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Aluminium alloy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements
are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications,
namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heattreatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled
plate, foils and extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost effective products due to the low melting point,
although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast aluminium
alloy system is Al-Si, where the high levels of silicon (4.0% to 13%) contribute to give good casting
characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight
or corrosion resistance is required.[1]
Alloys composed mostly of the two lightweight metals aluminium and magnesium have been very important
in aerospace manufacturing since somewhat before 1940. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than
other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of
magnesium.[citation needed]
Aluminium alloy surfaces will keep their apparent shine in a dry environment due to the formation of a clear,
protective layer of aluminium oxide. In a wet environment, galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium
alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more negative corrosion potentials than aluminium.
Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Many organizations publish more
specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy, including the Society of Automotive
Engineers standards organization, specifically its aerospace standards subgroups, [2] and ASTM International.
Contents
[hide]

1 Engineering use
o

1.1 Overview

1.2 Aluminium alloys versus types of steel

1.3 Heat sensitivity considerations

1.4 Household wiring


2 Alloy designations

2.1 Temper designation

2.2 Wrought alloys


2.2.1 5000 series

2.2.1.1 5005

2.2.1.2 5052/5251/5754

2.2.1.3 5083
2.2.2 6000 series

2.2.2.1 6061

2.2.2.2 6063

2.2.3 7000 series

2.2.4 7005

2.2.4.1 7068

2.2.4.2 7075

2.3 Cast alloys

2.4 Named alloys


3 Applications
3.1 Aerospace alloys

3.1.1 Scandium-Aluminium

3.1.2 List of aerospace Aluminium alloys

3.2 Marine alloys

3.3 Cycling alloys

3.4 Automotive alloys


4 References

4.1 Bibliography
5 External links

[edit]Engineering

use

[edit]Overview
Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are
classified by a number system (ANSI) or by names indicating their main alloying constituents (DIN and ISO).
Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile strength, density, ductility,
formability, workability,weldability, and corrosion resistance, to name a few. A brief historical overview of alloys
and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. [3] Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their
high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is much too soft for such uses, and it
does not have the high tensile strength that is needed for airplanes and helicopters.

[edit]Aluminium

alloys versus types of steel

Aluminium alloys typically have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, which is about one-third of the elastic
modulus of most kinds of steel and steel alloys. Therefore, for a given load, a component or unit made of an
aluminium alloy will experience a greater elastic deformation than a steel part of the identical size and shape.
Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the commonly used kinds of
steel, simply replacing a steel part with an aluminium alloy might lead to problems.
With completely new metal products, the design choices are often governed by the choice of manufacturing
technology. Extrusions are particularly important in this regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys,
particularly the Al-Mg-Si series, can be extruded to form complex profiles.
In general, stiffer and lighter designs can be achieved with aluminium alloys than is feasible with steels. For
instance, consider the bending of a thin-walled tube: the second moment of area is inversely related to the
stress in the tube wall, i.e. stresses are lower for larger values. The second moment of area is proportional to
the cube of the radius times the wall thickness, thus increasing the radius (and weight) by 26% will lead to a

halving of the wall stress. For this reason, bicycle frames made of aluminium alloys make use of larger tube
diameters than steel or titanium in order to yield the desired stiffness and strength. In automotive engineering,
cars made of aluminium alloys employ space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity. This
represents a radical change from the common approach for current steel car design, which depend on the body
shells for stiffness, that is a unibody design.
Aluminium alloys are widely used in automotive engines, particularly in cylinder blocks and crankcases due to
the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys are susceptible to warping at elevated
temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. Manufacturing techniques and metallurgical
advancements have also been instrumental for the successful application in automotive engines. In the 1960s,
the aluminium cylinder heads of the Corvair earned a reputation for failure and stripping of threads, which is not
seen in current aluminium cylinder heads.
An important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their lower fatigue strength compared to steel. In
controlled laboratory conditions, steels display a fatigue limit, which is the stress amplitude below which no
failures occur - the metal does not continue to weaken with extended stress cycles. Aluminum alloys do not
have this lower fatigue limit and will continue to weaken with continued stress cycles. Aluminium alloys are
therefore sparsely used in parts that require high fatigue strength in the high cycle regime (more than 10 7stress
cycles).

