA and PENTA

FE results

Main Index

The unstable mode at


1.953 Hz in the analysis
when = 0.3.

524 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 39

Introduction
Brake squeal is the unpleasant high frequency vibrations (2000 to 10000 Hz) that occur in disk brake systems.
Application of the brakes causes an increase in line pressure which results in the caliper piston (s) to push the pads
against the spinning rotor. A valuable review paper by Kinkaid et al. (Kinkaid 2003) provide a comprehensive review
and bibliography of research on disc brake squeal. The high pitch noise or squeal occurs when a specific combination
of piston pressure, friction and damping effects cause two stable modes to merge or coalesce into a single unstable
mode.
The solution to preventing modal coalescence is to modify the design. This would include, but is not limited to,
material changes, design changes and the addition or modification of present damping components. However the
analysis of disk brake systems has been challenging due to the complexity of the structure, material properties and
loading environment.
Brake squeal analysis models require not only the typical FEM mesh of the components (pads and rotor at a minimum),
but also the representation of the contact/frictional connection between the pad and rotor. This contact/friction is
represented by an unsymmetric stiffness matrix. Previously in Nastran there were restrictions imposed by this method
that included:
The meshed contact area between the rotor and pad must be congruent
Separation is not allowed; full contact is maintained
The contact matrix is supplied as a DMIG generated outside of the normal FEM calculations
Each contact condition involving the friction coefficient and loading (magnitude and pattern) required a
unique DMIG
Typically, the generation of the DMIG entries required days to weeks of analysis time. Interested users are directed to
Section 5.3 of the Advanced Dynamic Analysis Users Guide for a description on manual generation of the
contact/friction connection DMIG entries.
The introduction of the brake squeal analysis capability in this release has eliminated all of the previous restrictions.
In addition, the user now has the capability to examine various combinations of friction values, loading, and contact
definitions in a single execution. Further, the system matrices can include, at user request, differential stiffness due to
preloading, large displacement effects and full nonlinear property definitions. No longer is the brake squeal analysis
limited to a string of single shot runs or multiple restarts. This example features the following: 3-D deformabledeformable contact with friction, multiple SUBCASE/STEP analysis, user selectable complex solution domain - real
or modal space, choice of complex Lanczos or Hessenberg solver, and full user control of contact parameters.

Modeling Details
Brake squeal analysis is activated in MSC Nastran's Advanced Nonlinear solution sequence (SOL 400) with the Bulk
Data entry BSQUEAL. The BSQUEAL entry is selectable within the Case Control section at the SUBCASE level. With
the analysis chaining capability complex eigenvalues can be computed at user selected load factors.

Main Index

CHAPTER 39 525
Brake Squeal Analysis

The case control loading and modal extraction requests are shown in the listing that follows. This example
demonstrates the extraction of complex modes at specific piston load points
SUBCASE 100
$
SUBTITLE = Nonlinear static analysis
SPC = 2
METHOD = 100 $ Modal Approach
CMETHOD = 200
AUTOSPC(noprint) = YES
RESVEC = NO
$
STEP 1
LABEL = Nonlinear Static Step
NLPARM = 2
$ Ten load increments
BCONTACT = 1
BOUTPUT = NONE
$ No contact surface output
SPC = 2
LOAD = 200
$
$ STEPs for complex eigenvalue extraction
$
STEP 2
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 20% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.2
$
STEP 3
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 50% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.5
$
STEP 4
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 80% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.8
BEGIN BULK
...
The analysis contains a single SUBCASE with four STEPs. Step 1 performs the nonlinear loading in 10 steps. Contact
bodies are selected with the BCONTACT where the contact friction values are defined on the Bulk Data BCTABLE.
This step performs a normal nonlinear 3-D contact analysis that allows separation of the contact surfaces.
Steps 2 through 4 perform a complex eigenvalue extraction at selected load points. The methods used to extract the
modes are defined above all the STEP definitions. Activation is done with the ANALYSIS=MFREQ entry which requires
a normal modes and complex modes selection which in this example is above all STEP definitions. The user has access
to all of the MSC Nastran modern modal methods: Lanczos, complex Lanczos, and Hessenberg.
Load steps selected for complex mode extraction is defined by the NLIC entry. This entry selects the loading STEP and
the load increment - LOADFAC. The allowable values for LOADFAC are determined by the INC value defined on the

Main Index

526 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 39

Bulk Data NLPARM entry. The BSQUEAL entry is also present to select the variables such as friction value to be used
in generating the contact stiffness matrix between the pad and rotor. As the example shows, complex modes are
extracted for a defined friction value of 0.3 at piston loads of 20, 50, and 80 percent of the maximum. This then allows,
in one execution, monitoring the complex modes for possible coalesce of two modes which signals the onset of brake
squeal.

Modeling Contact
Contact is easily defined in MSC Nastran. The Bulk Data pair BCBODY/BSURF to designate the type of contact body
(deformable) and the elements comprising the contact body. The contact algorithms locate the element faces that will
potentially participate in contact surfaces. There is no need for user effort to limit the elements listed on the BSURF
entry to aid the contact algorithms. For example, all of the elements in the rotor are selected in BCBODY/BSURF 4 of
the larger model, and there is no need to painstaking pick only those elements that might contact the pads; similarly
for the pads.
The contact bodies for this example model are shown in Figure 39-1. Note that the elements defining the contact body
can be groups of discontinuous elements as shown by the brake pads.
bsurf-4
bsurf-5
bsurf-6

Figure 39-1

Contact Bodies

Additional contact bodies are permitted. With disk brake systems, other components would be (but not limited to) the
caliper, pistons, guide pins, and steering knuckle. The BCTABLE collects the contact bodies and assigns various
parameters related to the surface contact. In the example below, there are four contact bodies. Contact between the
pads and pistons are defined as glued contact - integer 1 in field 8. Glued contact also has the feature of eliminating
the requirement of matching mesh gridpoints between the bodies. Pad and rotor contact is defined as full nonlinear
contact with a frictional value of 0.3.
If the contact surfaces are a mixture on glued (pistons to pads) and full nonlinear contact (pads to rotor) the BCPARAM
entry is also required.
BCPARA

Main Index

nlglue

CHAPTER 39 527
Brake Squeal Analysis

This ensures that a contact body that participate in glued and full nonlinear contact will maintain the full nonlinear
contact status in all STEPs.
$ Contact bodies (see BCBODY/BSURF) - all deformable
$ BODY 4 - Rotor
$ BODY 5 - Outer pad
$ BODY 6 - Inner pad
$
Body ID
Fric
Glued
$-------2-------3-------4-------5-------6-------7-------8-------9-------0------BCTABLE 0
2
SLAVE
6
0.
0.
0.3
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE
5
0.
0.
0.3
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 1
2
SLAVE
6
0.
0.
0.3
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE
5
0.
0.
0.3
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 2
2
SLAVE
6
0.
0.
0.4
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE
5
0.
0.
0.4
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 3
2
SLAVE
6
0.
0.
0.5
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE
5
0.
0.
0.5
0.
0
0.
2
2
0
MASTERS 4
...
$
$ Rotor deformable contact body
$
BCBODY
4
3D
DEFORM 4
0
BSURF
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
...(rest of elements omitted)
$ Outer pad deformable contact body
$
BCBODY
5
3D
DEFORM 5
0
BSURF
5
24400
24401
24402
24403
24404
24405
24406
24407
24408
24409
24410
24411
24412
24413
24414
...(rest of elements omitted)
$
$ Inner pad deformable contact body
$
BCBODY
6
3D
DEFORM 6
0
BSURF
6
20704
20705
20706
20707
20708
20709
20710
20711
20712
20713
20714
20715
20716
20717
20718
...(rest of elements omitted)

BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option
required in SOL 400 for contact analysis, and it is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT
= 0 option. The BCTABLE with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and
it is flagged using BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section. Also, the SLAVE-MASTER combination defines that the
nodes for body 1 are nodes belonging to the slave body. This in literature is referred by various terminologies as either

Main Index

528 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 39

contacting body nodes or tied nodes (imagining the situation of multi-point constraints). The nodes belonging to body
2 are said to belong to the master body which are also referred to as the contacted body nodes or the retained nodes
(imagining the situation of multi-point constraints)
The definition of the contact bodies (defined as Rotor and Pads in Figure 39-1 above) as stated above use the
BCBODY/BSURF Bulk Data pair. The BCBODY options define the deformable body including the body ID,
dimensionality, type of body, type of contact constraints and friction, etc. BSURF identifies the elements forming a
part of the deformable body and includes the convenient THRU option when listing the element ID's.

Brake Squeal Parameters


The BSQUEAL Bulk Data entry supplies information specific for forming the brake squeal analysis.
$
ID
BSQUEAL 900
0.0

OMETH
0.5
0.0

AVSTIF
1.e+5
1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

AVSTIF is the average stiffness on a per unit basis between the pad and disk. This variable is under user control instead
of a hidden predefined value. This stiffness is used in forming the penalty contact stiffness between the pad and rotor.
Thus AVSTIF has a direct influence over the overall stability of the model and the values of the brake squeal modes.
The default value is 1.0E+4 however it is advised that until the user is comfortable with the calculated results, several
additional brake squeal runs be performed using alternate AVSTIF values.

Evaluation of the proper value for AVSTIF (or if the default is appropriate) can be easily accomplished with the STEP
command. As the BSQUEAL is called from the Case Control section, a series of STEPs can be defined each calling a
BSQUEAL Bulk Data entry with a unique AVSTIF.
The second line of data defines the rotational axis of the rotor; all reference from the basic rectangular coordinate
system. The first three values define the cosines of the rotation axis. The second three values represent a point on the
rotation axis. As the rotor spins about the Z direction, only the Z cosine is supplied. Any point coordinate on the Z axis
would be acceptable for the three values as the rotor straddles the Z=0.0 plane.

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The displacements for the pads simulate the guidance of the brake caliper system. This is best described in Figure 39-2.

Figure 39-2

Main Index

Displacement Constraints

CHAPTER 39 529
Brake Squeal Analysis

Pressure is applied to the backside of each brake pad. This is best described in Figure 39-3.

Figure 39-3

Piston Pressure on Brake Pads

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM

FNT

PV

YES

FNT represents Full Newton Raphson technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration. KSTEP (field after
FNT) is left blank, and in conjunction with FNT, it indicates that stiffness needs to be reformed between the end of the

load step and the start of next load increment. The maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment is left
at the default of 25. If more than 25 recycles is exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated.
PV indicates that the maximum norm of vector component of the incremental loads will be checked for convergence.
YES indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The second line of NLPARM is not
defined indicating that default tolerances will be used for convergence checking.
The number of increments is provided in the 3rd field of the NLPARM option. The default is 10 and this ties back to
the allowable values for LOADFAC on the NLIC entry.

Results
Figure 39-4 shows the displacement (contours and physical shape) of the brake pads due to the pressure load at 100%
magnitude. The undeformed shape is represented by the unshaded wireframe. This information is available for each
load increment (10 as NINC was defaulted to 10.)

Main Index

530 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 39

Figure 39-4

Displaced Shape at 100% Load

Figure 39-5 is an example of the modal shape of the first unstable complex mode when is 0.3. The mode shapes are
available for every complex mode calculated at each STEP where the BSQUEAL is present.

Figure 39-5

First Unstable Complex Mode Shape at 1953 Hz

The SUBCASE/STEP combination provides the user with the powerful capability to evaluate multiple combinations
of friction, load patterns, and contact properties. In Table 39-1 a simple comparison between two friction values has
been summarized.
Table 39-1

Summary of First Unstable Mode Results

Piston Load

First Unstable
Mode Frequency
Hz

Damping
Coefficient

First Unstable
Mode Frequency
Hz

10%

1914.56

-0.014863

1914.90

-0.027065

20%

1914.55

-0.014855

1914.89

-0.027062

50%

1914.50

-0.014833

1914.84

-0.027052

100%

1914.42

-0.014796

1914.77

-0.027007

= 0.30

Main Index

Damping
coefficient

= 0.50

CHAPTER 39 531
Brake Squeal Analysis

Modeling Tips
Start with the smaller demonstration model (small_brake_squeal.dat). This model can be run locally on a PC
machine and runs fast. Data generation is reasonable even with a large number of output requests, then migrate to the
larger model.

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_39a.dat

Simple brake squeal model. Runs fast and users encouraged to evaluate analysis
procedures/selections with this model.

nug_39b.dat

This is the large brake squeal model shown in the figures. Although it runs relatively fast it can
generate vast amounts of data, particularly if the print or punch options are chosen.

Reference
Kinkaid, N. M. OReilly, O. M. Papadopoulos, P. (2003) Automotive disc brake squeal. Journal of Sound and
Vibration 267, 105-166.

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately four minutes and explains
how the steps are performed.
Units: mm, kg, sec

R = 144

Back_Plate
Insulator
Pad
Rotor

Z
X

t = 20

Figure 39-6

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 40: Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

40

Main Index

Multiple Bird-strikes on
Box Structure

Summary

533

Introduction

FEM Solution

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Results

Input File(s)

534
536

594
598

541

CHAPTER 40 533
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Summary
Title

Chapter 40: Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Features

Multi Material Euler


General Lagrangian-Eulerian Coupling
Failed Coupling Surface

Geometry
Bird 2
Bird 1

Structure

Outer Euler Zone


Inner Euler Zone

Material properties

Material

Density

(kg/m3)

Titanium

Air

4527

1.1848

930

930
2.2e9

Mass (kg)

0.36

0.285

Initial Velocity (m/s)

150

200

1.03e11

Poissons ratio

0.314

Yield strength (Pa)

1.38e8

Gamma
Thickness (m)

1.4
0.0015

Radius (m)

0.25

Length (m)

0.25

Fail (Eq. Plastic Strain)

Boundary conditions

Bird 2

2.2e9

Bulk Modulus (Pa)

Analysis characteristics

Bird 1

0.1

Explicit Transient Dynamic (SOL 700)


Plate Structure fixed at ends
Outer flow on the boundary of outer Euler zone.

Element types

Lagrange: 4-node shell element


Multi-Euler: 8-node hex element which is generated automatically using Mesh entry

FE results

1. Failure at primary structure followed by impact on secondary structure


2. Time history of total z-force on the coupling surface

Main Index

534 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Introduction
Bird strike on a box structure is a typical problem in aircraft industries. The box structure simulates the leading edge
of lifting surfaces, e.g. wing, vertical, and horizontal stabilizers. The box can be simplified to consist of a curve leading
edge panel and a front spar. The acceptable design criteria for bird strike are that the leading edge panel may fail but
the front spar strength may not degrade to a certain level.
In this example, two cylindrical panels are concentric. Two birds strike the upper panel. One bird strikes in horizontal
direction and the second one vertically. The second bird will perforate the first panel and impact the second one. The
birds are modeled as cylindrical slugs of jelly. The plate is constrained in such a way that the edges can only move in
radial direction.

Bird 2

Bird 1

150 m/s

200 m/s

60o

Figure 40-1

Initial Situations

The properties and initial conditions of the plate and birds are as follows:
Plate

Ambient B

Bird 1

Bird 2

Material

Titanium

Air

Jelly

Jelly

Density (kg/m3)

4527

1.1848

930

930

Bulk modulus (Pa)

1.03e11

2.2e9

2.2e9

Poissons ratio

0.314

Yield stress (Pa)

1.38e8

Gamma

1.4

Thickness (m)

0.0015

Radius (m)

0.25

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 535
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Plate
Length (m)

Ambient B

Bird 1

Bird 2

0.25

Mass (kg)

0.36

0.285

Initial velocity (m/s)

150

200

Fail (equiv. Plas. Strain)

0.1

Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Model
Each curved plate is modeled using 33x16 BLT-shells. The boundary conditions applied at the edges of the plate are
defined within a cylindrical coordinate system, where the local z-axis is aligned with the length axis of the plate. The
cylindrical system is defined using a CORD2C entry. To create a closed surface, required by COUPLING option, the
two plates are connected with dummy quad elements.
The two birds and air are modeled using Multi Material Eulerian (FV) elements, also known as MMHYDRO. The
location of the bird in the Euler domain is defined using TICEUL option.
The material for the birds and air are modeled using EOSPOL and EOSGAM, respectively.
To allow the bird perforating the first plate and impact the second one, several modeling techniques can be used. One
of them is using two Eulerian domains and two coupling surfaces. Both the Eulerian domains and the coupling surfaces
have to be logically different. Each coupling surface associates with one Eulerian domain.
In this model, the two coupling surfaces share the same physical space. By specifying that one domain is covered
outside and the other inside, the Eulerian domain represents the correct physical space. The two Eulerian domains
cannot interact with each other except through coupling surfaces. When coupling surfaces share the same shell
elements with some or all shells failing, then the material can flow from one Eulerian domain into another one. The
interaction between the Eulerian domains is activated using COUP1INT option and PARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE,
FAIL. The rest of the Euler domain is filled with air. Please notice that when the effect of air is neglected, then the rest
of the Eulerian domain should be filled with void. It will speed up the analysis.
The first domain is associated with a coupling surface that is ,16,'( covered. Therefore, it cannot be adaptive and is
defined using MESH,, BOX option. The second domain is adaptive and defined using MESH,, ADAPT. The ADAPT
option will let SOL 700 create and update the Eulerian domain to minimize memory allocation and consequently
reduced CPU time. The default Eulerian boundary condition is set to that only outflow is allowed using FLOWDEF
option. In this case, a bird that reaches the free face boundary will flow out of the domain. The initial velocity of the
birds is defined using TICVAL option.
The finite element model of the upper and lower plates, the Eulerian domains and the initialization of the birds are
shown in the Figure 40-2. The dummy quad elements used to create closed coupling surfaces are not shown in
Figure 40-1.

Main Index

536 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

FEM Solution

Figure 40-2

Euler Domains

Input File:
SOL 700 is an executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis:
SOL 700,NLTRAN stop=1
Case control cards for problem time, loads, and initial conditions:
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
TITLE = Multiple BIRD STRIKE on BOX Structure
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name: Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
SPC = 1
IC = 1
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of time steps (10) and time increment (0.0015

seconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the time increment is only for
the first step. The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps is determined by SOL 700
during the analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
$------- BULK DATA SECTION ------BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL 1
10
0.0015
1

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 537
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Define the Initial, the Minimum and the Safety factor of the time step:
PARAM*, DYINISTEP, 1e-7
PARAM*, DYMINSTEP, 1e-8
DYPARAM, STEPFCTL, 0.9
Define coupling surface that can fail and Multi material overflow array to store material data. In a problem where more
than 10% of the elements have more than one material, the default value of )08/7,
must be increased.
DYPARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE, FAIL
DYPARAM, FMULTI, 0.2
Define Output results request for every 0.00015 s and time history output request for coupling surfaces:
DYPARAM, LSDYNA, BINARY, D3PLOT, .00015
DYTIMHS,, .000001,,,,,,,+
+, CPLSOUT
Euler domain 1:
Define an Euler mesh with 50x28x44 elements reference to PEULER1 (=1):
$ domain 1
$
MESH, 1, BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-0.26,-0.015,-0.05,0.50,0.28,0.44,,,+
+, 50, 28, 44,,,, EULER, 1
Define FSI coupling surface from elements listed in the BSURF entry (covering inside):
$ COUPLING SURFACE 1
$
COUPLE , 1 , 1 , INSIDE , ON , ON , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , , , +
+ , , 1
$
BSURF , 1 , 7393 , THRU , 8448 , 13729 , THRU , 14048 , 14577 , +
+ , THRU , 15236
Define Eulerian element properties with reference to TICEUL1 (=11).
PEULER1 , 1 ,

MMHYDRO , 11

The initial conditions of these elements are defined in geometric regions.

Main Index

538 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Define Regions with shapes, material, initial values and level indicators:
$ Allocation of material to geometric regions.
$ -------------------------------------------TICEUL1 , 11 , 11
TICREG ,
1 , 11 , CYLINDER , 1 ,
3 , 1
TICREG ,
2 , 11 , CYLINDER , 2 ,
5 , 2
TICREG ,
3 , 11 , SPHERE
, 4 ,
4 ,

,
,

3
2
,

Define region shapes:


CYLINDR , 1 , , .13 , .125 , .2252 , .17 , .125 , .2944 ,
+
+ , .035
CYLINDR , 2 , , -.1381 , .125 , .26
, -.2381 , .125 , .26
, +
+
.035
SPHERE ,
4 , , -.1381 , .125 , .26
, 1000
Define Initial values of the birds and the air:
TICVAL,
TICVAL,
TICVAL,

1
2
5

,
,
,

,
,
,

XVEL ,
XVEL ,
SIE ,

-75 , ZVEL , -129.9


200
2.1388E5 , DENSITY , 1.1848

Define Eulerian materials for the birds and the environment (air):
$--------Material Bird -----------------------------------MATDEUL , 3 , 930 , 3
EOSPOL
, 3 , 2.2e9
MATDEUL , 5 , 930 , 5
EOSPOL
, 5 , 2.2e9
$ -------- Material Air id =4
MATDEUL , 4 , 1.1848 , 4
EOSG
, 4 , 1.4
Euler domain 2:
Define an adaptive Euler mesh reference to PEULER1 (=6):
$-----------------------------Domain 2----------------------------$
MESH , 2 , ADAPT , 0.01 , 0.01 , 0.01 , , , , +
+ , -0.26 , -0.015 , -0.05 , , , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , EULER , 6

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 539
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Define FSI coupling surface from elements listed in the BSURF entry (covering outside):
$===Coupling Surface 2
$
COUPLE , 2 , 2 , OUTSIDE , , , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , , , +
+ , , 2
$
BSURF , 2 , 7393 , THRU , 8448 , 13729 , THRU ,
, +

14048 ,

14577

Domain 2 has only 1 region with air.


TICEUL1,12,12
TICREG,11,12,SPHERE,7,4,5,1.0
SPHERE,7,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
Interaction between the coupling surfaces 1 and 2:
Define interaction between coupling surface 2 and 1:
$ coupling interaction
$
COUPINT,2,2,1
Define default Eulerian flow boundary condition:
$ Flow boundary
$ ------------------------------------------------------------FLOWDEF , 1 , , MMHYDRO , , , , , , +
+ , FLOW , OUT
Define cylindrical coordinate system:
$ -------------------CORD2C , 1
,
, 0.0 ,
0.0
+ , 0.0
, 0.125 , 0.25

0.0

0.0

0.25

Define properties of the panels:


PSHELL1 , 2
,
2
,
Blt
, Gauss , 3
,
, Mid ,
, +
+ ,
.0015
$
MATD024 , 2 , 4527 , 1.150e11 , .314 , 1.38e8 , , 0.1

Main Index

.83333

0.0

540 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Define properties of dummy elements to close the coupling surfaces.


PSHELL,3,999,1.E-3
PSHELL,4,999,1.E-3
$
MATD009,999,1.E-20

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 541
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


When aircraft are landing or taking off, they sometimes have difficulties with bird swarms. An impact of several birds
striking at a high velocity can cause severe damage to the structure of the aircraft. So, we are going to consider a
situation where two birds strike a curves titanium plate at an arbitrary time. Bird 1 hits the plate perpendicularly; bird
2 hits the plate on the lower side at an angle of 25 (Figure 40-3). The birds are modeled as cylindrical jelly masses
with the following specifications:
Bird 1

Bird 2

Material:

Jelly

Jelly

Density:

r = 930 kg/m3

r = 930 kg/m3

Speed of Sound:

c = 1483 m/s

c = 1483 m/s

Mass:

m2 = .360 kg

m2 = .285 kg

Velocity:

v1 = 150 m/s

v2 = 200 m/s

The plate is constrained on the edges in all directions.

