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# First Semester

## Dalton’s Atomic Theory

- Matter is made up of atom that are indivisible and indestructible
- All the atoms of an element are identical
- Atoms of different elements have different weights and different chemical
properties
- Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form
compounds
- Atoms cannot be created or destroyed. When a compound is decomposed the
atoms are recovered unchanged
Number of Particles
- Most of atom’s mass comes from nucleus
- Atomic Number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
- Mass Number is the sum of the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus
Combine Ions to make compounds
- Positively charged ions are called cations
- Negatively charged ions are anions
- Periodic table used to combine positive and negative ions to have charge of zero
How to calculate atomic mass
- Atomic mass units is about equal to an element’s mass number
Moles to Mass and Moles to number of Molecules
- Mass A to Mole A then Mole A to Mole B and Mole B to Mass B
- Moles to number of Molecules = 6.023 x 1023

Molecular Weight
- The molecular weight of a substance is the weight in atomic mass units of all the
atoms in a given formula.
- Add up all the atomic masses of the compound’s elements and you get the
molecular weight in grams/mol.
- Also known as Molar Mass
Percent of Mass
- When the formula of a compound is known, the first step in this calculation
involves determining the molecular weight of the compound.
- Then divide the mass of an element in a mole of a compound by the molar mass
of the compound and multiply that by 100
Empirical Formula
- This is the smallest whole-number ratio between atoms
- Start by calculating the number of grams in each element of the compound
- Then convert number of grams of each element into the number of moles of atoms
of that element
- Then divide through by the element with the smallest number of moles of atoms
- If the ratio at first is not a whole number, you must multiply it until all the
coefficients are integers
Empirical Formula to Molecular Formula
- Once you know the empirical formula, you find out it’s molar mass, but then you
will divide the given compound’s molar mass by the molar mass of the empirical
formula and then you can determine how larger the molecular formula is than the
empirical formula
Mole Ratios to show reactions
- Example would be water, the formula is H2O, and two moles of Hydrogen
REACT with one mole of Oxygen to form Water
Molarity and Molarity Expressions
- Molarity = Moles of Solute / Liters of Solution
- Solute is the stuff you dissolve and Solution is the stuff you dissolve it in
Limiting Reactants
- The limiting reactant is the substance that runs out first in a chemical reaction
- The excess reactant is the stuff that is left over
- To find out the limiting reactant, divide the number of moles by the coefficient
and the lowest number is the limiting reactant
- If you are given grams, just convert t moles and then divide
Mass, Volume, Density
- Density = Mass / Volume
Wave Calculations
- Frequency*wavelength(in meters) = speed
- Energy of radiation is proportional to the frequency of the wave
- E = hv
- Energy = (Planck’s Constant = 6.626 x 10-34)(frequency)
Orbitals
- Area in atom where there is high chance of finding an electron there
Ionization Energies
- The energy required to remove an electron from an energy state
- The first ionization energies increase as you go left to right in the periodic table
but then you drop dramatically when starting another row
Photoelectric Spectroscopy
- Diagram to show how electrons are ejected from a shell of an atom to form a
positive ion
- Small one means one electrons are present, twice as large means two electrons in
a shell, more peaks means more shells
Electron Configurations
- Subshells such as s, p, d, or f
- Go across the periodic table

## Dot Diagrams, Polarity, Shapes, Resonance

- Dot Diagrams
- write the skeleton structure of the molecule
- determine the number of valance electrons of the molecule
- use two valence electrons to form each bond in the skeleton structure
- try to place eight electrons in the valance shells of the atoms by distributing the
remaining valence electrons as nonbonding electrons
- Shapes
-
Electron Bonding Nonbonding Distribution Molecular
Domains Domains Domains of Electron Geometry
Domains
2 (sp) 2 0 Linear Linear
1 1 Linear
2
3 (sp ) 3 0 Trigonal Trigonal
planar Planar
2 1 Bent
2 2 Linear
3
4 (sp ) 4 0 Tetraheadral Tetraheadral
3 1 Trigonal
Pyramidal
2 2 Bent
1 3 Linear
3
5 (sp d) 5 0 Trigonal Trigonal
Bypyramidal Bipyramidal
4 1 Seesaw
3 2 T-shaped
2 3 Linear
6 (sp3d2) 6 0 Octahedral Octahedral
5 1 Square
pyramidal
4 2 Square
Planar

Oxidation Numbers
- Assign numbers as though they all had charges
Oxidation and Reduction Equations
- Oxidation occurs when the oxidation number of an atom becomes more positive
- Reduction occurs when the oxidation number of an atom becomes more negative
- Oxidation number is zero in any neutral substance that contains atoms of only one
element
Nomenclature
- First Atom to either metal, non-metal, or it has a single H and it’s an acid
- If it’s a metal with non-metal, then active metals, just name ion, if other, use
Roman numerals
- If it is non-metal first, then it is molecular and use prefixes
- If it is acid, Binary acids are just H and one other element and hten you add the
“-ic” If it is Oxo, an “-ate” becomes “-ic” and “-ite” becomes “-ous)
Gas Laws
- combined gas law
- P1*V1 / T1 = P2*V2 / T2
Second Semester

