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Outline for chapter 33:

1. War by Act of Germany

a. Germany announced its decision wage unrestricted submarine
warfare on all ships in the war zone.
b. German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann secretly proposed a
German-Mexican alliance with the Zimmermann note. .
c. President Wilson asked for a declaration of war from Congress
after 4 more unarmed merchant ships had been sunk.
i. Asked to arm the merchant ships
ii. 3 Mains Causes of War
1. Zimmermann Note, Germany declares unrestricted
submarine warfare, Bolshevik Revolution.
2. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned
a. President Wilson persuaded the public for war by declaring his twin
goals of "a war to end war" and a crusade "to make the world safe
for democracy."
i. argued that America only fought to shape an international
order in which democracy could happen
b. Wilson was able to get war to appeal to the American public.
3. Wilson's Fourteen Potent Points
a. Used as peace program, instrument for propaganda.
i. It was intended to reach the people and the liberal leaders
of the Central Powers as a appeal for peace,
Framework for peace discussions.
1. Wilson the position of moral leadership of the Allies,
and diplomatic weapon until war was over
iii. The first 5 points and their effects were:
1. abolish secret treaties (Liberals)
2. Freedom of the seas appealed to the Germans, (and
3. A removal of economic barriers among nations
4. Reduction of armament burdens was gratifying to
5. interests of both native people and the colonizers was
reassuring to the anti-imperialists.
iv. foreshadowed the League of Nations - an international
organization that Wilson dreamed would provide a system of
collective security.
4. Creel Manipulates Minds
a. The Committee on Public Information was created to rally public
support of war.
i. George Creel
1. to sell America on the war and sell the world on
Wilsonian war aims.

ii. The Creel organization employed thousands of workers

around the world to spread war propaganda. The entire
nation was as a result swept into war fever.
5. Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent
a. rumors began to spread of spying and sabotage.
i. German-Americans were tarred, feathered, and beaten.
ii. hatred of Germans and things related to Germany
b. The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918
reflected fears about Germans and antiwar Americans.
c. Eugene V. Debs and (IWW) leader William D. Haywood were
convicted under the Espionage Act.
d. Schenck v. United States (1919)
i. it argued that freedom of speech could be revoked when
such speech posed a danger to the nation.
6. The Nation's Factories Go to War
a. Civilian Council of National Defense
i. study problems of economic mobilization
ii. increased the size of the army
iii. created a shipbuilding program.
b. No one knew how much steel or explosive powder the country was
capable of producing.
i. Fears of big government restricted efforts to coordinate the
ii. Democrats and businesspeople hated federal economic
c. Bernard Baruch
i. head the War Industries Board i
1. impose some order on the economic confusion.
2. never really had much control and was disbanded
after the end of the war.
7. The War, Workers, and Women
a. discouraged from striking by the War Department's decree
i. unemployed male with drafting.
b. The IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
i. worst working conditions.
ii. AF of L's (American Federation of Labor) membership had
more than doubled.
iii. Wartime inflation eliminate wage gains and thousands of
strikes resulted.
c. Great steel strike
i. an attempt to force their employers to recognize their right to
organize and bargain collectively.
ii. The steel companies resisted and refused to negotiate with

union representatives.
iii. 30,000 African-Americans to keep the mills running.
d. African americans
i. drawn to the North in wartime by the allure of jobs
ii. served as meatpackers and strikebreakers.
e. sufferage
i. The National Woman's party,
1. Alice Paul, protested the war.
ii. National American Woman Suffrage Association,
supported Wilson's war.
iii. President Wilson supported women suffrage.
iv. The 19th Amendment was passed, giving all American
women the right to vote.
f. Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921
i. federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health
ii. feminists continued to campaign for laws to protect women
in the workplace and prohibit child labor.
8. Forging a War Economy
a. Herbert C. Hoover
i. Food Administration.
1. Against issuing ration cards to save food for export
a. Wheatless Wednesdays and meatless
2. Congress restricted the use of foodstuffs for
manufacturing alcoholic beverages
a. In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed,
prohibiting all alcoholic drinks.
b. Hoover,Fuel Administration and Treasury Department $21 billion
towards the war fund.
i. Other funding of the war increased taxes and bonds.
9. Making Plowboys into Doughboys
a. President Wilson opposed a draft,
i. draft was necessary to quickly raise the large army that was
to be sent to France.
1. draft act in 1917. It required the registration of all
males between the ages of 18 and 45, and did not
allow for a man to purchase his exemption from the
a. For the first time, women were allowed in the
armed forces.
10. Fighting in France-Belatedly
a. Bolshevik Revolution
i. toppled the tsar regime.