Figure 40-3

Main Index

Birdstrike

542 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create a New Database


Enter the MSC Explicit Workspace.
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. Tools: Options
c. Select Units Manager
d. Select Basic Units (m, kg, s, ...)
e. Select GUI Options; check Solver Card
f. Click OK
g. Click Apply

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 543
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Curve 1
a. Geometry: Curve
b. Polyline Spline window: Create: select Spline
c. Polyline Spline window, Entities: select Pick
d. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0 0.125; click OK
e. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0.25 0.125; click OK
f. Click Apply

b
d

f
d

e
e

Main Index

544 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create Curve 2
a. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0 0.001; click OK
b. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0.25 0.001; click OK
c. Click Apply
d. Click OK

b
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 545
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Surface1
a. Geometry: Revolve
b. Revolve Axis: Along, select Vector
c. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK (not shown)
d. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 1; click OK (not shown)
e. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1 0 0; click OK
f. Click OK
g. Revolve Curves: Entities, select CURVE/1
h. For Angle Of Spin (Degrees): enter -120; click OK

Main Index

546 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create Surface2
a. Geometry: Revolve
b. Revolve Axis: Along, select Vector
c. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 -0.124; click OK (not shown)
d. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 1; click OK (not shown)
e. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1 0 0; click OK
f. Revolve Curves: Entities, select CURVE/2
g. For Angle Of Spin (Degrees): enter -120; click OK
h. Observe results

e
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 547
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Part2
Create surfaces 3, 4, 5, and 6
a. Assemble: Create Part
b. For Title: enter PART_2
c. For ID: enter 2; click OK
d. Observe in the Model Browser tree: PART_2
e. Surface: Filler
f. For Curves: pick CURVE/3; click OK
g. For Curves: pick CURVE/7; click OK (not shown)
h. Click Apply
i. Observe results

b
c
h
f
f
i

Main Index

548 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create Surfaces 4, 5, and 6


a. For Curves: pick CURVE/4; click OK
b. For Curves: pick CURVE/8; click OK
c. Click Apply
d. For Curves: pick CURVE/5; click OK
e. For Curves: pick CURVE/9; click OK
f. Click Apply
g. For Curves: pick CURVE/6; click OK (not shown)
h. For Curves: pick CURVE/10; click OK
i. Click Apply

d
a

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 549
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Show Labels PART_1


a. Right click in the Main Window
b. Select Render
c. Select Geometry WireFrame
d. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_1
e. Select Set Current
f. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_1
g. Select Show Only
h. Under Tools: select Identify
i. In the Pick window, select Curves
j. In the Pick window, select Surfaces
k. In the Pick window, select Select
l. In the Pick window, click All
m. In the Pick window, click Done (not shown)
n. In the Pick window, click Exit (not shown)

h
b

a
i

k
l

Main Index

550 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Seed PART_1
a. Meshing: Seed
b. Type: Number of Elements, enter 20
c. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/3, Curve/4, Curve/7, and Curve/8
d. Click Apply
e. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
f. Type: Number of Elements, enter 40
g. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/5, Curve/6, Curve/9, (not shown) and Curve/10
h. Click Apply
i. Click OK

e
f

i
c
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 551
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Surface PART_1
a. Meshing: Surface
b. Element Type: Mesh Type, select Quad Dominant
c. Surface to mesh: pick Surface/1 and Surface/2
d. Element property: Add to part: PART_1
e. Click Apply
f. Click OK

c
b

Main Index

552 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Seed PART_2
a. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_2
b. Select Set Current (not shown)
c. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_2
d. Select Show Only (not shown)
e. Under Tools: select Identify (not shown)
f. In the Pick window, select Curves and Surfaces
g. In the Pick window, select Select
h. In the Pick window, click All
i. In the Pick window, click Done
j. In the Pick window, click Exit
k. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
l. Type: Number of Elements, enter 20 (not shown)
m. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/12 (not shown), Curve/14, Curve/16, and
Curve/18; click Apply
n. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
o. Type: Number of Elements, enter 40 (not shown)
p. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/20, Curve/22, Curve/24,
and Curve/26; click Apply
q. Type: Number of Elements, enter 5
r. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/13 (not shown), Curve/17,
Curve/19, Curve/21, Curve/23, Curve/25, and Curve/23;
click Apply
s. Click OK

k
q

h
i

j
p

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 553
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Surface PART_2
a. Meshing: Seed
b. For Mesh type:, enter Tria Only
c. For Surface to mesh, pick Surface/3, Surface/4, Surface/5, and Surface/6
d. Add to part:, enter PART_2
e. Click Apply
f. Click OK

b
c
d

Main Index

554 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Merge Nodes Surface 1 - 6


a. In the Model Browser, right click PART_2
b. Select Show All (not shown)
c. Nodes/Elements: Equivalence
d. For Entities, select All Nodes
e. For Merging Option, select Merge Nodes
f. For Merging tolerance, enter 1.e-5
g. Select Keep Lower ID
h. Select Delete merged unreferenced nodes
i. Click OK
j.Click OK

d
a

e
g

f
h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 555
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Shell Materials
a. Materials: MAT[024] MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (not shown)
b. For Name: enter MATD024_1
c. For MID, enter 1
d. For RHO, enter 4527
e. For E, enter 1.15E11
f. For PR, enter 0.314
g. For SIGY, enter 1.38E8
h. For FAIL, enter 0.1
i. Click Create
j. Materials: MAT[020] MAT_RIGID (not shown)
k. For Name: enter MATD020_2
l. For MID, enter 2
m. For RHO, enter 7856
n. For E, enter 2.1e+011
o. For PR, enter 0.3
p. Click Create

b
c

i
k
l

Main Index

556 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Shell Properties
a. Element Properties: 2D, select PSHELL1
b. For Name: enter PSHELL_1
c. For Card, enter PSHELL1
d. For PID, enter 1
e. For MID, double click, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select MATD024_1; click OK
g. For T1, enter 0.0015
h. Click Create
i. Materials: MAT[020] MAT_RIGID (not shown)
j. For Name: enter PSHELL_2
k. For Card, enter PSHELL2
l. For PID, enter 2
m. For MID, double click, select Select (not shown)
n. For Entity Selection, select MATD020_2; click OK (not shown)
o. For T1, enter 0.0015
p. Click Create

b
c

a
g

j
k

l
o
p

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 557
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Shell Properties Change Region


a. Right click PART_1, select Show Only
b. Right click PSHELL_1, select Properties
c. Click Change Region
d. Screen select All Elements
e. Click Done
f. Click Modify
g. Repeat steps a through f for PART_2

b
e

c
a
f
g

Main Index

558 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Euler Properties
a. Element Properties: EOS, select [12] EOS Ideal Gas
b. For Name: enter EOSGAM_1
c. For PID, enter 1
d. For GAMMA, enter 1.4
e. Click Create
f. Element Properties: EOS, select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
g. For Name: enter EOSPOL_2
h. For PID, enter 2
i. For A, enter 2.2E9
j. Click Create

a
b
c

d
e

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 559
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Euler Materials
Air material
a. Materials: Eulerian, select Eulerian Material
b. For Name: enter MATDEUL_3
c. For MID, enter 3
d. For RHO, enter 1.1848
e. Double click EID, select Select (not shown)
f. For Entity Selection, select EOSGAM_1; click OK
g. Click Create

b
c

Main Index

560 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Euler Materials
Bird material
a. Materials: Eulerian, select Eulerian Material
b. For Name: enter MATDEUL_4
c. For MID, enter 4
d. For RHO, enter 930
e. Double click EID, select Select (not shown)
f. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_2; click OK
g. Click Create

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 561
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Mesh
Creation of Mesh 1 (modeling Outside Box Euler)
a. LBCs: Eulerian, select Mesh
b. For Name: enter Mesh_1
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. For X0, enter -0.26, for Y0, enter -0.015, for Z0, enter -0.05
e. For DX, enter 0.5, for DY, enter 0.28, for DZ, enter 0.44
f. For NX, enter 50, for NY, enter 28, for NZ, enter 44
g. For Prop, select Euler
h. Click Create
i. Observe that Mesh_1 has been added

a
b
c
d
f

h
i

Main Index

562 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create Mesh (continued)


Creation of Mesh 2 (modeling Inside Box Euler)
a. LBCs: Eulerian, select Mesh
b. For Name: enter Mesh_2
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. For X0, enter -0.26, for Y0, enter -0.015, for Z0, enter -0.01
e. For DX, enter 0.5, for DY, enter 0.28, for DZ, enter 0.27
f. For NX, enter 50, for NY, enter 28, for NZ, enter 27
g. For Prop, select Euler
h. Click Create
i. Observe that Mesh_2 has been added
j. In the Model Tree Browser, right click Mesh_1, select Show All

b
d
f

g
i
h
j

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 563
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Cylinders
Create Cylinder 1
a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -0.1381 0.125 0.26; click OK
d. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -0.2381 0.125 0.26; click OK
e. For ID: enter 1
f. For Name: enter Cylinder_1
g. For Radius, enter 0.035
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that Cylinder_2 has been added

c
b
d

f
g
h

Main Index

564 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create Cylinders
Create Cylinder 2
a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.13 0.125 0.2252; click OK
d. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.17 0.125 0.2944; click OK
e. For ID: enter 2
f. For Name: enter Cylinder_2
g. For Radius, enter 0.035
h. Click Modify
i.Observe that Cylinder_2 has been added

c
b
d

f
g
i
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 565
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create Sphere (Initial Euler Condition)


a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder, select Sphere (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. For ID: enter 3
e. For Name: enter Sphere_3
f. For Radius, enter 1.
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that Sphere_3 has been added

b
d

e
f
g

Main Index

566 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Initial Euler Values


Air initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_1
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For Density, enter 1.1848
g. For SIE, enter 13880.
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that TICVAL_1 has been added

a
b

d
f

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 567
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Initial Euler Values (Continued)


Bird 1 initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_2
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For XVEL, enter 200
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that TICVAL_2 has been added

a
b

c
e

d
f
g

Main Index

568 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Initial Euler Values (Continued)


Bird 2 initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_2
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For XVEL, enter -75.
g. For ZVEL, enter -129.9
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that TICVAL_3 has been added

a
b

c
e

d
f

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 569
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Initial Euler Regions


Air initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICREG_1
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Sphere_3; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_1; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_1 has been added

a
b
c

d
e

i
k

h
f

Main Index

j
l

570 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Initial Euler Regions (Continued)


Bird 1 initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICREG_2
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Cylinder_1; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_4; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_2 has been added

a
b
c

d
e

i
k

j
l

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 571
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Initial Euler Regions (Continued)


Bird 2 initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Name: enter TICREG_3
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Cylinder_2; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_4; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_3 has been added

a
b
c

d
e

i
k

j
l

Main Index

572 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Initial Euler Condition MESH_1


a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICEUL1
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICEUL1_1
e. For NREG, enter 3
f. Click Modify
g. Observe that TICEUL1_1 has been added
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click TICEU1L_1
i. Select Properties
j. Double click TSID1
k. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_1; click OK
l. Double click TSID2
m. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_2; click OK
n. Double click TSID3
p. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_3; click OK
q. Click Modify

c
e

j
l
n
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 573
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Initial Euler Condition MESH_2


a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICEUL1
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICEU1_2
e. For NREG, enter 1
f. Click Modify
g. Observe that TICEUL1_2 has been added
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click TICEUL1_2
i. Select Property
j. Double click TSID1
k. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_1; click OK
l. Click Modify

c
e

d
f

j
l
h

i
k

Main Index

574 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Initial Euler Properties MESH_1


a. Element properties: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER1_3
d. For Type: select MMHYDRO
e. Double click SID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select TICEUL1_1; click OK
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that PEULER1_3 has been added

c
e
b
d
g
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 575
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Initial Euler Properties MESH_2


a. Element Properties: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER1_4
d. For Type: select MMHYDRO
e. Double click SID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select TICEUL1_2; click OK
g. Click Create

c
d

e
g

Main Index

576 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Add Euler Property to MESH_1 and MESH_2


a. Element Properties: 3D
b. Select Properties
c. Double click PID
d. In the Entity Selection window, select PEULER1_3; click OK
e. Click Modify
f. In the Model Browser tree, right click Mesh_2
g. Select Properties
h. Double click PID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select PEULER1_4; click OK
j. Click Modify

a
d

f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 577
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction


Coupling Surface 1
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPLE (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
c. Select All; click Done
d. For ID: enter 1
e. For Name: enter COUPLE_1
f. For COVER, select INSIDE
g. For both REVERSE and CHECK, select On
h. Double click MESHID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select MESH_1; click OK
j. Click Modify
k. Observe that COUPLE_1 has been added

c
d

f
h

Main Index

578 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction (Continued)


Coupling Surface 2
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPLE (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
c. Select All; click Done
d. For ID: enter 2
e. For Name: enter COUPLE_2
f. For COVER, select OUTSIDE
g. For both REVERSE and CHECK, select On
h. Double click MESHID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select MESH_2; click OK
j. Click Modify
k. Observe that COUPLE_2 has been added

c
d

f
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 579
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction (Continued)


Coupling interaction
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPINT (not shown)
b. For ID: enter 1
c. For Name: enter COUPINT_1
d. Double click CID1
e. In the Entity Selection window, select COUPLE_1; click OK
f. Double click CID2
g. In the Entity Selection window, select COUPLE_2; click OK
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that COUPINT_1 has been added

b
d

c
f
h

Main Index

580 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Parameters
Define result frequency output
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM_BINARY_option
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_BINARY_option_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For DT_D3PLOT: enter 0.00015
e. Click Create
f. Click Exit
g. Observe that DYPARAM_BINARY_option_1 has been added

a
c

b
d

g
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 581
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Parameters (Continued)
Define initial time step
a. Job Parameter: PARAM
b. For Name: enter PARAM_2
c. For SID: enter 2
d. For N: enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1: enter 5.E-7
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit
h. Observe that PARAM_2 has been added

b
d

c
e
f

Main Index

582 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Parameters (Continued)
Define parameter to activate coupling interaction
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 2
d. For F1: enter FASTCOUP
e. For F2: enter INPLANE
f. For F3: enter FAIL
g. Click Create
h. Click Exit
i. Observe that DYPARAM_1 has been added

a
b
d

c
e

f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 583
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Create New Nastran Job


a. In the Model Browser Tree, right click FileSet
b. Select Create New Nastran Job

Main Index

584 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Create New Nastran Job (Continued)


Delete default Output Request to prevent excessive output Archive files
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Output Requests:
right click Displacement Output Request
b. Click Delete
c. Click Yes
d. the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Output Requests:
right click Element Stress Output Request (not shown)
e. Click Delete (not shown)
f. Click Yes

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 585
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Simulations
Solver Control
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; Solver Control:
right click Properties (not shown)
b. Select Solution 700 Parameters
c. Deactivate Large Displacement
d. Deactivate Follower Forces
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close

a
b
c
d
e
f

Main Index

586 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Simulations (Continued)
Define End Time and Output frequency for Loadcase Control
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Loadcase Control
right click Properties (not shown)
b. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. For Ending Time: enter 0.0015
d. For Number of Time Steps: 10
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close

c
d

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 587
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Simulations (Continued)
Running New Nastran Job
a. In the Model Browser Tree: right click NewJob
b. Click Run

Main Index

588 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Postprocessing
Start SimXpert: New Project
a. File: Attach Results
b. File Path: select newjob.dytr.d3plot
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click Apply
e. Repeat steps a through d for newjob.dytr_Euler_FV1_0.ARC (not shown)
f. Repeat steps a through d for newjob.dytr_Euler_FV2_0.ARC

f
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 589
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Postprocessing (Continued)
Displacement
a. FileSet: Part: newjob
b. Select Show Only
c. Results: Deformation
d. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Time 0.0015016
e. State plot property editor: Result type: click Deformation Components
f. State plot property editor: click Deformation
g. State plot property editor: Deformed Display scaling: select True
h. Click Update

b
f
e

Main Index

590 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Postprocessing (Continued)
Fringe Stresses
a. Results: Fringe
b. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Time 0.0015016
c. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Stress Components
d. State plot property editor: click Fringe
e. State plot property editor: Element edge display: select Element edges
f. Click Update

c
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 591
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurface Bird 1 (MESH_1)
a. StatePlot: right click Deform 01
b. Select Hide
c. StatePlot: right click Fringe 01
d. Select Hide
e. FileSet: Part: right click NEWJOB.DYTR_EULER_FV1_0.ARC
f. Select Show Only
g. Results: Iso-Surface
h. State plot property editor: Result cases: select ...FV1_cycle744
i. State plot property editor: Result type: select FMAT4
j. State plot property editor: click IsoSurface
k. State plot property editor: Target entities: select All elements
l. Click Update

e
b

c
f

Main Index

592 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurface Bird 2 (MESH_2)
a. FileSet: Part: right click NEWJOB.DYTR_EULER_FV2_0.ARC
b. Select Show Only
c. Results: Iso-Surface
d. State plot property editor: Plot attribute: select IsoSurf 02
e. State plot property editor: Result cases: select ...FV1_cycle744
f. State plot property editor: Result type: select FMAT4
g. State plot property editor: click IsoSurface
h. State plot property editor: Target entities: select All elements
i. Click Update

a
c

b
g
d

f
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 40 593
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurfaces Deformations

Main Index

594 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Results
In this simulation, the time history of total z-force on the coupling surface is requested as shown in Figure 40-4. This
force is the sum of all z-forces on the nodes that belong to both the upper and the lower plate.
From Figure 40-4, it is obvious that there are three large impact forces occurring on the plate. The first one is when
the first bird impacts the upper plate, which is subject to a significant damage. The second one is when the second bird
impacts the upper plate. The last peak is caused by the first bird impacting the lower plate.
Snapshots of the motion of the two birds and the deformation of the plates are shown in Figure 40-5 at various time
steps of the simulation. Figure 40-5a is the initial condition. Figure 40-5b is at the moment when the first bird
penetrates the upper plate and second bird touches the plate.
This corresponds with the first peak in the time history plot shown in Figure 40-4. Figure 40-5c is at the moment when
the second bird penetrates the upper plate. It corresponds with the second peak of the time history plot. Figure 40-5d
is at the moment when the second bird has left the plate and the first bird penetrates the lower plate. This corresponds
with the third peak in the time history plot.

Figure 40-4

Main Index

Time History of Total Z-force on Coupling Surface

CHAPTER 40 595
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

Figure 40-5

Main Index

Deformation of Plates

596 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File


62/
1/75$1 6723
&(1'
7,7/(
0XOWLSOH ELUG VWULNH XVLQJ 0XOWL 0DWHULDO )96XUIHU
,&
63&
767(31/
%(*,1 %8/.
3$5$0 '<,1,67(3 H
3$5$0 '<0,167(3 H
'<3$5$0 )$67&283 ,13/$1( )$,/
'<3$5$0 )08/7,
'\SDUDP VWHSIFWO
'<3$5$0 /6'<1$ %,1$5< ' 3/27
'<7,0+6
&3/6287
767(31/
,QFOXGH PRGHO
63&
,1&/8'( H[DPS B BEV EGI
GRPDLQ
0(6+

%2;
(8/(5

&283/,1* 685)$&(
&283/(

,16,'(

%685)
7+58

3(8/(5
3(8/(5
(26*$0

SURSHUW\

00+<'52
287
00+<'52
00+<'52
0DWHULDO %LUG

0$7'(8/
(2632/
0$7'(8/
(2632/

Main Index

21

7+58

)ORZ ERXQGDU\
)/2:'()
)/2:

21

H
H

7+58
PDWHULDO DQG HTXDWLRQ RI VWDWH GDWD

CHAPTER 40 597
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

$OORFDWLRQ RI PDWHULDO WR JHRPHWULF UHJLRQV


7,&(8/
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*

&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
63+(5(

&</,1'5
&</,1'5
63+(5(
,QLWLDO PDWHULDO GDWD
7,&9$/
7,&9$/

;9(/
;9(/

=9(/

/$*5$1*(
3URSHUW\

PDWHULDO DQG \LHOG PRGHO

36+(//

%OW

0$7'

36+(//
36+(//

*DXVV
H

(
(

0$7'

%RXQGDU\ FRQVWUDLQ
&25' &
0DWHULDO $LU LG
0$7'(8/
_
! GHQVLW\
'RPDLQ
7,&(8/
7,&5(*
63+(5(
7,&9$/

63+(5(
6,(

&RXSOLQJ 6XUIDFH
&283/(

Main Index

2876,'(

'(16,7<

0LG

598 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 40

%685)

7+58

7+58

7+58
0(6+

$'$37
(8/(5

FRXSOLQJ LQWHUDFWLRQ
&283,17
(1''$7$

Input File(s)
File
nug_40.dat

Main Index

Description
MSC Nastran input file for multiple material Euler element using FSI
technique

chapter 41: Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

41

Main Index

Shaped Charge Penetrating


Two Plates

Summary

600

Introduction

Solution Requirements

FEM Solution

Results

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

601
602

603

655

657

606

600 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Summary
Title

Chapter 41: Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Features

Wall Boundary of Euler Mesh


Transient Initial Condition of Euler Region
Axis-symmetric Analysis
Structural multi material with shear strength and void

Geometry

Copper Plate

Voids

Explosive

Material properties

Steel Plates

Explosive
Military Compound B (See EOSIG in MSC Nastran QRG)
Copper
Density = 8960 kg/m3
Shear Modulus = 0.477E11 Pa
Johnson-Cook Yield Model
Minimum Pressure of Spallation = -2.5E10 Pa
Steel
Density = 7830 kg/m3
Shear Modulus = 0.818E11 Pa
Equivalent Yield Stress = 1.4E9 Pa
Minimum Pressure of Spallation = -3.8E9 Pa

Analysis characteristics

Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)

Boundary conditions

Wall Boundary on the part of Explosive Case

Element types

Euler: 8-node solid element for explosive, void, steel, and copper

FE results

1. Snap Shots of Liner Collapse, Jet Formation and Plates Penetrated


2. Velocity field of explosive gases, liner, and jet at 20 s

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 601
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Introduction

Figure 41-1

Model

When a metal cone is explosively collapsed onto its axis, a high-velocity rod of molten metal, the jet, is ejected out of
the open end of the cone. The cone is called a liner and is typically made of copper. The jet has a mass approximately
20 percent of the cone mass, and elongates rapidly due to its high velocity gradient. This molten rod is followed by
the rest of the mass of the collapsed cone, the slug. Typical shaped charges have liner slope angles of less than 42
degrees ensuring the development of a jet; with jet velocities ranging from 3000 to 8000 m/s. A typical construction
of a shaped charge is shown in Figure 41-2.

Figure 41-2

Main Index

Typical Construction of Shaped Charge

602 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

An example simulation of shaped charge formation is carried out to demonstrate the ability of SOL 700 to perform
such a simulation. A simplified axisymmetric model of explosives and a copper liner is created in a finite volume Euler
mesh. Explosive are detonated starting from a point on the axis of symmetry at the end of the explosives. The
simulation is carried out for 60 s after detonation of the explosives. The jet is formed and penetrates two thick plates.
See Figure 41-3 for the model layout.

Figure 41-3

SOL 700 Model Setup

Typical shaped charges are axisymmetric. However, aiming at higher velocity, 3-D designs are targeted. 3-D
simulation of shaped charge formation would be necessary to avoid excessive experimental work. SOL 700 has full
abilities to perform such a 3-D simulation.

Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Model
The model is simplified as shown in Figure 41-3. The aluminum casting is replaced with a rigid body.
Detonation is assumed to start at a point on the axis at the rear end of the explosives. The liner shape is slightly
simplified as shown in the figure. The retaining ring is assumed rigid and is modeled as a wall boundary for the Euler
Mesh (BARRIER). SI units are used in this example.

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 603
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

FEM Solution
A. Euler Mesh and Liner:
A triangular prismatic Finite Volume Euler mesh is used with head angle of 5 degrees as shown in Figure 41-4. A very
fine mesh is used to accurately simulate the behavior of the extremely thin liner. The liner is placed in this Euler mesh.
Symmetry conditions (closed boundary, default Euler boundary condition) are imposed on the two rectangular faces
of the prism to create an axisymmetric behavior.

Figure 41-4

Euler Mesh

The liner material pressure density relationship is modeled with EOSPOL model. The liner is made of copper and
the constants are taken as follows:
a1

1.43E11

N/m2

a2

0.839E11

N/m2

a3

2.16E9

N/m2

b1

0.0

b2

0.0

b3

0.0

Material yield strength is modeled with a Johnson-Cook yield model. The constants are taken as follows:
A

1.2E8

N/m2

1.43E9

N/m2

0.0

0.5

Main Index

604 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

1.0

1.0

Tmelt

1356.0

Troom

293.0

Cv

399.0

J/kg

Other liner material properties of liner are as follows:


Density

8960

Kg/m3

Constant shear model

0.477E11

N/m2

Constant spallation model

-2.5E10

N/m2

In the input file:


0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/
(
-RKQVRQ &RRN
$ % Q & P (36 &Y
</'-&
(
70(/7 75220
30,1&

It is very easy to define the shape and position of the liner by using the method of geometrical regions when creating
the initial conditions of the liner material.
&</,1'5
&</,1'5
&</,1'5
7,&9$/

'(16,7<

B. Casting and Retaining Ring:


The casting is assumed to be rigid. It is modeled by the default Eulerian boundary condition (closed boundary). The
retaining ring is also assumed to be rigid and is modeled by a barrier.
C. Plates:
Two thick plates are placed in this Euler mesh. Plate material is defined as steel:
0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/
</'90

Main Index

(
(
(

CHAPTER 41 605
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

30,1&

The shapes and positions of the plates are defined by using the method of geometrical regions.
&</,1'5
&</,1'5
7,&9$/

'(16,7<

D. Explosive:
The explosive is modeled by ignition and growth equation of state. The explosive is placed in this Euler mesh.
(26,*
0&203% 6,
The explosive material is taken from the database that is build into SOL 700.
To initialize the whole Euler mesh, a TICEUL entry will be defined.
7,&(8/
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
6(7
7,&9$/

Main Index

(/(0
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
7+58
'(16,7<

6,(

606 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


Create a New Database
Enter the MSC Explicit Workspace.
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. Click Save As
c. File name, enter CH41
d. Click Save

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 607
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Change the Units


a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. Click Standard Units
d. Select the line with m, kg, s, ...
e. Click OK
f. Return to User Options screen and click OK

b
c

Main Index

608 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Import the Model Geometry


a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Look in: CHAPTER41
d. Select sch_model.bdf
e. Click Open

b
c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 609
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Explosive Material Compound B


Ignition and Growth Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [07] EOS Ignition
c. For Name: enter EOSIG_100
d. For MID, enter 100
e. For DBEXP, select MCOMPB
f. For UNITCNV, select SI
g. For ITRMAX, enter 99
h. Click Create
i. EOSIG_100 is added

a
b

c
d

i
h

Main Index

610 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)


Shear Model Explosive
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_101
d. For MID, enter 101
e. For G, enter 3.E9
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_101 is added

a
b

c
e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 611
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)


Yield Model Explosive
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Von Mises Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDVM_102
d. For MID, enter 102
e. For YIELD, enter 2.E8
f. Click Create
g. YLDVM_102 is added

g
b

c
e
f

Main Index

612 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)


Eulerian Material Explosive
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_103
d. For MID, enter 103
e. For RHO, enter 1630
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSIG_100; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_101; click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLDVM_102; click OK
l. Click Create
m. MATDEUL_103 is added

c
d

m
l

g
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 613
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Material Copper Liner


Linear Polynomial Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
c. For Name: enter EOSPOL_701
d. For MID, enter 701
e. For A1, enter 1.43E11
f. For A2, enter 8.39E10
g. For A3, enter 2.16E9
h. Click Create
i. EOSPOL_701 is added

a
b

i
c
d
e

g
h

Main Index

614 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Material Copper Liner (continued)


Shear Model Copper Liner
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_702
d. For MID, enter 702
e. For G, enter 4.77E10
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_702 is added

a
b
c
d

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 615
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Material Copper Liner (continued)


Yield Model Copper Liner
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Johnson-Cook Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDJC_703
d. For MID, enter 703
e. For A, enter 1.2E8
f. For B, enter 1.43E9
g. For N, enter 0.5
h. For CP, enter 399
i. For TM, enter 1356
j. For TR, enter 293
k. Click Create
l. YLDJC_703 is added

a
b

d
i

c
e
j

l
h
k

Main Index

616 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Material Copper Liner (continued)


Spall Limit Copper Liner
a. Click: Spall
b. Select PMINC
c. For Name: enter PMINC_704
d. For MID, enter 704
e. For Value, enter -2.5E10
f. Click Create
g. PMINC_704 is added

a
b
c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 617
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Material Copper Liner (continued)


Eulerian Material Copper Liner
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_705
d. For MID, enter 705
e. For RHO, enter 8960
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_701; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select;
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_702 click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLJC_703; click OK
l. Double click PID; select Select
m. For Entity Selection, select PMINC_704; click OK
n. Click Create
o. PMINC_704 is added

a
b
c
d

l
o

n
g
i

Main Index

m
k

618 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Material Steel Plates


Linear Polynomial Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
c. For Name: enter EOSPOL_801
d. For MID, enter 801
e. For A1, enter 1.64E11
f. Click Create
g. EOSPOL_801 is added

a
b

c
e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 619
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Material Steel Plates (continued)


Shear Model Steel Plates
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_802
d. For MID, enter 802
e. For G, enter 8.18E10
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_902 is added

a
b
c
d

e
f
g

Main Index

620 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Material Steel Plates (continued)


Yield Model Steel Plates
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Von Mises Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDVM_803
d. For MID, enter 803
e. For A, enter 1.4E9
f. Click Create
g. YLDJC_803 is added

c
e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 621
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Material Steel Plates (continued)