Energy/Heat
- Kinetic energy is the energy of motion
- Potential energy is the energy of position
- hv=IE + KE
- The equation above is based on conservation of energy. The kinetic energy of the
ejected electron plus the energy required to dislodge the electron from the atom is
equal to the total energy of the photon.
- General Rule: Energy changed that occur during a chemical reaction are due to
the making and breaking of chemical bonds.
- Heat is energy in transit
- Temperature is a measure of the hotness or coldness of object and measures using
the Fahrenheit, Celsius, or Kelvin scales.
- Heat measured in Joules
- Something cannot contain heat energy because heat is the energy in transit from a
reaction
- System is the small portion of the universe that we are interested in
- The surrounds are everything outside or the system
- The Kinetic Theory of Heat: Heat, when it enters a system, produces an increase
in the average motion with which the particles of the system move.

## 1st Law of Thermodynamics

- ∆ETotal = ∆Esys + ∆Esurr = 0
- Enthalpy is the measure of both the energy change in the system plus any work
done to or by the system under the conditions of constant pressure
- (∆Esys – w) = ∆Hsys
- ∆Hrxn = - ∆Econtainer
- Extensive properties of a system are the properties that depend on the size of the
sample, such as mass and volume
- Intensive properties don’t depend on the size of the sample being studied such as
temperature and density
- Properties can also be classified based on whether they are state functions. By
definition, one of the properties of a system is a state function if it depends only
on the state of the system, not on the path used to get to that state.
- Energy is a state function: It depends only on the state of the system, not the path
used to get to that state

Enthalpy/Specific Heat

## - Calorimeters are used in experiments involving measurement of heat changes

- Enthalpy = ∆Hsys
- One Calorie = 4.184 kJ
- The heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree
Celsius is known as the specific heat.
- Units are cal/g*K
- To describe the heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance
by one degree, this is the molar heat capacity in units of cal/mol*K
- 1 cal = 4.184 J
- Units of specific heat are J/g*K or J/mol*K
- Exothermic means ∆H is negative
- Endothermic means ∆H is positive
- (Moles)*(Enthalpy Change for reaction/# of moles in mole ration) = change in
enthalpy
- Value of ∆H for a reaction only depends on the reactants and products of the
reaction

Hess’s Law
- The enthalpy of a given chemical reaction is constant, regardless of the reaction
happening in one step or many steps.
- If a chemical equation can be written as the sum of several other chemical
equations, the enthalpy change of the first chemical equation equals the sum of
the enthalpy changes of the other chemical equations
- Basically, all you do is find out the theoretical steps that the things take to form
something, and then take the enthalpies of those steps and add them together

Entropy
- The universe likes disorder
- Symbol for Entropy is S
- When ∆S is positive, then the disorder in the universe is increasing
- Any process for which ∆Suniv is negative, it is highly improbable
- Also a state function
- Solids have a much more regular structure than liquids. Liquids therefore have a
higher entropy than their corresponding solids
- The particles in a gas are distributed over a larger volume than those in a liquid.
Gases therefore have a higher entropy than the corresponding liquids
- Usually a process that increases the number of particles increases the entropy of
the system
- Gibbs Free Energy (G)
- G = H – TS
- State function, it is the enthalpy of the system minus the product of the
temperature times the entropy of the system
- ∆G = ∆H - T∆S
- When ∆G is negative, it is exergonic, and when it is positive then it is endogonic
- Use (G) when there is conflict between which way the reaction wants to go, such
as the H pushing towards the products while the S pushes towards the reactants

## Structures of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

- Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces between neighboring molecules
- Intramolecular bonds are the bonds of the atoms within the molecule
- Intramolecular bonds are stronger
- Most substance are solids at low temperatures because less kinetic energy for the
atoms to move around so they are packs closer and opposite for gases
- The strength of the intermolecular forces determines the state of matter at room
temperature
- A molecular dipole depends on differing distributions of positive and negative
charges in the molecule as a whole. An important criterion in this is molecular
symmetry.
- A bond dipole depends on electronegativity differences, which results in the
electrons in the bond spending more time around one atom than the other. Bond
dipoles are discussed with reference to covalent bonds and are called polar bonds.
Nonpolar bonds do not have a dipole.
- London Forces are always present, power depends on size, but is usually weakest
- Hydrogen bonding is usually the strongest
- At any given temperature, some of the particles in a liquid have enough energy to
form a gas. As the temperature increases, the fraction of the molecules moving
fast enough to escape from the liquid increases. As a result, the vapor pressure of
the liquid also increases
- It is equilibrium when the rate at which the liquid evaporates and the rate at which
the liquid condenses are equal
- The pressure due to the water vapor in the closed container at equilibrium is
called the vapor pressure
- A liquid boils when the pressure of the vapor escaping from the liquid is equal to
the pressure exerted on the liquid by its surroundings

