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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

INTRODUCTION
TO
LARSEN
&

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

TOUBRO

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED

M/S. Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Is Indias premier technology driven company
with leading Edge capabilities in fields related to Engineering, infrastructure & Basic
industries. IN SERVICE LIES SUCCESS, ITS ALL ABOUT IMAGINEERING &
WE MAKE THINGS THAT MAKES INDIA PROUD are the mottos of LARSEN &
TOUBRO LTD. It is one of the foremost engineering companies in India set up almost seven
decades ago. Over the years, the Company has grown by leaps and bounds and has diversified
into a wide range of products, where I had got an opportunity to undergo Inplant Training.
L&T is one of the Indias best-known multi-products engineering organizations involved in
over thirty distinct fields of engineering. The main L&T Workshop is located at Powai, which
is spread over an area of 73,600 sq. meters.
The foundation of this company was laid on 1st may 1938 by two Danish engineers, Mr.
H. Holck Larsen (Chemical Engineer) and late Mr. Soren K. Toubro (Civil Engineer). The
great partnership of this two made it possible for L&T to move to the acme of engineering
field. At the beginning they had a garage for maintenance of imported machinery like earth
moving equipments and food processing equipments. During world war major parts all over

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

the world were blocked with damage ships and there was an urgent need to repair those ships.
These young Engineers took the initiative and this opportunity to refit and run the capture
Italian ship M.V.HILDA as a floating workshop off the coast of Bombay to take care of the
floating workshop operation.
Later the company became Private limited on 7th February 1946 and a Public limited
Company in 1950 with a paid up share capital of 20 lakhs and had a sales turnover of 109
lakhs. From that modest beginning it has now grown into todays multi-product diversified
firm being the nucleus of a group of companies, In terms of mainstream criteria, viz. sales,
profits, assets and market capitalization. L&T ranks among the top ten in Indias private
sector. It is a professionally managed company with Mr. A.M. Naik, Chairman &
Managing Director, heading the corporate management.
A technology intensive approach and a commitment to customer service have enabled
the company to acquire market leadership in most of its major business lines. The companys
track record includes achievements extraordinary in Indian industry. Each successful
accomplishment has provided the impetus for greater achievements in a continuing quest for
excellence.
Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T rapidly took on engineering and
construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets global
engineering Benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

L&Ts major manufacturing works are in Powai and Hazira. Powai has a total built up
area of 1, 20,000sq.m. It has at present nearly one million shareholders and over 38,000
employees. L&T has 23 manufacturing units spread all around the country. It has a
network of 4 regional offices, 19 branch offices and 10 resident representatives. L&T s
registered office is situated in south Mumbai named as L&T HOUSE.
L&T aims to build on its traditional strengths and fulfills its vision of becoming a worldclass company dedicated to professionalism & excellence.

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

POWAI WORKS:

Fig. 1 Overview of the Company


Powai Works in Mumbai is the oldest manufacturing unit of Larsen & Toubro
Limited. During mid eighties, as the process plants sizes grew due to economies of scale, a
need was felt to enlarge its capabilities for manufacture of heavier and over dimensioned
equipments, which form the core (e.g. high pressure reactors, plate and forge reactor, gasifier)
of any large process plant. Powai Works being primarily landlocked, it was difficult to
transport out large and heavy equipments from there to various customers sites. L&T, thus,
acquired land at Hazira, Surat with a large waterfront in order to enhance its capability for
manufacturing heavier/Over Dimensional equipments, with a proper logistics support for its
finished products through the sea route.
Fabrication shops have a built-up area of 46,000 sq.m & equipped with
sophisticated facilities for fabrication, machining, handling and quality control. The divisions
advance technology and high standard of specialization facilitate the manufacture of high

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

quality equipment of big thicknesses in mono-block construction with individual section


varying very high.

SALIENT FEATURS OF L&T

A public limited company.

Over one million shareholders.

A professionally managed company.

Numerous subsidiary and associate companies.

Sound financials with a sales turnover of 27,000 crores.

Largest Engineering and Construction Company in India.

TURNOVER: US $ 9.8 Billion

MANUFACTURING FACILITIES: 23Locations


SALES OFFICES: Worldwide
BRANCH OFFICES: 19
REGIONAL OFFICES: 15
RESIDENT REPRESENTATIVE: 10

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

BUSINESS RANGE

CORE SECTOR- Heavy engineering, plant and equipment for steel, chemical,

paper, cement, nuclear and space exploration.

ELECTRICAL - Electrical low-tension switchgear, Industrial drives and controls,

Computer peripherals, Telecommunication equipment, Medical, Test and measuring


instruments.

OTHERS - Construction equipment, Industrial valves, Welding alloys, Petrol pumps,

Rubber machinery, MIPD and extrusion machinery.

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

STRUCTURE OF COMPANY

Larsen & Toubro has various departments which are delivering excellent
performance in their respective domain. The departments have been broadly classified as:

HED

CONSTRUCTION

EBG

DIVERSIFIED BUSINESS

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYY

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

HEAVY ENGINEERING DIVISION:


Heavy Engineering Division (HED) is one of the oldest divisions of Larsen & Toubro
Limited. It primarily involves with in-house Design & Manufacture of hi-tech custom built
fabricated equipments for all core sector industries like Oil & Gas, Refineries, Petrochemicals,
Fertilizers and also Nuclear Plants, Aerospace & Defence Sectors.
Heavy Engineering Division deals with the marketing, designing, engineering
and manufacturing of one off equipment and machinery required for basic industries in the
core sector, such as Fertilizer, Chemical, Petrol, Chemical Power, Cement, Nuclear,
Aerospace, Defence, Oil, etc.
The unit is headed by a Vice President and has manpower of over 3000 personnel,
including 1000 at Hazira works near Surat. Heavy Engineering Divisions plant at Mumbais
Powai works has two separate workshops, one known as the Production Centre 1 and the
other known as the Production Centre 2.Max capacity of both workshop is 350 TON. L&T
is acknowledged as one of the worlds top five manufacturing companies in the heavy
engineering space. L&Ts Heavy Engineering Division has established a reputation for
quality, based on strong engineering capabilities state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities. The
Division manufactures and supplies precision, technology-intensive, custom-built equipment
and system for critical sectors such as Oil & Gas, Refinery, Petro-chemical, fertilizer, Power
(including Nuclear) as well as Defence and Aerospace.
L&Ts Heavy Engineering business activities are organized under self-reliant Strategic
Business Units (SBUs), each specializing in specific industry sectors. The Division operates
at the upper end of the technology spectrum and has, for over six decades, been at the

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

forefront of introducing new processes, products and materials into Indian manufacturing.
L&T has state-of-the art manufacturing facilities, which are capable of meeting the
challenges of technology, quality conformance and delivery, while ensuring cost
competitiveness.
The Division has achieved a preferred supplier relationship with major EPC contractors
and has been recognized as the Most Valuable Supplier by Fluor Corporation of USA, a
major EPC contractor. Key customers have recognized the quality and on time delivery
performance of the Division by awarding prestigious orders for Reactors on Nomination
basis.
Key success factors for significant growth in export performance include close interaction
with customers, reliable performance, improved planning for timely execution of orders and
positioning the Company as a reliable, long-term partner.

