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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 08 | February 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Performance of SPV Electricity Generation


System
A. F. Sherwani
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025

Abstract
The performance of solar photovoltaic electricity generation system can be ascertained by considering three parameters namely,
electricity generation by the plant, greenhouse gas emission from the plant and life cycle cost analysis of the plant. Present work
takes into account the electricity and greenhouse gas emission only. To formulate the directional design protocols, parameters
which affect the output of the plant are identified and their values are varied to study their effect on the performance. Various
parameters so identified are Tilt angle of the module (), Geographical location of the plant i.e latitude (), Average daily
radiation, Type of cell used (Amorphous, Mono crystalline, Polycrystalline), Green House Gas(GHG) emission of energy mix
per kWh.
Keywords: Geographical location, GHG emission and solar photovoltaic
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

The performance of solar photovoltaic electricity generation system can be ascertained by considering three parameters namely,
electricity generation by the plant, greenhouse gas emission from the plant and life cycle cost analysis of the plant. Present work
takes into account the electricity and greenhouse gas emission only.
To formulate the directional design protocols, parameters which affect the output of the plant are identified and their values
are varied to study their effect on the performance.
Various parameters so identified are Tilt angle of the module (), Geographical location of the plant i.e latitude (),Average
daily radiation, Type of cell used (Amorphous, Mono crystalline, Polycrystalline),Green House Gas(GHG) emission of energy
mix per kWh
Based on the above parameters estimation of the radiation level received then PV array sizing is done and corresponding
storage system is designed. Embodied energy is evaluated for the plant and in the last life cycle cost analysis is done.
The angle of tilt is varied from 15-45, radiation level is varied from 4-6 kWh/m2 and the area of the plant is taken to be
1000m2.Analysis is done for three types of module namely amorphous, mono crystalline and polycrystalline .The electricity mix
for India at present is 0.4 which selected for design, and corresponding GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh is taken to be
600.Total embodied energy and CO2 emissions of both types of solar photovoltaic plants namely Stand alone and Grid
Interactive system is calculated. Calculations are made for all five cities i.e Delhi (=280), Mumbai (=180), Bangalore (=120),
Ladhak (=340) and Jodhpur (=260) one from each climatic zone.
After ascertaining the value of average daily radiation received the electrical output (kWh/year) is calculated for each city
using the relation:
Electrical output (kWh/year) =Ht*Area of PV Plant*hcell*TCF*hout
hcell: Cell efficiency
TCF: Temperature correction factor, taken as 0.7
hout: Output efficiency
Cell efficiencies are taken as 0.07, 0.107, 0.137 for amorphous, monocrystalline and poly crystalline cells respectively.
Capacity of the plant (kW) is then calculated taking into account that there are sixty-five days on an average where the output
from the plant may be zero to due adverse climatic conditions and total sunshine hours available are eight.
Capacity of plant (kW) = Electrical output (kWh/year)/300/8
It is calculated for different values of H g varying from 4-6 kWh/m2 and peak value is taken as capacity of the plant given as
kWp.
Electrical output from the plant is calculated for every city namely Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Ladhak, and Jodhpur for four
different tilt angles (=150,250, 350,450) and for all three cell types amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline.

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Performance of SPV Electricity Generation System


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 08 / 030)

II. ELECTRICAL OUTPUT


Electrical output from the plant is calculated for all five different locations, =28, 18, 12 , 34 and 26 , four different Tilt
angles =15, 25, 35 and 45 and for three different cells amorphous, mono crystalline and polycrystalline. Three different
values of radiation Hg i.e. 4, 5 and 6 kWh/m2/day are considered.
The following Figures 1 shows the variation of electrical output (kWh/year) with respect to tilt angle for, =28. This is for all
types of cell and radiation level.
Effect of tilt angle & others at location =28
Results were obtained showing variation of electrical output for different types of cells, and radiation level H g of 4, 5, 6
kWh/m2/day, with respect to tilt angle at location =28. This is shown in consolidated form in Figure 1

Fig. 1: Effect of tilt angle, type of cell and radiation level on electrical output (kWh/year) for location with =280.