Spall Limit Steel Plates
a. Click: Spall
b. Select PMINC
c. For Name: enter PMINC_804
d. For MID, enter 804
e. For Value, enter -3.8E9
f. Click Create
g. PMINC_804 is added

a
b

c
e
f
g

Main Index

622 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Material Steel Plates (continued)


Eulerian Material Steel Plates
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_805
d. For MID, enter 805
e. For RHO, enter 7830
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_801; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select;
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_802 click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLJC_803; click OK
l. Double click PID; select Select
m. For Entity Selection, select PMINC_804; click OK
n. Click Create
o. PMINC_804 is added

a
b

c
e

l
n
o

g
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 623
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Cylinders
Cylinder 1 defining outer surface of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter -0.5391 -0.56 0 2 0.4147 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 0.2958
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_1 is added

Main Index

624 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Cylinders (continued)


Cylinder 2 defining inner surface of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter -0.5391 -0.56 0 2 0.4147 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 0.2939
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_2 is added

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 625
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Cylinders (continued)


Cylinder 3 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.2 2.0406 0 0.2047 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.0019
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_3 is added

Main Index

626 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Cylinders (continued)


Cylinder 4 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.22 2.0406 0 0.223 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.05
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_4 is added

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 627
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Cylinders (continued)


Cylinder 5 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.27 2.0406 0 0.273 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.05
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_5 is added

Main Index

628 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Cylinders (continued)


Sphere 6 covering the entire model
a. Click: Sphere
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 1
e. Click Modify
f. Shpere_6 is added

b
a

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 629
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Initial Values


Initial values explosive
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_1
e. For Density, enter 1630
f. For SIE, enter 4.2E6
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_1 is added

a
b
c

d
e

f
g

Main Index

630 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Initial Values (continued)


Initial values copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_2
e. For Density, enter 8960
f. Click Modify
g. TICVAL_2 is added

a
b
c

d
e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 631
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Initial Values (continued)


Initial values steel plates
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_3
e. For Density, enter 7830
f. Click Modify
g. TICVAL_3 is added

a
b
c

d
e
f

Main Index

632 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Initial Regions


Initial region explosive
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_1
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_6; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_103 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_1; click OK
k. For Level, enter 1
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_1 is added

a
b
c

d
e

k
l

h
f

Main Index

j
m

CHAPTER 41 633
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Initial Regions (continued)


Initial region copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_2
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_1; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_705 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. For Level, enter 2
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_2 is added

a
b
c

d
e

k
l

j
m

Main Index

634 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Initial Regions (continued)


Initial region of void
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_3
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_2; click OK
g. For Level, enter 3
h. Click Modify
i. TICREG_3 is added

a
b
d

c
e

g
h

f
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 635
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Initial Regions (continued)


Initial region copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 4
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_4
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_3; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_705 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. For Level, enter 4
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_4 is added

a
b
d

c
e

k
l

f
m

Main Index

636 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Initial Regions (continued)


Initial region steel plate 1
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 5
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_5
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_4; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_805 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. For Level, enter 5
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_5 is added

a
b
d

c
e

k
l

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 637
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Initial Regions (continued)


Initial region steel plate 2
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 6
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_6
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_5; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_805 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. For Level, enter 6
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_6 is added

a
b
d

c
e

k
l

f
m

Main Index

638 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Initial Condition Euler


a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICEU1
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICEUL_1
e. Click NREG; enter 6
f. Click Modify
g. Double click TSID1; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_1 click OK
i. Double click TSID2; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_2 click OK
k. Double click TSID3; select Select
l. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_3 click OK
m. Double click TSID4; select Select
n. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_4 click OK
o. Double click TSID5; select Select
p. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_5 click OK
q. Double click TSID6; select Select
r.;For Entity Selection, select TICREG_6 click OK
s. Click Modify
t. TICEUL_1 is added

a
b
c
e

d
h
f

g
i
k
m
o
q

n
s

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 639
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Eulerian Element Property


a. Under Materials and Properties in Properties, click: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER_1
d. For Type, select MMSTREN
e. Double click SID1; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_1; click OK
g. Click Create
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click PEULER1
i. Select Properties
j. In the Modify PEULER_1 Property window, click Change Region
k. In the Pick Window, select All
l. Click Done
m. Click Modify

a
b

e
g

j
m
h
i
k

Main Index

640 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Node Set Segments


Locate the rear end of the copper liner
a. Zoom around Cylinder_3 area in window
b. Tools: Identify
c. From Pick window Identify Entities, select Nodes
d. Select nodes next to Cylinder_3 (Node 23593); in Pick window Identify Entities, click Exit
e. Assemble: Contact Set
e. Click: Node Set Segment
f. Select five (5) nodes next to Cylinder_3
g. In the Node Set Segment window, for Name:, enter BCSEG_1
h. In the Node Set Segment window, for Node Set:, enter 10
i. Click OK
j. BCSEG_1_1 is added

e
f

d
g
c

j
h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 641
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Barrier
a. LBC tab: Couple: Eulerian
b. Select Barrier
c. From Pick window CREATE BARRIER, select Nodes
d. Click Node 23593
e. Select Plane YZ; click OK
f. For ID: enter 1
g. For Name: enter Barrier_1
h. Double click BCID
i. Select BCSEG_1; click OK
j. Click DIR to unselect
k. Click Modify
l. Barrier_1 is added

b
k

i
e
d

Main Index

642 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Define Values for PARAMs


Define DYINISTEP parameters
a. Job Parameter: PARAM
b. For Name: enter PARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For N: enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1: enter 1.E-11
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit
h. PARAM_1 is added

b
d

c
e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 643
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Define Values for PARAMs (continued)


Define Results Output Frequency
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For F1: enter LSDYNA
e. For F2: enter BINARY
f. For F3: enter D3PLOT
g. For F4: enter 5.E-6
h. Click Create
i. DYPARAM_1 is added

b
d

c
f

g
h

Main Index

644 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Define Values for PARAMs (continued)


Define VELMAX parameter
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: DYPARAM_2
c. For SID: 2
d. For F1: enter VELMAX
e. For F2: enter 20.E3
f. Click Create
g. Click Exi
h. DYPARAM_2 is added

c
d

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 645
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create a New Nastran Job


a. Model Browser: Right click over sch_model.bdf
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Solver Input File, choose Chapter41/SESSION/Chapter41.bdf
d. SXLaunch: For File name: enter Chapter41.bdf
e. Click Save
f. Click OK

d
f

Main Index

646 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Define Load Cases and Export a Nastran Input File


a. Model Browser: Right click over Load Case Control
b. Select Properties
c. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
d. For Ending Time, enter 60.E-6
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 12
f. Click Apply
g. Model Browser: Right click over Displacement Output
h. Click Delete
i. Model Browser: Right click over Element Stress Output
j. Click Delete
k. Right click NewJob
l. Click Export
m. Click Run (optional)

c
e

l
m

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 647
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Run MSC Nastran Solver


a. Double click MSC Nastran icon
b. Select Chapter41.bdf
c. Click Open
d. Click Run

a
b

Main Index

648 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Access the MSC Nastran Results


To access the results, the ARC file is attached.
a. Under File, select Attach Results
b. File path, select CHAPTER41.DYTR_EULER_0.ARC
c. Click Open
d. Click Apply

a
e

Note: If SimX cant access the results, do the following:


File -> Save
File -> New
File > Attach Results
Attach Options: BOTH
OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 649
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Fringe Plot


a. Results: Fringe
b. File path, select CHAPTER41.DYTR_EULER_0.ARC
c. For Result Cases, select Cycle 0, Time 0
d. For Result type, select DENSITY
e. Click Update

d
b
c

Main Index

650 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Fringe Plot (continued)


Adjust Spectrum Colors
a. Results: Spectrum
b. Spectrum Manager: click Add
c. Spectrum: enter Spectrum_1
d. Click Update
e. Click Calculator
f. Click Colors
g. Click and drag colors from the table to the bar
h. Click Apply
i. Click OK
j. Check the colors

b
a

f
d

g
e
i
j

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 651
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Create Fringe Plot (continued)


a. State plot property editor: click Fringe
b. Spectrum Manager: click Add
c. Spectrum range, Spectrum: enter Spectrum_1
d. Click Update; observe graphic
e. Click Plot Data
f. For Result cases, select Cycle 2993, Time 1.0; observe graphic
g. Repeat e. and f. for Time 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; observe graphics on following page

c
b

f
e
g

Main Index

652 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Create Fringe Plot (continued)

Time = 0

Time = 1.E-5

Time = 2.E-5

Time = 3.E-5

Time = 4.E-5

Time = 5.E-5

Time = 6.E-5

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 653
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Animate Fringe Plot


Create a Fringe Plot with animation.
a. Results: Fringe
b. State plot property editor: click Fringe
c. For Result cases, select CHAPTER41.DYTR
d. Click Density
e. Select Animate
f. Click Update

b
f
e

c
d

Main Index

654 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

Animate Fringe Plot (continued)


Create mpeg file
a. State plot property editor: click Animation
Record Attributes, select Movie Filename
c. SimXpert Results Animation File: File name, enter Animation
d. Click Save
e. Click Record Animation button
f. Click Play Animation button
g. Click Stop Animation button

a
g

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 41 655
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

Results
Figure 41-5 shows the initial position of the copper liner and two thick plates at 0s, snap shots of
liner collapse, jet formation and plates penetrated at 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s and 60 s.

Figure 41-5

Initial Position of the Copper Liner and Two Thick Plates, Snap Shots of Liner Collapse, Jet
Formation and Plates Penetrated (Courtesy Postprocessing by CEI Ensight)

Figure 41-6 shows the velocity field of explosive gases, liner, and jet at 20 s. A jet velocity of about 6000 m/s is
achieved

Figure 41-6

Velocity Field of Explosive Gases, Liner, and Jet

Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File


62/
1/75$1 6723
&(1'
7,7/(
6+$3(' &+$5*(6 7(67
IRU 4$ SXUSRVH UXQ VKRUWHU WLPH
(1'7,0(
(

Main Index

656 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 41

,&
767(31/
%(*,1 %8/.
767(31/
(
3$5$0 '<,1,67(3
(
3$5$0 '<0,167(3
(
'<3$5$0 9(/0$;
(
'<3$5$0 /6'<1$ %,1$5< ' 3/27

,1&/8'( PRGHO EGI


,1&/8'( ZDOO GDW
(;3/26,9(
0$7'(8/
(26,*

0&203% 6,

6+5(/

</'90

&233(5
0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/
(
-RKQVRQ &RRN
$
</'-&
(
70(/7 75220
30,1&

Q
(

67((/
0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/
</'90
30,1&
7,&(8/
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*
7,&5(*

Main Index

(
(
(
(
(/(0
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5
&</,1'(5

&

(36

&Y

CHAPTER 41 657
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates

3(8/(5
6(7
&</,1'5

00675(1
7+58

&</,1'5
&</,1'5
&</,1'5
&</,1'5
7,&9$/
7,&9$/
7,&9$/

'(16,7<
'(16,7<
'(16,7<

6,(

%$55,(5
(1''$7$

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_41.dat

MSC Nastran input file for wall boundary of Euler element

sch_model.bdf

MSC Nastran model

Main Index

Chapter 42: Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

42

Main Index

Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Summary

659

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Results

Input File(s)

Video Examples

660

665
670
670

661

CHAPTER 42 659
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Summary
Title

Chapter 42: Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Features

Using Dummy boundary to make closed volume


Using Leakage to make free flow between two Euler meshes
Explosive modeled by ideal gas

Geometry

Outer Euler Zone


Inner Euler Zone

Vehicle
Ground
Explosive

Material properties

Vehicle Structure
Density = 7.85E-9 ton/mm3
Youngs Modulus = 2.1E5 ton/mm/s2
Poissons ratio = 0.3
Yield stress = 250. ton/mm/s2
Euler (Air)
Density = 1.29E-12 ton/mm3; Gamma = 1.4
Specific Internal Energy = 1.9385E8 ton-mm2/s2
Euler (Explosive - equivalent to TNT of 7kg and radius of .25 meter)
Density = 107.E-12 ton/mm3; Specific Internal Energy = 3.9E12 ton/mm2/s2
Ground Rigid

Analysis characteristics

Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)

Boundary conditions

Fixed boundary condition of ground


In and out directional flow boundary of outer euler zone

Element types

2-node bar element for stiffener of vehicle


4-node shell element for vehicle, dummy elements and ground
8-node hex element for euler which is automatically generated by MESH option

FE results

1. Acceleration plot at 0.0008 seconds


2. Stress Distribution plot at 0.0008 seconds

Main Index

660 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Introduction
This is a simulation of an explosion under a vehicle. The vehicle has triggered a mine that is exploding underneath the
bottom shield. In this example, the actual explosion of the mine is not modeled. Instead, the simulation is started
moments after the mine explodes. This is called the blast wave approach. At the location of the mine, a high density
and high specific energy is assumed in the shape of a small sphere. During the simulation, this region of high density,
energy, and high pressure, expands rapidly. The blast wave interacts with the bottom shield and causes an acceleration
of parts of the flexible body. The intent of this simulation is to find the location and the value of the maximum
acceleration.
SOL 700 Model
An outline of the basic numerical model is shown in Figure 42-1 below. It is composed of the following main
components:
a. Vehicle Structure
b. Euler Domain 1 - air outside vehicle and compressed air (explosive)
c. Euler Domain 2 - air inside vehicle
d. Ground
e. Fluid Structural Coupling

Figure 42-1

Main Index

Outline of Basic Numerical Model

CHAPTER 42 661
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Solution Requirements
A. The Vehicle:
Vehicle structure is modeled by QUAD, TRIA shell elements and some BAR elements.

Figure 42-2

Vehicle Structure

Material properties are taken as follows:


Density

7.85E-9

tonne/mm3

Modulus of elasticity

210000.

tonne/mm/s2

Poison ratio

0.3

Yield stress

250.

tonne/mm/s2

Assumed that there will be no failure of the structure. In a part of the structure, there is a hole through which air and
pressure waves can freely flow. This hole will be modeled with dummy shell elements.
B. Euler Domain 1:
The first Euler domain is the air on the outside of the vehicle. The properties of air at rest are:
Density

1.29E-12

Gamma

1.4

Specific internal energy

1.9385E8

Main Index

tonne/mm3
tonne-mm2/s2

662 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

In the input file:


MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
At the location of the mine, a small region will be modeled with high density and specific internal energy equivalent
to TNT of 7kg when the sphere has a radius of .25 meter:
Density

107E-12

tonne/mm3

Specific Internal Energy

4.9E12

tonne-mm2/s2

The input file will show:


TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
The Euler region will be modeled by using the MESH entry. The region will have to be large enough to contain the
entire vehicle, including when the vehicle is in motion:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
For the most accurate blastwave simulations, it is advised to use the Second-order Euler solver of SOL 700. This is
activated by specifying the second-order option on the Euler property entry and specifying the parameter to use the
second-order Range Kutta integration method:
PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
To initialize the whole first Euler mesh, a TICEUL entry will be defined. To initialize the Euler domain, other than
within the sphere of the explosion, a second large sphere is used. Because it has lower priority, the Euler elements
within the mine blast are will still initialized with high density and energy:
TICEUL1,101,11
TICREG,1,11,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.
TICREG,2,11,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
The Euler domain has infinite boundaries. This can be achieved by defining a zero gradient flow boundary on the
outside of the Euler mesh. Use an empty FLOWDEF entry:
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH

Main Index

CHAPTER 42 663
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

C. Euler Domain 2:
The second Euler region represents the air inside the vehicle. Also for the second Euler region, a MESH entry is used.
The air is at rest again, so the same properties apply:
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
TICEUL1,102,12
TICREG,3,12,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
Many of the previous cards will be used to initialize the density and energy (TICVAL) and material (DMAT/EOSGAM)
in this Euler region:
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
EOSGAM,203,1.4
D. The Ground:
The ground is modeled as rigid body using dummy QUAD elements. It is used to close the Euler boundary under the
vehicle so the blast wave will reflect on this boundary:
PSHELL,999,999,1.
MATRIG,999,,,,1.0E10,0.00,0.00,-800.,+
+,1.E10,0.0,0.0,1.E10,0.0,1.E10,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,1,7,7
E. Fluid Structure Interaction:
In order to make fluid structure interaction possible, a closed volume needs to be defined. The car model itself is not
closed, so a dummy boundary will be defined to close the volume. This extra surface consists of three parts:
Part 1 resides on the back,
Part 2 is the top cover, and
Part 3 is the vent on the bottom of the vehicle.
For all these parts, dummy shell elements are defined and hole definitions will be defined.

Figure 42-3

Main Index

Dummy Shell Elements Defined to Close the Volume

664 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

The input for dummy shell elements


PSHELL,900,901,1.
PSHELL,910,901,1.
PSHELL,920,901,1.
MATD009,901,1.E-20
With this closed volume, the coupling surface can be defined. For each Euler domain, a separate surface is required.
However, in this model, the interaction surface consists of the same elements, except for the extra ground elements
(pid=999) for the outer Euler domain region 1. The surface definition will make use of the properties of the elements.
The outer surface:
BCPROP,97,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
The inner surface:
BCPROP,98,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
Now the coupling surfaces can be defined. For the outer region, all elements inside the volume are not active. The
covered option will, therefore, be set to INSIDE. Attached to this surface will be the first Euler MESH:
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+

+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1

The inner Euler domain is constrained by surface 2. For this volume, the outer Euler elements will be covered:
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+

+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2

As discussed before, there are holes in the coupling surface. To this end, a flow definition is required for one of the
coupling surfaces. In this example, the flow cards are referenced from the first coupling surface. The input to define
flow between the regions is:
LEAKAGE,1,11,1,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,1,900
Also, for each of the other two flow surfaces, these set of cards are repeated
$
LEAKAGE,2,11,2,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,2,910
$
LEAKAGE,3,11,3,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,3,920
$

Main Index

CHAPTER 42 665
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Finally, the flow definition itself prescribes that the Euler region from coupling surface 1 is interacting with the Euler
region from coupling surface 2:
PORFCPL,84,LARGE,,BOTH,2
F. Miscellaneous:
a. Because this model uses the coupling surface interface, the time step safety factor for Eulerian elements has
to be .6. However, the Lagrangian elements (the quadratic and triangular elements) determine the time-step,
and it is beneficial to use a higher time step safety factor for the Lagrangian elements:
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
b. To show results every .0002 seconds the following output request was added:
DYPARAM, LSDYNA, BINARY, D3PLOT,.0002
PARAM, CPLSARC,.0002

Results
The Figure 42-4 below shows the location, value, and time of the maximum acceleration. The stress distribution at this
time is also in Figure 42-5.

Figure 42-4

Main Index

Acceleration Plot

666 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Figure 42-5

Stress Distribution Plot

Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File


SOL 700,NLTRAN STOP=1
CEND
TITLE= Job name: mine blast (mm/tonne/s/K)
IC=1
SPC=1
$
TSTEPNL=1
$------- BULK DATA SECTION ------BEGIN BULK
$------- Parameter Section -----$
DYPARAM,RKSCHEME,3
DYPARAM,FASTCOUP
DYPARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
PARAM*,DYINISTEP,.5E-7
PARAM*,DYMINSTEP,1.E-13
$
$
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,BINARY,D3PLOT,.0002
PARAM,CPLSARC,.0002
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
$
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2621.,-1201.,-251.,5900.,2400.,1250.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,202
$
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
$
TICEUL1,101,11

Main Index

CHAPTER 42 667
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

$
TICREG,1,11,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.
TICREG,2,11,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.
$
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
$
TICEUL1,102,12
$
TICREG,3,12,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
$
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
$
MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
$
EOSGAM,203,1.4
$
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
$
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
$
$ Define flow thru the holes
$
LEAKAGE,1,11,1,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,1,900
$
LEAKAGE,2,11,2,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,2,910
$
LEAKAGE,3,11,3,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,3,920
$
PORFCPL,84,LARGE,,BOTH,2
$
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
$
BCPROP,97,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
$
BCPROP,98,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========

Main Index

668 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

$
$
* pbar.9988 *
$
PBAR
9988
222
3600.1000000.1000000.2000000.
$
$
* pbar.9989 *
$
PBAR
9989
222 100000.
3.E+8
3.E+8
6.E+8
$
$
* pbar.9990 *
$
PBAR
9990
222
3000. 200000.2500000.3000000.
$
$
* pbar.9993 *
$
PBAR,9993,111,459.96,25066.,55282.,16543.
$
$
* pbar.9996 *
$
PBAR,9996,111,895.52,309450.,55349.,48782.
$
$
* pbar.9999 *
$
PBAR,9999,111,736.,490275.,827555.,2095137.
$
$
* pshell.30 *
$
PSHELL
30
111
3
$
$
* pshell.40 *
$
PSHELL
40
111
4
$
$
* pshell.50 *
$
PSHELL
50
111
5
$
$
* pshell.60 *
$
PSHELL
60
111
6
PSHELL
61
111
6
PSHELL
62
111
6
$
* pshell.80 *
$
PSHELL
80
111
8
$
$
* pshell.110 *
$
PSHELL
110
111
11
$
$
* pshell.120 *
$
PSHELL
120
111
12
$

Main Index

CHAPTER 42 669
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

$
* pshell.135 *
$
PSHELL
135
111
13.5
$
$
* pshell.150 *
$
PSHELL
150
111
15
PSHELL
151
111
15
$
$
* pshell.200 *
$
PSHELL
200
111
20
$
$
* pshell.450 *
$
PSHELL
450
111
45
$
$ dummy elements for coupling surface
$ hole
PSHELL,900,901,1.
$ top cover
PSHELL,910,901,1.
$ side cover
PSHELL,920,901,1.
$
MATD009,901,1.E-20
$
$ ground
PSHELL,999,999,1.
$
MATRIG,999,,,,1.0E10,0.00,0.00,-800.,+
+,1.E10,0.0,0.0,1.E10,0.0,1.E10,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,1,7,7
$
$
* conm2 *
$
CONM2,5000,1145,,1.5
CONM2,5001,1146,,1.7
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
MATD024,111,7.85e-09,210000.,.3,250E10
$
MAT1,222,210000.,,.3,7.85e-09
$
INCLUDE model.bdf
INCLUDE ground.dat
$
ENDDATA

Main Index

670 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Input File(s)
File
nug_42.dat

Description
MSC Nastran input file for leakage using dummy
element

Video Examples
Import and Inspect Model
To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately four minutes to import and inspect the model.

Figure 42-6

Main Index

Video of Importing To and Inspecting the Model

CHAPTER 42 671
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Create Properties
To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately two minutes.

Figure 42-7

Main Index

Video to Create Properties

672 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Create Eulerian Domains


To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately five minutes.
w

Figure 42-8

Main Index

Video to Create Eulerian Domains

CHAPTER 42 673
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Create Eulerian Mesh


To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately three minutes.

Figure 42-9

Main Index

Video to Create Eulerian Mesh

674 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Create Coupling Surfaces


To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately two minutes.

Figure 42-10

Main Index

Video to Create Coupling Surfaces

CHAPTER 42 675
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Create Leakage
To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately two minutes.

Figure 42-11

Main Index

Video to Create Leakage

676 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 42

Define Job Parameters


To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately two minutes.

Figure 42-12

Main Index

Video to Define Job Parameters

CHAPTER 42 677
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Attach and View Results


To see a video example of this step, click on the link below to view a streaming video for this section; it lasts
approximately eight minutes.

Figure 42-13

Main Index

Video to View Results

Chapter 43: Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

43

Main Index

Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Summary

679

Introduction

Solution Requirements

Results

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

680
680

682

740

686

CHAPTER 43 679
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Summary
Title

Chapter 43: Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Contact features

Fast Coupling Technique


Multiple Eulerian Domains with failure
Free flow between two euler zones on the side faces of bunker
Explosive modeled by ideal gas

Geometry

Euler Zone 2
Euler Zone 1

Bunker

Blast

Ground

Material properties

Bunker Structure
Density = .000734 lbf-s2/inch4
Youngs Modulus = 2.9E7 lbf/in2
Poissons ratio = 0.3
Yield stress = 5.E4 lbf/in2
Plastic strain at failure = 0.21
Euler (Air)
Density = 1.2E-7 lbf-s2/inch4
Gamma = 1.4
Specific Internal Energy = 3E+8 lbf-in
Euler (Explosive - equivalent to TNT of 7kg and radius of .25 meter)
Density = 3.84E-6 lbf-s2/inch4
Specific Internal Energy = 3E+9 lbf-in
Ground
Rigid

Analysis characteristics

Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)

Boundary conditions

Fixed boundary condition of ground


In and out directional flow boundary of outer euler zone

Element types

4-node shell element for bunker and ground


8-node hex element for euler which is automatically generated by MESH option

FE results

1. Isosuface plot of Specific Internal Energy (SIE) at 0.01 seconds


2. Deformed Effective Stress plot at 0.01 seconds

Main Index

680 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Introduction
The purpose is to demonstrate application of multi-Euler domains to failing coupling surfaces. The problem simulates
a bunker, located on the ground that is open at the sides and is surrounded by air. Gas can flow freely through the sides
of the bunker. A blast wave is ignited close to the bunker and expands into the air. When by the impact of the blast
wave, the bunker surface fails gas will flow trough the bunker surface.

Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Modeling
The bunker and the ground consist of cquad4 shell elements. The elements of the bunker are Lagrangian deformable
shells and the ground is modeled as rigid, using a MATRIG. The explosive/air region is modeled by two Euler meshes.
The first domain models the inside of the bunker, and the second one models the outside of the bunker. For the
interaction between the bunker and an Euler domain, a unique coupling surface has to be used, therefore, two coupling
surfaces are needed.
The first coupling surface, for modeling the inside of the bunker, consists of the following facets:
The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. The two open sides are represented
by dummy shell elements. These are elements 1 to 2240.
The top of the ground that lies within the bunker. This is a square and is formed by elements 2241 to 3280.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in Figure 43-1.
This coupling surface contains gas inside, and therefore Euler elements outside the coupling surface should not be
processed and so the COVER is OUTSIDE.

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 681
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Figure 43-1

Coupling Surface 1

The second coupling surface consists of the following facets:


The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. These are elements 1 to 2240. The
top of the ground inside the bunker is not part of the second COUPLE.
The top of the ground that is outside the bunker and 5 dummy surfaces of the ground that are used to close the
coupling surfaces. These are formed by the elements 3413 to 4012, 4095 to 4340, 4505 to 4709, 4894 to 7904.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in Figure 43-2.