L&Ts manufacturing units are located at:


Powai (Mumbai)
Hazira (Surat) - with its own water front & Ro-Ro(roll-on/roll-off) jetty
Ranoli (Vadodara) - dedicated to handling stainless steels, non-ferrous & Advance
composite materials.
Coimbatore - dedicated to handling Precision manufactured components, assemblies
& systems for Defence, Nuclear & aerospace industry.
Talegaon dedicated to manufacture & supply of custom engineered equipment,
assemblies & systems for catering to defence industry.

STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNITS: -

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

SBU CODE

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

SBU DESCRIPTION

FPEX

Fertilizers, petroleum & Heat Transfer Equipment Business

CGPP

Coal Gasifier & Thermal Power Plant Equipment Business

RCOG

Refinery, Cracker Plant an Oil & Gas Equipment Business

TECP

Technology Development Center for Process Plant.

PRCP

VPs Office- SBU Cluster B

SPLP

VPs Office- SBU Cluster C

AERO

Aerospace & Aviation

MARI

Marine Equipments & Systems

NUCL

Nuclear Business

WSAS

Weapon System & Sensors

ARMY

Army Business

TECS

Technology Development Center for Special Projects

IBCU

International Business Coordination Unit

Business activities of Heavy Engineering are overseen by three self reliant Strategic
Business Units (SBUs). These three SBUs are formed on the basis of following subdivisions:

HED SPECTRUM

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

SBU-1: Heat Transfer Equipments:


All types of shell and tube heat exchangers, high pressure heat exchangers, spiral and plate heat
exchangers, threaded lock closure high pressure heat exchangers for refineries, carbonate
condensers for fertilizer industries, carbonate condensers for fertilizer industries and
specialized multi-tubular reactors for manmade fibers, systems/subsystems related to heat
exchangers.

Fig. 1.1.1 HELIXCHANGER

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

SBU-2: Vessels, Towers & Boiler Systems:


Special purpose equipment includes multi-wall ammonia converters, converter
internals, process gas waste heat boiler system, urea reactors and urea strippers for ammonia
and urea plants, reactors/regenerators and hydro cracking reactors, Polymerizes and special
purpose reactors with Electro-polished internals

Fig. 1.1.2 COAL GASIFIER

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

SBU-3: Equipment & Systems for Nuclear & Thermal Power,


Defence & Aerospace Industries:
Nuclear, thermal and cogeneration power plants, Heavy water plants, Reactor vessel end
shields, primary heat transfer equipment like steam generators and auxiliary heat exchangers
for nuclear power plants, towers (monowall/multiwall) heat exchangers/coolers and internals
for heavy water projects.

Fig. 1.1.3 STEAM GENERATORS FOR 220 MW POWER GENERATION

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

PRODUCT RANGE:

Product Range of Manufacturing Units.


Heat Exchangers, Pressure Vessels, Multi-wall Vessels,
1 Powai Works
Cryogenic Vessels, Gasifier, PSLV, Reactors.
Large, Heavy and Over Dimensioned eqpts. e.g. Pressure
Hazira
2

Vessels, Reactors, Columns & Towers, End Shields/Steam


Works
Ranoli

Generators, etc.
Composites Stainless Steel Sheet metal, Aluminium & Non-

Works

ferrous fabricated equipments, etc.

Talegaon

All component for defence equipments like

works
Vizag

Stabilizer, Steering Gear etc


Manufacturing of sub- marine

Coimbatore

Precision machining

Bangalore

Special electronics

Oman

Under construction

INTRODUCTION TO FPEX & CGPP


Fertilizer, Petrochemical & Heat Transfer Equipment:
The product range comprises reactors, vessels, heat- exchangers and equipment for
various services including high-pressure, high-temperature, hydrogen service, cryogenic
application etc. Major equipment supplied includes process gas waste heat boilers, steam
drums and super heaters, multi-wall converters and reactors, converter baskets, urea reactors,

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

carbamate condensers, urea strippers, Pacol and Hydrocarbon reactors, polypropylene and
polyethylene reactors and pressure vessels and equipment for cryogenic application etc.

Coal Gasifier & Thermal Power Plant Equipment:


L&T manufactures and supplies key Coal Gasification Equipment coal Gasifier and
Syngas coolers under a technical tie-up with Shell Global Solutions, The Netherlands. These
find application in power plants and a wide variety of process plants such as ammonia,
methanol and wherever synthesis gas is required.
L&T offers complete condensing and feed heating systems, balance-of-plant in the
turbine island (except turbine generator) including equipment like surface condensers, LP and
HP feed water heaters, condensate and feed water pumps, inter connecting piping, valves,
instruments, controls, and auxiliary sub-systems.
L&T is uniquely placed to offer equipment and machinery including cement mills, kiln
sections, grinding rollers, coolers and other machinery parts and spares for cement plants. The
product range includes rotary equipment such as dryers, granulators, coolers, roasters and
calciners for various applications.

INTRODUCTION

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

TO
CGPPINSPECTION
DEPARTMENT

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

INRODUCTION TO CGPP-INSPECTION
INTRODUCTION
Increase in quality standard and high competition in the engineering
field, importance of this department has been increased. The quality requirement of a
particular job is mentioned in the specifications & the inspection department has to work
according to those specifications to maintain the quality. For attaching good quality
inspectors have thorough knowledge of codes, specification, drawing and other supporting
documents. Inspection department also takes care of documents, report, certificates etc. the
right of generation of these documents is reserved with the inspection department.

Depending upon the stages, the inspection department is divided into:

POWAI INSPECTION STORES ( PCS )

PLATE PREAPARATION SHOP INSPECTION ( PPS )

FABRICATION SHOP INSPECTION

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

POWAI CENTRAL STORES (PCS) INSPECTION


PCS inspection, also known as Receipt Stores inspection, is responsible for inspection
of incoming raw materials which are in the product from & which are being sub-contracted to
the vendors. e.g. Forging hardwares, external attachments etc
The inspector in this department reviews the test certificate (TC) of the product &
confirms that the material supplied by the vendor is as per TC. After ensuring this, the
inspector makes Material Clearance Record (MCR) & releases the material for further
inspection.