Polycrystalline

Monocrystallin
Amorphous
e

Table - 1
An overview of results generated for maximum electrical output (kWh/year) at different locations(), tilt angle, type of cells and different
radiation level.
Cell Type Electrical Output (Hg=4) Electrical Output (Hg=5) Electrical Output (Hg=6)

28 35
59990
75896
91802
18 25
55452
69692
83931
12 15
54043
67707
81372
34 35
61742
78233
94723
26 25
58758
74216
89702
28 35
91700
116013
140327
18 25
84763
104228
128295
12 15
82608
103496
124383
34 35
94738
119584
144791
26 25
89817
113445
137117
28 35
117410
148541
179671
18 25
108528
133451
164266
12 15
105770
132513
159257
34 35
120839
153113
185386
26 25
114999
145253
175561

III. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS


Figures 2 show the variation of GHG emissions in g-CO2 per kWh with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh taken
to be 500, 600 & 700 for both grid interactive and standalone system and tilt angle () 15 0 and given location (=28).
Effect of Energy Mix and others at Location =28 with Tilt Angle =150 for Grid Interactive Systems:
Results as obtained after varying Emission with respect to energy mix for different cell technology, radiation level, tilt angle
=150 has been obtained specifically for Grid Interactive system at location =28 . The same is shown in Figure 2

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Performance of SPV Electricity Generation System


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 08 / 030)

0.16
4,A

Emissions(kg/kwh)

0.14

5,A
0.12

6,A
4,M

0.1

5,M

0.08

6,M
0.06

4,P

0.04

5,P
500

600

700

6,P

GHG/kwh
Fig. 2: Variation of emission (kg/kWh) with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh for different cell type and radiation level at
=280 and =150 for GI system.

Effect of Energy Mix and others at Location =28 with Tilt Angle =150 for Standalone Systems:
Results were obtained after varying Emission with respect to energy mix for different cell technologies, radiation level, tilt angle
=150 has been obtained specifically for standalone system (SPAV system) at location =28 . The same is shown in Figure 3.

Emissions(kg/kwh)

0.16

4,A

0.14

5,A

0.12

6,A

0.1

4,M

0.08

5,M
6,M

0.06

4,P

0.04
500

600
GHG/kwh

700

5,P
6,P

Fig. 3: Variation of emission (kg/kWh) with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh for different cell type and radiation level at
=280 and =150 for GI system.

IV. ANALYSIS
Emissions increase when there is an increase in GHG of energy mix per kWh from 500-600-700 and are maximum for
monocrystalline cell at Hg=4 and minimum for polycrystalline cell at Hg=6 for both grid interactive and stand alone system.
Emissions decrease with increase in tilt angle () and are found to be minimum for =35 and on further increase of tilt angle it
again increases.
For grid interactive system at Hg=4, Amorphous cell emissions varies from 92.1-110.5-128.9 g-CO2/kWh, monocrystalline
cell emissions varies from 102.5-123-143.5 g-CO2/kWh and for polycrystalline at it varies from 81.3-97.6-113.9 g-CO2/kWh
given =15. Similar values are also obtained for stand alone system also.
The results of emissions g-CO2/kWh for =28 at different tilt angles with respect to GHG of energy mix per kWh from 500600-700 for both grid interactive and stand alone system for different cells amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline are
summerised below in Table 2, 3 and 4

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Performance of SPV Electricity Generation System


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 08 / 030)