[edit]Heat

sensitivity considerations

Often, the metal's sensitivity to heat must also be considered. Even a relatively routine workshop procedure
involving heating is complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will melt without first glowing red.
Forming operations where a blow torch is used therefore require some expertise, because no visual signs
reveal how close the material is to melting.
Aluminium also is subject to internal stresses and strains when it is overheated; the tendency of the metal
to creep under these stresses tends to result in delayed distortions. For example, the warping or cracking of
overheated aluminium automobile cylinder heads is commonly observed, sometimes years later, as is the
tendency of welded aluminium bicycle frames to gradually twist out of alignment from the stresses of the
welding process. Thus, the aerospace industry avoids heat altogether by joining parts with adhesives or
mechanical fasteners. Adhesive bonding was used in some bicycle frames in the 1970s, with unfortunate
results when the aluminium tubing corroded slightly, loosening the adhesive and collapsing the frame.
Stresses in overheated aluminium can be relieved by heat-treating the parts in an oven and gradually cooling it
in effect annealing the stresses. Yet these parts may still become distorted, so that heat-treating of welded
bicycle frames, for instance, can result in a significant fraction becoming misaligned. If the misalignment is not
too severe, the cooled parts may be bent into alignment. Of course, if the frame is properly designed for rigidity
(see above), that bending will require enormous force.

Aluminium's intolerance to high temperatures has not precluded its use in rocketry; even for use in constructing
combustion chambers where gases can reach 3500 K. The Agenaupper stage engine used a regeneratively
cooled aluminium design for some parts of the nozzle, including the thermally critical throat region; in fact the
extremely high thermal conductivity of aluminium prevented the throat from reaching the melting point even
under massive heat flux, resulting in a reliable lightweight component.

[edit]Household

wiring

Main article: aluminium wire


Because of its high conductivity and relatively low price compared with copper in the 1960s, aluminium was
introduced at that time for household electrical wiring in North America, even though many fixtures had not
been designed to accept aluminium wire. But the new use brought some problems:

The greater coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminium causes the wire to expand and contract
relative to the dissimilar metal screw connection, eventually loosening the connection.

Pure aluminium has a tendency to "creep" under steady sustained pressure (to a greater degree as
the temperature rises), again loosening the connection.

Galvanic corrosion from the dissimilar metals increases the electrical resistance of the connection.

All of this resulted in overheated and loose connections, and this in turn resulted in some fires. Builders then
became wary of using the wire, and many jurisdictions outlawed its use in very small sizes, in new construction.
Yet newer fixtures eventually were introduced with connections designed to avoid loosening and overheating.
At first they were marked "Al/Cu", but they now bear a "CO/ALR" coding.
Another way to forestall the heating problem is to crimp the aluminium wire to a short "pigtail" of copper wire. A
properly done high-pressure crimp by the proper tool is tight enough to reduce any thermal expansion of the
aluminium. Today, new alloys, designs, and methods are used for aluminium wiring in combination with
aluminium terminations.

[edit]Alloy

designations

Wrought and cast aluminium alloys use different identification systems. Wrought aluminium is identified with a
four digit number which identifies the alloying elements.
Cast aluminium alloys use a four to five digit number with a decimal point. The digit in the hundreds place
indicates the alloying elements, while the digit after the decimal point indicates the form (cast shape or ingot).