PLATE PREPARATION SHOP (PPS) INSPECTION


PPS inspection is concerned with the inspection of raw material, which is in the plate
form. The company keeps the plates in spare & uses it for the job as & when required. The
inspector in PPS inspection ensures that the plate being taken in use for a job confirms to the
requirement of that job. Once this is ensured, the inspector makes MCR & releases the plate
for further inspection.

FABRICATION SHOP INSPECTION


The two major activities of this department are:

In-process inspection.

Final or outgoing inspection

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

FUNCTIONS OF INSPECTION DEPARTMENT

Raw material inspection.

Quality & standard of the product.

In-process inspection.

Final inspection.

Documentation.

RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION


Inspection department identifies the required raw material; it should be as per the
required:

Size

Shape

Quality

Quantity.

INPROCESS INSPECTION
Inspection department inspect the product, when it is under production, by
applying various inspection techniques (destructive & non destructive). If any problem
is there, it is rectified at the instant of detection. So, in future it will not create any
cause of concern & reduce the work & there is time saving.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

FINAL INSPECTION
Inspection department inspects the product prier to the time of dispatch.
Inspection department has to inspect:

Final dimension of the product.

Final visual of the product.

Packing & loading of the product etc.

Paint inspection.

MAINTAIN QUALITY & STANDARD OF THE PRODUCT


There is a very important function of inspection department as far as quality of the
product is concerned. As the inspection is done at every stage, such as:

Raw material inspection

In-process inspection

Final inspection

All these activities lead to the following production parameters:

Reduce the work

Shorten the production cycle.

Increase the production rate.

Increase the quality of product

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Thus it plays the key role for maintaining the quality & standard of the product.

DOCUMENTATION
This department prepares all the documents related to:

Raw material of product.

Tests carried out & result obtained.

Final product.

In short inspection department has to perform the following activities.

Preparing inspection checklist

Witnessing different tests such as Hydro-test & other NDTs.

Co-ordination with QA (Quality Assurance) Dept. For different gauges to be used for
inspection tests.

Co-ordination with inspection agencies for clearing inspection stages.

Reporting non-conformities for deviations, if any.

Preparing a list of balance work on job.

In-process inspection of set-up, dimensions, seams finish etc.

Preparing final document such as:

L&T compliance certificate.

Reports of different (like ferrite, hardness etc.) tests.

PTC, PT& MT reports.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Seam wise welders record.

As built drawings.

Obtaining release note from third party / inspection agencies.

Offering materials to inspection agencies.

INTRODUCTION TO THIRD PARTY INSPECTION:


THIRD PARTY INSPECTION is Inspection from customer. It is Inspection done by
customer or Inspection Company hired by customer. After L&Ts inspection of material, the
material is offered to third party inspector for inspection and the material is cleared by third
party by signing the MCR and punching third party inspectors metal stamp on it.

INTRODUCTION TO IBR:
Indian boiler regulations-1950 is the standards in respect of materials, design and
construction, inspection and testing of boiler components for compliance by the
manufacturers and users of boiler in India.

The Central Boilers Board, constituted under section 27A Of the Indian Boilers Act
1923 (5 of 1923) is responsible for making regulation for lying down the standards for
materials, design, construction as well as for registration and inspection of boilers. The
Board comprises of the representatives of the central and state governments, Union
Territories, Bureau of Indian Standards, Coal Industry, boiler manufacturing Industry, Boiler

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Ancillaries Industry, Steel Manufacturers, users of boilers and other interests connected
with the boiler industry.

IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS:

1)

NON-CONFIRMITY REPORT (NCR)


It is not possible to maintain cent-percent accuracy or perfection in the fabrication of

a critical item. The fabricator sometimes makes a mistake due to which the job suffers. Such
a mistake has to be rectified through NCR.

2)

DESIGN CHANGE REQUEST (DCR)


The design change is initiated by the planning people. This is forwarded with the

rectification of some design, item, material, welding, non-destructive testing etc. After the
approval of the design department, the rectification is mentioned in the revised drawing.

3)

STORES CREDIT NOTE


When the jib gets over in all the respects, progress department makes this document

& along with item list or supply list attached, it is handed over to the inspection department.
After getting SCN sign from the inspection, it is handed over to the product group which in
turn credits the amount of the job to the concerned shop.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

4) INSPECTION ENTRY SLIP


After completing the work on the job, shop supervisors offers the inspection
department for inspecting the work for this shop supervisor has to make entry in the
inspection entry slip.

5) INSPECTION CHECK LIST


It is the document, which is signed by the L & T inspector and third party surveyor
after inspecting the work and found satisfactory.

6) INSPECTION CLEARENCE SLIP (ICS)


After inspection of any process on job ICS is issued by the inspection department
which means that inspection is clear and job can proceed for further operation.

7) DOCUMENT TRANSFER NOTE


To transfer the various document from one department to another department DTN
is used. It will be on the record that document has transferred to another department. Signs
of both the departments are taken on it.

8) MATERIAL CLEARENCE RECORD (MCR)


MCR is prepared by inspection department in Baan. It carries all the information
(i.e. Part no, project no, heat no, material grade, dimension, description, TC no, l & t lot no)
of the material cleared by inspection.

9) ROUTE CARDS (RC)


Route cards are basically made for routing jobs, operation wise from machine.
Various things, which are added on to the route car, are:

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

1. Estimated hours for the job along with the machine on which the job is loaded.
2.

Drg. No., Part description, Quantity.

3. Initiating department, Reference, Inspection department.


4. Special jigs & fixture if any drawn or attached along with..
5. Material description with size, type & location.

MY ROLE IN DEPARTMENT

Ferrite check of SS (Stainless Steel) overlay.

Hardness check of weld seam.

Thickness check of Shell & DEnd (Dish End).

Gap check between the Liner & Shell.

Air Test of Tube to Tubesheet joint, liners & weep holes.

Rub-off of punching on job.

Make PT/MT Reports.

Make PT/PTC/HTR Annexure.

Preparation of IBR Charts.

Preparation of IBR Hydro permission of jobs.

Preparation of Ferrite, Thickness, Hardness and Gap check report.

Preparation of Mock up Block Report.

DCR/NCR updating on drawing.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Checking and maintain record of Heat Treatment Chart.

Collecting and preparing final documentation for job.

Visit to IBR to submission and collection of documents.

Releasing PTC for Heat Treatment.

Preparation of pending list of MCR.