700

600

500

700

600

500

700

600

500

Table - 2
An overview of results generated for variation of emissions(kg/kWh) with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh for different
radiation levels and for both GI and SPAV systems for amorphous cell.
Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions
GHG
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
Hg=4
Hg=4
Hg=5
Hg=5
Hg=6
Hg=6
15
0.0921
0.0945
0.0732
0.0751
0.0607
0.0623
25
0.0894
0.0918
0.0709
0.0727
0.0587
0.0602
35
0.0890
0.0913
0.0703
0.0722
0.0581
0.0597
45
0.0907
0.0930
0.0715
0.0734
0.0591
0.0606
15
0.1105
0.1134
0.0878
0.0901
0.0728
0.0748
25
0.1073
0.1102
0.0850
0.0873
0.0704
0.0722
35
0.1068
0.1096
0.0844
0.0866
0.0698
0.0716
45
0.1088
0.1117
0.0859
0.0881
0.0709
0.0728
15
0.1289
0.1323
0.1025
0.1051
0.0850
0.0872
25
0.1252
0.1285
0.0992
0.1018
0.0821
0.0843
35
0.1246
0.1279
0.0985
0.1011
0.0814
0.0835
45
0.1270
0.1302
0.1002
0.1028
0.0827
0.0849
Table - 3
An overview of results generated for variation of emissions(kg/kWh) with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh for different
radiation levels and for both GI and SPAV systems for monocrystalline cell.
Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions
GHG
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
Hg=4
Hg=4
Hg=5
Hg=5
Hg=6
Hg=6
15
0.1025
0.1049
0.0814
0.0833
0.0675
0.0691
25
0.0995
0.1019
0.0788
0.0807
0.0653
0.0668
35
0.0990
0.1014
0.0783
0.0801
0.0647
0.0662
45
0.1099
0.1033
0.0796
0.0815
0.0657
0.0673
15
0.1230
0.1259
0.0977
0.100
0.0811
0.0830
25
0.1195
0.1220
0.0946
0.0969
0.0783
0.0802
35
0.1188
0.1210
0.0939
0.0961
0.0776
0.0795
45
0.1211
0.1239
0.0955
0.0978
0.0789
0.0808
15
0.1435
0.1469
0.1140
0.1167
0.0946
0.0968
25
0.1394
0.1426
0.1104
0.1130
0.0914
0.0936
35
0.1387
0.1419
0.1096
0.1100
0.0906
0.0927
45
0.1413
0.1446
0.1115
0.1141
0.0921
0.0942
Table - 4
An overview of results generated for variation of emissions (kg/kWh) with respect to GHG emissions of energy mix per kWh for different
radiation levels and for both GI and SPAV systems for Polycrystalline cell.
Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions Emissions
GHG
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
GI
SPAV
Hg=4
Hg=4
Hg=5
Hg=5
Hg=6
Hg=6
15
0.0813
0.0837
0.0646
0.0665
0.0536
0.0552
25
0.0790
0.0813
0.0626
0.0644
0.0518
0.0533
35
0.0786
0.0809
0.0621
0.0639
0.0513
0.0529
45
0.0801
0.0824
0.0632
0.0650
0.0522
0.0537
15
0.0976
0.1005
0.0775
0.0798
0.0643
0.0662
25
0.0948
0.0976
0.0751
0.0773
0.0622
0.0640
35
0.0943
0.0971
0.0745
0.0767
0.0616
0.0634
45
0.0961
0.0989
0.0758
0.0781
0.0626
0.0645
15
0.1139
0.1172
0.0905
0.0932
0.0751
0.0773
25
0.1106
0.1139
0.0876
0.0902
0.0725
0.0747
35
0.1100
0.1133
0.0870
0.0895
0.0719
0.0740
45
0.1121
0.1154
0.0885
0.0911
0.0730
0.0752

Results from Tables 2, 3 and 4 shows that emissions are more for Standalone system as compared to Grid Interactive system
for every value of GHG energy mix per kWh. Polycrystalline cell has the least emission followed by Amorphous and highest is
with Mono crystalline cell. With the increase in the value of radiation there is a decrease in emission for both Grid Interactive
and Standalone systems.
The range of emission for Grid Interactive system with varying tilt angle from 15 0-450 with Amorphous cell Hg=4
kWh/m2/day GHG=500, is found to be 92.1-90.7 g-CO2/kWh. This increases with increase in GHG and is found to be in the
range of 128.9-127.0 g-CO2/kWh for GHG =700. Emissions reduce with increase in H g and above range is found to be 60.7-59.1
g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and 85.0-82.7 g-CO2/kWh for GHG=700 at Hg=6 kWh/m2/day.