Figure 43-2

Coupling Surface 2

This coupling surface is used for simulating the gas outside the coupling surface. So Euler elements inside the coupling
surface should not be processed and the COVER has to be set to INSIDE. The second coupling surface uses the second
Euler mesh and serves as inner boundary surface for this Euler mesh. The outside boundary of this mesh is where the
Euler domains ends and boundary conditions for this boundaries are provided by a FLOWDEF. The FLOWDEF is
chosen as non-reflecting. Waves exit the Euler domain with only little reflection.

Main Index

682 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

To get an accurate expansion of the blast wave, the diffusion should be kept at a minimum, and therefore the Roe solver
with second-order is used. Interactive failure will be used for the bunker structure, while porosity will be used for the
open sides:
The bunker elements can fail and gas flows through the failed elements from outside the bunker into the
bunker. All elements of the bunker are assigned to a BSURF, and occur in both coupling surfaces. They are
able to fail interactively, using the COUP1FL entry. These parts are formed by elements 1 to 1600. The nodes
of the failed elements are constrained in space by using PARAM, NZEROVEL, YES, to preserve the geometry
of the coupling surfaces from severe distortion.
Since gas can flow through the two sides without any obstruction, these two areas are modeled with BSURF
entries, and are opened by using a PORFLCPL entry. These sides are modeled with dummy shell elements and
consist of elements 1601 to 2400.
The couple cards refer to mesh-number. The first mesh for the Euler elements inside the bunker is created and
initialized by:
3(8/(5

0(6+

QG2UGHU

%2;
(8/(5

The value 2ndOrder activates the Roe solver with second-order accuracy. The property id is the link between the
TICEUL1 entry 101 and the MESH entry. The second Euler mesh for the Euler elements outside the bunker is created
and initialized by:
3(8/(5

0(6+

QG2UGHU

%2;
(8/(5

Results
Figures 43-3 and 43-4 show a fringe plot and an isosurface. Figure 43-4 has been created by Ensight.

Figure 43-3

Main Index

Deformed Effective Stress Plot of the Bunker

CHAPTER 43 683
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Figure 43-4

Isosurfaces Created using SIE Variable for the Two Euler Domains

Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File


62/
1/75$1 6723
&(1'
7,7/( -RE QDPH LV EXQNHU
,&
63&
767(31/
%(*,1 %8/.
%8/. '$7$ 6(&7,21
,1&/8'( PHVK GDW
,1&/8'( PRGHO GDW
767(31/
3DUDPHWHU 6HFWLRQ
'<3$5$0 )$67&283 )$,/
3$5$0 '<,1,67(3 (
3$5$0 '<0,167(3 (
'<3$5$0 /,0,7(5 52(
'<3$5$0 5.6&+(0(
'<3$5$0 /6'<1$ %,1$5< ' 3/27
3523(57< 6(76
VWHHO SURS
36+(//
GXPP\BVKHOO
36+(//
0$7'

Main Index

(
(

684 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

36+(//
0$7(5,$/ '(),1,7,216

0$7'
0$7'(8/
(26*$0

0DWHULDO VWHHO LG
H
0DWHULDO $,5 LG
H
JURXQG

0$75,*

H
/RDG &DVHV
*HQHUDO &RXSOLQJ

&283/(

*(1(5$/

,16,'(

%685)

2876,'(

7+58
H

/$5*(

%27+
325)&3/

&283,17

7+58
5LJLG %RG\ &RQVWUDLQWV

63&'
63&'
63&'
63&'
63&'

Main Index

7+58

%685)

325)&3/
/($.$*(
%685)

7+58
7+58

&283/(

&283 )/

21

7+58
7+58

&283 )/

21

5,*,'
5,*,'
5,*,'
5,*,'
5,*,'

05
05
05
05
05

21

21

CHAPTER 43 685
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

63&'
7$%/('

5,*,'

05
(1'7

0HVK GDW
0(6+

%2;
(8/(5

,QQHU (XOHU
0(6+

%2;
(8/(5

3(8/(5
3(8/(5

QG2UGHU
QG2UGHU

7,&(8/
7,&5(*
7,&5(*

63+(5(
63+(5(

63+(5(
63+(5(
7,&(8/
7,&5(*

63+(5(

63+(5(

7,&9$/

7,&9$/ %& $,5 ,1,


'(16,7<

6,(

7,&9$/

7,&9$/ %& (;3 ,1,


'(16,7<

6,(

)/2:'()
)/2: %27+
(1''$7$

Main Index

+<'52

686 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


This example shows how to use SimXpert for a blast wave hitting a bunker shell. The two open sides are each modeled
by a fully porous subsurface using PORFCPL The flow of gas through failed shell elements is taken into account by
activating interactive failure.

For simulations with coupling surfaces with failure, the Roe solver is used. The second-order Roe solver is used to
minimize the diffusion of the blast wave.
Two types of result files are required:
ARC which includes the Euler element results
d3plot which includes the Lagrangian element results

Run SimXpert with MSC Explicit Workspace


a. For Default Workspace:, select MSC Explicit

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 687
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Import the Model Data


a. File: select Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select model.dat, click Open
d. The model is imported into the Model Browser

d
a

Main Index

688 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Equation of State (Ideal Gas)


a. Materials and Properties tab: EOS
b. Select [12] EOS Ideal Gas
c. For Name enter EOSGAM_3
d. For PID enter 3
e. For GAMMA enter 1.4
f. Click Create
g. New EOS is added

c
d

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 689
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Flow Boundary


a. LBCs tab: Flow
b. Select FLOWDEF
c. For ID: enter 202
d. For Title: enter FLOWDEF_202
e. Click FLOW; select BOTH
f. Click Modify
g. New FLOWFED is added

a
b

d
e

Main Index

690 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Transient Initial Condition for Euler (Air)


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 4
d. For Title: enter TICVAL_4
e. Click DENSITY; enter 1.2E-07
f. Click SIE; enter 3.0E+08
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_4 is added

a
b

d
e

f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 691
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Transient Initial Condition for Euler (TNT) (continued)


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 5
d. For Title: enter TICVAL_5
e. Click DENSITY; enter 3.84E-6
f. Click SIE; enter 3.0E+09
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_5 is added

a
b

d
e

f
g

Main Index

692 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Sphere Shape for TNT


a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -536.4, 165.0, -453.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 8
e. For Title, enter Sphere_8
f. For RADIUS, enter 85.0
g. Click Modify
h. Sphere_8 is added

g
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 693
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Sphere Shape for Outside Air (continued)


a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -536.4, 165.0, -453.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 5
e. For Title, enter Sphere_5
f. For RADIUS, enter 10000.0
g. Click Modify
h. Shpere_5 is added

e
f
h
g

Main Index

694 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Sphere Shape for Inside Air (continued)


a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -53.4, 100.0, -673.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 9
e. For Title, enter Sphere_9
f. For RADIUS, enter 10000.0
g. Click Modify
h. Sphere_9 is added

h
b

e
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 695
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Euler Material


a. Materials and Properties tab: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name, enter MATDEUL_3
d. For MID, enter 3
e. For RHO, enter 1.2e-7
f. Double click EID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSGAM_3; click OK
h. Click Create
i. MATDEUL_3 is added

a
b

c
d

e
f
h
g

Main Index

696 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Transient Initial Value for TNT


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICREG_1
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_8; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_5; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 2
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_1 is added

a
b

c
e

n
l
m

Main Index

i
k

CHAPTER 43 697
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Transient Initial Value for Outer Air (continued)


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICREG_2
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_5; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_4; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 1
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_2 is added

a
b

e
l
m

Main Index

698 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Transient Initial Value for Inner Air (continued)


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICREG_3
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_9; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_4; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 1
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_3 is added

a
b

d
e

l
m

i
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 699
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Transient Initial Value Conditions of Eulerian Zone


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICEUL1
c. For ID, enter 101
d. For Title, enter TICEUL1_101
e.For NREG, enter 101
f. Click Modify
g. TICEUL1_101 is added

a
b

d
e
f

Main Index

700 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)


Modify the Transient Initial Condition
a. Double click TICEUL1_101
b. Double click TSID1, select Select
c. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_1; click OK
d. Double click TSID2, select Select
e. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_2; click OK
f. Click Modify

b
d
f

b
d

c
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 701
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)


a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICEUL1
c. For ID, enter 111
d. For Title, enter TICEUL1_111
e. For NREG, enter 1
f. Click Modify
f. TICEUL1_111 is added

a
b

e
f

Main Index

702 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)


a. Double click TICEUL1_111
b. Double click TSID1; select Select
c. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_3; click OK
d. Click Modify

b
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 703
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Eulerian Property


a. Materials and Properties tab: 3D
b. Select PEULER1
c. For Name, enter PEULER_201
d. For PID, select 201
e. For TYPE, select 2ndOrder
f. Double click SID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_101; click OK
h. Click Create
i. PEULER1_201 is added

c
d

f
h

f
g

Main Index

704 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Eulerian Property (continued)


a. For Name, enter PEULER_301
b. For PID, select 301
c. For TYPE, select 2ndOrder
d. Double click SID, select Select
e. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_111; click OK
f. Click Create
g. PEULER1_301 is added

a
b

d
f

d
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 705
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Mesh for Outer Euler


a. LBCs tab: Eulerian
b. Select Mesh
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. Deactivate DXVEL through ZREF
e. For XO, enter -647.0; for YO, enter 0.0; for ZO, enter -1293.0
f. For DX, enter 1057.0; for DY, enter 447.0; for DZ, enter 1293.0
g. For NX, enter 33; for NY, enter 23; for NZ, enter 37
h. For PROP, select EULER
i. Double click PID, select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select PEULER1_201; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Mesh_1 is added

a
b

d
e
g

f
h

i
l
k

Main Index

706 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Mesh for Inner Euler


a. LBCs tab: Eulerian
b. Select Mesh
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. Deactivate DXVEL through ZREF
e. For XO, enter -430.0; for YO, enter 0.0; for ZO, enter -1287.0
f. For DX, enter 837.0; for DY, enter 480.0; for DZ, enter 1296.0
g. For NX, enter 24; for NY, enter 26; for NZ, enter 30
h. For PROP, select EULER
i. Double click PID, select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select PEULER1_201; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Mesh_2 is added

a
b

c
e
g

f
h

l
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 707
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Coupling for Outer Coupling Surface Failure


a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUP1FL
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter COUP1FL_1
e. For RHO, enter 1.2E-07
f. For SIE, enter 3.0E+08
g. Deactivate XVEL, YVEL, ZVEL, PRESSURE, and MATERIAL
h. Click Modify
i. COUP1FL_1 is added

c
e

d
g

f
h

Main Index

708 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Coupling for Inner Coupling Surface Failure


a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUP1FL
c. For ID, enter 2
d. For Title, enter COUP1FL_2
e. For RHO, enter 1.2E-07
f. For SIE, enter 3.0E+08
g. Deactivate XVEL, YVEL, ZVEL, PRESSURE, and MATERIAL
h. Click Modify
i. COUP1FL_2 is added

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 709
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Group for Outer Coupling Surface


a. Right click on the Model Browser tree, select New
b. Select Group, select Create
c. For Pick entities: deactivate Pick nodes and Pick Part options
d. In Main window, select all elements
e. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
f. Under Member list, see that all elements are added
g. Click OK

c
d
e

f
g

Main Index

710 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Group for Outer Coupling Surface (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Hide
c. From the Ribbon menu: select Advanced Pick Dialog
d. In Extended Pick Dialog, select Contiguous [Auto]
e. Select the inside part of the base plates
f. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Remove from Group
g. Under Member list, see that assigned elements are removed
h. Click OK

a
c
e

Useful Tip!
If using Show Selection List option, the elements
selected are shown in Selected Items dialog

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 711
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Group for Inner Coupling Surface


a. Right click on the Model Browser tree, select New
b. Select Group, select Create
c. From the Ribbon menu: select Advanced Pick Dialog
d. In Extended Pick Dialog, select Contiguous [Auto]
e. Select the inside part of the base plates
f. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
g. Under Member list, see that all elements are added

b
c
e

f
g

Main Index

712 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Group for Inner Coupling Surface (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Show Only
c. In the Main Window: select all the elements
d. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
e. Under Member list, see that all elements are added
f. Total in the Member list should now be 3280
g. Click OK

d
e
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 713
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Inner Coupling Surface


a. In the Model Browser tree, select GROUP_2
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: Couple
d. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
e. In the Main Window: select all the elements
f. Click Done

b
c

Main Index

714 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Inner Coupling Surface (continued)


a. For ID, enter 8
b. For Title, enter COUPLE_8
c. For COVER, select: OUTSIDE
d. Activate REVERSE and CHECK
e. Activate and double click MID, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Mesh_2; click OK
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUP1FL_2; click OK
i. Click Modify

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 715
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Porosity
a. LBCs tab: Accessory
b. Select PORFCPL
c. For ID, enter 81
d. For Title, enter PORFCPL_81
e. For SIZE, select LARGE
f. Activate FLOW, select BOTH
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_8; click OK
i. Click Modify

c
a

d
e

h
j

Main Index

716 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Leakage
a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: Accessory
d. Select LEAKAGE
e. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
f. In the Main Window: select all the elements
g. Click Done
h. For ID, enter 1
i. For Title, enter LEAKAGE_1
j. For NPOR, enter 1
k. Click Modify

d
f
e

j
k

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 717
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Modify Leakage
a. In the Model Browser tree, double click LEAKAGE_1
b. Double click SUBID1
c. For Entity Selection, select BSURF_4; click OK
d. For PORTYPE1, select PORFCPL
e. Double click PORTYPID1, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select PORFCPL_81; click OK
g. Activate COEFF1, select CONSTANT
h. Activate COEFFV1, enter 1.0
i. Click Modify

a
d

h
i

Main Index

718 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Outer Coupling Surface


a. In the Model Browser tree, select Group_1
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: COUPLE
d. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
e. In the Main Window: select all the elements
f. Click Done

b
c

e
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 719
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Outer Coupling Surface (continued)


a. For ID, enter 7
b. For Title, enter COUPLE_7
c. For COVER, select: INSIDE
d. Activate REVERSE and CHECK
e. Activate and double click PORID, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select LEAKAGE_1; click OK
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUP1FL_1; click OK
i. Click Modify

b
d

e
i
g

Main Index

720 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Coupling Surface Interaction


a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUPINT
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter COUPINTL_1
e. Double click CID1, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_7; click OK
g. Double click CID2, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_8; click OK
i. Click Modify

i
b
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 721
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Boundary Condition


a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Hide
c. LBCs tab: LBC
d. Select SPC BC and select Fully Fixed Constraint
e. From the Pick Window: select Nodes
f. In the Main Window: select all the nodes
g. Click Done

a
c
d
b

Main Index

722 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Parameters
a. Job Parameters tab: PARAM
b. For Name, enter PARAM_1
c. For SID, enter 1
d. For N, enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1, enter 1.E-7
f. Click Create
g. For Name, enter PARAM_2
h. For SID, enter 2
i. For N, enter DYMINSTEP
j. For V1, enter 1.E-8
k. Click Create

b
d

i
f

Main Index

h
j
k

CHAPTER 43 723
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create Parameters (continued)


a. Job Parameters tab: DYPARAM
b. For Name, enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID, enter 1
d. For F1, enter FASTCOUP
e. For F3, enter FAIL
f. Click Create
g. For Name, enter DYPARAM_2
h. For SID, enter 2
i. For F1, enter LIMITER
j. For F2, enter ROE
k. Click Create
l. For Name, enter DYPARAM_2
m. For SID, enter 2
n. For F1, enter RKSCHEME
o. For F2, enter 3
p. Click Create

c
d

e
f

h
i

j
k

m
n

o
p

Main Index

724 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create Parameters (continued)


a. Job Parameters tab: DYPARAM_BINARY_option
b. For Name, enter DYPARAM_BINARY_option_3
c. For SID, enter 3
d. Activate DT_D3PL, enter 0.002
e. Click Create

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 725
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Create New SOL700 Job


a. In the Model Browser tree, right click model.dat
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Solver Input File, change the input file name and location
d. Click OK

a
b

Main Index

726 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Create New SOL700 Job (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, right click Loadcase Control
b. Select Properties
c. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
d. For Ending Time, enter 0.01
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 10
f. Click Apply
g. Click Close

d
e

f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 727
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Execute the Job


a. In the Model Browser tree, right click NewJob
b. Click Run

Main Index

728 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Attach the Analysis Results File


After a job is finished, there are two types of results: ARC and d3plot. Both files are attached to SimXpert. The d3plot
result file is attached first.
a. Under File, select Attach Results
b. File path, select the desired path
c. Open, select nug_43a.dytr.d3plot
d. Attach Options, select Both
e. Click Apply
f. View the Lagrangian results

b
d

a
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 729
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Attach the Analysis Results File (continued)


The ARC result file is attached second.
a. File path, select the desired path
b. Open, select NUG_43A.DYTR_EULER_FV1_0.ARC
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click Apply
e. View the Outer Euler results

a
c
b

Main Index

730 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Attach the Analysis Results File (continued)


a. File path, select the desired path
b. Open, select NUG_43A.DYTR_EULER_FV2_0.ARC
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click OK
e. View the Inner Euler results

a
c

b
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 731
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Display the Deformation Results


Create a deformation plot of Lagrangian results.
a. In the Model Browser tree, select all the Euler elements
b. Select Hide
c. Check to see that all Euler elements are hidden
d. Results tab: Deformation
e. Result entities: Result cases: nug_43a.dytr.d3plot, select Time 0.0100956
f. Results entities: Result type, select Displacement Components
g. Click Target entities
h. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
i. In Main Window, select all Lagangian elements
j. Plot Data, click Deformation

g
f

e
i
j
h

Main Index

732 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Display the Deformation Results (continued)


a. Deformed display scaling: click True
b. Click Update
c. In Main Window, check the deformation plot

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 733
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Display the Stress Results


Create a stress fringe plot of Lagrangian results.
a. Deformed display scaling: click True
b. Plot type, select Fringe
c. Result entities: Result cases: nug_43a.dytr.d3plot, select Time 0.0100956
d. Results entities: Result type, select Stress Components
e. Result entities: Deviation, select von Mises

e
d
c
b

Main Index

734 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Display the Stress Results (continued)


a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all Lagangian elements
c. Click Fringe tab
d. In current window, change Element edge display entities to Element edges
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the stress fringe plot

a
b

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 735
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results


Create a pressure iso-surface plot of Eulerian results.
a. In the Model Browser tree, select only the outer Euler elements (FV1)
b.Select Show Only
c. Check to see that all outer Euler elements are shown
d. Plot type, select IsoSurface
e. Result entities: Result cases: NUG_43A.DYTR.EULER_FV1_0.ARC,
select Time 0.0101689
f. Results entities: Result type, select PRESSURE
g. Click Target entities

g
f
d

Main Index

736 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)


a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all outer Eulerian elements
c. Click IsoSurface tab
d.:First value, enter 19.5244
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the outer Euler zone

c
a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 737
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, select only the inner Euler elements (FV2)
b.Select Show Only
c. Check to see that all inner Euler elements are shown
d. Name, select Create Attribute
e. For Enter the plot attribute name, enter IsoSurf 02; click OK
f. Result entities: Result cases: NUG_43A.DYTR.EULER_FV2_0.ARC,
select Time 0.0101689
g. Results entities: Result type, select PRESSURE
h. Click Target entities

a
b

e
d

h
g

Main Index

738 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)


a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all inner Eulerian elements
c. Click IsoSurface tab
d. First value, enter 19.5244
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the inner Euler zone

b
a

Main Index

CHAPTER 43 739
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, select elements
b. Select Hide All
c. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the Eulerian elements and the
stress/deformation plot of the Lagrangian elements

b
c

Main Index

740 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 43

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_43a.dat

MSC Nastran input file for l=blast on bunker using Fast Coupling technique

nug_43b.dat

Geometry of Euler elements

nug_43c.dat

Geometry of Lagrangian structure elements

Main Index

Chapter 44: Concentric Spheres with Radiation

44

Main Index

Concentric Spheres
with Radiation

Summary

742

Introduction

Modeling Details

Material Modeling

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

Video

743
743
750
750

751

797

752

796

753

742 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Summary
Title

Chapter 44: Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Features

Hemi-cube versus Gaussian Integration Methods

Geometry

T = 0

t = 0.05

i
2

= 0.7
R = 1.5
T=?

o
2

= 1.0

o
1

= 0.9
t = 0.01

R=1
T = 1000

Units: inch, watt, K

Material properties

k 1 = 4.0W in K

k 2 = 6.0W in K

= 3.66x10 11 W in K

Analysis characteristics

Nonlinear steady state thermal analysis

Boundary conditions

Inside sphere temperature fixed at 1000 K. The heat sink is ambient temperature at zero
K where the radiation to space boundary condition is applied on the outer sphere.
Stefan-Boltzmann constant is (above).

Element type

4-node QUAD4

FE results

Outer sphere temperature using different radiation schemes and compared to an


analytic solution
Temperature K (Grid 367)
Analytic
Gaussian integration
Hemi-cube

710.5
710.0
709.5
709.0
708.5
708.0

Main Index

Analytic

Gaussian integration

Hemi-cube

710.30
709.85
708.91

CHAPTER 44 743
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of the Nastran SOL 400 thermal nonlinear solution sequence to perform thermal
radiation view factor calculations using the Hemi-cube and Gaussian integration methods. The Gaussian adaptive
integration view factor calculation method has been with Nastran for many years. The view factor computed by the
Gaussian method is extremely accurate. However, as the problems get big, computation time is roughly proportional
to the number of surfaces squared. The introduction of Hemi-cube method in MSC Nastran permits the solution of
very large scale view factor problems where previously the use of the Gaussian method was overly time intensive. As
compared to the adaptive Gaussian method, we have seen an improvement in CPU speed of 33 times in some
problems. The CPU time increases linearly with the number of radiation surfaces because in Hemi-cube, the
computation time is linearly proportional to the number of surfaces. In this problem, we have an analytical solution in
which we compare both Hemi-cube and the Adaptive Gaussian integration methods to see which method offers the
most accuracy.

Modeling Details

Figure 44-1

Concentric Spheres (top sector of outer sphere removed)

As shown in (Figure 44-1), the inner sphere with radius equal to 1 inch is subjected to a constant temperature of
1000K (red). There is radiation exchange between the inner and the outer sphere (orange). The outer sphere radiates
to space at an ambient temperature of zero K with view factors equal to 1.0.

Reference Solution
For these two diffuse isothermal concentric spheres, the view factors need to be determined. Since all of the energy
leaving the inner sphere (1) will arrive at the outer sphere (2), F 1 2 = 1.0 . The reciprocity relation for view factors

Main Index

744 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

gives A 1 F 1 2 = A 2 F 2 1 , or F 2 1 = R 1 R 2 2 . Since the inner sphere cannot see itself, F 1 1 = 0 . Finally since energy
must be conserved, the sum of all view factors of a closed cavity must be unity, which yields, F 2 2 = 1 R 1 R 2 2 .
Notice how the number of view factors grow as the square of the number of surfaces, i.e. two surfaces yield 4 view
factors. Given the geometry of the spheres as R 1 = 1 and R 2 = 1.5 , the four view factors become:
F1 1 = 0 F1 2 = 1
4
5
F 2 1 = --- F 2 2 = --9
9

. Below is an equation for calculation of outer sphere temperature where the outer sphere is

radiating to space at absolute zero and a view factor of 1. (Holman, Jack P. Holman Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill,
2001).
1 = 0.9

= 1

out

= 0.7

inner

T 1 = 1000
2

A1 = 4 R1

A2 = 4 R2

A 1 = 12.566

A 2 = 28.274

1
1
1 +A
C = ---- ------ ---------------- 1
1 A2 2

inn er

C = 1.302

A1 T1
D 2 = -------------------------------------------A1 + C 2 A2
out

D 2 = 2.545 10 11

0.25

T2 = D2

T 2 = 710.299

This solution assumes perfect conduction (no resistance to heat flow) in the outer sphere.
While, in general, the view factors cannot be obtained from analytical solutions, in this simple problem, the view
factors can be found analytically and we can use these view factors in a simple three grid model to check our analytic
solution above. One grid represents the inner sphere, another represents the outer sphere, and the last grid represents
the ambient temperature of the outer sphere.
Nastran test file: user1_point.dat
$Model concentric sphere with two nodes
$ Length in Inches
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = NONE
$! Case Control Section
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 21
TITLE=MSC.Nastran job created on 05-Dec-03 at 13:33:05

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 745
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : subcase_1
$LBCSET SUBCASE1
lbcset_1
SUBTITLE=Default
SPCFORCES(SORT1,PRINT,REAL)=ALL
OLOAD(SORT1,PRINT,REAL)=ALL
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HSTAT
SPC = 23
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM
SNORM
20.
PARAM
K6ROT
100.
PARAM
WTMASS
1.
PARAM* SIGMA
3.6580E-11
PARAM
POST
1
PARAM
TABS
0.0
$! Bulk Data Model Section
RADM
11
0.0
0.9
RADM
12
0.0
0.7
RADM
13
0.0
1.
PHBDY
1 12.566
PHBDY
2 28.274
GRID
101
0.0
0.0
GRID
102
1.
0.0
$!
SPOINT
777
CHBDYP
1
1
point
10
+
11
CHBDYP
2
2
point
10
+
12
CHBDYP
3
2
point
+
13
SPC
23
101
1
1000.
SPC
23
777
1
0.0
RADBC
777
1.
3
RADCAV
+
VIEW
VIEW3D
RADSET
RADMTX
RADMTX
RADLST
TEMPD
TEMP
TEMP
NLSTEP
+
+
+

Main Index

RadMat_1
RadMat_1
RadMat_1
PHBDY_1_
PHBDY_2_

0.0
0.0

1.
-1.
-1.

101
0.0
102
0.0
102
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0

+
+
+

1
10
10
1
10
10
1
21
21
21
1
GENERAL 25
FIXED
1
HEAT
PW

+
1
1
0.012.56637
215.70922
1
1
2
900.
777
0.0
101
1000.
1.
1

0.001

1.E-7AUTO

+
+
+

746 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

ENDDATA b1272084
Notice that the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (sigma) is 3.66e-11 W/in2/K4 and, the radiation matrix is define above by
the RADLST and RADMTX, RADMTX =

A1 F1 1 = 0
A2 F2 1

A 1 F 1 2 = 12.566 1

4
5
= 28.274 --- A 2 F 2 2 = 12.566 --9
9

0 12.56637
sym 15.70796

The radiation matrix must be symmetric to conserve energy (reciprocity relation A 1 F 1 2 = A 2 F 2 1 ), and the
symmetric terms are not entered. Running this three node problem yields the output below with the temperature of the
outer sphere of 710.31, agreeing to within 4-digits of our analytic solution of 710.3.
T E M P E R A T U R E
POINT ID.