Understanding/Studying Welding & Fabrication Processes, Drawings, System (Baan)

THICKNESS TESTING
INTRODUCTION:
Thickness of a plate is an important factor on which depends the manufacturing of
heat exchanger. If the thickness varies from one spot to another, a severe problem may take
place in the latter stages. Therefore thickness testing is an important stage of inspection in the
manufacturing process.
A screw micrometer or vernier caliper can also measure thickness, but these
instruments are not applicable for everybody high skill and practice is needed to read such
instruments. Therefore more accurate method of measuring the thickness is by an instrument
called Ultrasonic Thickness Meter.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
Ultrasonic waves are generated in the probes and
are transmitted through to the test spot by locating the probe
correctly. The ultrasonic waves travel under the probe,

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

through the cross section and are reflected back by the material boundary. The time taken by the
signal to reach the probe is recorded and converted to display the thickness.
Fig. 2
It is essential that the test spot surface and the other end material boundary are parallel
to each other.
It is necessary to remove air between the test spot surface and the probe surface to
make a measurement. Liquids like oil or grease is applied to the test spot prior to placing the
probe for measurement. The applied couplant should form a thin layer under the probe tip.

CALIBRATION:
To get more accurate thickness measurement, calibration of the thickness meter is very
important. Using the micrometer or other appropriate instrument accurately measure the
thickness of job at minimum three location and record the readings. Set the Thickness meter on
calibration made and calibrate the equipment by placing the Transducer at these locations and
adjust the velocity on the t-meter accurately so that these thickness readings match with the
thickness reading observed and recorded as above.

ADVANTAGES:

Moderate skill is required to operate this meter.

Accurate results can be obtained as this meter works on ultrasonic principle.

It is portable and can be carried easily at sites.

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LIMITATIONS:

The meter is quite delicate. No pressure should be applied on the display.

Liquids like oil of grease are always needed.

A calibration block is required for measuring thickness more than 5mm.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

FERRITE TESTING
INTRODUCTION:
The feritscope (ferrite testing meter) was developed to facilitate accurate ferrite
content measurement on welded seams & cladded items.
When a vessel is designed to handle corrosive fluids, it is fabricated from acid
resistant austenitic chromium-nickel cladded steel. Further for such vessels, the residual ferrite
content of cladding as well as of welded seams must lie within a specific range to avoid any
possible corrosion. To ensure this we measure the ferrite content of the cladded material &
welded seams at various stages of manufacturing.
The equipment used for this purpose can measure ferrite content in % ferrite. The
instrument is basically a digital display gauge with a probe. To measure the ferrite content the
probe is placed perpendicular on the surface whose ferrite content is to be measured. As soon as
the probe acquires ferrite content, it is displayed on the screen.

DESCRIPTION:
It gives results, which are comparable in accuracy to those obtained from magnetic
balance measurement. The residual ferrite content of cladding as well as any welded seam must
lie within a specific range compatible with mechanical strength requirement of item concerned.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

PRINCIPLE:
In case of austenitic stainless steel weldment castings, ferrite typically lies between
0.5 to 1.2. Thus low ferrite content increases the Susceptibility to hot cracking. High ferrite
content decreases corrosion resistance by reducing chrome & molybdenum, leads to less
favorable forming characteristics. In case of duplex steel, this steel attains their most favorable
mechanical & corrosion resistance properties when the ferrite content lies between 40% to
60%.
This instrument is based on the principle of magnetic induction method. Hand probes,
which may be a pencil or angle type, are generally used.
A low frequency alternating current flows through the field coil. The field coil generates
magnetic field, which penetrates into the specimen. The interaction between the field & the
specimen induces an alternating voltage in the detection coil, which is proportional to the
detection of the ferrite content within the volume of measurement.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

PROCEDURE :

Before taking the ferrite measurement, check the calibration of the equipment on
reference block.

Place the probe gently on a clean dry & grease free surface.

Hold the probe perpendicular to the surface to be measured.

Press the CAL button. Checked that it is showing proper reading.


After proper calibration of the equipment, place the probe wherever the ferrite content is

to be required.

APPLICATIONS:

In chemical industry.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Stress bearing member of containers.

Pipes.

Reactor vessels.

Other plant made up of ordinary constructional steels.

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

HARDNESS TESTING
INTRODUCTION:
Hardness is very important property of the metals. It embraces many meanings
such as resistance to wear, scratching, deformation & machining. It also means the ability to
cut another metal. The hardness test gives the idea of resistance of the weld metal to wear. This
is important with respect to the components, which have been building up to withstand
abrasive wear. Hardness values can give information about the metallurgical changes caused
by welding.
In case of medium and high carbon steel and cast iron, the heat affected zone or weld
junction may become hard and brittle due to formation of martensite.
Hardness tests shall be carried out on the normal surface or after post weld heat
treatment on the different regions at the inside surface of the vessel.
Hardness values in welded joints are usually sensitive welding conditions such as:

Welding process used.

Heat input.

Preheat.

Electrode composition.

Plate thickness.
Hardness values indicate whether the correct welding technique and pre and

post heat treatment have been carried out. A portable hardness tester known as EQUOTIP

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

hardness tester can accurately measure the hardness of a weld. It is simple to operate and easy
to understand. The description of the tester is as follows:

EQUOTIP HARDNESS TESTER

INTRODUCTION:
The Equotip hardness tester is designed for testing metallic materials, the hardness
of which ranges from very low to very high values. Hardness testing can be performed directly
on site and in any position. Typical applications for the Equotip instrument are large, heavy
work pieces, which are difficult to access. It is especially for applications in which standard
hardness testing is either not feasible or not economical. Compared to the standard hardness
testing machines like Brinell, Vicker & Rockwell; Equotip hardness tester is portable & gives
the values of hardness for the above all (HB, HV, HRC ETC.).

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

Fig. 4

EQUOTIP MEASURING METHOD:


During hardness test, an impact body, equipped with a spherically shaped
tungsten carbide tip impacts under spring force against the test surface from which it
rebounds. Impact and rebound velocities are measured in a contactless manner at the
precise moment, when the spherically test tip is located approximately 1mm from the test
surface. A permanent magnet build into the impact body which, during the test impact,
passes through the coil accomplishes this. During the forward and rebound movement,
electrical voltages are induced which are proportional to the velocities. The measurement
values derived from the impact and rebound velocities are processed into hardness number
L by the indicating device.

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Dye Penetration Test:

Figure 5.1 Dye Penetration Testing


Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI)
or penetrant testing , is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method
used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals,
plastics, or ceramics).

The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous

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materials and ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components


magnetic-particle inspection is also preferred for its subsurface detection
capability. LPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects
such as cracks, surface porosities, and leaks in new products, and fatigue
cracks on in-service components.