ii. "capitalist" war, freeing up thousands of Germans on the

Russian front to fight the western front in France.
iii. Russia pulling out allowed the U.S. fight solidly for
Democracy in the war.
b. They were used as replacements in the Allied armies and were
generally deployed in quiet sectors with the British and French.
i. Shipping shortages plagued the Allies.
ii. American troops were also sent to Belgium, Italy, and
11. America Helps Hammer the "Hun"
a. the German drive on the western front exploded.
i. The Allied nations for the first time united under a supreme
commander, French marshal Foch.
b. Germany from taking Paris and France, 30,000 American troops
were sent to the French frontlines
i. This was the first significant engagement of American
troops in a European war.
c. German drive had been halted
i. Second Battle of the Marne.
1. marked the beginning of a German withdrawal.
d. The Americans demanded a separate army;
i. General John J. Pershing was assigned a front of 85 miles.
1. Meuse-Argonne offensive
a. cut the German railroad lines feeding the
western front.
b. left 10% of the Americans involved in the battle
injured or killed.
12. The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany
a. November 11, 1918
i. emperor of Germany had fled to Holland, Germany
1. peace based on fourteen points
b. The United States's main contributions
i. foodstuffs, munitions, credits, oil, and manpower.
ii. The Americans only fought 2 major battles,
1. St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne.
a. The prospect of endless U.S. troops, rather
than America's actual military performance
eventually demoralized the Germans.
13. Wilson Steps Down from Olympus
a. President Wilson had gained much world popularity as the moral
leader of the war.
i. When he personally appealed for a Democratic victory the
plan backfired and the voters instead returned a Republican

majority to Congress.
b. Wilson's decision to go to Paris in person to negotiate the treaty
infuriated the Republicans because no president had ever traveled
to Europe.
14. An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris
a. The Paris Conference
i. Big Four.
1. Wilson, having the most power, was joined by Premier
a. world parliament known as the League of
i. It would contain an assembly with seats
for all nations and a council to be
controlled by the great powers.
1. Old World diplomats agreed to
make the League Covenant
2. Vittorio Orlando of Italy,
3. David Lloyd George of Britain,
4. Premier Georges Clemenceau of France.
15. Hammering Out the Treaty
a. Republicans in America had much animosity towards the League
of Nations.
i. The Republican Congress claimed that it would never
approve the League of Nations
1. These difficulties delighted adversaries in Paris
a. Wilson would have to beg them for changes in
the covenant that would safeguard the Monroe
Doctrine and other American interests valued
to the senators.
b. Demands
i. France
1. settled for a compromise in which the Saar Valley
would remain under the League of Nations for 15
years, and then a popular vote would determine its
2. Dropped Rhineland, France got the Security Treaty,
in which both Britain and America pledged to come to
its aid in the event of another German invasion.
ii. Italy
1. demanded Fiume,
a. a valuable seaport inhabited by both Italians
and Yugoslavs. The seaport went to
Yugoslavia after Wilson's insisting.
iii. Japan
1. demanded China's Shandong Peninsula and the

German islands of the Pacific, which it had seized

during the war.
a. After Japan threatened to walk out, Wilson
accepted a compromise in which Japan kept
Germany's economic holdings in Shandong
and pledged to return the peninsula to China at
a later date.
16. The Peace Treaty That Bred a New War
a. The Treaty of Versailles
i. The Germans were outraged with the treaty,
1. most of the Fourteen Points were left out.
ii. Wilson was forced to compromise away some of his
Fourteen Points in order to salvage League of Nations.
17. The Domestic Parade of Prejudice
a. Critics of the League of Nations came from all sides. IrishAmericans, isolationists, and principled liberals all denounced the
18. Wilson's Tour and Collapse (1919)
a. The Republicans in Congress had no real hope of defeating the
Treaty of Versailles;
i. they hoped to "Republicanize" it so that the Republicans
could claim political credit for the changes.
b. President Wilson decided to go to the country in a speechmaking
i. over the heads of the Senate to the sovereign people.
c. On his return to Washington, Wilson suffered a stroke and suffered
from physical and nervous exhaustion.
19. Wilson Rejects the Lodge Reservations
a. Senator Lodge,
i. fourteen reservations to the Treaty of Versailles. These
safeguards reserved the rights of the U.S. under the Monroe
Doctrine and the Constitution
b. Treaty of Versailles was defeated.
i. The Lodge-Wilson personal feud, traditionalism, isolationism,
disillusionment, and partisanship all contributed to the defeat
of the treaty.

20. The "Solemn Referendum" of 1920

a. "solemn referendum."
1. presidential nominee for the election of 1920.
a. Warren G. Harding
2. as Their vice-presidential
a. Governor Calvin Coolidge.
3. The Republican platform appealed to both proLeague and anti-League sentiment in the party.
ii. Democrats
1. their presidential
a. James. M. Cox
2. as their vice-presidential nominee.
a. Franklin D. Roosevelt
b. Warren Harding won the election of 1920. Harding's victory lead
to the death of the League of Nations.
21. The Betrayal of Great Expectations
a. The Treaty of Versailles was the only one of the four peace treaties
not to succeed.
b. America did not embrace the role of global leader.
i. In the interests of its own security
1. used its enormous strength to shape world-shaking
events. It instead permitted the world to drift towards
yet another war.