TYPE

V E C T O R
ID

VALUE

101

1.000000E+03

777

0.0

ID+1 VALUE

ID+2 VALUE

ID+3 VALUE

ID+4 VALUE

ID+5 VALUE

7.103098E+02

Solution Highlights
The following are highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem using 700 elements to represent
the inner and outer spheres with 1268 radiating surfaces:
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = SORT
$! Case Control Section
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 33
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : NewLoadcase
$LBCSET SUBCASE1
DefaultLbcSet
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HSTAT
SPC = 35
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM
WTMASS
1.
PARAM
GRDPNT 0
NLMOPTS HEMICUBE1
PARAM* SIGMA
3.6580E-11
PARAM
POST
1
$! Bulk Data Model Section
PARAM
OGEOM
NO
PARAM
MAXRATIO
1e+8

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 747
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

The use of a steady-state thermal analysis is indicated by ANALY=HSTAT. The NLMOPTS parameters indicate that we
are using the Hemi-cube method as the view factor calculation method. If one desires to run the Gaussian integration
method, then you do not need the NLMOPTS bulk data entry.
The inner sphere is composed of CHBDYG elements (see command details below) numbered from 6987 through
7214, and the outer sphere is from 7215 to 7734. The set1 ID option is used on the RADCAV bulk data entry to sum
up all the view factors between the inner and outer spheres for comparisons against theory.

Loading and Boundary Conditions

Radiation- View Factor Calculation (CHBDYG Element)


The CHBDYG element is used in Nastran thermal analysis for any surface heat transfer phenomenon such as radiation
or convection or imposing heat flux on these elements.
CHBDYG
CHBDYG
RADM
RADM
RADM
RADSET
RADCAV
VIEW3D
$!
VIEW

Main Index

6987
3390
6988
3404

3403

AREA4
3397
AREA4
3389

3
4
5
4
4
4

0.9
0.7
1.

0.9
0.7
1.

YES
0

4
0.0

KSHD

3389

2
3398
2
3390

3
3
Radm_3
Radm_4
Radm_5
0.0

0.1
0.0

748 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

In this case, we have CHBDYG element 6987 with TYPE='AREA4' bounded by grid 3390, 3389, 3397, 3398. The
normal vector is defined by the grid connectivity and is directed from the inner sphere to the outer sphere (Figure 44-2
and Figure 44-3). The internal sphere has KSHD defined on the 4th field of the VIEW data entry, which means that this
group of elements can shade the view of other elements. The external sphere has KBSHD defined which means that
these elements can also be shaded by other elements. The reason that we have specified the shading flag is to speed
up the sorting for these potential blockers in the view factor calculations. In general when the surface is very complex,
the use of the flag called BOTH is recommended. The RADSET option tells us there is only 1 cavity in the model, and
the 2nd field on the VIEW points to the IVIEWF or IVIEWB on the CHBDYG field 5th or 6th, respectively. For a plate
element, there is top and the bottom surface for view factor calculations. For a solid element, only the front side
IVIEWF should be used. The inner sphere here is represented by number as 1 on the field 5 (IVIEWF) on the CHBDYG.
The 7th and 8th represent the ID for the RADM option where 7th field is the top surface RADM ID and the 8th field is
the bottom surface RADM ID. The RADM specified the emissivity used for the sphere and, in this case, the emissivity
for the inner sphere is equal to 0.7.
The RADCAV bulk data entry indicates that we will print the summary of view factor calculations. In this case, we
have a complete enclosure and, therefore, the view factor summation should equal 1.0. The surface numbers 703, 704
are the ID numbers for the CHBDYG that has the radiation exchange.
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID =
SURF-I
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991

SURF-J
-SUM
-SUM
-SUM
-SUM
-SUM

4 ***

ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS


AREA-I
AI*FIJ
FIJ

OF
OF
OF
OF
OF

5.19803E-02
6.14400E-02
4.30822E-02
4.36718E-02
5.08568E-02

SCALE

9.99998E-01
9.99997E-01
9.99988E-01
1.00000E+00
1.00000E+00

The continuation field on the RADCAV is optional.


Radiation - RADBC (radiation to space)
On the outer sphere, we have a radiation to space using the view factor supplied on the 3rd field on the RADBC. (see
Example below) The 2nd field on the RADBC points to the ambient grid ID 100001 and, in this case, we have the grid
fixed at 0 K.
SPOINT
SPC
TEMP
RADBC
CHBDYG
RADBC
CHBDYG
RADBC
CHBDYG

Main Index

6497
5
33
6497
6467
5987
6497
6468
5989
6497
6469
5997

6497
6497
1.
5975
1.
5976
1.
5996

1
0.0
0
AREA4
5976
0
AREA4
5975
0
AREA4
5975

0.0
-6467
5986
-6468
5988
-6469
5987

5
5
5

CHAPTER 44 749
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Please note the negative EID represents that the radiation to space is effected from the back surface (opposite to the
direction of normal) of the element.
Also, we have the temperature boundary conditions applied to all grids on the inner sphere at 1000 K via the SPC
option.
SPC

RADBC

1000.

Space Radiation Specification

Specifies an CHBDYi element face for application of radiation boundary conditions.


Format
1

RADBC

NODAMB

FAMB

CNTRLND

EID1

EID2

EID3

-etc.-

10

10

Example
1

RADBC

1.0

101

10

Field

Contents

Type

NODAMB

Ambient point for radiation exchange.

I>0

FAMB

Radiation view factor between the face and the ambient point.

R>0

CNTRLND

Control point for radiation boundary condition. (Integer > 0; Default = 0)

I>0

EIDi

CHBDYi element identification number. ( Integer 0 or THRU or BY)

Remarks:
1. The basic exchange relationship is:
if CNTRLND = 0, then q = FAMB e T 4e T 4amb
if CNTRLND > 0, then
4

q = FAMB u CNTRLND e T e T amb

Main Index

Default

750 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Figure 44-2

Normal Vectors Point Outward from the Inner Sphere

Figure 44-3

Normal Vectors Point Inward for the Outer Sphere

Material Modeling
Thermal conductivity value is supplied on the MAT4 bulk data entry.
MAT4
MAT4

1
2

4.
6.

Iso_1
Iso_2

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined using the following NLPARM entry:
NLSTEP
+
+

Main Index

FIXED
HEAT

1
1
UPW

1.
0.001

0.001

1.E-7PFNT

+
+

CHAPTER 44 751
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

In thermal analysis, the TEMPD bulk data entry specifies the initial temperature for the nonlinear radiation analysis.
In this case, an initial guessed temperature of 800 was used. A casual selection of initial guessed temperature is not
so important in a nonlinear conduction and convection thermal analysis. However, for nonlinear radiation analysis
where the thermal radiation transfer is given by Q = A T 14 T 24 , an initial guess is very helpful. The error (residual)
is proportional to the temperature to the 4th power. It is. therefore, recommended to specify a higher estimated
temperature in a radiation dominant problem.
The default method for the NLPARM is the AUTO method in SOL 400 analyses. The convergence criterion is based
on UPW. In this problem, you can achieve convergence by either the PFNT method (as above) or the AUTO method:
NLSTEP
+
+

FIXED
HEAT

1
1
UPW

1.
0.001

0.001

1.E-7AUTO

+
+

The U convergence criterion measures the error tolerance for the temperature. It has a recommended value of 1.0e-3
or smaller for thermal problem. The P and W convergence criteria measure the error tolerances for the load and work,
respectively.
The number of increments is specified on the 3rd field of the NLPARM data entry (NINC). This should be set to 1 for
steady-state thermal analyses since convergence can be achieved in one step only. This, typically, is not the case for
structural analyses, where NINC is set to 10 by default. Generally, the PFNT or FNT methods are used for highly
nonlinear mechanical analyses.

Results
Temperature K (Grid 367)
Analytic
Gaussian integration
Hemi-cube

710.5

710.30
709.85
708.91

710.0
709.5
709.0
708.5
708.0

Analytic

Gaussian integration

Hemi-cube

Both methods yield temperatures very close to the analytical solution.

Main Index

752 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Figure 44-4

Hemi-cube Results

Modeling Tips
The current model uses 1268 surfaces to define the radiating surfaces of both spheres. The CPU run times for the
Gaussian and Hemi-cube methods are nearly the same, at 27 seconds.
Figure 44-5, however, shows the dramatic increase in run time for the Gaussian model and the clear benefits of the
Hemi-cube method as the number of surfaces increases.
At 20,000 surfaces, the Gaussian model takes 33 time longer to complete.
CPU Time (s)
12000
10000

Gaussian

8000

Hemi-cube

6000
4000
2000
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

Number of Surfaces

Figure 44-5

Main Index

CPU Run Times

CHAPTER 44 753
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


The same physical model will now be built, run and postprocessed with SimXpert. The Gaussian integration scheme
will be used to compute the viewfactors. While the dimensions of length in the summary and nug*.dat files is inches,
the model built here with SimXpert will use the same geometry but with units of meters. The only other change will
be in the selection of the correct units of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (p. 787).

Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
e. Length = m, Mass = kg, Time = s, Temperature = Kelvin, and Force = N

b
d
c

Main Index

754 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create First Hemispherical Surface


a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc
b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0.0245, 0, 0; input, click OK
e. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0, 0.0245, 0; input, click OK (not shown)
f. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter -0.0245, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK
h. Observe in the Model Browser tree: Part 1
l. Observe the curve arc

b
c

h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 755
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create First Hemispherical Surface (continued)


a. Geometry tab: Surface/Revolve
b. Select Vector
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. Click OK
e. For Axis, select X; click OK
f. For Entities screen select the Curve arc
g. For Angel Of Spin (Degrees), enter 180; click OK
h. Observe the first hemispherical surface

b
c

e
d

f
g
j
h
-

Main Index

756 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Part for Second Hemispherical Surface


a. Assemble tab: Parts/Create Part
b. Use defaults of form
c. Click OK
d. Observe Part_2 in the Model Browser Tree

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 757
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Second Hemispherical Surface


a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc
b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0.0381, 0, 0; input, click OK
e. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0, 0.0381, 0; input, click OK (not shown)
f. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter -0.0381, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK
h. Observe the curve arc

a
b
c

h
-

Main Index

758 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Second Hemispherical Surface (continued)


a. Geometry tab: Surface/Revolve
b. Select Vector
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. Click OK
e. For Axis, select X; click OK
f. For Entities screen select the Curve arc
g. For Angel Of Spin (Degrees), enter 180;
h. Click OK
i. Observe the second hemispherical surface

e
d

f
g
h
ik

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 759
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Third Hemispherical Surface


a. Tools: Transform/Reflect
b. Select X-Y Plane
c. Select Make Copy
d. Select Inner (smaller) hemispherical surface
e. Click Done; then click Exit
f. A third hemispherical surface is created that is the same color as the copied surface
g. Observe that there is another Part in the Model Browser tree

b
c

a
e

Main Index

760 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Third Hemispherical Surface (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, right click on PART_1.COPY; select Change Color
b. Select a different color
c. Observe that the third hemispherical surface is now a different color

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 761
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Fourth Hemispherical Surface


a. Tools: Transform/Reflect
b. Select X-Y Plane
c. Select Make Copy
d. Select outer (larger) hemispherical surface
e. Click Done; then click Exit
f. A fourth hemispherical surface is created that is the same color as the copied surface
g. Observe that there is another Part in the Model Browser tree

b
c

Main Index

762 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Fourth Hemispherical Surface (continued)


a. In the Model Browser tree, right click on PART_2.COPY; select Change Color
b. Select a different color
c. Observe that the fourth hemispherical surface is now a different color

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 763
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Material Properties


a. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
b. For Name enter Inner_sphere
c. For Description enter a description
d. For Youngs Modulus enter 10e9 (needed for the software to run)
e. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.28 (needed for the software to run)
f. For Thermal Conductivity enter 157.48
g. Click OK

b
c
d
e

gf

Main Index

764 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Material Properties (continued)


a. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
b. For Name enter Outer_sphere
c. For Description enter a description
d. For Youngs Modulus enter 10e9 (needed for the software to run)
e. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.28 (needed for the software to run)
f. For Thermal Conductivity enter 236.22
g. Click OK

b
c
d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 765
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Inner Sphere Element Property


a. Create the element property for the inner sphere
b. Right click on PART_2; select HIDE to hide the outer hemispherical surfaces
c. Repeat Step b. for PART_2.COPY
d. Create the element property for the inner sphere

Main Index

766 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Inner Sphere Element Property (continued)


a. Materials and Properties tab: 2D Properties/Shell
b. For Name, enter Inner_sphere
c. For Entities screen, select the two inner hemispherical surfaces
d. For Material, select Inner_sphere from the Model Browser tree
e. For Part thickness, enter 2.54e-4
f. Click OK

b
c
d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 767
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Outer Sphere Element Property


a. Create the element property for the outer sphere
b. Right click on PART_1; select HIDE to hide the outer hemispherical surfaces
c. Repeat Step b. for PART_1.COPY
d. Right click on PART_2; select SHOW to show the outer hemispherical surfaces
e. Repeat Step d. for PART_2.COPY
f. Create the element property for the outer sphere

Main Index

768 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Outer Sphere Element Property (continued)


a. Materials and Properties tab: 2D Properties/Shell
b. For Name, enter Outer_sphere
c. For Entities screen, select the two outer hemispherical surfaces
d. For Material, select Outer_sphere from the Model Browser tree
e. For Part thickness, enter 1.27e-3
f. Click OK

b
c
d
e

c
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 769
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Surface Mesh for Outer Sphere


a. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
b. For Surface to mesh screen, select both surfaces
c. For Element Size, enter 0.35
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Element property, select Outer_sphere from the Model Browser tree
f. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

770 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Surface Mesh for Outer Sphere (continued)


a. Display the geometric surfaces in wireframe
b. Display the elements as shaded
c. Observe resulting mesh for the outer sphere
d. Notice the elements at the geometric interface are congruent
e. Verify that the elements at the interface are connected

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 771
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere


a. Display only the inner sphere using the picks in the Model Browser tree and those of the Render toolbar
for Geometry and FE.

Main Index

772 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere (continued)


a. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
b. For Surface to mesh screen, select both surfaces
c. For Element Size, enter 0.35
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Element property, select Inner_sphere from the Model Browser tree
f. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 773
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere (continued)


a. Display the geometric surfaces in wireframe
b. Display the elements as shaded
c. Observe resulting mesh for the inner sphere
d. The elements at the geometric interface are congruent
e. Verify that the elements ar the interface are connected

Main Index

774 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Equivalence All Nodes


a. Right Click Part_1 Show All
b. Nodes/Elements Modify/Equivalence
c. Select All
d. Observe Highlighted Nodes
e. OK
f. Observe 52 merged unreferenced nodes deleted

a
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 775
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere


a. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Temperature BC
b. For Name, enter Temperature_inner
c. For Entities screen, select the two inner hemispherical surfaces; best to have only the Pick Surfaces
icon active and pick near the center of an element away from the nodes.
d. For Temperature, enter 1000
e. Click OK

b
c

Main Index

776 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere (continued)


a. Observe the applied temperatures as values
b. Display temperature values; turn Detailed Rendering On/Off
c. Set Geometry and FE to Wireframe
d. Double click on Temperature_Inner under LBC in the Model Browser
e. Click on Visualization tab
f. Select Short under LBC Type and Value Labels
g. Select Associated Geometry under Display on Geometry / FEM
h. Click OK

a
b

e
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 777
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere (continued)


a. Observe the applied temperatures (red dots)
b. Select FE Shaded

Main Index

778 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres


a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Encl Rad Face
c. For Name, enter Encl Rad Face_Inner
d. For Entities screen, select both the inner hemispherical surfaces
e. Click on Advanced
f. For Shell surface option select, Front; direction of the element normals is found by
Quality tab: edit/fix Elements/Fix Elements/Normals
g. For Shell surface option, select Front
h. For Absorptivity, enter 0.9
i. For Emissivity, enter 0.9
j. Click OK

c
d
e
f

h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 779
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)


a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)
b. Display only the outer sphere surfaces
c. Using the Model Browser tree, hide the inner surfaces and show the outer surfaces
d. Observe the outer surfaces

Main Index

780 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)

a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)


b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Encl Rad Face
c. For Name, enter Encl Rad Face_outer
d. For Entities screen, select both the outer hemispherical surfaces
e. Click on Advanced
f. For Shell surface option select, Front; direction of the element normals is found by
Quality tab: edit/fix Elements/Fix Elements/Normals
g. For Shell surface option, select Back
h. For Absorptivity, enter 0.7
i. For Emissivity, enter 0.7
j. Click OK

c
d

e
g

h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 781
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)


a. Create a single radiation enclosure
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Radiation Enclosure
c. For Name, enter Rad Enclosure
d. For Shadowing Option, select NO
e. For Unused Enclosure Faces, select Encl Rad Face_outer
f. Click the > icon
g. For Unused Enclosure Faces, select Encl Rad Face_inner
h. Click the > icon
i. Click OK

c
d

g
e

Main Index

782 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)


a. Create a single radiation enclosure; display created Radiation Enclosure LBS form
b. In the Model Browser tree under LBC, double click Radiation Enclosure
c. Observe the form for Rad Enclosure

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 783
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create Radiation to Space From Outer Sphere


a. Create radiation to space (ambient)
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Rad to Space
c. For Name, enter Rad to Space
d. For Entities screen, select the two outer surfaces
e. For Ambient temperature, enter 0.0
f. For View Factor, enter 1.0
g. For Absorptivity, enter 1.0
h. For Emissivity, enter 1.0
i. For Shell surface option, enter Front
j. Click OK

d
e
f

h
i

Main Index

784 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create SimXpert Analysis File


a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on FileSet
c. Select Create new Nastran job
d. For Job Name, enter a title
e. For Solution Type, select SOL 400
f. For Solver Input File, specify the fine name and its path
g. Unselect Create Default Layout
h. Click OK

b
c

e
f
g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 785
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on Load Cases
c. Select Create Loadcase
d. For Name (Title), enter NewLoadcase
e. For Analysis Type, select Nonlinear Steady Heat Trans
f. Click OK

b
c

e
f

Main Index

786 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on Load/Boundaries
c. Select Select Lbc Set
d. For Selected Lbc Set, select DefaultLbcSet in the Model Browser tree
e. Click OK
f. To see the contents of DefaultLbcSet, click on it in the Model Browser tree

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 787
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


Remember that our length unit is meter, so the correct Stefan-Boltzmann constant to pick will have units of W/M2/K4.
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. For Default Init Temp, enter 750.0
d. For Absolute Temp Scale, select 0.0
e. For Stefan-Boltzmann, select 5.6696e-8 W/M2/K4 (Expert)
f. Click Apply

d
e

Main Index

788 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


Finally lets pick the hemicube viewfactor algorithm
a. Right Click Solver Control
b. Select Direct Input (BULK)
c.Enter nlmopts,hemicube,1
d. Check box Export this Section
e. Click Apply and Close

c nlmopts,hemicube,1
b

a
d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 789
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Select Output File Properties
c. For Text Output, select Print
d. Click Apply

c
b

Main Index

790 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Specify parameter values for Sol 400 analysis
b. Double click on Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Steady State Heat
d. Click Temp Error
e. For Temperature Tolerance, enter 0.01
f. Click Load Error
g. For Load Tolerance, enter 1e-5
h. Click Apply
i. Click Close

d
e
f
g
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 791
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Specify parameter values for Sol 400 analysis
b. Right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Select Create Temperature Output
e. Click OK

Main Index

792 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Perform SimXpert SOL 400 Thermal Analysis


a. Perform steady state heat transfer analysis Sol 400
b. Right click on rad_between_concentric_spheres
c. Select Run
d. After the analysis is complete, the shown files are created

d
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 793
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Attach the Analysis Results File


a. Analysis complete, attach the .xdb results file
b. File: Attach Results
c. Select Results
d. Click OK

Main Index

794 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Display the Temperature Results


a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Display just the two original surfaces (PART_1 and PART_2)
c. Results tab: Results/Fringe
d. For Result Cases, select Non-linear: 100. % of Load
e. For Result type, select Temperatures
f. Click Target entities
g. Screen select the elements for the two surfaces

f
e
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 795
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Display the Temperature Results (continued)


a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Click Label attributes
c. Set color to black
d. Set format to Fixed
e. Click Update

c
d

Main Index

796 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 44

Display the Temperature Results (continued)


a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Observe the fringe plot

b
709.3

1000

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_44a.dat

MSC Nastran input using Hemi-cube method

nug_44b.dat

MSC Nastran input using Gaussian integration method

nug_44c.dat

MSC Nastran input with simple three grid model with


user-defined radiation matrix

Ch_44b.SimXpert

SimXpert model file

Ch_44c.SimXpert

SimXpert model file

Main Index

CHAPTER 44 797
Concentric Spheres with Radiation

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 24 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Temperature K (Grid 367)


Analytic
Gaussian integration
Hemi-cube

710.5
710.0
709.5
709.0
708.5
708.0

Analytic

Figure 44-6

Main Index

Gaussian integration

Hemi-cube

Video of the Above Steps

710.30
709.85
708.91

Chapter 45: Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics

45

Main Index

Transient Thermal Analysis of


Power Electronics using SOL
400

Summary

799

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Highlights

Results

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

Video

800
800
800

803

862

807

862

808

CHAPTER 45 799
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Summary
Title

Chapter 45: Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics

Features

Transient thermal analysis using CHEXA elements

Geometry
Units: mm, g, sec, C
Copper
Aluminum

10 X 10 X 8
1.295 X 1.295 X 0.2

Flux 1.4907 W/mm


(0 to 10 seconds)

Material properties

k Cu = 0.386W mm K
Cp Cu = 0.383J g K

k Al = 0.204W mm K
Cp Al = 0.896J g K

Analysis characteristics

Nonlinear transient thermal analysis

Boundary conditions

All material is initially at 25oC then a heat flux is applied on top surface of the copper
chip for 10 seconds.

Element type

8-node CHEXA

FE results

Temperature contours at t = 10 seconds.

Main Index

800 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the transient thermal capability of SOL 400 in solving a short duration heating on a chip
through a copper tab attached to an aluminum backing.

Modeling Details
Units: mm, g, sec, C
Copper
Aluminum

10 X 10 X 8
1.295 X 1.295 X 0.2

Flux 1.4907 W/mm


(0 to 10 seconds)

Figure 45-1

2
Z

Chip Analysis (Nastran Test File: chip1.dat)

In many applications, the power dissipation inside integrated circuits is transient in nature. The device maybe turned
on for 10 seconds or less. The above model (Figure 45-1) consists of D2pak copper tab mounted on the aluminum heat
sink. Due to the symmetry, only a quarter of the model is meshed.

Solution Highlights
The following are highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem:
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = SORT
$! Case Control Section
IC = 13
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : NewLoadcase
$LBCSET SUBCASE1
DefaultLbcSet
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HTRAN
SPC = 15

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 801
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

DLOAD = 16
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM* SIGMA
1.7140E-9
PARAM
POST
1
$! Bulk Data Model Section
PARAM
PRGPST
NO
MAT4
1
0.386
0.383 0.00895
MAT4
2
0.204
0.896 0.00271
PSOLID
1
1
PSOLID
2
2
$ CHBDYG Surface Elements
CHEXA
126
1
17
18
1
+
147
183
CHEXA
127
1
179
181
147
+
148
184
CHEXA
128
1
18
20
2
+
149
147
CHEXA
129
1
181
185
149
+
150
148
$ Loads for Load Case : tran
TABLED1
1 LINEAR LINEAR
+
0.0
1.
10.
1.
10.1
+
ENDT
$!
TLOAD1
1
2
1
QBDY3
2
1.5
0
2176
CHBDYG
2176
AREA4
148
150
158
156
$ Dynamic Load Table : flux_time
TABLED1 1
0.
1.
10.
1.
10.2
0.
100.
0.
ENDT
$ Default Initial Temperature
TEMPD
13
25.
DLOAD
16
1.
1.
1
NLSTEP
1
12.
+
GENERAL -10
0
5
+
FIXED
600
5
+
HEAT
UPW
0.01
0.01
0.01ITER
+
10
2
0.2

Cu
Al
PSOLID_1
PSOLID_2
19

179

181+

183

180

182+

181

185+

147

182

186+

0.0

100.

+
0.0+

20.

0.

+
+
+
+

The transient thermal analysis is indicated by ANALY=HTRAN. The IC option in the case control section points to the
initial temperature of the model. In this case, The IC=1 points to the TEMPD in the bulk data section, and the initial
temperature is set at 25 oC. The DLOAD bulk data in the case control either points to the DLOAD in the bulk data with
same ID.
Furthermore, the DLOAD in the bulk data section can then point to the multiple load set ID that refers to either
TLOAD1, which called a time dependent table TABLED1 or TLOAD2 which has built in function such as unit step, sine,
or cosine functions.

Main Index

802 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

TABLED1
+
+
TLOAD1
QBDY3
CHBDYG

1 LINEAR LINEAR
0.0
1.
10.
ENDT
1
2
2
1.5
0
2176
AREA4
148
150
158
16
1.
1.

DLOAD

1.

10.1

0.0

100.

+
0.0+

2176
156
1

Field 3 on the TLOAD1 record has an integer value of 2 which points to a transient heat load of QBDY3 with this same
set ID. In the field 6 of the TLAOD1 is the ID of time-dependent table of this heat flux. We see that the heat load is 1.0
from time equals to 0 to 10 seconds and, at 10.2 seconds, we shut this heat load back to zero.

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLSTEP entry:
NLSTEP
+
+
+
+

1
GENERAL -10
FIXED
600
HEAT
UPW
10

12.

0
5
2

5
0.01

0.01
0.2

0.01ITER

+
+
+
+

We are running a total 600 time steps with equal steps of 0.02 seconds and output the temperature at every 5th step.
This means that the temperature will then be output at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 seconds, respectively. Also we can use the
Method called FIXED and the convergence is set on the error on temperature (U) with 0.01 as the error tolerance. Grid
point 195 is the fastest responding in the copper tab; it is also used in subsequent graphs to illustrate how fast the chip
heats up and cools down.

Figure 45-2

Main Index

Early Temperature History of Grid Point 195

CHAPTER 45 803
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Results

Figure 45-3

Temperature Contours at 5 Seconds

Figure 45-4

Temperature History Past 10 Seconds

Suppose that the user decided to add a fan to increase the cooling on top. To simulate this, we will apply convection
boundary condition on the top surface where the convection coefficient is a function of time and the ambient
temperature is also at 25oC. We can then compare this run against the previous run that has no convection. Convection
is applied as a heat transfer coefficient of H = 0.02W mm 2 C . The temperature contours at 5 seconds are shown in
Figure 45-5.