Fig. 5.2 Dye Penetrant Testing of Liner welds


Penetrants are classified into sensitivity levels. Visible penetrants are
typically red in color, and represent the lowest sensitivity. Fluorescent
penetrants contain two or more dyes that fluoresce when excited by
ultraviolet (UV-a) radiation (also known as black light). Since fluorescent
penetrant inspection is performed in a darkened environment, and the

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excited dyes emit brilliant yellow-green light that contrasts strongly against
the dark background, this material is more sensitive to small defects.

Visual Examination:

Initial visual inspection of the geometry of the component and the


type and nature of the defect likely to be present is the first stage of any
inspection. The inaccessible surface can be inspected by introscope
(illuminated optical device using a system of lenses and mirrors). Miniature
conventional cameras have been developed to examine internal condition of
long part. The photographs can be taken by remote control. Miniature
television cameras have also been developed. These transit a continuous
record of the inner surface of the part, to be viewed on a monitoring screen
by the operator. The following defects can be found out by Visual
inspection.
Defects which are easily located by visual inspection are surface cracks,
blow holes, metal penetration, buckles, swell, shift, surface roughness,
shrinkage etc.

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Visual inspection is simplest, fastest but it needs greater skills on the part
of the inspector to locate & identify different manufacturing defects.
Visual inspection is done before welding, during welding & after welding
stages.
Visual inspection is done before welding for weld edge preparation,
cleanliness, joint fit-up, welding consumables, pre-heating requirements etc.
Visual inspection for chip back gauging, inter-run cleaning, inter pass
temperature, proper backing of consumables, etc. is done during welding
stage.
After welding stage, cleaning, metal penetration & root examination,
contour, weld dimensions & various welding defects are checked
Various welding gauges such as fillet gauge, hi-lo gauge, profile gauge are
used for visual inspection.

Ultrasonic Test:

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Fig. 5.3 Ultrasonic Testing


In ultrasonic testing (UT), very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center
frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz and occasionally up to 50 MHz are
launched into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials.
The technique is also commonly used to determine the thickness of the test
object, for example, to monitor pipe work corrosion. Ultrasonic testing is
often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be
used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is a
form of non-destructive testing used in many industries including
aerospace, automotive and other transportation sectors.

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Fig. 5.4 Ultrasonic Testing of Dishend


Ultrasonic testing is the most widely used and most powerful procedure
for inspecting fiber reinforced composites for internal defects.
Fundamentally a probe with a piezoelectric crystal transmits ultrasonic
pulses into the specimen and whenever a change in material acoustic
impedance occurs the pulses are reflected back and received by the same
or another crystal.
Acoustic impedance is the material density multiplied by the ultrasonic
velocity in the material. Appropriate instrumentation can display the
information in various ways.
A common technique is immersion testing where the transducer is coupled
to the specimen with water.

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Contact testing is also possible where the probe is placed on the specimen
with a viscous coolant being used between the probe and specimen.

Radiography Test:

Fig. 5.5 Radiographic Testing


Radiographic testing is a process of testing materials that uses
penetrating radiation such as x-rays or gamma rays. This allows
examination of the interior of the objects or assemblies that are opaque to
the light. Radiography is called a non-destructive method of testing since
objects that are tested are not damaged by the test and may still be used
when the testing is completed.

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Principle:
Radiography technique is based on exposing the components to

short wavelength radiation in the form of X Rays or Gamma Rays from


sources such as an X Ray machines or radiography isotopes such as
Iridium-192, Cobalt-60 and Thulium-170 etc.
In passing through the material, some of the radiation is absorbed or
changed. The

amount of absorption is dependent upon the thickness of

the material, the density of thematerial and the atomic number of the
absorber. Some kind of detector such as film, a fluorescent screen may
then be used to record the variations in intensity of the emerging beam as
visual images or signals. Industrial radiography is primarily concerned
with recording images on film.

Fig. 5.6 Schematic view of Radiography Test


Magnetic Particle Test:

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Figure 5.7 Magnetic Particle Testing


Magnetic particle testing is a non-destructive testing process for
detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferroelectric materials
such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a
magnetic field into the part. The piece can be magnetized by direct or
indirect magnetization. Direct magnetization occurs when the electric
current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field is formed in
the material. Indirect magnetization occurs when no electric current is
passed through the test object, but a magnetic field is applied from an
outside source. The magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to the

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direction of the electric current which may be either alternating current


(AC) or some form of direct current (DC) (rectified AC).
The presence of a surface or subsurface discontinuity in the material
allows the magnetic flux to leak. Ferrous iron particles are applied to the
part. The particles may be dry or in a wet suspension. If an area of flux
leakage is present the particles will be attracted to this area. The particles
will build up at the area of leakage and form what is known as an
indication. The indication can then be evaluated to determine what it is,
what may have caused it, and what action should be taken if any.

Fig.5.8 Magnetic particle testing.

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Pneumatic Test:-

EQUIPMENT:Pressure Gauges and Accessories required are as under:


1.

The pressure gauges (minimum 2 nos.)

Used in testing shall be

indicating type.
2.

The indication range shall not be less than 1.5 times and not more
than 4 times of the test pressure.

3.

All pressure gauges used in testing shall have a calibration record


showing values of standard v/s indicated pressure and validity period.

4.

Pressure pumps, hosepipes, fitting and other accessories used shall


be capable of developing and withstanding the test pressure.

TEST MEDIUM:Test medium required is compressed air or Nitrogen and Soap water
solution. The bubble forming solution shall be commercial liquid soap.
It should be prepared by 1 part of liquid soap with 5 parts of water.

PNEUMATIC TEST:1. All opening shall be blanked properly

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2. Metal Temperature during pneumatic test shall not be below 4 C and


not above 52 C throughout the examination.
3. Pressurize the job gradually to the specified test pressure and hold the
same for 10 minutes.
4. Apply soap water solution on the joints, which are to be tested.
5. Check for leakage. (There will be forth formation or Bubbles will form at
leak area)
6. If any leakage is noticed, take corrective action.
7. After repairs, above test shall be repeated.
8. If no leakage is visible, drop the pressure gradually.
9. The light intensity during the test shall be 1000 Lux minimum.

Helium Leak Test:All methods of the leak detection using a mass spectrometer leak detector
involve passage of a tracer gas through a presumed leak from one side to
other side of a pressure boundary and subsequent detection of tracer gas on
his lower pressure side. The typical basic methods used in mass
spectrometer leak testing includes:1. Tracer Probe Method (Vaccum Leak Testing)
2. Detector Probe Method (Sniffer Testing)
3. Hood Method

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4. Pressure-Vessel Method

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Fig. 5.9 Schematic diagram of Helium Leak Test


Factors to be considered when selecting helium leak technique include:
1. Size, shape and location of equipments to be tested.
2. Choice between use of pressure or vaccum or both for testing
3. Maximum leakage rate specified or that can be tolerated.
4.

