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MAB 2083

MECHANICS OF MACHINES

DESIGN PROJECT

MR AZMAN BIN ZAINUDDIN

MOHD BARIQ BIN MD YAZID 9494

FAZMI YUHANIS BINTI AWANG 8957

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

1. INTRODUCTION

nowadays. Some examples are engines and compressors which require the

piston to move in exact distance; (stroke) as the crank is continuously move.

There are 2 types of slider crank mechanisms which are:

1) In-line slider crank

2) Offset slider crank

with linear reciprocating motion of a slider along the horizontal shaft under certain

constraint which can produce the highest number of strokes per unit time as

permitted by other parameter. The restriction condition for our group are; stroke =

350mm , max length = 660 mm , max velocity = 1500mm/s.

1) The speed of the motor shaft must be in multiple 10rpm

2) Speed of working stroke must never exceed Vmax

3) The time taken for return stroke should be in between 60%-95% of the

time working stroke.

4) Coupler ratio must larger than 3

5) Maximum dimension of the working space must not exceed Lmax and its

width, W must be minimized.

w

s

L max

Figure 1

2

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

3

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

2. METHODOLOGY

To begin the design approach, we must obey some constraints which are:

1) STROKE ≥ 2 L2

The length of piston stroke assigned is 350mm. Thus, there will be a limitation for

L2 which is:

L2 < 350/2 = 175 mm

2) Coupler ratio must be greater than 3

This follows the Rule of Thumb. The coupler ratio should be as

minimum as possible, so the used width (W) can be minimize and

not exceeding the Lmax. The coupler ratio is:

Coupler ratio = L3/L2

We chose the coupler ratio to be 3.1 to get a compact design.

3) Length of L3 must be small

We need to make L3 as small as possible in order to increase the

acceleration and thus increase the number of strokes per unit time

(rpm)

4) The rule state that the speed of the motor shaft must be in a multiple of

10 rpm. Thus, after trial and error, we have chosen ω = 110 rpm.

4

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

a

β

α

P

stroke

Where:

a = L2+L3

b = L3 - L2

Stroke, c = 350 mm

We will get the value of the imbalance angle, β and P by using cosine rule:

c2 = a2 + b2 – 2 abcos (β)

b2 = a2 + c2 – 2 accos (P)

__L1 = a__

sin P sin 90°

L1 b

d = b 2 − L12

d+c=e

e = a 2 − L21

Used Lmax = e + L2

5

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

L2

θ2

L3

L1 θ3

L4

θ 2 = crank angle

L4 = L2 cos θ 2 + L3 cos θ 3

To calculate time:

∆t=∆θ/ω

180 o + β

Q=

180 o − β

To determine the time taken by the return stroke be anywhere between 60% to

95% of the time for the working stroke, we use this equation:

Percentage = 100 / Q

6

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Used, L = e + L2

Width, W = L1 + L2

Working area, A = L x W

Used L

Velocity:

V = i +1 −

2∆t 12 ∆t

Where:

i = data point index

∆Ri = displacement at data point i

∆t = t2 – t1 = t3 – t2 = t4 – t3

ti = time at data point i

Acceleration:

a = i +1 −

2∆t 12 ∆t

Where :

i = data point index

∆Vi = displacement at data point i

∆t = t2 – t1 = t3 – t2 = t4 – t3

ti = time at data point i

3. RESULTS

7

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

All the calculations below are based on the final data selected from the table A1

in appendix in which try and error approach is applied.

Data Point Time

Angle Displacement Velocity Acceleration

Index (0.001s)

(deg) (mm) (mm/s) (mm/s2

1 0 0 325.1 -1158.2 -25814.5

2 30 45.45 245.3 -2307.2 -21765.1

3 60 90.91 124.3 -2838.7 3030.8

4 90 136.36 17.8 -1382.3 56394.4

5 120 181.82 4.3 444.5 18952.8

6 150 227.27 37.4 924.9 6248.5

7 180 272.73 85.1 1158.2 4516.1

8 210 318.18 142.1 1347.8 3706.8

9 240 378.79 206.5 1466.2 1003.2

10 270 409.09 272.4 1382.3 -5374.4

11 300 454.55 326.5 927.9 -14918.8

12 330 500.00 350.0 34.4 -23245.8

13 360 545.45 325.1 -1158.2 -25814.5

3.1 The crank radius, the length of the coupler and the offset

The crank radius, L2 is selected from table A1 is the best length of the design,

which is:

L2=120mm

L3 = 3.1 x 120

L3 = 372mm

The offset:

L1 a

=

sin P sin 90

L1 = a sin P

Where

8

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

a = L2+L3

a = 120 + 372= 492 mm

b = L3 - L2

b =372– 120 = 252 mm

c = 350mm

P = cos-1 ((4922+ 3502)-2522) / 2(492)(350)

P = 29.1o or 0.5078 rad

Thus:

L1 = a sin P

= 492 sin 29.1o = 238.9mm

3.2 The cycle time, the times for the working and return strokes, the time ratio and

the imbalance angle

Tcycle = 1/ω

= 0.5454 sec

c2 = a2 + b2 – 2 abcos(β)

β = cos-1((a2+ b2)-c2) / 2ab

= cos-1 ((4922+ 2522)-3502) / 2(492)(252)

= 42.4o

180 o + β

Q=

180 o − β

180 o + 42.4o

=

180 o − 42.4o

= 1.6

The times for the working (assumed forward) and return strokes;

9

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Tworking + treturn = 0.5454………………...(1)

tworking = 0.34 sec

The speed has been determined by try and error approach and selected from

Table A1, which is:

ω = 110 rpm

A = Lused x W

= 550.1 x 358.9 = 197445.4mm2

DIAGRAMS

10

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

11

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

12

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Maximum position

13

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Minimum position

14

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

15

Slider is at the middle of its working stroke

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

16

The scaled velocity diagram of the mechanism at the middle of its working stroke

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

17

The scaled acceleration diagram of the mechanism at the position when the slider is at

the end of its working stroke

MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

4. CONCLUSION

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications Values

4.1 The crank radius 120mm

4.2 The cycle time 0.5454sec

working stroke

working stroke

18

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