-
- Most solids expand when they melt. Water expands when it freezes
- Most solids are more dense than the corresponding liquids. Ice is not as dense as
water since it floats
- Water has the largest surface tension of any common liquid except liquid mercury
- Water is an excellent solvent. It can dissolve compounds, that are insoluble or
only slightly soluble in almost any other liquid
- Liquid water has an unusually high specific heat. It takes more heat to raise the
temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C than any other common liquid
- In solutions: Like Dissolves Like
Mainly water soluble
- all nitrates are soluble
- all acetates are soluble
- all chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2
- all bromides are soluble except AgBr, Hg2Br2,PbBr2, and HgBr2
- all iodides are soluble except AgI, Hg2I2,PbI2, and HgI2, SO4
- all sulfates are soluble except CaSO4, SrSO4,BaSO4, PbSO4, Hg2SO4,and Ag2SO4
Mainly water insoluble
-all oxides are insoluble except those of the 1A elements
-all sulfides are insoluble except those of the 1A and 2Aelements and (NH4)2S
- all carbonates are insoluble except those of the 1Aelements and (NH4)2CO3, PO4
- all phosphates are insoluble except those of the 1A elements and (NH4)3PO4
- all hydroxides are insoluble except those of the 1A elements, NH4OH, Ba(OH)2,
Sr(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2

- Be able to write net ionic equations (equations with all the spectator ions left out,
just the insoluble substance and such left)
- Hydrophobic are part of molecules that hate water
- Hydrophillic means it likes water

## Kinetics and Equilibrium

- Many chemical reactions can easily run in both forward and reverse directions
and are called reversible reactions. The consequences of this reversible behavior
has become known as a reaction "coming to equilibrium."
- The exact moment of equilibrium happens when the rate of the forward reaction
equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
- When a chemical system is at equilibrium, there are no visible changes in the
system. The concentrations of every substance in the reaction will remain constant
at equilibrium.
- When a system is at equilbrium, a constant value is established by the
multiplicative product of the concentrations of the products' concentrations (each
raised first to the power of its coefficient), then divided by the multiplicative
product of the reactants' concentrations (each raised first to the power of its
coefficient).
- Now that may be somewhat wordy, so here it is using a generic chemical
equation:
- wA + xB <===> yC + zD
- Following the word definition above, we have this:

-
- A, B, C, and D are the chemical substances. x, y, w and z are the coefficients.
- The solution technique involves the use of an ICEbox. Here is an empty one:
[H2] [I2] [HI]
Initial
Change
Equilibrium
- Every change of one of the factors of an equilibrium occasions a rearrangement of
the system in such a direction that the factor in question experiences a change in a
sense opposite to the original change.
- If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, then the system readjusts, if
possible, to reduce the stress.
- If a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the equilibrium will shift in
attempt to reduce the stress.
- here are the factors that affect a chemical reaction at equilibrium.
- Changes in:
- 1) concentration change
a) up
b) down
- 2) temperature
a) up
b) down
- 3) pressure
a) lower the pressure by increasing the volume
b) raise the pressure by decreasing the volume
c) raise the total pressure by adding an inert (non-reacting) gas
4) adding a catalyst

- This principle was first put forth by Walther Nernst in 1899. It has to do with solid
substances usually considered insoluble in water. In each case, we will consider a
saturated solution of the insoluble substance that is in contact with some
undissolved solid. Important points to consider are:

1) Some of the solid does dissolve. Not very much, but enough.
2) The substance dissociates upon dissolving.
3) There exists an equilibrium between the undissolved solid and the
solvated ions.

-
- Given this value, how dos one go about calculating the Ksp of the substance? Here
is a skeleton outline of the process:
- 1) Write the chemical equation for the substance dissolving and dissociating.
2) Write the Ksp expression.
3) Insert the concentration of each ion and multiply out.
- Sometimes, the solubility is given in grams per 100 mL, rather than molar
solubility. The Ksp can still be calculated from these data, but indirectly. Frist, we
have to convert the g/100mL data to mol/L (molar) solubility data. Then the molar
solubility value is used to set up the actual calculation.
- Here is how to convert a g/100mL value to molar solubility:
- 1) multiply the g/100mL value by 10/10. This converts it to grams per 1000 mL
or, better yet, grams per liter. (Sometimes the data is given in g/L. When that
happens, this step is skipped.)
2) divide the grams per liter value by the molar mass of the substance. This gives
moles per liter, which is molar solubility.