Degree of automatic leak testing operation required.

The mass spectrometer leak detector is connected is connected to the


internal volume of the evacuated test object (such as vessel or piping
system) and a helium spray tracer probe is moved over the external surface
to detect the specific location of leaks.

Fig.5.10 Helium Leak testing machine


Leak Test Of Manway cover

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The helium flow rate and the probe speed is also selected to avoid
flooding the system. It is advisable to spray top joints first and then move to
the lower joints. It is the most sensitive and reliable method. The schematic
arrangement is shown in the figure. This test is well suited for small volume
components designed for vaccum and which can be evacuated by vaccum
system of the leak detector and system having it own vaccum pumping
arrangement.

HYDRO TEST
WHY HYDRO TEST?
To ensure the integrity of the equipment.
To ensure the strength of the weld joints & material.
To ensure the strength of the nozzle flange joints.
Ensures safe and reliable performance during the operational life.

ENSURE PRIOR TO WATER FILLING


Completion of welding on pressure part.

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Completion of all NDT to the acceptable stage.


Clearance of all NCR/DCR if any.
Final clearance of material cleared provisionally.
Testing of PTC/MTC, if any, to the acceptable test result.
All dimensional check within the acceptable limit.
Vessel is kept on hydro test saddle in the specified orientation as per drawing
All long-seam & circ-seam are made visible for inspection.
If job is primer coated, all pressure weld joint are cleaned free from paint.
Gaskets & gasket seating are checked for any damage.
Inside surface is cleaned.
Air vending arrangement wherever is required.
All fasteners are tightened to the required torque.
All openings are closed except top one for filling water.
Arrangement of pressurizing shall be through one of the nozzles from the bottom.
Square bar arrangements on inlet & outlet connection.
Arrow for direction of water flow on fittings to be verified & confirmed.
Two pressure gauge or one & one transducer to be made available.
PPM requirement of test water shall be verified & confirmed.
Hydro test pump, high discharge pumps shall not be used for vessel with volume 10 m3.

WATER FILLING, PRESSURISING & INSPECTION

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Water shall be filled from top nozzle & closed with test blank. Test blank shall be with
nipple, square bar, pressure gauge & pipe connection for vending.
Inlet valve shall remain closed till water filling.
After blanking the top nozzle with gauge & vend pipe, water shall be pumped from
bottom.
Vend pipe shall be kept open in a bucket full of water to observe air bubbles.
Vending shall be continued till the air bubble in the bucket is disappeared.
Close the outlet valve on top & connect the gauge to line pressure.
Isolate the gauge at the bottom from line pressure & pump the water in.
Raise the pressure till 50% of test pressure.
Open the inlet gauge to pressure line & verify the pressure on both gauges.
Increase the pressure in increments of 10% of test pressure.
Stop pumping for 5 minutes after each increment of 10% of rise in pressure.
Isolate the inlet pressure gauge when pump is operation.
Connect the inlet pressure gauge to line pressure when pump is stopped for pressure
verification.
When test pressure is reached, stop pumping, connect inlet gauge to pressure line and hold
for 30 min (as specified in spec) and observe the vessel from distance.
Reduce the test pressure to above design pressure and inspect all connections for leakage.
If any leakage is observed through gasket connection, repeat the test after depressurize the
vessel & tighten the studs / nuts.

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If any leakage is observed from weld or parent metal, drain the water, repair the leak and
repeat the test.
Time, temperature & pressure chart wherever specified shall be obtained
.

IMPORTANT SAFETY POINTS IN HYDROTEST

Drain the vessel only when top out let is kept open.

Use minimum 2 gauges for any hydro test.

Never use high discharge pumps for testing low volume vessels. (Volume less than 10)

Never pressurize any vessel above test pressure

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HEAT EXCHANGER
Heat exchangers are the equipment used to facilitate the process of heat transfer between
the fluids. Heat exchangers finds their application in many industries such as cement Ind.,

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chemical Ind., refineries, petrochemical Ind., refrigeration, fertilizers, power plants etc. The
process of heat transfer takes place by conduction, convection or direct contact of fluids.

Fig. 6.1 Schematic Diagram Of Heat Exchanger

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PARTS OF HEAT EXCHANGER


A Heat exchanger of shell and tube type, which is found in most of the industrial
applications, is divided into two parts, one called the Tube side while the other is called
the Shell side. The shell side always surrounds the tube side. One of the fluids is
circulated through the tubes while the other is passed through the shell.
Following are the various parts of a Heat Exchanger in brief:

SHELL:

Fig. 6.2
It is one of the most important parts of a heat exchanger. The whole tube bundle is
fitted in the shell. Plates of required thickness of the shell are cut as per the specification
of the drawing and formed to a desired shape on a plate bending or rolling machine. Shell
may be made of different material depending upon the fluid circulated, but generally they
are made of carbon steel.

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DISHED ENDS:

Fig. 6.3
This is the closing part of the shell. It is in the shape of a dish so it is called dished end.
It is used to give more surface area so that it can bear more pressure. Depending on the
design, there are four types of dished ends.
Torispherical
Hemispherical
Ellipsoidal
Toriconical
Saucer type
Crown & Petals
Torispherical dishend is easy to manufacture as there is only one radius whereas in
ellipsoidal-dishend there are two radii. In case of hemispherical dished end, though it has

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only one radius, it cannot be manufactured easily because it requires bigger capacity
press as compared to other ones.

TUBES:

Fig. 6.4

The tube is the part through which the working fluid passes. The heat interaction takes
place through the tubes. The two basic types of tubes are planned and finned. The outer
diameter of the tubes varies from 6 mm to 40 mm, with thickness depending upon the
material used and the diameter.

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TUBESHEET:

Fig. 6.5

It is a flat plate with a provision for making a gasket joint around the periphery. A large
number of holes are drilled in the tubesheet depending on the pitch requirement of the
tubes. The most common process of fixing the tubes to the tubesheet is the tube expansion
process. This process is carried out with the help of other mechanical expanders (rollers) or
hydraulic expanders (probe).
Basically there are three types of tube sheet:

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Stationary or Fixed Tubesheet


Floating Tubesheet

TIE RODS AND SPACERS:

SPACERS

TIE RODS

Fig. 6.6

Baffles are spaced and held in position with the help of tie rods and spacer tubes. A tie
rod is stud, threaded at both ends of which one end is screwed to the tube sheet and the
other end is threaded to receive the lock nut. Spacer tubes are standard tubes cut to length
equal to the baffle spacing. 1-spacer tubes are slipped over the tie rods to form shoulders
between adjacent baffles.