[edit]Temper

designation

The temper designation follows the cast or wrought designation number with a dash, a letter, and potentially a
one to three digit number, e.g. 6061-T6. The definitions for the tempers are: [4][5]
-F
As fabricated
-H
Strain hardened (cold worked) with or without thermal treatment
-H1
Strain hardened without thermal treatment
-H2
Strain hardened and partially annealed
-H3
Strain hardened and stabilized by low temperature heating
Second digit
A second digit denotes the degree of hardness
-HX2 = 1/4 hard
-HX4 = 1/2 hard
-HX6 = 3/4 hard
-HX8 = full hard
-HX9 = extra hard
-O
Full soft (annealed)
-T
Heat treated to produce stable tempers
-T1
Cooled from hot working and naturally aged (at room temperature)
-T2
Cooled from hot working, cold-worked, and naturally aged
-T3
Solution heat treated and cold worked
-T4
Solution heat treated and naturally aged
-T5

Cooled from hot working and artificially aged (at elevated temperature)
-T51
Stress relieved by stretching
-T510
No further straightening after stretching
-T511
Minor straightening after stretching
-T52
Stress relieved by thermal treatment
-T6
Solution heat treated and artificially aged
-T7
Solution heat treated and stabilized
-T8
Solution heat treated, cold worked, and artificially aged
-T9
Solution heat treated, artificially aged, and cold worked
-T10
Cooled from hot working, cold-worked, and artificially aged
-W
Solution heat treated only.
Note: -W is a relatively soft intermediary designation that applies after heat treat and
before aging is completed. The -W condition can be extended at extremely low
temperatures but not indefinitely and depending on the material will typically last no
longer than 15 minutes at ambient temperatures.

[edit]Wrought

alloys

The International Alloy Designation System is the most widely accepted naming scheme
for wrought alloys. Each alloy is given a four-digit number, where the first digit indicates
the major alloying elements.

1000 series are essentially pure aluminium with a minimum 99% aluminium content
by weight and can be work hardened.

2000 series are alloyed with copper, can be precipitation hardened to strengths
comparable to steel. Formerly referred to as duralumin, they were once the most
common aerospace alloys, but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and
are increasingly replaced by 7000 series in new designs.

3000 series are alloyed with manganese, and can be work hardened.

4000 series are alloyed with silicon. They are also known as silumin.

5000 series are alloyed with magnesium.

6000 series are alloyed with magnesium and silicon, are easy to machine, and can
be precipitation hardened, but not to the high strengths that 2000 and 7000 can
reach.

7000 series are alloyed with zinc, and can be precipitation hardened to the highest
strengths of any aluminium alloy.

8000 series is a category mainly used for lithium alloys.[citation needed]

Wrought aluminium alloy composition limits (% weight)

Limits
Alloy

Si

Fe

Cu

Mn

Mg

Cr

Zn

Ti

Bi

Ga

Pb

Zr

A
Eac Tota
h
l

1050[6] 0.25 0.40 0.05 0.05 0.05

0.03

99.5

1060

0.25 0.35 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

99.6

1100

0.05
0.95 Si+Fe
0.05
0.20

1199[6] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.00 0.00 0.00

0.05 0.15 99.0

0.00

0.00

99.99

min

2014

0.50
0.7
1.2

3.9 0.40 0.20


0.10 0.25
5.0 1.2 0.8

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

2024

0.50 0.50

3.8 0.30 1.2


0.10 0.25
4.9 0.9 1.8

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

2219

0.2

0.30

0.20
5.8

0.02
6.8
0.40

0.05 0.02
0.10

0.15 0.10

3003

0.6

0.7

0.05
1.0

1.5
0.20

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

3004

0.30 0.7

0.25

0.25

0.05 0.15

rema
r

3102

0.40 0.7

0.05
0.10
0.40

4043

4.5
0.80 0.30 0.05 0.05
6.0

5052

0.25 0.40 0.10 0.10

5083

0.40 0.40 0.10

0.05
0.40 4.0

0.25
1.0 4.9
0.25

5086

0.40 0.50 0.10

0.05
0.20 3.5

0.25
0.7 4.5
0.25

1.0 0.8
1.5 1.3

0.10
rema

0.05 0.15
r
0.25

0.30

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.10

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.15
2.2

0.10
2.8
0.35

5154

3.10 0.15
0.25 0.40 0.10 0.10

0.20
3.90 0.35

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

5356

4.50 0.05
0.25 0.40 0.10 0.10

0.10
5.50 0.20

0.06

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

5454

0.25 0.40 0.10

0.05
0.50 2.4

0.25
1.0 3.0
0.20

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

5456

0.25 0.40 0.10

0.05
0.50 4.7

0.25
1.0 5.5
0.20

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

5754

0.40 0.40 0.10 0.50

2.6
0.30 0.20
3.6

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6005

0.6
0.40
0.35 0.10 0.10
0.10 0.10
0.9
0.6

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6005A 0.50
0.40
0.35 0.30 0.50
0.30 0.20

