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Project Work

Subject: Resistors

NAME: asasasasasas








RESISTORS has been completed by

Anisha Paul the student of Sssssssssssss
School, Rowriah, Jorhat.

Subject teacher:
Rijumoni Payeng

Externals signature:

I Anisha Paul hereby acknowledge that all the
details furnished in this project are true to the
best of my knowledge. This project entitled
RESISTORS submitted for the academic year
2015-16 is a record work done by me under the
guidance of our biology teacher maam Rijumoni
Payeng. I have put in best of my efforts to make
this project successful. This is a bona fide record
of the original work done by me.
I acknowledge with gratitude the kind help and
encouragement received from our biology
teacher during the preparation of the project. My
sincere thanks are due to the Principal maam
Rinku Borgohain, Sssssssssssss School, for her
constant support. At the end I wound like to
thank my parents and friends for help and
appreciation without which is would not have
been possible for us to complete the assignment.

i) Pradeeps reference book

I. Introduction
II. Ohms Law
III. Dependence
IV. Limitation of ohms law
V. Resistivity of various materials
VI. Combinations
VII. Kirchoffs law

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component
that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
Resistors act to reduce current flow and at the same time
act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic
circuits resistors are used to limit current flow to adjust
signal levels bias active elements and to terminate
transmission lines among other uses. High-power resistors
that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat
may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution
systems, or as test loads for generator. Fixed resistors have
resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time
or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust
circuit elements or as sensing devices for heat, light,
humidity, force or chemical activity.
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and
electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electrical
equipment. Its resistance specifies the electrical function of
a resistor.

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the
relationship specified by ohms law:
Ohms law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is
proportional to the current (I), where the constant of
proportionality is the resistance (R). For example, if a 300
ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt
battery, then a current of 12/300=0.04 amperes flow
through that resistor.
The ohm is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after
Georg Simon Ohm. An ohm is equivalent to volt per
ampere. Since resistors are specified and manufactured

a) Resistance on length of conductor:
Consider a conductor satisfying V=RI to be in the form of
slab of length (l) and cross sectional area (A)
Resistance of slab= V/I=R
Now place to identical slabs so that the length becomes 2l
and current flowing throught the either slab is l. the
potential difference across the ends of first slab is V then
for the second slab also is V. Potential difference across the
combination is equal to the potential differences across
individual slabs
The current through the combination is l, so the resistance
of the combination is, R=2V/I=2R
Thus doubling the length of the conductor keeping area
cross section A constant doubles the resistance.
Resistance is directly proportional to Length.
b) Resistance upon cross sectional area A of a conductor
Now imagine dividing the slab into two identical slabs of
length l and area A/2
Current through each slabs= l/2
Potential difference across each half slabs=V
Resistance of each half slab R= V/I/2=2V/I=2R
Thus when cross section area is halved, resistance is
Therefore, resistance is inversely proportional to area of
R=rho l/A
The constant of proportionality (rho) depends on the
material of the conductor but not on it dimension. Rho is
known resistivity or specific resistance.

Rho= R.A/l
Resistivity is one type of resistance where rho and length
are unity i.e. rho=R
Its unit is, rho=ohm.m(2)/ m
Dimension of resistivity: rho=[ ML(-3)T(-3)A(-2)]


The proportionality of V and I does not hold for
certain materials and devices used in electric circuits.
Following are the few types of deviations:
i) V ceases to be proportional to I for good conductor.
ii) Value of current is different for same potential
difference on reversing the direction of V.
iii) Value of potential is different for same current.

Resistivity of Various Materials

Metals have resistivity in the range of 10(-8) ohm m

to 10(-6) ohm m. Insulators have resistivities 10(18)
times greater than metal or more. Semiconductors
have resistivities in between conductor and insultors.
Resistivity of semiconductors decreases with a rise in
temperature. Their resistivity is affected by the
presence of small amount of impurities.
Commercially produced resistors for domestic as well
s laboratory use are of two types:
i) Wire bound resistors
ii) Carbon resistors.
Wire bound resistors are made by winding wires of
alloys i.e. magnanin, constantan, etc. These wires are
chosen because their resistivities are relatively
insensitive to temperature.
Resistors of range higher than wire bound are mostly
made of carbon. Carbon resistors are small, compact
and less expensive so are widely use in electronic