CHANNEL:

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It is the part which has both inlet and outlet nozzles fabricated on it. The tube side fluid
flows through it. The channel is bolted to the tube sheet and at the other end a channel
cover is provided. The channel may either be fabricated or are of cast construction or onepiece Bonnet type or Straight type with a separate bolted cover.

BAFFLES:

Fig. 6.7

The baffles are used to increase the rate of heat transfer by increasing the velocity and
turbulence of the shell side fluid. A higher heat transfer coefficient is achieved when a
liquid is kept in a state of turbulence. So by increasing the turbulence outside the tube i.e.
in the shell side by means of baffles, shell side fluid flows perpendicular to the axis of the
tubes. This causes considerable turbulence even when a small quantity of liquid flows
through the shell. The baffles are secured by means of baffle spacers mounted on bolts

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called tie rods, which are screwed into the tube sheet. Baffles are of two types namely
transverse and longitudinal.

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NOZZLE:

Fig. 6.8

The type of flanges defines a nozzle, flange face, rating of the schedule pipe, service of
the nozzle. It is fabricated by welding the flange to the pipe. The pipe is either fabricated or
standard pipes can be used. They are used for variety of functions viz. fluid inlet, fluid
outlet, piping vents, drain, etc.

TYPES OF NOZZLE SETUP

RADIAL SETUP

TANGENTIAL SETUP

OFFSET SETUP

INCLINED SETUP

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FLANGES:

Fig. 6.9

The flanges are provided on the channel and shell cover to bolt the respective parts of the
tubesheet. Here welding is not done as it is to be dismantled after a period of time for
cleaning. Varieties of flanges are used for variety of purposes in heat exchangers. Flanges
may be used on the shell to permit aligning of header. Another important use of the flanges
is to make piping connections and nozzle attachments.

Some standard flanges used in heat exchangers are:


Slip-on flanges
Blind flanges
Socket welding flanges
Lap joint flanges
Threaded flanges

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Welded neck flange

SUPPORTS:
Horizontal shells are supported on two saddle supports while vertical shells are supported
on brackets. In case of saddle supports for fixed tubesheet heat exchanger, one of the
supports is fixed while the other is placed on rollers to facilitate the expansion of the shell.

GASKETS:
The function of the gasket is to interpose a semi-plate material between the flange
facings. The material through deformation under load seals minute surface irregularities to
prevent leakage of the fluid. In order to obtain a tight flanged joint, the gasket is inserted
between the contact faces of the flanges (coated with suitable lubricant) and then the faces
are drawn up and tightened with bolts. Gaskets can be of various types such as rubber
compressed asbestos fiber, metal, soft iron, etc.

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MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER


The shell and tube type of heat exchanger is very complex in construction, so its
manufacturing procedure will have to be divided into the following groups of activities for
better understanding of the entire process:

1. Fabrication of Shells (Main shell, Channel shell)


2. Fabrication of Nozzle
3. Manufacturing of D/E
4. Drilling of the Tube sheets and Baffles
5. Tube Bundle Assembly
6. Assembly of Heat Exchanger
7. Testing Of Equipment

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1. FABRICATION OF SHELLS:-

4500 mm wide
x 125 mm thk Cold

Fig. 7.1 Rolling Of Shell


The shell is fabricated by rolling a sheet metal plate into required diameter and
then the joint is form which is called the long seam of the shell. If the shell length is too
long then the shell is made in different sections (lengthwise). This is because the plate
rolling machines have some limitations over the shell diameter and length of the plate that
can be rolled. This necessitates the shell to be fabricated in different small lengths, which
are then welded together.
The manufacturing procedure of the shells is as follows:

The plate dimensions (Length, width), required for shell is calculated and plates of same
dimensions are cut and the weld edge is prepared.

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Edge breaking of plate is carried out to avoid peak out considering Vee inside or outside
and then check with D/4 length template.

Then plates is rolled or pre-bent (in case of cones and scalene cones).
Fig. 7.2 Weld Edge Preparation

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LONG SEAM SETUP

Fig. 7.3 Long Seam Setup

The longitudinal joint, known as long seam, is welded.

The shell is then Re-rolled for shape & ovality correction.

Long seam joint is radiographed or ultrasonically tested. Rectifications are done if


necessary.

Each small length shell of main long shell, which is called shell course, is
circumferentially welded with other similar shell course.

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INSPECTION OF LONG-SEAM SETUP

Check for material identification, item no., and shell course no.

Check weld groove geometry i.e., land angle root gap etc.

Check offset.

Check circumference at both ends and at center.

Check ovality & shape with (d/4) template.

Check tacking on the longitudinal seam as also tacking of supports etc. Tacking should
be free from defects like undercut, cracks, porosity improper fusion etc.

Check tacking of the run-in/run-out coupons / production coupons plates if required.

Check longitudinal as well as circumferential edges for lamination etc.

PRODUCTION TEST COUPON (PTC)

Welded production test plates representative of the complete vessel shall be


prepared & tested to check the quality of weld.

All conditions for the welding of production test plates shall be similar to the production
welding of the vessel.

Test plate shall be made from the same standard, grade & manufacturing process as that
of the material used in the construction of the vessel.

It is recommended that the test plate shall be taken from the same plate used in vessel or
from a different plate of the same batch.

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PREHEATING OF LONG SEAM


Preheating involves heating the base metal, either in the entirely or just the region
surrounding the joint to specific desired temperature called the pre-heat temperature.
Heating may be continued during the welding process, but frequently the heat from the
welding is sufficient to maintain the desired temperature without continuation of the
external heat source.

Why preheating
It slows the cooling rate in the weld metal & base metal, producing a more ductile
metallurgical structure with greater resistance to cracking.
Slower cooling rate provides an opportunity for hydrogen that may be present to diffuse
out harmlessly reducing the potential of cracking.

It reduces the shrinkage stress in the weld and adjacent base metal , which is especially
important in higher restrained joints.

It raises same steel above the temperature above the temperature at which brittle fracture
would occur in fabrication.

Ensure specific mechanical property such as weld metal notch toughness.

LONG SEAM WELDING & POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

Longitudinal seam welding directly start by SAW welding & the equipment used is SAW
boom.

Then PWHT is done.

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POSTWELD HEAT-TREATMENT (PWHT)


Post weld heat treatment (PWHT), defined as any heat treatment after welding, is often
used to improve the properties of weldment. In concept, PWHT can encompass many
different potential treatments; however in steel fabrication the two most common
procedures used are post heating and stress relieving.

CIRC SEAM SETUP

Fig. 7.4 Circ Seam Setup


The circumferential joints (Circ. seams) are tested.

The nozzle cutouts are made on shells.

The welding of reinforcement pads and saddle pads etc. to shell body is done, wherever
necessary.