0.9
0.7

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6060

0.10
0.30
0.35

0.10 0.10
0.05 0.15
0.6
0.6
0.30

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6061

0.40
0.7
0.8

0.15
0.04
0.8

0.15

0.25
1.2
0.40
0.35

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6063

0.20
0.45
0.35 0.10 0.10
0.10 0.10
0.6
0.9

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6066

0.9
0.7 0.6 0.8
0.50
0.40 0.25
1.8
1.2 1.1 1.4

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6070

0.15
1.0
0.40 0.50
0.50
0.10 0.25
1.7
1.0 1.2
0.40

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6082

0.7
0.40 0.60
0.50 0.10
0.25 0.20
1.3
1.0 1.2

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6105

0.6
0.45
0.35 0.10 0.10
0.10 0.10
1.0
0.8

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6162

0.40
0.7
0.50 0.20 0.10
0.10 0.25
0.8
1.1

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6262

0.40
0.7
0.8

0.15
0.04
0.8

0.15

0.25
1.2
0.40
0.14

0.15

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6351

0.7
0.40 0.40
0.50 0.10
1.3
0.8 0.8

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

6463

0.20
0.45
0.15 0.20 0.05
0.6
0.9

0.05

0.05 0.15

rema
r

7005

0.20
0.06
1.0
4.0
0.35 0.40 0.10

1.8
5.0
0.70
0.20

0.01

0.06

0.08
rema

0.05 0.15
r
0.20

7022

0.50 0.50

0.10 2.60 0.10 4.30


0.50

1.00
0.40 3.70 0.30 5.20

0.20

0.05 0.15

7068

2.20
7.30
001.60- 0
0

0.12 0.15 2.40 0.10


0.05
3.00
8.30

00.01

7072

0.7 Si+Fe

0.10 0.10 0.10

0.8
1.3

0.40
0.7

0.40
0.7

0.20

0.05

0.15

rema
r

rema
r

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.18
1.2
2.1
5.1
0.30

2.0
2.9
6.1
0.28

0.20

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.40 0.10
0.10
2.9
3.8
0.40

3.7
4.8
0.80 0.30
0.25

0.10

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.03

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.03

0.05 0.15

rema
r

0.05 0.15

rema
r

7075

0.40 0.50

7079

0.3

7116

0.15 0.30

0.50
0.8
0.05
1.1
1.4

4.2
0.05 0.05
5.2

7129

0.15 0.30

0.50
1.3
4.2
0.10
0.10
0.05 0.05
0.9
2.0
5.2

7178

0.40 0.50

0.18
1.6
2.4
6.3
0.30

2.4
3.1
7.3
0.28

0.20

Manganese plus chromium must be between 0.120.50%.


This column lists the limits that apply to all elements, whether a table column exists for them or not, for which
other limits are specified.

[edit]5000 series
[edit]5005
Aluminium alloy 5005 is used in decorative and architectural applications that require an
anodized finish.[7]

[edit]5052/5251/5754
Aluminium alloys 5052, 5251, 5754 are very similar grades, only differing in the amount
of magnesium. 5052 has 2.5% magnesium and is commonly used in the U.S.; 5251 has
2% magnesium and is commonly used in the UK; and 5754 has 3% magnesium and is
commonly used in Europe. Due to their formability, corrosion resistance and weldability
these grades are commonly used in pressure vessels, tanks, fitting, boat hulls, and van
bodies. Their salt water corrosion resistance is better than the 1200 grade and their
strength is better than the 3003 grade.