Main Index

804 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Figure 45-5

Temperature Contours at 5 Seconds

Another comparison between the two models is shown in Figure 45-6, where the influence of the cooling is very
obvious with the entire model returning to the initial conditions after about 20 seconds.

Figure 45-6

Temperature Histories With and Without Cooling

By applying the convection on the top surface, the temperature of the chip is now cooled from 40.3 to 33.2oC. In this
run we have a total of three time dependent boundary conditions. The DLOAD in the bulk data section (Nastran test
file Chip_spcd1.dat) points to multiple TLOAD1 options as shown in the table below.

TLOAD1 ID

SPCD/DAREA

Grid (enforced
temperature as a
function of time)

H(time)

2556

Heat flux(time)

Tambient(time)

Boundary
Conditions

Main Index

TABLED1 (ID)
2
1

2555

CHAPTER 45 805
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

The SPCD is used only on enforced temperature as a function of time.


TLOAD1
TLOAD1
TLOAD1
TABLED1
+
+
TABLED1
+
+
TABLED1
+
$!
PCONV
MAT4
SPOINT
SPCD
SPC1
TEMP
$!
SPOINT
SPCD
SPC1
TEMP
QBDY3
CHBDYG
TEMPD
SPCADD
DLOAD
NLSTEP
+
+
+
+

1
2
6

3
5
8

1 LINEAR LINEAR
0.0
1.
10.
ENDT
2 LINEAR LINEAR
-10.
0.02
0.0
20.
0.02
ENDT
3 LINEAR LINEAR
0.0
1.
100.
4
3
2555
5
4
21
2556
8
7
21
3
2176
148
21
23
24
1
GENERAL -10
FIXED
600
HEAT
UPW
10

1
3
2

1
1

2555

2555
25.

2555
2556

2556
0.02
0
AREA4
158

2556
1.5
150
25.
4
1.
12.
0
5
2

7
1.

1.

10.1

1.

100.

+
1.+

0.02

5.

0.02

10.

+
0.02+

1.
0.0

ENDT
1.

25.

1.0
2176
156

1.

0.01ITER

5
0.01

0.01
0.2

1.

6
+
+
+
+

SPOINT 2555 indicates the ambient temperature for the convection, while SPOINT 2556 represents the variation of
convection coefficient with time.

Main Index

806 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

CONV

Heat Boundary Element Free Convection Entry

Specifies a free convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through connection to a surface element
(CHBDYi entry).
Format:
1

CONV

EID

PCONID

FLMND

CNTRLND

TA1

TA2

TA3

TA4

TA5

TA6

TA7

TA8

CONV

101

201

301

10

Example:

Field

Contents

10

Type

Default

EID

CHBDYG, CHBDYE, or CHBDYP surface element I > 0


identification number.

PCONID

Convection property identification number of a


PCONV entry.

I>0

FLMND

Point for film convection fluid property


temperature.

I>0

CNTRLND

Control point for free convection boundary


condition.

I>0

TAi

Ambient points used for convection.

TA1 for TA2


I > 0 for TA1
I > 0 for TA2 through TA8 through TA8

$ Convection to Ambient of Load Set : htime


PCONV
4
3
0
0.0
MAT4
3
SPOINT
2555
SPCD
5
2555
25.
SPC1
4
2555
TEMP
21
2555
25.
SPOINT
SPCD
SPC1
TEMP

2556
8
7
21

CONV
CHBDYG

2201
2201
17

Main Index

2556
2556
4
18

2556
0.02
AREA4
37

1.

1.0

2556
73

2555

CHAPTER 45 807
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

The SPOINT 2556 is on the field 5 (CNTRLND) on the CONV, and the SPOINT 2555 is on the field 6 (TA1). The
field 6 on the MAT4 option is the convection coefficient times the tabeld1 ID 2 where this a function of time. At time
equal to zero, the value is equal to 0.02, and time equal to 10 seconds, the value is 0.03.
For SPOINT 2556, we used SPCD and SPC1 to specify enforced temperature as a function of time. The value of 1.0
that specified on the field 5 on the SPCD bulk data entry actually is a scale multiplier to the TABLED1 ID 2 that it refers
to.
The ambient temperature is constant at 25oC, but we could make it time dependent as well. It is important that for any
enforced temperature as a function of time or any use of a control node in RADBC or CONV bulk data entries, that a
value of 1 is specified on field 5 on the TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entry to indicate that this refers to the SPCD.

Modeling Tips
The transient thermal analysis involved a lot more data compared to a steady state thermal analysis since every time
step requires a temperature distribution. It is sensible to monitor those nodes that handle the time-dependent boundary
conditions. In this case, the convection coefficient as a function of time is applied to SPOINT 2556 which, when
plotted as a graph in SimX, should behave as described by the input. The other point of interest is where the heat load
is applied.
Adaptive time stepping facilitates capturing transient thermal behavior more precisely than uniform stepping, because
the length of each time step changes based upon changes in temperature. To invoke adaptive time stepping requires
the nonlinear procedure defined through the NLSTEP entry:
NLSTEP,6,12.0
,GENERAL,10,1,10
,ADAPT,0.001,1.0E-5,0.5
,HEAT,U,1.0E-6,1.0E-6,1.0E-6,AUTO
and a backward Euler thermal operator with the NDAMP parameter:
PARAM,NDAMP,0.5
This will run for a total time period of 12 seconds with an initial time step of 12/1000. The minimum time step is
12*1e-5; the convergence is set to U and is at 1e-6. The allowable range of the NDAMP parameter is -2.414 to 0.414,
and any NDAMP value that violates this range is reset to the closest allowable value. Here it triggers the backward
Euler operator. (NDAMP = 0 would be the Crank-Nicholson operator). The adaptive time stepping would avoid the
small oscillation seen in Figure 45-4 since the backward Euler operator is both stable and immune to oscillations. The
input files nug_45c.dat and nug_45d.dat use this operator.

Main Index

808 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


Run SimXpert with Structures Workspace
a. For the Default Workspace, select Structures

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 809
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Specify the Model Units


a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options Window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units
e. Length = mm; Mass = g; Time = s; Temperature = celsius, Force = N
f. Click OK

d
c

Main Index

810 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a Surface with a 45 Angle


a. Create two straight curves
b. Geometry tab: Curve/Curve
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1.295, 0, 0; click OK
d. For X, Y, X Coordinate enter 1.295, 1.295, 0; click OK
e. Click Apply
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 10, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 10, 10, 0; click OK (not shown)
f. Click Apply

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 811
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a Surface with a 45 Angle (continued)


a. Create two straight curves
b. Geometry tab: Surface/Filler
c. For Curves screen, select 2 curves
d. Click OK

c
d

Main Index

812 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Mesh the Surface


a. Create mesh seeds on the four curves of the surface
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Seed
c. For Curves screen, select the shortest curve and the opposite curve
d. Select Number of Elements, enter 5; click OK
e. Do this for the lower-right curve, using One Way Bias
f. Select Number of Elements and L2/L1
g. For Number of Elements, enter 10
h. For L2/L1, enter 5; click OK
i. Do this for the last curve, using One Way Bias (not shown)
j. Select Number of Elements and L2/L1 (not shown)
k. For Number of Elements, enter 10
l. For L2/L1, enter 0.2; click OK (1/5) (not shown)

i
c
f

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 813
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Mesh the Surface (continued)


a. Create mesh seeds on the four curves of the surface
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
c. For Surfaces to mesh screen, select the surface
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Mesh method, select Mapped
f. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

814 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Reflect the Part


a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. Tools: Transform/Reflect
c. To define a plane to reflect about, create a node at the origin (0,0,0) and one above it (0,0,10)
d. Nodes/Elements tab: Create/Node
e. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0,0,0; click OK
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0,0,10; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 815
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Reflect the Part (continued)


a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. Tools: Transform/Reflect
c. For Plane, select Any Plane
d. Select Make Copy
e. Select Nodes
f. Select the node at the origin
g. Select the node at the tip of the surface (interior angle is 45)
h. Select the node that is above the origin

c
d
e

Main Index

816 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Reflect the Part (continued)


a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. From Reflect - Any Plane pick panel, select Parts
c. Screen select the Part
d. Click Done; then click Exit

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 817
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a Square Surface to be Congruent at Lower-left


a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Geometry tab: Curve/Curve
c. For Entities screen, select the node at the origin and the node to its right
d. Click OK

c
d

Main Index

818 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a Square Surface to be Congruent at Lower-left (continued)


a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Geometry tab: Surface/Filler
c. For Curves screen, select the curve just created and the curve just above it
d. Click OK

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 819
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Mesh the Square Surface at Lower-left


a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
c. For Surfaces to mesh screen, select the square surface just created
d. Click OK

Main Index

820 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Connect the Adjacent Elements (continued)


a. Connect the adjacent elements using equivalence
b. Nodes/Elements tab: Modify/Equivalence
c. Set geometry to wireframe (not shown)
d. Tools: Identify to display the node labels (not shown)
e. For Entities screen, select all the nodes
f. For Merging tolerance, enter 0.05
g. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 821
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Connect the Adjacent Elements (continued)


a. Connect the adjacent elements using equivalence
b. Click OK
c. View: Clear Labels (not shown)
d. Tools: Identify (not shown)
e. For Identify Entities pick panel, select Nodes (not shown)
f. Click All (not shown)
g. Click Exit (not shown)
h. Observe only one node label
i. View: Clear Labels (not shown)

Main Index

822 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Sweep 2-D Elements to Create 3-D Elements


a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Meshing tab: FEM based/Normal
c. For Shell Elements screen, select all the elements
d. For Distances, enter -8
e. For Layers, enter 8
f. Click OK

d
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 823
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Sweep 2-D Elements to Create 3-D Elements (continued)


a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Model Views: Isometric View
c. Observe the 3-D elements

Main Index

824 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux


a. Create 2-D elements at the location where they are needed
b. View > Entity Display Filter: Show/Hide 3D FE
c. Tools: Transform/Translate (not shown)
d. For Translate XYZ, enter 0, 0, 8
e. Select Make Copy
f. Select Elements
g. Model Views: Top
h. Screen select the 2-D elements for the square surface
i. Select Done
j. Model Views: Isometric View

j
g

f
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 825
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)


a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Observe the new 2-D mesh that is to be sued to create the 3-D elements for the application region for
the heat flux
c. Rotate model as needed

Main Index

826 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)


a. Create 2-D elements at the location where they are needed
b. Meshing tab: FEM based/Normal
c. For the Shell Elements screen, select the 2-D elements that were just created
d. For Distances, enter -0.2
e. For Layers, enter 2
f. Click OK
g. Model Views: Isometric View (not shown)
h. Render:FE Shades with Edges (not shown)

c
d
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 827
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)


a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Observe the 3-D meshes

Main Index

828 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Delete All 2-D Elements


a. Eliminate all 2-D Elements for the model
b. Edit: Delete
c. From the Delete pick panel, select Elements
d. Select Advanced
e. From the Extended Pick Dialog, select CQUAD4
f. Select the entire model
g. Click Done
h. In the Delete window, click Yes
i. Click Exit

c
b

e
d
g

i
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 829
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Connect All 3-D Elements


a. By using equivalence, all 3-D elements can be connected
b. Modes/Elements: Modify/Equivalence
c. For Entities screen, select the entire model
d. For Merging tolerance, enter 0.5
e. Click OK
f. Click OK

Main Index

830 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Material Properties
a. Design material properties for Copper and Aluminum
b. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
c. For Name, enter Copper
d. For Youngs Modulus, enter 210
e. For Poissons Ratio, enter 0.28
f. For Thermal Conductivity, enter 0.386
g. For Specific Heat, enter 0.383
h. For Thermal Density, enter 0.00895
i. Click OK

c
d
e

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 831
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Material Properties (continued)


a. Design material properties for Copper and Aluminum
b. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
c. For Name, enter Aluminum
d. For Youngs Modulus, enter 210
e. For Poissons Ratio, enter 0.28
f. For Thermal Conductivity, enter 0.204
g. For Specific Heat, enter 0.896
h. For Thermal Density, enter 0.00271
i. Click OK

c
d
e

g
h

Main Index

832 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Element Properties
a. Define element properties for Copper and Aluminum parts of the model
b. Materials and Properties tab: 3D Properties/Solid
c. For Name, enter SOLID_Copper
d. For Entities screen, select the solid elements that are to represent the Copper
e. under Material on the Model Browser tree, select Copper
f. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 833
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Element Properties (continued)


a. Define element properties for Copper and Aluminum parts of the model
b. Materials and Properties tab: 3D Properties/Solid
c. For Name, enter SOLID_Aluminum
d. For Entities screen, select the solid elements that are to represent the Aluminum
e. Under Material on the Model Browser tree, select Aluminum
f. Click OK

b
c

Main Index

834 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip


a. To define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip, first define the time
dependent function for the heat flux
b. Fields/Tables tab: Tables/NastranBDF/Tabled1
c. For Name, enter TABLE_1
d. For X and Y values, enter the values shown below
e. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 835
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip (continued)


a. Define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Normal Flux
c. For Name, enter Normal_Flux_Copper_Chip
d. For Entities screen, select the nodes at the top of the chip
e. For Heat Flux, enter 1.4907
f. Under Flux vs Time scaling function on the Model Browser tree, select TABLE_1
g. Click OK

c
d

d
e
f

Main Index

836 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip (continued)


a. Define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip
b. Observe the model with the applied heat flux

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 837
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on FileSet, and select Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter a title
d. For Solution Type, select SOL400
e. For Solver Input File, select the path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK

e
f
g

Main Index

838 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Load Cases and select Create Loadcase
c. For Name (title), enter NewLoadcase
d. For Analysis Type, select Nonlinear Transient Heat Trans
e. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 839
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Loads/Boundaries and select Select Lbc Set
c. For Selected Lbc Set, enter DefaultLbcSet; click OK
d. Under LBC Set in the Model Browser, double click on DefaultLbcSet to observe the lbcs
that are assigned
e. Click Cancel

b
e
c

Main Index

840 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient analy power... in the Model Browser, double click on Solver Control
c. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
d. For Default Init Temperature, enter 25; click Apply
e. Select Output File Properties
f. For Test Output, select Print
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close

f
e

2009 MSC.Software Corporation

g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 841
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient_analy_power... NewLoadcase in the Model Browser, double click on
Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Transient Heat Transfer Parameters
d. For Initial Time Step, enter 0.02
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 600
f. Click on Temperature Error
g. For Temperature Tol., select 0.01
h. Click Apply (not shown)
i. Click Close (not shown)

.
.

b
d
c

Main Index

842 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis fole for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient_analy_power...,Load Cases, NewLoadcase in the Model Browser,
right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Select Create Temperature Output Request
e. Click on Suppress Print
f. For Sorting., select By Frequency/Time
g. Click OK

e
f
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 843
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Run a SimXpert Analysis


a. Perform a SimXpert thermal analysis
b. Under Simulations in the Model Browser, right click on transient analy power elect
c. Select Run

Main Index

844 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File


a. Attach the SimXpert result file
b. Click on Attach Results
c. For File path, select the results file transient_analy_power_elect.xdb
d. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 845
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Display a Chart of Temperature Results


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Results tab: Results/Chart
c. For Results Cases., select the results for all the times
d. For Results Type, select Temperatures
e. For Target Type, select Nodes
f. Pick Filters: Accumulate Mode

Main Index

846 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Display a Chart of Temperature Results (continued)


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Select two nodes; e.g., Node 1522 and Node 67
c. For Independent axis., select Time
d. Click Add Curves

d
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 847
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Display a Chart of Temperature Results


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Observe the temperature results

Main Index

848 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Define Free Convection off Heat Storage Body


a. Define free convection off top of model
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Free Convection
c. For Name, enter Free Convection_Al_Body
d. For Ambient Temperature, enter 25
e. To make picking easier, hide the lbc Normal Flux_Copper_Chip (not shown)
f. For Entities screen, select the nodes at the top of the Aluminum body. Make sure to select
the node at the corner
g. DO NOT CLICK OK

d
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 849
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Define Free Convection off Heat Storage Body (continued)


a. Define free convection off top of model
b. Change the picking to Pick Filters: Accumulate Mode
c. Change to different view using Model Views: Front (not shown)
d. For Entities screen, select the remaining nodes at the top of the Aluminum body
e. Click on Advanced
f. For Convection coefficient, enter 0.02
g. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

850 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Define Free Convection off Heat Storage Body (continued)


a. Define free convection off top of model
b. Observe the model with its free convection markers

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 851
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under FileSet in the Model Browser, right click on Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter a new title
d. For Solution Type, select SOL400
e. For Solver Input File, select the path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK

e
f
g

Main Index

852 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Load Cases, and select Create Loadcase
c. For Name (Title), enter NewLoadcase
d. For Analysis Type, select Nonlinear Transient Heat Trans
e. Click OK

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 853
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Loads/Boundaries, and select Select Lbc Set
c. For Selected Lbc Set, enter DefaultLbcSet
d. Double click on DefaultLbcSet to observe the lbcs that are assigned
e. Click Cancel

c
d

Main Index

854 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Double click on Solver Control
c. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
d. For Default Init Temperature, enter 25;click Apply
f. Select Output File Properties
g. For Text Output, select Print; click Apply
h. Click Close

g
f

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 855
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Double click on Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Transient Heat Transfer Parameters
d. For Initial Time Step, enter 0.02
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 600
f. Click on Temperature Error
g. For Temperature Tol., enter 0.0.1; click Apply
h. Click Close (not shown)

d
c

Main Index

856 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Select Create Temperature Output Request
e. Click on Suppress Print
f. For Sorting, select By Frequency/Time
g. Click OK

e
f
b

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 857
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Run a SimXpert Analysis


a. Perform a SimXpert thermal analysis
b. Right click on tran_analy_with_free_conv
c. Select Run

Main Index

858 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File


a. Attach the SimXpert result file
b. Click on Attach Results
c. For File path, select results file tran_analy_with_free)conv.xdb
d. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 859
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Display a Chart of Temperature Results


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Results tab: Results/Chart
c. For Result Cases, Select the results for all the times
d. For Result Type, select Temperatures
e. For Target type, select Nodes
f. Pick Filters: Accumulate Mode

Main Index

860 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Display a Chart of Temperature Results (continued)


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Select two nodes; e.g., Node 1522 and Node 67
c. For Independent axis, select Time
d. Click Add Curves

d
b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 45 861
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics using SOL 400

Display a Chart of Temperature Results (continued)


a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Observe the temperature results

Main Index

862 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 45

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_45a.dat

MSC Nastran transient thermal input file - fixed step without cooling

nug_45b.dat

MSC Nastran transient thermal input file - fixed step with cooling

Ch_45a.SimXpert

SimXpert data corresponding to nug_45a.bdf

nug_45c.dat

MSC Nastran test deck using adaptive approach for heating only

nug_45d.dat

MSC Nastran test deck using adaptive approach for heating with convection cooling

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.

Figure 45-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 46: Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

46

Main Index

Thermal Stress Analysis of an


Integrated Circuit Board

Summary

864

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Highlights

Results

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

Video

865
865
867

868

913

869

912

870

864 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Summary
Title

Chapter 46: Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Features

Chaining thermal and stress analysis in one execution

Geometry
Chip
Leads
Case
Paste

14 x 14 x 3.22

Units: mm, N, C

Material properties

Material

k W mm C

E N mm 2

(1/C)

Lead frame

0.147

6.9x104

1.0x10-6

Chip

0.168

5.52x104

1.0x10-5

Case

0.0714

4.5x104

1.0x10-6

Paste

0.02016

2.0x103

1.0x10-5

Analysis characteristics

Nonlinear thermal analysis followed by a stress analysis

Boundary conditions

Thermal boundary conditions: The heat flux is applied on top surface of the chip with heat flux
equal to 0.025 W/(mm2 oC). Convection heat transfer with ambient (at 70 oC). Top surface of the
case - 4.05x10-5 W/(mm2 oC). Bottom Surface of the case - 2.026x10 -5 W/(mm2 oC) Sides
(adjacent to the lead frame where it is fixed) - 7.0x10-5. There is radiation loss on top of the outer
case to ambient at 40 oC with emissivity equal to 0.8 and view factor is 1.0. Structure boundary
conditions: Fix the end of the lead frame.

Element type

8-node CHEXA

FE results

Thermal contours and resulting displacement contours


Thermal Contours

Main Index

Displacement Contours

CHAPTER 46 865
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Introduction
This example demonstrates the chaining of thermal and structural analysis in SOL 400 whereby the first step is a
nonlinear steady state thermal analysis subject to heat flux on the chip, convection and radiation boundary conditions,
and the second step is a nonlinear static analysis using the temperatures from the first step. The thermal stress analysis
chaining has always been available in the linear heat transfer to linear static analysis using param, heatstat,yes in the
SOL 101 run. However, it was not possible previously in Nastran to run a nonlinear heat transfer followed by the static
analysis in a single execution because SOL 101 is a linear heat transfer solution. The only alternative is to run a
nonlinear thermal analysis using SOL 153 and used the resulting temperature punch file as the input thermal load for
your stress analysis. The user can output a punch file by specifying TEMP(PRINT,PUNCH)=all in the first run. This
will create a punch file that consists of temperature for every grids in the model. In the thermal stress run he can use
the TEMP(LOAD)=1 in the case control to use the temperature load in the static run. Chaining of thermal and structural
analyses facilitates design studies based on:
1. changing the materials properties
2. changing the thermal boundary conditions
3. changing structure constraints
whereby the temperatures as well as the corresponding displacements are visualized in a single run.

Modeling Details
Bonded joints are used in the design of a circuit board. A change in temperature due to the equipment operation can
introduce stresses in joined materials of dissimilar thermal expansion coefficient. In this case we have chip heating
due to the applied power, causing thermal gradients in the different materials which, together with the fixed
displacements cause high stresses near the end of the lead frame.
The chip dimension (Figure 46-1) is 3.80 mm by 3.80mm with thickness equal to 0.7 mm. It is mounted on top of
adhesive (paste). The outer case dimension is 14 mm by 14 mm by 3.22 mm.

Chip

Figure 46-1

Main Index

Chip, Paste, and Lead Frame (Nastran Test File: hybrid_radbc_unit.dat)

866 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

14 x 14 x 3.22

Figure 46-2

Outer Case

A heat flux is applied to the top surface of the chip with heat flux equal to 0.025 W/(mm2oC). The top surface, bottom
surface and the sides (adjacent to the lead frame where it is fixed) of the case are subjected to convection heat loss.
Heat is convected to the environment at 70oC. The respective heat transfer coefficient for the top, bottom and sides
are 4.05x10-5 W/(mm2oC), 2.026x10-5 W/(mm2oC) and 7.00x10-5 W/(mm2oC). Finally there is a radiation loss on top
of the outer case to ambient environment of 40oC with emissivity equal to 0.8 and view factor is 1.0.
The structural boundary conditions include fixing the end of the lead frame as shown in Figure 46-3.

Figure 46-3

Structural Boundary Conditions

The material properties are shown in Table 46-1.


Table 46-1

Material Properties
k W mm K

E N mm 2

(1/C)

Chip

0.147

6.9x104

1.0x10-6

Lead Frame

0.168

5.52x104

1.0x10-5

Material

1.0x10-6
1.0x10-5

Case

0.0714

4.5x10

Paste

0.02016

2.0x103

In running a thermal stress analysis, it is important to check you have specified a thermal coefficient of expansion on
the field 7 on the MAT1 bulk data entry. Otherwise, there will be no thermal expansion in your problem.

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 867
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

It is important that you have a consistent set of units. In this case, the thermal conductivity has units of W/(mm2 K),
and therefore your Young's modulus should be in the unit of N/(mm2). This consistency also applies to the StefanBoltzmann constant also used in the radiation boundary conditions with units of W/(mm2 K).

Solution Highlights
The following are highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem:
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = SORT
$! Case Control Section
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 33
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : NewLoadcase
$LBCSET SUBCASE1
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
STEP 1
$LBCSET
STEP1.1
Thermal
$! Step name : Thermal
ANALYSIS = HSTAT
SPC = 36
LOAD = 37
NLSTEP = 2
TSTRU = 38
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
STEP 2
$LBCSET
STEP1.2
Structural
$! Step name : Structural
SPC = 11
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
NLSTEP = 3
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = 38
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,PRINT,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,PRINT,REAL,VONMISES,CORNER)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM
SNORM
20.
PARAM
K6ROT
100.
PARAM
WTMASS
1.
PARAM
LGDISP
1
PARAM
TABS
273.15
PARAM* SIGMA
5.6699E-14
PARAM
POST
1
$! Bulk Data Model Section

Main Index

868 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

There are two steps in this analysis. The first step is associated with the thermal boundary conditions as indicated with
ANALY=HSTAT. The second step is the thermal stress analysis and the structure boundary condition which the
ANALY=NLSTAT. The TEMP(load)=1 in the second step will allow the Step 2 to pick up the calculated temperature
from step 1 as the thermal load for the calculation of thermal stress. Please note that the param,lgdisp,1 is required
when chaining thermal and structural analyses. The TEMP(INITIAL)=9 points to the TEMPD,9,0.0 in the bulk data
section. This indicates the initial stress free temperature is at zero degrees. The thermal strain is then equal to the
product of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion times the change in temperature. In this example, the thermal
coefficient of expansion is constant, temperature dependency is also readily possible.
Following is the output from the thermal analysis and thermal stress analysis.
1
0

JUNE
LOAD STEP =
POINT ID.
6320
6327
6333

1.00000E+00
TYPE
S
S
S

ID
VALUE
8.666747E+01
8.697186E+01
8.657732E+01

T E M P E R A T U R E
ID+1 VALUE
8.661747E+01
8.687786E+01
8.654223E+01

ID+2 VALUE
8.657528E+01
8.679778E+01
8.651408E+01

POINT ID.
99
100
101
102
103

1.00000E+00
TYPE
G
G
G
G
G

T1
-7.002653E-04
-8.090116E-04
-8.938556E-04
-1.037468E-03
-1.272494E-03

D I S P L A C E M E N T
T2
-5.229975E-04
-5.227823E-04
-5.234344E-04
-5.227153E-04
-4.961967E-04

Main Index

Temperature Contours

T3
1.484855E-03
1.456455E-03
1.425087E-03
1.400765E-03
1.366653E-03

PAGE

896

STEP 1

ID+3 VALUE
8.654037E+01
8.672908E+01
8.649251E+01

ID+4 VALUE
8.651233E+01
8.667010E+01
8.647716E+01
11, 2010

ID+5 VALUE
8.649082E+01
8.661977E+01

MSC Nastran

5/21/10

SUBCASE 1

Results

Figure 46-4

5/21/10

V E C T O R

JUNE
LOAD STEP =

MSC Nastran
SUBCASE 1

1
0

11, 2010

V E C T O R
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

R1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

R2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

PAGE

STEP 2

R3

9546

CHAPTER 46 869
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Figure 46-5

Resulting Displacements (Magnified Displacements for Deformed Plot)

Figure 46-6

von Mises Stress Contour at Five Seconds

Modeling Tips
Always check consistency of units; the basic units are mm, N, and oC(K).
$watt/mm.C
MAT4
1
.147
$ Material Record : mat1.2
$ Description of Material :
MAT4
2
.168
$ Material Record : mat1.3
$ Description of Material :
MAT4
3
.0714
$ Material Record : mat1.4
$ Description of Material :
MAT4
4
.02016
$

Main Index

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

870 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

MAT1,1,6.9e4,,0.3,,1.0e-6
$ Material 2 : leadframe
MAT1,2,5.52e4,,0.3,,1.0e-5
$ Material 3 : new
MAT1,3,4.5e4,,0.3,,1.0e-6
$ Material 4 : paste
MAT1,4,2.0e3,,0.3,,1.0e-5

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert


This example shows how to use SimXpert for a chained thermal/stress analysis. It will create thermal lbcs for normal
heat flux, normal convection, and radiation to space. It will also create the structural lbc for pinned ends to electrical
leads. The thermal/stress analysis simulation parameter values will be defined. The results can be viewed after the
thermal/stress analysis is performed.