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Performance of SPV Electricity Generation System


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For Standalone system the range is 94.5-93.0 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and increases to 132.3-130.2 g-CO2/kWh for
GHG=700 at Hg=4 kWh/m2/day. For Hg=4 kWh/m2/day the range is 62.3-60.6 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and 87.2-84.9 gCO2/kWh at GHG=700.
The range of emission for Grid Interactive system with varying tilt angle from 15 0-450 for Mono crystalline cell Hg=4
kWh/m2/day GHG=500, is found to be 102.5-109.9 g-CO2/kWh and it increases with increase in GHG and is found to be in the
range of 143.5-141.3 g-CO2/kWh for GHG =700. Emissions reduces with increase in H g and above range is found to be 67.565.7 g-CO2/kWh at GHG =500 and 94.6-92.1 g-CO2/kWh for GHG=700 at Hg=6 kWh/m2/day.
For Standalone system the range is 104.9-103.3 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and increases to 146.9-144.6 g-CO2/kWh for
GHG=700 at Hg=4 kWh/m2/day. For Hg=4 kWh/m2/day the range is 69.1-67.3 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and 96.8-94.2 gCO2/kWh at GHG=700.
The range of emission for Grid Interactive system with varying tilt angle from 150-450 for Polycrystalline cell Hg=4
kWh/m2/day GHG=500, is found to be 81.3-80.1 g-CO2/kWh and it increases with increase in GHG and is found to be in the
range of 113.9-112.1 g-CO2/kWh for GHG =700. Emissions reduces with increase in H g and above range is found to be 53.652.2 g-CO2/kWh at GHG =500 and 75.1-73.0 g-CO2/kWh for GHG=700 at Hg=6 kWh/m2/day.
For Standalone system the range is 83.7-82.4 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and increases to 117.2-115.4 g-CO2/kWh for
GHG=700 at Hg=4 kWh/m2/day. For Hg=4 kWh/m2/day the range is 55.2-53.7 g-CO2/kWh at GHG=500 and 77.3-75.2 gCO2/kWh at GHG=700.
V. CONCLUSION
Optimal sizing of SPV electricity generating systems which have the flexibility of standalone and grid interactive systems has
been undertaken. The parameterization of solar cells along the calculation of radiation, array sizing requirement of storage
system and its design along with emission and cost analysis has been undertaken. This has importance in view that one would be
able to calculate the embodied energy of the complete plant and its component also. With change of technology the component
can be change and embodied energy can be re estimated that is why embodied energy for component has been taken. This
provides a framework for the design along with different location in the next chapter
Extensive calculations were performed on the equation based model. Results so obtained were consolidated. At different
values of location, variation in tilt angle, emission level and other related factors figures were made. Five locations were
considered with four variations in tilt angle. Three different types of contemporary cell technologies have been considered alongwith three different radiation levels. This chapter will enable in deciding the type of systems one should opt under different
conditions.
The above Figures shows that electrical output is maximum for polycrystalline cell followed by monocrystalline and is
minimum for amorphous cell for given Hg and at a particular location, also electrical output is maximum for a tilt angle plus
minus 5 of latidude. Electrical output is in the range of 48,000 to 62,000 kWh/year at Hg=4, 60000 to 79000 kWh/year at
Hg=5,and 72000 to 94723 kWh/year at Hg=6 for amorphous cell. For monocrystalline cell it is in the range of 73000 to 95000 at
Hg=4,92000 to 120000 kWh/year at Hg=5 and 110000 to 145000 kWh/year. For polycrystalline it is in the range of 94000 to
121000 kWh/year at Hg=4, 118000 to 154000 kWh/year at Hg=5 and 141000 to 186000 kWh/year and results are summarised in
Table 1.
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