[edit]5083

Aluminium alloy 5083 is an aluminium alloy suitable for cryogenic applications down to
design temperatures of 165 C (265 F), since alloys of this type do not show
the ductile-brittle transition phenomenon.[7]This alloy is also common for the marine
applications such as body materials for ships, underwater vehicles etc.

[edit]6000 series
[edit]6061
6061-T6 is one of the most commonly used 6000 series aluminum alloys (see 6061
aluminium alloy)

[edit]6063
6063 is an aluminium alloy, with magnesium and silicon as the alloying elements. The
standard controlling its composition is maintained by The Aluminum Association. It has
generally good mechanical properties and is heat treatable and weldable. It is similar to
the British aluminium alloy HE9.
6063 is mostly used in extruded shapes for architecture, particularly window frames,
door frames, roofs, and sign frames. It is typically produced with very smooth surfaces fit
for anodizing.

[edit]7000 series
[edit]7005
7005 is an alloy used primarily in bicycle frames.

[edit]7068
7068 is the strongest commercially available aluminium alloy. 7068-T6511 has typical
ultimate tensile strength of 103 ksi versus a similar product produced from 7075-T6511
that would have a typical ultimate tensile strength of 93 ksi. Typical yield strength for
alloy 7068-T6511 is 99 ksi versus 86 ksi for a similar product produced from 7075T6511.[citation needed] Primarily developed for ordnance applications, alloy 7068 is now being
used or considered for markets like the aerospace and automotive industries (valve
body and connecting rod applications), as well as recreational products (bicycles).
During the mid-1990s, the ordnance industry requested a higher-strength, lightweight,
lead-free aluminium alloy with corrosion resistance equal to 7075-T6511.

[edit]7075
7075-T6 is one of the most used 7000 series aluminum alloys and is also one of the
strongest alloys overall.

[edit]Cast

alloys

The Aluminium Association (AA) has adopted a nomenclature similar to that of wrought
alloys. British Standard and DIN have different designations. In the AA system, the
second two digits reveal the minimum percentage of aluminium, e.g. 150.x correspond
to a minimum of 99.50% aluminium. The digit after the decimal point takes a value of 0
or 1, denoting casting and ingot respectively.[1] The main alloying elements in the AA
system are as follows:[citation needed]

1xx.x series are minimum 99% aluminium

2xx.x series copper

3xx.x series silicon, copper and/or magnesium

4xx.x series silicon

5xx.x series magnesium

7xx.x series zinc

8xx.x series lithium

Minimum tensile requirements for cast aluminium alloys[8]

Alloy type
Temper
ANSI

Tensile strength (min) [ksi] Yield strength (min) [ksi]


([MPa])
([MPa])

Elongation in 2
[%]

UNS

201.0

A02010

T7

60.0 (414)

50.0 (345)

3.0

204.0

A02040

T4

45.0 (310)

28.0 (193)

6.0

23.0 (159)

N/A

N/A

T61

32.0 (221)

20.0 (138)

N/A

242.0

A02420

A242.0

295.0

319.0

328.0

355.0

A12420

T75

29.0 (200)

N/A

1.0

T4

29.0 (200)

13.0 (90)

6.0

T6

32.0 (221)

20.0 (138)

3.0

T62

36.0 (248)

28.0 (193)

N/A

T7

29.0 (200)

16.0 (110)

3.0

23.0 (159)

13.0 (90)

1.5

T5

25.0 (172)

N/A

N/A

T6

31.0 (214)

20.0 (138)

1.5

25.0 (172)

14.0 (97)

1.0

T6

34.0 (234)

21.0 (145)

1.0

T6

32.0 (221)

20.0 (138)

2.0

T51

25.0 (172)

18.0 (124)

N/A

T71

30.0 (207)

22.0 (152)

N/A

A02950

A03190

A03280

A03550

C355.0

A33550

T6

36.0 (248)

25.0 (172)

2.5

356.0

A03560

19.0 (131)

9.5 (66)

2.0

T6

30.0 (207)

20.0 (138)

3.0

A356.0

T7

31.0 (214)