Units
a. For default workspace, select Structures

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 871
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Specify the Model Units


a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options Window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
e. Length = mm; Mass = g; Time = s; Temperature = celsius, Force = N
f. Click OK

d
c

Main Index

872 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Import FE Model into Separate Parts


a. Import finite element model into separate parts
b. Tools: Options
c. General: input/Output/Nastran.Sturctures
d. Unselect Reduce Parts
e. Click OK

e
2009 MSC.Software Corporation

Main Index

WS9-8

CHAPTER 46 873
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Import MSC Nastran Nodes and Elements File


a. Import MSC Nastran nodes and elements file
b. File: Import/Nastran
c. Select nug_46_bdf.bdf
d. Click OK

Main Index

874 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

MSC Nastran Nodes and Elements Model


a. MSC Nastran nodes and elements model
b. Model Views: Isometric View
c. Render FE Shaded with Edges
d. View Manipulation: Fill

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 875
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Material Properties
a. Material properties of the imported model
b. Double click, one at a time, on each of the four material names
c. Observe the thermal-mechanical contents of the material forms
d. Click Cancel

Main Index

876 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Material Properties (continued)


a. Material properties of the imported model
b. Double click, one at a time, on each of the four material names
c. Click Thermal tab
d. Observe the thermal contents of the material forms
e. Click Cancel

c
b
d

WS9-12

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 877
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Element Properties
a. Element properties of the imported model
b. Double click, one at a time, on each of the four material names
c. Observe the element property contents of the property forms
d. Click Cancel

Main Index

878 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Apply Normal Heat Flux


a. Create applied heat flux. Apply it to the top of the chip
b. Display just the chip by hiding everything else. Right click SOLID_5_nug_46_bdf.bdf;
then select Show Only
c. Observe the chip element only
d. Use Model Views: Isometric or Left
e. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Normal Flux
f. For Name, enter Normal Flux_Top_Chip
g. For Entities screen, select the nodes at the top of the chip
h. For Heat Flux, enter 9.025
i. Click OK

f
.

i
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 879
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Normal Heat Flux Applied to Top of Chip


a. Create applied heat flux. Apply it to the top of the chip
b. Observe the heat flux markers
c. Show the entire model
d. Change the color of the markers to red using the Visualize tab for the LBC

Main Index

880 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Free Convection Applied to Top of Case


a. Create applied free convection. Apply it to the top of the case
b. Model Views: Left
c. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Free Convection
d. For Name, enter Free Convection_Top_Case
e. For Ambient temperature, enter 70
f. For Entities screen, select all the nodes at the top of the case
g. Click Advanced
h. For Convection coefficient, enter 4e-5
i. Click OK

c
d
e
f
g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 881
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Model with Heat Flux and Free Convection on Top


a. Observe the entire model with normal heat flux on the chip and free convection on the top
of the case

Main Index

882 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Free Convection Applied to Sides of Case


a. Create applied free convection. Apply it to the top of the case
b. Model Views: Top
c. Hide the lead frame
d. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Free Convection
e. For Name, enter Free Convection_Sides_Case
f. For Ambient temperature, enter 70
g. For Entities screen, select all the nodes at two sides of the case
h. Click Advanced
l. For Convection coefficient, enter 7e-5
j. Click OK

e
f

h
i

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 883
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Model with Heat Flux and Free Convection to Sides


a. Observe the entire model with normal heat flux on the chip and free convection on the top
and two sides of the case

Main Index

884 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Free Convection Applied to Bottom of Case


a. Create applied free convection. Apply it to the top of the case
b. Model Views: Left
c. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Free Convection
d. For Name, enter Free Convection_Bottom_Case
e. For Ambient temperature, enter 70
f. For Entities screen, select all the nodes at the bottom of the case
g. Click Advanced
h. For Convection coefficient, enter 2.02e-5
i. Click OK

c
d
e
f
g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 885
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Model with Heat Flux and Free Convection on Case


a. Observe the entire model with normal heat flux on the chip and free convection on the top,
two sides, and bottom of the case

Main Index

886 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Entire Model with Lead Frame


a. Observe the entire model with the lead frame
b. Show the lead frame

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 887
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Radiation to Space Applied to Top of Case


a. Create radiation to space. Apply it to the top of the case
b. Model Views: Left
c. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Rad to Space
d. For Name, enter Rad to Space_Top_Case
e. For Entities screen, select all the nodes at the top of the case
f. For Ambient temperature, enter 40
g. For Viewfactor, enter 1.0
h. Click Advanced
i. For Absorptivity, enter 1
j. For Emissivity, enter 1
k. For Shell surface option, select Front
l. Click OK

e
f

g
h

j
k

Main Index

888 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Model with Radiation to Space


a. Observe the entire model with normal heat flux, free convection, and radiation to space
on the case

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 889
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Define Structural LBC


a. Create a structural lbc for the stress analysis
b. LBCs tab: LBC Set/LBC Set
c. For Name, enter Structural
d. Click OK
e. This LBD set will be populated subsequently

Main Index

890 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create Pinned Constraint at Toe of Lead Frame


a. Create a structural pinned lbc constraint at the toe of the lead frame
b. LBCs tab: Constraints/Pin
c. For Name, enter Pinned Constraint_Toe_Lead
d. Use Model Views: Left or Front
e. For Entities screen, select the toe lead frame nodes
f. Click OK

b
c
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 891
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Model with Structural Pinned Constraint


a. Observe the model with structural pinned constraints

Main Index

892 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on nug_46_bdf.bdf
c. Select Create new Nastran job
d. For Job Name, enter ch46
e. For Solution TYpe, select SOL400
f. For Solver Input File, select the path
g. Unselect Create Default Layout
h. Click OK

b
c
d

e
f
g
h

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 893
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Load Cases
c. Select Create Loadcase
d. For Name (Title), enter NewLoadcase
e. For Analysis TYpe, select Nonlinear Steady Heat Trans
f. Click OK

c
d

e
f

Main Index

894 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Load Steps
c. Select Create Loadstep
d. For Name (Title), enter Thermal
e. For Analysis TYpe, select Nonlinear Steady Heat Trans
f. Click OK

b
c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 895
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Load Steps
c. Select Create Loadstep
d. For Name (Title), enter Structural
e. For Analysis TYpe, select Nonlinear Static
f. Click Use Temperature Set from Preceeding Heat Transfer Step
If Applicable
g. Click OK

b
c

e
f
g

Main Index

896 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Load/Boundaries
c. Select Select Lbc Set
d. For Selected Lbc Set, select DefaultLbcSet
e. Click OK

b
c

d
e

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 897
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Double click on Solver Control
c. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
d. For Default Init Temperature, enter 0
e. For Large Displacement, select Large Disp and Follower Force

c
d

Main Index

898 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. For Absolute Temperature Scale, select 273.15 Degree Celsius
c. For Stefan Boltzmann Constant, select 5.6699E-14 WATTS/mm2/K4
d. Click Apply (not shown)
e. Click Close (not shown)

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 899
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Double click on Solver Control
c. Select Output File Properties
d. For Text Output, select Print
e. Click Apply
f. Click Cost

b
d

d
f

Main Index

900 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Double click on Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Steady State Heat Transfer Parameters
d. Click Temperature Error
e. For Temperature Tolerance, enter 0.01
f. Click Load Error
g. For Load Tolerance, enter 1e05
h. Click Apply (not shown)
i. Click Close (not shown)

d
e
f
g

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 901
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Click Create Temperature Output Request
e. Click OK

b
c
d

Main Index

902 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on Output Requests
c. Select Elements Output Requests
d. Click Create Element Stress Output Request
e. Click OK

c
d

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 903
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)


a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for MSC Nastran
b. Right click on ch46
c. Select Run

Main Index

904 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Attach SimXpert Results File


a. Attach a SimXpert MSC Nastran results file
b. File: Attach Results
c. For File path, select ch46.xdb
d. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 905
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Display Thermal Results


a. Display temperature results as a fringe plot
b. Results tab: Results/Fringe
c. For Result Cases, select SC1: Non.-linear: 100 % of Load
d. For Result type, select Temperatures
e. Click Update

Main Index

906 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Display Thermal Results (continued)


a. Observe the temperature results

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 907
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Display Structural Results using OP2 File


a. To display the structural results for the R3.2 release of SimXpert, use an .op2 file
b. Double click on Solver Control
c. Select Output File Properties
d. For Binary Output, select OP2
e. Click Apply
f. Click Cost

e
f

Main Index

908 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Perform a SimXpert Analysis for OP2 Results File


a. Perform a SimXpert analysis using MSC Nastran
b. Right click ch46
c. Select Run

b
c

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 909
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Detach .xdb Thermal Results File


a. Before attempting to attach the .op2 file, detach the .xdb file
b. File: Detach Results file
c. Select ch46.xdb
d. Select OK
e. Click Yes

Main Index

910 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Attach SimXpert Results OP2 File


a. Attach a SimXpert MSC Nastran results file
b. File: Attach Results
c. For File Path, select ch46.op2
d. Click OK

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 911
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Display Structural Results using OP2 File


a. Display von Mises results as a fringe plot
b. Results tab: Results/Fringe
c. For Result Cases, select SC1: Step 2: Non-linear: 100 % of Load
d. For Result type, select Stress Tensor
e. For Derivation, select von Mises
f. Click Update
.

Main Index

912 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 46

Display Structural Results using OP2 File (continued)


a. Observe the von Mises stress results

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_46.dat

MSC Nastran chaining thermal and thermal stress test file.

Ch46.SimXpert

SimXpert data corresponding to above

Main Index

CHAPTER 46 913
Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 28 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.
Thermal Contours

Figure 46-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Displacement Contours

Chapter 47: Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

47

Main Index

Dynamic Impact of a Rigid


Sphere on a Woven Fabric

Summary

915

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Video

916
916

923

926

925
926

922

CHAPTER 47 915
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

Summary
Title

Chapter 47: Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

Features

Beam-to-beam contact, beam-to-rigid contact, dynamic contact, bilinear Coulomb


friction model, isotropic elastic material, nonlinear property extensions to beam
elements

Geometry

R = 1 cm

Material properties

E = 10GPa , = 1500kg m

Analysis characteristics

Nonlinear transient analysis with adaptive time stepping and geometric nonlinearity due
to large displacements and large rotations

Boundary conditions

Fabric is clamped on all four sides; sliding, frictional contact between the beam elements
of the fabric and between the fabric and the sphere.

Applied loads

The rigid sphere hits the fabric at the center with an initial velocity of 100m s .

Element type
FE results

Main Index

2-node thin elastic beam element with transverse shear effects


1. Deformed shape and contact status
2. History plot of z-displacements of the rigid sphere
3. Frictional contact forces

916 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

Introduction
This example demonstrates the beam-to-beam contact capabilities of MSC Nastran SOL 400. In contrast to the
standard grid-to-segment based contact, beam-to-beam contact is a true segment-to-segment contact, in which the
beam elements are able to touch each other at arbitrary locations mid-way between the grid points of the elements and
can slide along each other, with or without friction. The model consists of a woven fabric which is impacted by a rigid
sphere. The fabric is a plane weave and consists of 2 12 sinusoidally shaped yarns. It is clamped along the four sides
and the yarns are initially in contact at their intersections (see Figure 47-1). The total area of the fabric is 6 6 cm 2 . The
sphere, with a radius of 1cm and a mass density of 981.25 kg m 3 , hits the fabric with an initial velocity of 100m s at
the center.
R = 1 cm

Figure 47-1

Geometry of the Fabric with the Beam Elements Displayed with the True Cross Section

Modeling Details
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400. The details of the finite element model, contact
simulation, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed below.
The case control section of the input contains the following options for a nonlinear analysis:
BCONTACT = 0
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
ANALYSIS=NLTRAN
TSTEPNL = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 1
IC = 2

The analysis is a nonlinear transient analysis and contains a single subcase with one step. The step has time stepping
procedure and convergence control settings defined via TSTEPNL, contact table and parameters via BCONTACT, fixed
displacements (or single point constraints) via SPC, initial velocity via IC, and the displacements results for
the .f06 (output) file.
Large displacement effects are included in the nonlinear analysis using the option:

Main Index

CHAPTER 47 917
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

PARAM

LGDISP

The large strain option is activated for the nonlinear property extensions PBEMN1 to the beam elements, via the option:
NLMOPTS LRGSTRN 1

This option selects (among other things) the updated Lagrange formulation of these elements, which is needed for a
proper treatment of the large rotations of the beams.

Element Modeling
The yarns are modelled by 1440 2-node CBEAM elements with an elliptical cross section. The orientation vector v
that is used to construct the local element y- and z-directions of the beams points in the basic Y-direction for the yarns
in the basic X-direction and it points in the basic X-direction for the yarns in the basic Y-direction. The element ydirections of the beams are thus parallel to the basic XY-plane. The major axis of the elliptical cross section coincides
with the element y-direction and is also parallel to the basic XY-plane. The minor axis coincides with the element zdirection (see Figure 47-1 and Figure 47-2).
z-elem

b
a
y-elem

Figure 47-2

Elliptical Cross-Section of the Yarns

The semi-major and semi-minor axes of the cross section are a = 1.25mm and b = 0.5mm , so that the area and the
moments of inertia of the cross section read:
6

A = ab = 1.9635 10 m ,

(47-1)

13 4
3
I 1 = --- a b = 7.6699 10 m ,
4

(47-2)

13 4
3
I 2 = --- ab = 1.2272 10 m .
4

(47-3)

The cross-section properties for the yarns are defined via the PBEAM option as follows:
PBEAM*
*
*
*

1.227184630E-13
0.000000E+00

1.963495408E-06 7.669903939E-13
0.000000E+00 4.448544285E-13
0.000000E+00

in which the torsional stiffness of the beam elements is taken as J = I 1 + I 2 2 .

Main Index

918 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

The nonlinear extensions to the beam elements can be activated using the PBEMN1 property extension to the regular
PBEAM or PBEAML options in the manner shown below:
PBEMN1

LS

This PBEMN1 option selects a thin elastic beam element with transverse shear effects, which is similar to the standard
CBEAM element with only a PBEAM property, except that the former allows nonlinear material behavior, such as
plasticity effects, to be used for the beam elements. In this example, no nonlinear material effects are considered, but
the beam elements with and without the property extension will be compared in the elastic regime.

Modeling Contact
The standard contact algorithm of MSC Nastran is based on a grid-to-segment approach. The grid points on the surface
of the touching (or slave) contact body can touch the segments on the surface of the touched (or master) contact body.
Here, the segments of a contact body are, for example, the faces of solid elements, the top and bottom surfaces of shell
elements, and the surface of a rigid contact body. The grid-to-segment algorithm works well for contact between solid,
shell and rigid contact bodies. It even works fine if the slave body consists of beam elements and the master is a solid,
shell or rigid contact body. In that case, the grid points of the beams can touch the segments on the surface of the solid,
shell or rigid body.
If both slave and master body consist of beam elements, then the grid-to-segment approach is not very convenient.
Beams generally touch each other somewhere in the middle of the element and not necessarily at the grid points. The
beam-to-beam contact algorithm of MSC Nastran SOL 400 addresses this case. It is a true segment-to-segment contact
algorithm, in which the beam elements of the slave contact body can touch the beam elements of the master contact
body at arbitrary points mid-way between the grids of the elements. Moreover, beam elements which are in contact
can slide along each other with or without friction. The beam-to-beam contact algorithm is activated by the BEAMB
option to BCPARA. It supplements the standard grid-to-segment algorithm, that is, the grid points of a beam contact
body can touch the surface of solid, shell or rigid bodies through the grid-to-segment algorithm and, if beam-to-beam
contact is activated, then the beam elements can also touch beam elements of another (or the same) contact body.
The cross section of the beam elements is taken into account when two beam elements are coming in contact, but the
actual shape of cross-section, defined by PBEAM or PBEAML, for example, is ignored. Instead, a circular cross-section
is assumed for contact. The radius of the contact cross-section is called the beam contact radius and must be defined
via the BCBMRAD option. The beam contact radius is defined on a per element basis and may vary from element to
element. However, if a beam element is initially in contact with another beam element and during the analysis slides
off that element to a third beam element with a different contact radius, the sudden jump in the contact radius may lead
to convergence problems. Therefore, the contact surface of the beam elements of a contact body is smoothed by
averaging the beam contact radii of the elements at the common grid points. The resulting contact surface for a
sequence of beam elements is a piecewise conically shaped surface (see Figure 47-3). Note that the beam contact
radius is not used when the grid points of the beam element touch a solid, shell or rigid contact body.

Main Index

CHAPTER 47 919
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

Tr
u

Be

am

(s

Co

nta

ct

oo

th

ed

)C

Ra

diu

s=

on

ta

0.1

ct

5m

Su

rfa

ce

Be

am

Co

nta

ct

Ra

diu

s=

0.1

0m

Figure 47-3

Conically Shaped (Smoothed) Contact Surface Obtained by Averaging the Beam Contact
Radii at the Grids

The present example contains three contact bodies. The first two bodies consist of the beam elements representing the
yarns in the basic X-direction and the beam elements representing the yarns in the basic Y-direction, respectively (see
Figure 47-1). The third contact body is the rigid sphere. The beam-to-beam contact algorithm is used to model contact
between the yarns. The standard grid-to-segment based contact algorithm handles contact between the grid points of
the yarns and the rigid sphere. Friction is included in the analysis, in the form of the force based, bilinear Coulomb
friction model (type 6).
The BCPARA bulk data option defines the number of bodies in contact and contact parameters like the friction type
FTYPE and the beam-to-beam contact flag BEAMB.
BCPARA

NBODIES

3 BEAMB

FTYPE

The deformable contact bodies are defined by the bulk data entries BCBODY and BSURF. The BCBODY option defines
the contact body with its ID, dimension, type of body etc. and BSURF identifies the elements forming the deformable
body.
$ yarns parallel to basic X-direction
BCBODY
1
3D DEFORM
BSURF
1
1
2
8
9
10
16
17
18
24
25
26

$ yarns parallel to basic Y-direction


BCBODY
2
3D DEFORM
BSURF
2
61
62
68
69
70
76
77
78
84
85
86

1
3
11
19
27

4
12
20
28

5
13
21
29

6
14
22
30

7
15
23
31

2
63
71
79
87

64
72
80
88

65
73
81
89

66
74
82
90

67
75
83
91

Note that the dimension of the two deformable contact bodies is set to 3D even though the bodies consist of 1D beam
elements. This is because the contact body lives in 3D-space, that is, all grid points have 3 displacement degrees of
freedom.

Main Index

920 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

The rigid sphere is defined as a load-controlled rigid contact body using a BCBODY bulk data option. The BCBODY
includes the NURBS surface definition of the sphere. The CONTROL field is set to the ID (1) of the control grid point
associated with the body. In contrast to a position or velocity controlled rigid body, the load-controlled body does not
have a prescribed motion. Instead, the displacement degrees of freedom of the control grid point are the displacements
of the rigid body and can be controlled by single point constraints or loads on the control grid point in the usual way.
In this example, the rigid body will be free to move in the basic Z-direction, while the motion in the other two
directions will be suppressed via single point constraints (see below).
The sphere is initially located in the positive Z-half space of the basic coordinate system, at some distance from the
fabric. During the initial contact search, the body will be moved towards the fabric, such that it just touches the fabric
at start of the first time step. This initial contact body approach is activated by the BCONTACT = 0 case control option.
During the approach, the rigid body is moved in the direction of the velocity defined by the APPROV section of the
BCBODY.
$ rigid sphere
BCBODY*
3
*
0
*
0
*
1.00000000E+00
*
RIGID
*
*
APPROV
*
*
NURBS
*
3
$ control points
*

3D
0.00000000E+00
0.00000000E+00

RIGID
0
0.00000000E+00

1
0.00000000E+00
-5
24

0
1
0.00000000E+00

1sphere
0.00000000E+00 -1.00000000E-02
9
3
48
0

0.00000000E+00 -1.00000000E-02

1.20000000E-02

The rigid body represents a solid sphere with a mass density of 981.25 kg m 3 , a radius of 1cm and a total mass of just
over four (4) grams. The mass of the sphere can conveniently be assigned to the load-controlled rigid body through a
concentrated mass element (CONM2) at the control grid point of the rigid contact body:
CONM2*

2000

4.1102503884E-3

To identify how the contact bodies can touch each other, the BCTABLE option is used. BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to
define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis, during the initial contact search and the contact body
approach. The BCTABLE with ID 1 is the main BCTABLE used to define the touching conditions for later time steps
in the analysis, and it is flagged using BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section. The two BCTABLEs are identical
and specify that the yarns parallel to the basic X-direction (contact body 1) can touch the yarns parallel to the basic Ydirection (contact body 2) and that the grid points of both beam contact bodies can touch the rigid sphere (contact body
3). The BCTABLEs also define the friction coefficient (0.1) for all possible contact combinations.
$ contact table for initial rigid body approach
BCTABLE
0
2
SLAVE
1
0.10
0
0
0
MASTERS
2
3
SLAVE
2
0.10
0
0
0
MASTERS
3

Main Index

0
0

CHAPTER 47 921
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

$
$ main contact table
BCTABLE
1
SLAVE
MASTERS
SLAVE
MASTERS

1
0
2
2
0

0
3

0.10

0.10

The definition of the beam contact radii for the beam elements completes the contact set-up. The radii are defined via
the BCBMRAD option. This is a mandatory option if beam-to-beam contact is used. Since the beams generally will
touch each other in the direction of the minor axis of the elliptical cross-section of the beam elements (see
Figure 47-1), the beam contact radius is set equal to the semi-minor axis a for all beam elements in the model.
$ beam contact radius
BCBMRAD 5e-4
ALL

Material Modeling
The isotropic, Hookean elastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the MAT1 option as
follows:
MAT1*
*

1.000000E+10
0.000000E+00

1.500000E+03

0.000000E+00

Youngs modulus is taken to be 10GPa and the mass density is set to 1500 kg m 3 .

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The fabric is clamped at all four sides:
SPC1

1
185
488
791
858
1161

1464

1465

123456
186
489
792
859
1162

2
187
490
793
860
1163

3
188
491
794
1156
1164

4
189
492
795
1157
1165

5
485
493
855
1158
1461

124
486
494
856
1159
1462

184
487
790
857
1160
1463

The rigid sphere is allowed to move only in the basic Z-direction and is given an initial velocity in that direction
towards the fabric. As explained in the preceding section, the motion of the sphere is controlled by the displacements
of the control grid point of the body, so the displacements of the control grid in the basic X- and Y-direction are
suppressed,
SPC1

12

and the grid is given an initial velocity of 100m s in the negative basic Z-direction via the TIC option.
TIC

-100.

The latter is selected via the IC case control option in the step.

Main Index

922 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

Solution Procedure
The time-stepping procedure to be used is defined through the following TSTEPNL entry:
TSTEPNL

.100
0

400 5e-7

PFNT

UV

In a dynamic contact analysis in MSC Nastran SOL 400, the Generalized-Alpha operator with zero spectral radius is
automatically chosen by the program. The Generalized-Alpha operator uses two parameters NDAMP and NDAMPM in
its formulation. By varying the values of these parameters, the spectral radius can be varied from 0.0 to 1.0. For contact
problems, NDAMP is automatically taken as 0.0 and NDAMPM as 1.0, yielding a spectral radius of zero. This is wellsuited to damp out high frequencies that are normally excited during the impact process. Other features that are
automatically used by the dynamic contact algorithm to avoid high frequency content include the following: There is
no projection of the contacting segment onto the contacted segment. A contacting segment that falls within the distance
tolerance is simply constrained in its current position. Also, if there is penetration detected during the NewtonRaphson iterations, the maximum penetration is used as a scale-back factor to reduce the time step and restart the
increment with the reduced time step.
The TSTEPNL entry controls the time stepping for the solution. Important parameters of the TSTEPNL entry are as
follows:
ID (2nd field of entry 1) - The ID is used as a cross-reference in the case control section to identify the
TSTEPNL entry to be used for a particular step.
NDT, DT, NO (3rd - 5th fields of entry 1) - These parameters control the total simulation time, the initial
analysis time step, the output frequency and the maximum possible time step. The product of NDT and DT
defines the total simulation time - in the current problem, the total simulation time comes out to be 2x10-4 s.
NO is left as blank in the current problem - the default value of NO is 1 - this implies that for this problem,
output is desired at every single step. In addition, the maximum time step cannot exceed NO times DT - which
means that for this problem, the maximum time step cannot exceed 5e-7s. In general, for impact problems,
given that the energy conversion (from kinetic energy to strain energy and vice-versa) occurs during very
small time intervals, it is important to keep tight control over the time-steps.
METHOD, KSTEP (6th and 7th fields of entry 1) - In the present problem, METHOD is taken as PFNT. FNT or
PFNT is a recommended default for contact problems. PFNT denotes Pure Full Newton Technique wherein
the operator matrix is reformed at every iteration. KSTEP is left as blank in the present problem, which for the
PBEAM + PBEMN1 elements case will default to -1 and for the PBEAM case will default to 1. KSTEP = 1
indicates that the stiffness at the start of the next increment is taken to be the same as the stiffness at the last
iteration of the previous increment while KSTEP = -1 indicates that the stiffness is again updated at the start
of the next increment.
CONV (9th field of entry 1) and EPSU (2nd field of entry 2) - In the present problem, this is taken as UV. U
indicates displacement control and V indicates the vector component method. The ratio of the maximum
iterative change in the displacement over the maximum incremental change in the displacement is calculated.
Convergence is established when this ratio is < EPSU (0.1 in the present problem). Note that, by default, for V
style checking, separate checks are made over translational degrees of freedom and over rotational degrees of
freedom. If the rotational check is deemed to be unnecessary, use can be made of the MSCLPRM,MRCONV,N,
in which N is set to 2 or 3 to by-pass the rotation check.

