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Topics: Properties of Mixture

Dr. A. K. M. Monjur Morshed

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology

Mixtures in Engineering Applications

Natural gas
Methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, hydrogen,
carbon dioxide, and others

Refrigerants
Zeotropes - True mixture behavior
Example: R407c - R32/125/134a (23/25/52 by mass)

Azeotropes - Mixtures that behave as a pure fluid

Example: R507A - R125/143a (50/50 by mass)

Air and water vapor

Psychrometric analysis
Air conditioning applications
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R22

103

R407C

103
200F

150F
150F

100F

P [psia]

P [psia]

100F

50F

102

200F
50F

102

0F
0F

-50F

101
8x100

-50F

101
60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

h [Btu/lbm]

R22: a pure fluid; a

halogenated methane molecule
(chlorodiflouromethane)
3

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

h [Btu/lbm]

and R134a

Real mixture behavior

Real mixture model

Low-pressure, moderate density

Ideal solution model
Gases are treated as real fluids with idealized mixing

Low-pressure, low density

Ideal gas mixing model
Gases are treated as ideal gases with idealized mixing
ME 322!!

Ideal Gas Mixture Models

Even though the ideal gas mixing model is simplified, it turns
out to be fairly accurate for two important processes that
mechanical engineers deal with ...
Air Conditioning
Water vapor + air mixtures
Conditions are suitable for ideal gas property estimation
even for water vapor!

Combustion Analysis
Products of combustion are often at high temperatures
and low pressure

Air into the
combustion
chamber

Products of combustion leaving

the combustion chamber
Combustion products can
contain CO2, H2O, O2, N2,
CO, NO2, and others!
In order to get a better
estimate of the performance
of the gas turbine, we need
to be able to determine the
properties of the mixture
passing through the turbine

Properties of Ideal Gas Mixtures

Consider any property, B (extensive) or b (intensive). For a
mixture,
Molar Basis

Mass Basis*
N

k 1

k 1

k 1

k 1

Bm Bk mk bk

Bm Bk nk bk

N m
N
Bm
k
bm

bk wk bk

mm k 1 m m
k 1

N
N
nk
Bm
bm
bk yk bk
nm k 1 nm
k 1

wk

mk
mm

mass fraction

*Other common words: weight

basis or gravimetric basis
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yk

nk
nm

mole fraction**

mole fractions

Mass/Mole Fraction Conversion

In some instances, a conversion between mass fraction and
mole fraction is needed. The mass of a substance is related
to the number of moles through the molecular mass, Mi ,
mi
Mi
ni

ni
Mi
nm
ni M i
yi M i
mi

wi
nk
yk M k
mm nk M k

M
k n k k
k
m

Mass/Mole Fraction Conversion

A similar analysis for the mole fraction reveals,
mi 1
mi

ni
m
Mi
wi / M i
m Mi

yi

mk
nm
k M m k 1 k wk / M k
k
k mm M k

mi
M i
ni

Summary of findings ...

yi M i
wi
yk M k
k

wi / M i
yi
wk / M k
k

Example
Given: A mixture of ideal gases has the following molar
composition; Argon (yAr = 0.20), helium (yHe = 0.54), and the
balance is carbon monoxide.
Find: (a) mole fraction of carbon monoxide
(b) the molecular mass of the mixture
(c) the gravimetric (mass) composition of the mixture
Note: The molecular mass of the mixture can be found by,
Mm

mm
nm

nm

1
k mk n
m

n M
k

yk M k
k

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Example
The mole fractions of the argon and helium are given.
Therefore, the mole fraction of carbon monoxide can be found,
nm nk
k

nk
k n 1
m

Now, the molecular mass of the mixture can be found,

M m yk M k yAr M Ar yHe M He yCO M CO
k

lbm
lbm
lbm
lbm

M m 0.20 39.94

0.54
4.003

0.26
28.01

17.43

lbmol
lbmol
lbmol
lbmol

Table C.13a

Table C.13a

Table C.13a

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Example
The mass fraction composition of the mixture can be found by,
yi M i
yi M i

wi
yk M k M m
k

Therefore,
wAr

lbm

0.20
39.94

lbmol

Table C.13a

lbm
17.43
lbmol

0.458

wHe

0.26 28.01
wCO

lbm

0.54
4.003

lbmol

lbm

lbmol

Table C.13a

lbm
17.43
lbmol

Table C.13a

lbm
17.43
lbmol

0.418

12

0.124

Example
Comparison of mole fractions and mass fractions for this
mixture ...
Component
Ar

0.20

0.458

He
CO

0.54
0.26

0.124
0.418

1.00

1.00

It is always a good idea to check if the

calculated fractions sum up to one!

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Ideal Gas Mixture Properties

We have previously seen that,
bm wk bk
k

or bm yk bk
k

Consider the internal energy and enthalpy of an ideal gas

mixture. The components of the mixture exist at the same
temperature as the mixture. Therefore, according to the
expressions above,
um Tm wk uk Tk or um yk uk Tk

Tm Tk

hm Tm wk hk Tk or hm yk hk Tk

Tm Tk

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Another Example
Tm1 20F Pm1 15 psia
Given: A mixture of ideal gases is
Tm 2 300F Pm 2 60 psia
contained in a closed, rigid container
that has a volume of 2 ft3. The mixture
3
V

2
ft
m
is an equimolar binary mixture of
Q12
methane and ethane. The mixture is
initially at 15 psia, 20F. Heat is now
transferred to the mixture pressure and
temperature become 60 psia, 300F.

this process.

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