N/A

N/A

T51

23.0 (159)

16.0 (110)

N/A

T71

25.0 (172)

18.0 (124)

3.0

T6

34.0 (234)

24.0 (165)

3.5

T61

35.0 (241)

26.0 (179)

1.0

A13560

443.0

A04430

17.0 (117)

7.0 (48)

3.0

B443.0

A24430

17.0 (117)

6.0 (41)

3.0

512.0

A05120

17.0 (117)

10.0 (69)

N/A

514.0

A05140

22.0 (152)

9.0 (62)

6.0

520.0

A05200

T4

42.0 (290)

22.0 (152)

12.0

535.0

A05350

35.0 (241)

18.0 (124)

9.0

705.0

A07050

T5

30.0 (207)

17.0 (117)

5.0

707.0

A07070

T7

37.0 (255)

30.0 (207)

1.0

710.0

A07100

T5

32.0 (221)

20.0 (138)

2.0

712.0

A07120

T5

34.0 (234)

25.0 (172)

4.0

713.0

771.0

A07130

A07710

T5

32.0 (221)

22.0 (152)

3.0

T5

42.0 (290)

38.0 (262)

1.5

T51

32.0 (221)

27.0 (186)

3.0

T52

36.0 (248)

30.0 (207)

1.5

T6

42.0 (290)

35.0 (241)

5.0

T71

48.0 (331)

45.0 (310)

5.0

850.0

A08500

T5

16.0 (110)

N/A

5.0

851.0

A08510

T5

17.0 (117)

N/A

3.0

852.0

A08520

T5

24.0 (165)

18.0 (124)

N/A

Only when requested by the customer

[edit]Named

alloys

Alclad Aluminium sheet formed from high-purity aluminium surface layers bonded to
high strength aluminium alloy core material

Birmabright (aluminium, magnesium) a product of The Birmetals Company,


basically equivalent to 5251

Duralumin (copper, aluminium)

Magnalium

Magnox (magnesium, aluminium)

Silumin (aluminium, silicon)

Titanal (aluminium, zinc, magnesium, copper, zirconium) a product of Austria Metall


AG. Commonly used in high performance sports products, particularly snowboards
and skis.

Y alloy, Hiduminium, R.R. alloys: pre-war nickel-aluminium alloys, used in


aerospace and engine pistons, for their ability to retain strength at elevated
temperature.

[edit]Applications
[edit]Aerospace

alloys

[edit]Scandium-Aluminium

Parts of the Mig29 are made from Al-Sc alloy.[9]

The addition of scandium to aluminium creates nanoscale Al3Sc precipitates which limit
the excessive grain growth that occurs in the heat-affected zone of welded aluminium
components. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al 3Sc forms smaller
crystals than are formed in other aluminium alloys[9] and the width of precipitate-free
zones that normally exist at the grain boundaries of age-hardenenable aluminium alloys
is reduced.[9] Scandium is also a potent grain refiner in cast aluminium alloys, and atom
for atom, the most potent strengthener in aluminium, both as a result of grain refinement
and precipitation strengthening. However, titanium alloys, which are stronger but
heavier, are cheaper and much more widely used.[10]
The main application of metallic scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for
minor aerospace industry components. These alloys contain between 0.1% and 0.5%

(by weight) of scandium. They were used in the Russian military aircraft Mig 21 and Mig
29.[9]
Some items of sports equipment, which rely on high performance materials, have been
made with scandium-aluminium alloys, includingbaseball bats ,[11] lacrosse sticks, as well
as bicycle[12] frames and components, and tent poles. U.S. gunmaker Smith &
Wessonproduces revolvers with frames composed of scandium alloy and cylinders of
titanium. [13]

[edit]List of aerospace Aluminium alloys


The following aluminium alloys are commonly used in aircraft and
other aerospace structures:[14]

7068 aluminium

7075 aluminium

6061 aluminium

6063 aluminium

2024 aluminium

5052 aluminium

Note that the term aircraft aluminium or aerospace aluminium usually refers to 7075.[15]
[16]