Acids/Bases
- Acid - any substance which delivers hydrogen ion (H+) to the solution.
Base - any substance which delivers hydroxide ion (OH¯) to the solution
- An acid is a substance from which a proton can be removed.
- A base is a substance that can remove a proton from an acid.
- Certain acids are considered to be strong, which means they are dissociated 100%
in solution.
HCl hydrochloric acid
HNO3 nitric acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HClO4 perchloric acid
- The pH of pure water is 7
- By definition, pH = -log [H3O+]
- The pH of pure water then equals -log 10¯7, which is 7.

## - If the pH or the pOH is known, the other can be found

- Take the negative logarithm of each side of the Kw equation as follows:
- - log Kw = -log [H3O+] + -log [OH¯]
- -log 1.00 x 10¯14 = -log [H3O+] + -log [OH¯]
- Note the use of the add sign on the right side of the equation. The result is
ususally written as:
- pKw = pH + pOH = 14
- This is an extremely important equation. Learn it well.

## - If the [H3O+] or the [OH¯] is known, the other can be found.

- Simply divide Kw by the known value to get the other.
- Suppose [H3O+] is known, then:
- [OH¯] = Kw / [H3O+]
- Suppose [OH¯] is known, then:
- [H3O+] = Kw / [OH¯]

- If one variable ( [H3O+] or [OH¯] ) changes value (either up or down), the other
variable will change in the opposite direction.
- The change in values will still preserve this fundamental equality:
- Kw = [H3O+] [OH¯]
+
- Suppose [H3O ] became larger, therefore the [OH¯] becomes smaller.
Suppose [OH¯] became larger, therefore the [H3O+] becomes smaller.
- This happens automatically and cannot be stopped.

- The key point is that strong means 100% ionized. That becomes:
- The [H+] of a strong acid is equal to the concentration of the acid.
- Strong bases is pretty much the same as strong acids EXCEPT you'll be
calculating a pOH first, then going to the pH. This type of problem is where the
relation pH + pOH = 14 is important.
- So, the key point is that strong means 100% ionized. That becomes:
- The [OH¯] of a strong acid is equal to the concentration of the base.
- After all, ALL of the base dissociates. No base molecules are left.
- Salts are the non-water product of an acid base neutralization. There are four
possible acid base reactions that produce salts. They are the reaction of a:
- 1) strong acid with a strong base.
2) weak acid with a strong base.
3) weak base with a strong acid.
4) weak acid with a weak base.
- A mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base care called buffers
- Set up similar to ICE problem I think, with the K of a equals the Hydrogen
concentration and the Conjugate base over the weak acid and then do the
equilibrium part and you are set

## - Weak Acid-Strong Base: the reaction proceeds far to the right

- Strong Acid-Weak Base: the pH will depend on the nature of the acid, but will
proceed to completion

to work it out

## - We can measure the concentration of a solution by a technique known as titration

- The end point is the point at which the indicator turns color
- The equivalence point is the point at which exactly enough base has been added to
neutralize the acid

Redox
- Every atom, ion or polyatomic ion has a formal oxidation number associated with
it. This value compares the number of protons in an atom (positive charge) and
the number of electrons assigned to that atom (negative charge).
- I remember this phrase: LEO the lion says GER.
- LEO = Loss of Electrons is Oxidation
GER = Gain of Electrons is Reduction
- Oxidizing Agent - that substance which oxidizes somebody else. It is reduced in
the process.
Reducing Agent - that substance which reduces somebody else. It is oxidized in
the process.
- Cathode is the metal that reduces
- Anode is the one that oxidizes
- Salt bridge goes in between to make complete circuit
- All free, uncombined elements have an oxidation number of zero.
- Hydrogen, in all its compounds except hydrides, has an oxidation number of +1
(positive one)
- Oxygen, in all its compounds except peroxides, has an oxidation number of -2
(negative two).
- A half-reaction is simply one which shows either reduction OR oxidation, but not
both.
- How to balance:
o Balance atom being reduced/oxidized
o Balance oxygen using H2O
o Balance Hydrogen using H+
o Balance Total Charge (ALWAYS last step)
o Also, if in basic solution, cancel H+ with OH- to both sides and cancel
out water
- Sometimes there is a chart with the half reaction so you don’t have to try to
balance it the long way
- Electrolysis is when you use a current to make the reaction go in a certain way, no
spontaneous
- Remember that there are about 96,500 C in one mole of electrons
- The Equation goes: Current(A) = Charge (C) / Time (seconds)
- If you have to find the mass, find out how many moles of electrons, and then find
the mole ratio of electrons to the ion and then multiply to find the number of
moles of whatever and then if you have to find mass then multiply the moles of
substance times the molar mass
-