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INSPECTION OF CIRC-SEAM SETUP

Check for material identification, item no., and shell course no.

Check weld groove geometry i.e., land angle root gap etc.

Check offset.

Check tacking on the circ- seam as also tacking of supports etc. Tacking should be free
from defects like undercut, cracks, porosity improper fusion etc.

PT/MT of weld edge preparation.

Clearance of NDT of long seam.

Clearance of testing of PTC.

2. FABRICTION OF NOZZLES
The fabrication of nozzle is generally nozzle pipe to flange joint completion. However, in
case of large diameter nozzles the standard pipe may not be available. In such cases pipe
will be fabricated like shell and then this pipe will be welded to the flange if any.

The main steps in fabrication of nozzle are listed below:

The flanges are cut and initially machined.

The nozzle pipes are fabricated if diameter of nozzle is larger.

The flanges are welded to the pipes.

Couplings if required are welded to the nozzle pipe.

Welds are tested.

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Nozzle flanges are then finally machined.

3. MANUFACTURING OF DISH-END
Dish ends may be fabricated by pressing or by welding together profiled rolled plates
(petals). If the size of the dish end is small then it is generally manufactured by pressing,
otherwise it is manufactured by fabrication.
The following are the steps that are involved in fabrication of dish-ends:

The number of petals to be welded to crown is decided considering the ease of working.

The crown and petals are press formed.

Weld edges are prepared as per specifications.

Crown and petals are set up and rough tacking welds are done to make the structure
stable.

Petals to petal seams are welded from inside as well as outside.

Then the crown seam is welded by SAW from inside as well as outside.

Trimming of petals is done to make the edge of dish end straight and weld edge is
prepared on edge for welding with shell.

4. DRILLING OF THE TUBE SHEETS AND BAFFLES:The tube sheets are manufactured in a particular way. Similarly baffles have particular
procedure.

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Tube sheets and baffles are cut (if made from plates).

The cut-plates are rough machined to required dimensions.

Drilling of holes on tubesheet is generally done on CNC drilling machine, because the
level of accuracy required in holes of tubesheet is high, both in diameter of holes as
well as in positioning of holes.

The baffles may be drilled on a radial-drilling machine. Generally it is done in-groups


for baffles of same dimensions.

Baffles in stack condition receive impressions of tube holes.

Outside diameter of the baffle in stacked condition is machine according to the actual
shell diameter, keeping required clearance.

Slotting is done on the baffles to make grooves, which are used, for making skeleton
assembly of the tube bundle.

5. ASSEMBLY OF TUBE BUNDLE:The tubesheet, baffles and tubes collectively in assembled conditions are called as a
Tube Bundle. Tube bundle may be assembled either inside shell or outside shell.
The following are the steps or assembly of tube-bundle when the tube bundle is
assembled.

OUTSIDE THE SHELL:


The fully machined tubesheet are held in vertical position.
The baffle plates are then assembled with the help of the tie rods and spacer tubes.
Fully cleaned tubes are then inserted in baffles and Tube-sheet.
Welding of tube to tubesheet if required and expansion of tube as per requirement is
done.
The tube bundle is then tested.

INSIDE THE SHELL:

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Tie-rod tubesheet is welded to shell at one end.


Baffles are set to required position with the help of tie-rods and spacers.
Tubes are then inserted from the last baffle in the tie-rod T/S with the help of pilots.
After tubing non-tie rod tubesheet is welded to shell.
Tubes are inserted in non tie rod tube sheet from tie rod tubesheet.
After adjusting required projection from both ends tube to tubesheet welding and tube
expansion is carried out.

U-Tubes
Baffles
Tie Rods

Fig. 7.5 of Tube Bundle Assembly


INSPECTION OF TUBE BUNDLE ASSEMBLY

First visual is done.

Overall dimensions are checked.

Tacking & Tightening of tie rods, nuts & spacers are checked.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Spacer length is checked.

Overall touch is done.

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

6. SHELL ASSEMBLY OF HEAT EXCHANGER: Shell assembly will be done in two parts. First part will be completion of shell
fabrication; second part will be assembly of all parts.
In first part, shell flanges will be welded to the main shell. Shell nozzles, vent nozzles
are welded to the main shell as per given orientation.
The second part is assembly of externals like saddle support, seismic stops, nameplate
bracket and other parts with main shell.
The final machining of the main shell flanges will be carried out as a last stage.
The Tube bundle is inserted in the main shell.
Floating head cover is then assembled with the service gasket with the tube bundle.
The shell cover and channel cover are then bottled with the service gasket etc.
Then the testing of heat exchanger is carried out.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

CONCLUSION
In plant training is intended to bridge the gap between the institutional
studies and practical experience in the industry. It was a great experience to work in a big
and esteemed organization- M/s LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED and get myself
acquainted with the industrial environment. The 22 weeks that I have spent in L&T have
definitely helped me in a great way and made me confident.
Invaluable contribution of training in my career
Apart from the general objectives achieved through this training has made in my
endeavor to become a successful engineer. These have been extremely important and seldom
recur in ones career. Hence they need a special mention as a part of the conclusions derived
from the in plant training.
Team work attitude
Working as a team to achieve a specific preset objective, is sincerely a different
experience in itself. Till this point of career there were not many situations where ones
abilities are called for, to work as a team. This in plant training has helped me gain this very
important quality.
Learning the constraint in the industrial atmosphere
It is a common belief that the study phase is a tough part of life. A job is usually
painted in rosy manner in comparison to the study phase. Nothing could be more away from
the fact. Working in the industry has lots of challenges to be met with. It is here that the

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Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

word commitment comes to the real life picture. A small error or lethargy in work can
cause a long ranging effect that join hands to reach a desired goal. Hence, meeting deadlines
of time seems challenging and one feels boosted because of an organized effort.
Importance of motivation and empowerment
As a trainee, while handling various assignments I found that when an individual is
motivated or empowered he works in resonance and the output is the optimum and the best
possible. On the contrary when anyone is forced to do any work, the result is not the best
and often leads to rework.
In the end, I conclude that such training not only gives commercial and
management exposure but also enables one to visualize work situations better. It acts as a
silver lining of knowledge to create confidence in a trainee. It is beyond doubt that this can
make one stand in good stead throughout future endeavors.

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Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai

Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi

BIBLIOGRAPHY
I had visited the following websites for completion of my Inplant Training report during my
Training period.

http:// gr2ueintra [L&T Intranet site]

www.ltindia.com

www.wikipedia.com

www.larsentoubro.com

Company Profile Manual {L&T Spectrum)

Indian Society for Leak Testing

ASME Codes

But mainly guidance provided by the inspectors & shop supervisors made an invaluable
enhancement of my knowledge at L&T.

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