The following list of aluminium alloys are currently produced,[citation needed] but less
widely[citation needed] used:

2090 aluminium

2124 aluminium

2195 aluminium - Al-Li alloy, used in Space Shuttle Super Lightweight external tank

2219 aluminium - Al-Cu alloy, used in the original Space Shuttle Standard Weight
external tank

2324 aluminium

5059 aluminium - Used in experimental rocket cryogenic tanks

6013 aluminium

7050 aluminium

7055 aluminium

7150 aluminium

7475 aluminium

[edit]Marine

alloys

These alloys are used for boat building and shipbuilding, and other marine and saltwater sensitive shore applications.[17]

5052 aluminium

5059 aluminium

5083 aluminium

5086 aluminium

6061 aluminium

6063 aluminium

4043, 5183, 6005A, 6082 also used in marine constructions and off shore applications.

[edit]Cycling

alloys

These alloys are used for cycling frames and components

2014 aluminium

6061 aluminium

6063 aluminium

7005 aluminium

7075 aluminium

Scandium aluminium

[edit]Automotive

alloys

6111 aluminium and 2008 aluminum alloy are extensively used for external
automotive body panels, with 5083 and 5754 used for inner body panels. Hoods have
been manufactured from 2036, 6016, and 6111 alloys. Truck and trailer body panels
have used 5456 aluminum.
Automobile frames often use 5182 aluminum or 5754 aluminum formed
sheets, 6061 or 6063 extrusions.
Wheels have been cast from A365.0 aluminum or formed 5xxx sheet. [18]

[edit]References
1.

^ a b I. J. Polmear, Light Alloys, Arnold, 1995

2.

^ SAE aluminium specifications list, accessed Oct 8, 2006. Also SAE Aerospace
Council, accessed Oct 8, 2006.

3.

^ R.E. Sanders, Technology Innovation in aluminium Products, The Journal of The


Minerals, 53(2):2125, 2001. Online ed.

4.

^ "Sheet metal material". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved
2009-07-26.

5.

^ Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, Ronald A. (2003). Materials and


Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed.). Wiley. p. 133. ISBN 0-471-65653-4.

6.

^ a b ASM Metals Handbook Vol. 2, Properties and Selection of Nonferrous Alloys


and Special Purpose Materials, ASM International (p. 222)

7.

^ a b http://www.azom.com/Details.asp?ArticleID=4252

8.

^ ASTM B 26 / B 26M 05

9.

^ a b c d Ahmad, Zaki (2003). "The properties and application of scandium-reinforced


aluminum". JOM 55 (2): 35. Bibcode 2003JOM....55b..35A. doi:10.1007/s11837003-0224-6.

10. ^ Schwarz, James A.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Putyera, Karol (2004). Dekker
encyclopedia of nanoscience and nanotechnology. 3. CRC Press. p. 2274. ISBN 08247-5049-7.
11. ^ Bjerklie, Steve (2006). "A batty business: Anodized metal bats have
revolutionized baseball. But are finishers losing the sweet spot?". Metal
Finishing 104 (4): 61. doi:10.1016/S0026-0576(06)80099-1.
12. ^ "Easton Technology Report : Materials / Scandium". EastonBike.com. Retrieved
2009-04-03.
13. ^ "Small Frame (J) - Model 340PD Revolver". Smith & Wesson. Retrieved 2008-1020.
14. ^ Fundamentals of Flight, Shevell, Richard S., 1989, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice
Hall, ISBN 0-13-339060-8, Ch 18, pp 373-386.
15. ^ "Aluminum in Aircraft". Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved
2009-04-21.
16. ^ Wagner, PennyJo (Winter 1995). "Aircraft aluminum". Archived from the original
on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
17. ^ Boatbuilding with aluminium, Stephen F. Pollard, 1993, International Marine, ISBN
0-07-050426-1
18. ^ Kaufman, John (2000). Introduction to aluminum alloys and tempers. ASM
International. pp. 116117. ISBN 0-87170-689-X. Retrieved Nov 9, 2011.

[edit]Bibliography