Main Index

CHAPTER 47 923
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

MAXBIS (2nd field of entry 3) - controls the maximum number of bisections allowed for each time step. In
the present problem, this number is set to 0. It should be noted that the penetration check and possible timestep cutback is independent of the value of MAXBIS or DTBIS (the smallest bisection time possible).
ADJUST (3rd field of entry 3) - controls the time step skip factor for automatic time step adjustment. The
blank field allows ADJUST to default to 5 in the present problem. A non-zero ADJUST value allows the
following additional checks at the end of an increment:
After the first 2 increments wherein the user-given time-step is used, the analysis is restarted with either the
same time step or possibly a smaller time-step. If the prescribed time step violates frequency-based time
step estimates, then the first 2 increments are repeated with the program-evaluated time step. This restart
allows good accuracy at the start of the analysis if a high initial time step has been prescribed.
At a frequency of every ADJUST increments, the dominant frequency of the system is estimated and is used
to evaluate the optimal time step. The number of steps (MSTEP) to resolve this dominant period can be
defined by the user (4th field of entry 3). MSTEP defaults to 10 (for mildly non-linear) and 20 (for highly
non-linear). The time step for subsequent increments is reduced by a factor of or if the optimal time
step is smaller than the current time step. Similarly, the time step for subsequent increments is increased by
a factor of 2 or 4 if the optimal time step is larger than the current time step.
The final optimal time step for the next increment is based on two algorithms - the frequency algorithm
(which allows both increase and decrease in time steps and is only checked when ADJUST > 0) and the
output algorithm (which is independent of the ADJUST value). After the frequency algorithm comes up
with predicted time step, the time step may again be adjusted such that it satisfies the frequency requirement
and becomes an even sub-multiple (1, 1/2, , etc.) of the required output time. Note that if the time step is
reduced arbitrarily due to a penetration cutback, then the time steps for the next few increments may be
changed unevenly before they become regularized.

Results
Figure 47-4 shows the final deformed shape of the fabric in two views. The contact status is displayed as well. The
latter is 1 at the grid points of beam elements in contact and 0 otherwise and indicates that the yarns are in contact at
the crossings. The displacement in the basic Z-direction of the rigid sphere is plotted as a function of time in
Figure 47-5 for different friction coefficients and for standard beam elements with only a PBEAM property as well as
for beam elements with a PBEMN1 nonlinear extension. The first conclusion that can be drawn from this figure is the
fact that, in the elastic regime, the standard beam element and the beam element with the nonlinear extension give
basically the same results. The difference, of course, is that the beam element with PBEMN1 extension can also be
used with material non-linearities, such as plasticity effects. The second thing that stands out is the effect of the
friction. Due to friction, the yarns more-or-less stick to each other, so there is less sliding and the fabric behaves stiffer
than without friction. This can also be seen from Figure 47-6, in which the final deformed shapes are drawn for the
frictionless case and the case with friction.

Main Index

924 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

Figure 47-4

Contact Status (red is touching) and Final Deformed Shape of the Fabric

Standard Beam and Beam


with nonlinear extension for
Friction Coefficient of 0.2
Standard Beam and Beam
with nonlinear extension for
Friction Coefficient of 0.1
Standard Beam and Beam
with nonlinear extension for
no Friction

Figure 47-5

Main Index

Displacement of the Rigid Sphere in the Basic Z-direction

CHAPTER 47 925
Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric

(a)

Figure 47-6

(b)

Deformed Shape Without Friction (a) and With Friction Coefficient of 0.2 (b)

Modeling Tips
The beam-to-beam contact algorithm is a symmetric algorithm, in the sense that the same contact condition is found,
whether beam element A is touching beam element B, or element B is touching element A. This means that the choice
of the slave and master contact bodies on the BCTABLE entry is less important for beam-to-beam contact than it is for
the standard grid-to-segment based contact. For the latter, the proper choice of slave and master may be critical in
certain cases, particularly if the mesh densities of the bodies differ significantly.
In this chapter, no nonlinear material effects such as plasticity, are considered. The standard CBEAM element with only
a PBEAM or PBEAML property supports only elastic material behavior, but if the nonlinear extension PBEMN1 is used
in combination with the PBEAML property, nonlinear material effects can be taken into account. The PBEAML can then
refer to, for example, a MAT1 material with an associated MATEP entry, to include plasticity effects. Note that the shape
of the cross-section must be known to the program to be able to do the cross-section integration, required for nonlinear
material behavior. Therefore, a beam element with a PBEAM property cannot support nonlinear material effects, not
even with a PBEMN1 extension.
In the present problem, the output frequency NO is defined as 1. This causes output at every step and also prevents the
time step from increasing beyond the initial value (5e-7 seconds). In many contact / impact problems, it is beneficial
to have a time step value that does not exceed the user-prescribed initial time step value - however one may not desire
a NO value of 1 always since that may cause very large output file sizes. For such cases, a larger value of NO (NO =
5, 10, etc.) can be prescribed and ADJUST can be set to 0. The ADJUST = 0 setting forces the program to by-pass
the frequency check thereby preventing any time step increase and the output algorithm ensures that the time step is
regularized as quickly as possible and that output is produced whenever the time reaches NO times DT.

Main Index

926 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 47

Input File(s)
File

Description

nug_47a.dat

MSC Nastran input with standard beam element but without friction

nug_47ax.dat

MSC Nastran input with beam element with nonlinear extension PBEMN1 but without friction

nug_47b.dat

MSC Nastran input with standard beam element and friction

nug_47bx.dat

MSC Nastran input with beam element with nonlinear extension PBEMN1 and friction

Video
Click on the link below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how
the steps are performed.
R = 1 cm

Figure 47-7

Main Index

Video of the Above Steps

Chapter 48: Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

48

Main Index

Shape Memory Analysis of


a Stent

Summary

928

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Input File(s)

Reference

929
930

933
934
935
935

933

928 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 48

Summary
Title

Chapter 48: Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

Features

Shape memory material model, both mechanical and thermo-mechanical.

Geometry

Material properties

AS

E a = E m = 50000Mpa , a = m = 0.33 , s
AS

SA

= 1931.4Mpa , C a = 8.66 , s
C m = 6.66

= 1631.7Mpa ,
SA

= 1688.7Mpa , f

= 1558.8Mpa ,

Analysis characteristics

Quasi-static analysis using: fixed time stepping and material nonlinearity due to plastic
or thermoelastic behavior

Boundary conditions

Tangential displacement is fixed

Applied loads

Prescribed displacements at the end nodes of the stent

Element type

8-node solid elements

FE results

History plots of stress versus strain (z-components) for a specific node for both the
mechanical and thermo-mechanical model
Stress Strain Relation for Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Model

Stress Strain Relation for Thermo-Mechanical Model


800

800
T=-150 Vol_mart=100%

Therm-Mech T=0

T=-150

700

Therm-Mech T=30

700

T=-70

Thermo-Mech T=50

T=0

Mech T=0

T=10

600

Mech T=30

T=30

600

Mech T=50

T=50

500

500

400
Stress ZZ

Stress ZZ

400

300

200

200

100

100

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

-100

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

-100

-200
Strain ZZ

Main Index

300

-200
Strain ZZ

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

CHAPTER 48 929
Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of MSC Nastran SOL 400 to model shape memory materials. The most common
materials which have shape memory properties are alloys of nickel and titanium. The shape memory effect is due to a
phase change between martensite and austenite phases in the alloy. These phases have identical chemistry but different
crystalline structures; body-centered-tetragonal for martensite and face-centered-cubic for austenite. Transitioning
between these two phases requires only a small amount of activation energy giving the transformation. A cold
collapsed stent sheathed in a catheter can be deployed in a plaque lined blood vessel by the self-expansion caused by
the change in room to body temperature, with the stent expansion keeping the vessel open and blood flowing properly.
In other words, the stents remembered shape keeps the blood vessel open.The martensite phase forms when the
material is cooled down, or it can form when stress is applied to a hot material. In this phase extensive deformation
can occur as a thermoelastic martensitic shear mechanism. This deformation can be undone when the material is reheated, or at simple unloading of a hot material. When a hot (unstrained) specimen is cooled it is initially in the
austenite phase. Upon cooling between martensite start M s and martensite finish M f temperature the specimen will
change to the martensite phase. Conversely starting from a cold specimen which is in a martensic phase upon heating
between austenite start A s and austenite finish A f temperatures, the specimen will change to the austenite phase.
Different temperature ranges can be distinguished T M s , M s T A f , A f T T c , where T c is defined as the
temperature above which the yield strength of the austenite phase is lower than the stress required to induce the
austenite-martensite transformation. Uniaxial tensile tests will show the following responses. For T M s , the
specimen is completely in the martensite phase. The stress versus strain curves will display a smooth parabolic type
behavior, the deformation is caused by the movement of defects such as twin boundaries and the boundaries between
variants. Unloading occurs nearly elastically and the accumulated deformation caused by the reorientation of the
existing martensite and the transformation of any pre-existing austenite, remains after the specimen is completely
unloaded. Note that the deformation is entirely due to oriented martensite and this would be recoverable upon heating
to temperatures above the ( A s A f ) range. This would show the shape memory effect. For A f T T c , the specimen
shows pseudo elastic behavior. In this range the specimen is in the austenite phase, and stress induced martensite is
formed, along with the associated deformation; upon unloading the martensite is unstable and reverts to austenite
thereby undoing the accumulated deformation. For T T c when the stress is higher than the yield stress no phase
transition takes place, and the austenite phase will deform plastically which cannot be undone. Figure 48-1 shows
thermo-mechanical response of NiTi, the data is of Miyazaki et al. (1981). In this case, M s = 190K , M f = 128K ,
A s = 188K , and A f = 221K . Two different models are available to simulate the shape memory behavior: a
mechanical model, and a thermo-mechanical model. The thermo-mechanical model describes the complete behavior
as discussed before. The mechanical model only describes the super elastic behavior, and thus can only be used at
higher temperatures. In this example, a stent will be analyzed at different ambient temperatures. Simple loading and
unloading is applied. Stress-strain graphs will show the response at the different ambient temperatures.

Main Index

930 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 48

(b) 153K

(a) 77K

(c) 164K

300
200
100

Tensile Stress (MPa)

0
400

0
(d) 224K

0
(e) 232K

(f) 241K

300
200
100
0

600 (g) 263K

(h) 273K

(i) 276K

400

200

Ms = 190K
AF = 221K
2

Figure 48-1

4 0
2
4
Strain (%)

Thermal history

Modeling Details
Figure 48-2 shows a representation of the stent which is modeled. At a prescribed ambient temperature the stent is
loaded and unloaded by prescribing the displacement in the z-direction. For modeling reasons isotropic material is
chosen at the end parts of the stent. In this way no local effects will occur where the displacements are prescribed.
Smaller steps are chosen during the unloading part. Small steps are also needed to capture the shape memory behavior.

Figure 48-2

Main Index

Model of the Stent

CHAPTER 48 931
Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

The case control section of the input file contains the following options for nonlinear analysis:
ENDC
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,plot,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(SORT1,plot,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
TITLE=Loading.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 3
STEP 2
TITLE=Unloading.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 2
SPC = 4
LOAD = 3
Two STEPS are defined to do the loading and the unloading. It is possible to obtain extra post quantities to examine
the behavior of the shape memory material. To do this, the NLOUT option should be used in combination with the
NLSTRESS option in the following way:
NLSTRESS(NLOUT=10)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
NLOUT
10
VOLFMART

CPHSTRN

See the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide for which output quantities can be selected. In this case the volume
fraction of martensite and the phase transformation strain tensor will be printed in the .f06 file and can be
postprocessed in SIMX..
Large displacement effects are included in the nonlinear analysis using the large strain option:
NLMOPTS LRGS

For the mechanical model the multiplicative decomposition formulation is used, this is set automatically for the
elements using this material behavior. It can be activated for the whole model using
NLMOPTS LRGS

Element Modeling
Besides the standard options to define the element connectivity and grid coordinate location, the bulk data section
contains various options which are especially important to do nonlinear analysis, and are needed to be able to use shape
memory material. The nonlinear extensions to lower-order solid element, CHEXA can be activated by using the
PSLDN1 property option to the regular PSOLID property option in the manner shown below:
PSOLID
PSLDN1
+
C4

Main Index

1
1

1
1
SOLI

0
1
L

+
+

932 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 48

The PLSLDN1 option allows the element to be used with different kinds of inelastic material models, one being the
shape memory model. This element is also used in both large displacement and large strain analyses and has no
restrictions on the kinematics of deformation unlike the regular CHEXA elements with only PSOLID property entry.

Material Modeling
The material properties for the thermo-mechanical model is given using the MATSMA option. The mechanical model
uses a subset of these properties. The following material properties for the shape memory material are used:

E a = E m = 50000Mpa

Youngs modulus

a = m = 0.33

Poissons ratio

AS

AS

= 1631.7Mpa

Starting tensile stress in austenite-to-martensite transformation

= 1931.4Mpa

Finishing tensile stress in austenite-to-martensite transformation

C a = 8.66
SA

SA

Slope of the stress dependence of austenite

= 1688.7Mpa

Starting tensile stress in martensite-to-austenite transformation

= 1558.8Mpa

Finishing tensile stress in martensite-to-austenite transformation

C m = 6.66

Slope of the stress dependence of martensite

This data corresponds to temperature ranges where the martensite austenite phase transformations take place at
o

M s = 45 C , M f = 90 C , and A s = 5 C , A f = 20 C , where T 0 = 200 C . The initial volume fraction of


o

martensite is taken M f ra c = 0 for all cases except for the case where T i n it = 150 C , then the volume fraction of
martensite is M f ra c = 1 .
The corner parts of the stent are modeled using isotropic material properties using the MAT1 option.
MATSMA

MAT1

Main Index

1
50000.
50000.
0.
300.
2

2
0.33
0.33
0.
-4.
50000.

200.
1.E-05
1.E-05
100.
2.

0.008573
1.E+20
1.E+20
1.E+20
0.
2.75
.33

1.

1631.7
1688.7

1931.4
1558.8

8.66
6.66

0.

3.

1.

CHAPTER 48 933
Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

Loading and Boundary Conditions


The loading is prescribed by a displacement of 0.008m in the z-direction. For unloading, the displacement goes back
to zero. To improve stability, the nodes are only allowed to move in the radial and axial direction. To obtain this, a
cylindrical coordinate system is applied to each node using the CORD2R option, and the tangential movement is fixed.
The ambient temperature is prescribed on all nodes using the TEMP option, and is activated in the case control file
using TEMPERATURE(INITIAL)=1.

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM
NLPARM

1
2

30
60

PFNT
PFNT

PV
PV

ALL
ALL

30 Increments are used for the loading and 60 increments for the unloading. Two STEPS are defined to do the loading
and unloading. The analysis is performed at different ambient temperatures to study the material behavior,
respectively.

Results
Analyses are performed for the thermo-mechanical and mechanical models at different temperatures. Figure 48-3
shows the stress-strain relationship for one node (node number 1292) at different ambient temperatures for the thermomechanical model. The z-component of the stress and strain of this node is collected during the loading and unloading
o

and plotted in the figure. At T = 150 C an analysis is performed with a martensite volume fraction of 0% and an
analysis with a volume fraction of 100%. Note that for 0% martensite no plastic behavior occurs. If no martensite is
present no plastic behavior can occur, and due to the low temperature no martensite can form due to stress. Physically
this would however be an unstable situation, and the martensite volume fraction should be set. This is different for
o

T = 75 C where martensite will form if none is present, and the material will show plastic behavior. Also note that
o

since these are temperatures below A f = 20 C the plastic deformation cannot be undone. This only happens for the
o

case where T = 30 C , and T = 50 C . The simulation for T = 10 C stops prematurely, because it cannot find
convergence. The material behavior can be sensitive during unloading, in this case reducing the timestep further did
not help. What would help to get convergence in this case is to refine the mesh.
Figure 48-4 compares the results of the mechanical model with the thermo-mechanical model. The mechanical model
is designed to simulate the super-elastic behavior, so it should be used for higher temperatures. The results show a
similar response.

Main Index

934 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 48

Modeling Tips
The behavior of the shape memory material can be quite sensitive to the loading. Therefore, the user must use
sufficiently small timesteps, and the mesh should be fine enough. It is best to use the PFNT option of NLPARM for
stability.
Stress Strain Relation for Thermo-Mechanical Model
800
T=-150 Vol_mart=100%
T=-150

700

T=-70
T=0
T=10

600

T=30
T=50

500

Stress ZZ

400

300

200

100

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

-100

-200
Strain ZZ

Figure 48-3

Results for the Thermo-Mechanical Model (Node Number 1292)


Stress Strain Relation for Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Model

800
Therm-Mech T=0
Therm-Mech T=30

700

Thermo-Mech T=50
Mech T=0
Mech T=30

600

Mech T=50

500

Stress ZZ

400

300

200

100

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

-100

-200
Strain ZZ

Figure 48-4

Main Index

Comparison of the Mechanical and Thermo-mechanical Model (Node Number 1292)

CHAPTER 48 935
Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent

Input File(s)
File

Description
o

nug_48a.dat

Mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 0 C

nug_48b.dat

Mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 30 C

nug_48c.dat

Mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 50 C

nug_48d.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 150 C

nug_48e.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 70 C

nug_48f.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 0 C

nug_48g.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 10 C

nug_48h.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 30 C

nug_48i.dat

Thermo-mechanical model with ambient temperature of T = 50 C

o
o

o
o
o

Reference
Miyazaki, S., Otsuka, K., Suzuki, S. 1981. Transformation pseudoelasticity and deformation behavior in a Ti50.6at%Ni alloy. Scripta Metallurgica, 15 (3); 287-292.

Main Index

Chapter 49: Shell Edge Contact

49

Main Index

Shell Edge Contact

Summary

937

Introduction

Modeling Details

Solution Procedure

Results

Modeling Tips

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert

Input File(s)

Video

938
938
943

944

979

946

978

947

CHAPTER 49 937
Shell Edge Contact

Summary
Title

Chapter 49: Shell Edge Contact

Features

Case 1: In-plane glued edge deformable-deformable contact


Case 2: General shell edge deformable-deformable contact

Geometry

Units: m, N, s

Units: in, lbf, s


y'
z'

y'

x'

x'
shell edge contact

z'
y
45o

10.0 m

z'
shell edge contact
x'

5 x 2 x 0.05

y'

x
10.0 m

Case 1: Modal Analysis of a Thick Rombic Plate

Material properties

Case 2: Diagonal Crushing of Square Tube

Case 1: E = 200GPa , = 0.3 , = 8000 kg m3


Case 2: E = 2.1x10 11 psi , = 0.3

Analysis characteristics

Case 1: Modal analysis using in plane glued edge contact


Case 2: Quasi-static analysis using general shell edge contact

Boundary conditions

Case 1:
Upper and lower half of plate are connected using glued edge contact
Fixed conditions at all four edges
In-plane displacements restrained at all nodes except those nodes at the edges of the
glued contact line
Case 2:
Edge-to-edge contact between two square tubes
Clamped condition at bottom edge of lower tube

Applied loads

Case 2: Move top edge of top tube down two inches.

Element type

4-node shell elements

FE results

Displacement Contours
Case 1: Mode 1 134.18 Hz

Seam

Main Index

938 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 49

Introduction
The 3-D contact capability introduced in MSC Nastran supported a general node to surface contact in all translational
degrees of freedom. The feature of shell edge to shell edge contact was added in the R3 release of MSC Nastran. The
following two cases are considered to demonstrate two different types of shell edge contact.
Case 1:

Modal analysis of thick rhombic plate. This is a NAFEMS test case involving evaluation of
natural frequencies of a fully clamped rhombic plate. The plate is divided into two equal
parts in the vertical direction. These two parts are meshed with different mesh densities and
then connected with in-plane glued edge contact.

Case 2:

Diagonal crushing of two square tubes. This model demonstrate the capability of general
shell edge contact by crushing the lower square tube with the upper square tube as a result
of the edge contact between the two tubes.

Modeling Details
MSC Nastran's solution sequences 103 and 400 are used to demonstrate the shell edge contact capability with the two
test cases. The details of the finite element model, contact simulation, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution
procedure for these two models are discussed below.
Case 1: Two equal parts of rhombic plate are meshed with different mesh densities of 16 x 32 and 20 x 40 CQUAD4
elements. These two parts do not share any node at their common edge as they are connected using in-plane glued edge
contact. The FE model used for the modal analysis (SOL 103) shown in Figure 49-1 and the case control section part
of the input is given below:
SUBCASE 1
METHOD = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SET 10 = 1,2,3,4,5,6
SET 20 = 137,182,213,280,327,593,600,639,703,744
SPC = 2
OMODE = 10
DISP(PLOT,PUNCH)=20
The modal analysis method to be used for extracting the eigenvalues is referenced by the METHOD option, and the
associated contact table to be used is referenced by the BCONTACT option. The SPC option refers to the set of
boundary conditions to be applied and the OMODE option identifies the list of modes to be extracted.

Main Index

CHAPTER 49 939
Shell Edge Contact

Case 1

Case 2

bsurf-1

bsurf-1

bsurf-2

bsurf-2

Y
Z

X
Z

Figure 49-1

FE Models used for Cases 1 and 2 of Shell Edge Contact

Case 2: The rectangular sides of each square tube are meshed using 5x10 CQUAD4 elements. The FE details for the
SOL 400 analysis of Case 2 are given in Figure 49-1. The case control section part of the input for this model is given
below:
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BOUTPUT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
This section defines convergence controls via NLPARM, contact table and parameters via BCONTACT, applied
displacements and loads via SPC and LOAD, and the displacements, stress, and contact results for the output file.

Material Modeling
The isotropic, Hookean elastic material properties of the deformable body for Case 1 are defined in the SI
(international) system using the following MAT1 option:
MAT1

2.+11

.3

8000.

The MAT1 entry for Case 2 is given in the same system below:
MAT1

Main Index

2.1+11

.3

1.

940 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 49

Element Modeling
Besides the standard options to define the element connectivity and grid coordinate location, the bulk data section
contains various options with special relevance to nonlinear analysis. For the SOL 400 analysis of Case 2, the
nonlinear extensions to the lower-order shell element, CQUAD4, are activated by using the PSHLN1 property option
in conjunction with the regular PSHELL property option in the manner shown below:
PSHELL
PSHLN1

1
1
C4

1
1
DCT

.05

For the modal analysis of Case 1, regular CQUAD4 elements are defined using the following PSHELL option.
PSHELL

1.

Modeling Contact
The BCPARA option used for the Case 2 model is given below. It defines the number of bodies in contact, together
with the maximum number of contact entities (e.g. patches), nodes on the periphery of the contact surfaces and bias
factor. The general shell edge contact option is enabled by activating the beam to beam contact flag BEAMB.
BCPARA

BIAS

.95

BEAMB

The definition of the contact bodies consists of the BCBODY Bulk Data Entry which defines the deformable body
including the body ID, dimensionality, type of body, type of contact constraints and friction, etc. while the BSURF
identifies the elements forming a part of the deformable body. The following BCBODY entries are used for cases 1 and
2. Figure 49-2 identifies the contact bodies used in both these models.
BCBODY
BSURF

Figure 49-2

Main Index

1
1
8
16

3D
1
9
17

DEFORM
2
10
18

1
3
11
19

0
4
12
20

Contact Status Plot for Modal Analysis (Case 1)

5
13
21

6
14
22

7
15
23

CHAPTER 49 941
Shell Edge Contact

To identify the interaction between the contact bodies, the BCTABLE Bulk Data Option is used. BCTABLE with ID 0
is used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is an optional entry required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and it is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The
BCTABLE with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the Case Control Section.
A contact option, COPTxfamily, in BCTABLE allows more advanced control on how the contact bodies should
interact with each other. COPTxfamily is defined using the formula COPTx=A+10*B+1000*C, where the terms A, B,
and C are defined as follows:
A: the outside of the solid elements in the body
= 1:

the outside will be in the contact description (DEFAULT)

B (flexible bodies): the outside of the shell elements in the body


= 1:

both top and bottom faces will be in the contact description, thickness offset will be included
(DEFAULT)

= 2:

only bottom faces will be in the contact description, thickness offset will be included

= 3:

only bottom faces will be in the contact description, shell thickness will be ignored

= 4:

only top faces will be in the contact description, thickness offset will be included

= 5:

only top faces will be in the contact description, shell thickness will be ignored

= 6:

both top and bottom faces will be in the contact description, shell thickness will be ignored

Note if B = 6 for both bodies in a contact combination, then nodes that separate from a body, cannot come in contact
again in the current step or in subsequent steps unless a different flag is chosen for one of the bodies.
B (rigid bodies): the rigid surface
= 1:

the rigid surface should be in the contact description (DEFAULT)

C (flexible bodies): the edges of the body


= 1:

only the beam/bar edges are included in the contact description (DEFAULT)

= 10: only the free and hard shell edges are included in the contact description
= 11: both the beam/bar edges and the free and hard shell edges are included in the contact description
Note that C has no effect if beam-to-beam contact is not switched on (i.e., BEAMB is left as 0 on BCPARA).
The following BCTABLE entries are used for the SOL 103 analysis of Case 1:
BCTABLE

Main Index

1
SLAVE

2
0
FBSH

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.
0.

0.

3
60

60

942 MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems


CHAPTER 49

It is important to note that the in-plane edge glued contact is activated by assigning value 60 for COPTS1 and COPTM1
in the 4th line of the BCTABLE option. The value 60 (B = 6) signifies that the edges are checked for contact without
taking the shell thickness into account. Glued contact is defined by using a value of 3 for IGLUE in the 2nd line of the
BCTABLE option. The value of IGLUE=3 allows moments to be transmitted across the contacting interface. JGLUE=0
in the 5th field of the 2nd line following keyword SLAVE ensures that glued nodes do not separate during the modal
analysis. The contact status plot for Case 1 is presented in Figure 49-2.
For the SOL 400 analysis of Case 2, the regular shell edge contact option is activated by assigning value of 10010
(B=1 and C=10) for COPTS1 and COPTM1 in the following BCTABLE entries:
BCTABLE

BCTABLE

0
SLAVE

2
0
FBSH
MASTERS 1
1
SLAVE
2
0
FBSH
MASTERS 1

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.
0
1.+20

1
0.
0
0.

0.

0.

0.
0.<