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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

MAB 2083
MECHANICS OF MACHINES
DESIGN PROJECT
MR AZMAN BIN ZAINUDDIN

NURUL ALIA BINTI MOHD ANUAR 9127


MOHD BARIQ BIN MD YAZID 9494
FAZMI YUHANIS BINTI AWANG 8957

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 17 OCTOBER 2008

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

1. INTRODUCTION

The mechanisms of a linear reciprocating motion are widely used


nowadays. Some examples are engines and compressors which require the
piston to move in exact distance; (stroke) as the crank is continuously move.
There are 2 types of slider crank mechanisms which are:
1) In-line slider crank
2) Offset slider crank

The aim of the project is to produce an Offset slider crank mechanism


with linear reciprocating motion of a slider along the horizontal shaft under certain
constraint which can produce the highest number of strokes per unit time as
permitted by other parameter. The restriction condition for our group are; stroke =
350mm , max length = 660 mm , max velocity = 1500mm/s.

The design requirements are as follows:


1) The speed of the motor shaft must be in multiple 10rpm
2) Speed of working stroke must never exceed Vmax
3) The time taken for return stroke should be in between 60%-95% of the
time working stroke.
4) Coupler ratio must larger than 3
5) Maximum dimension of the working space must not exceed Lmax and its
width, W must be minimized.

w
s

L max

Figure 1

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Illustration of a slider crank mechanism

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1 DESIGN STEPS


To begin the design approach, we must obey some constraints which are:

1) STROKE ≥ 2 L2
The length of piston stroke assigned is 350mm. Thus, there will be a limitation for
L2 which is:
L2 < 350/2 = 175 mm
2) Coupler ratio must be greater than 3
This follows the Rule of Thumb. The coupler ratio should be as
minimum as possible, so the used width (W) can be minimize and
not exceeding the Lmax. The coupler ratio is:
Coupler ratio = L3/L2
We chose the coupler ratio to be 3.1 to get a compact design.
3) Length of L3 must be small
We need to make L3 as small as possible in order to increase the
acceleration and thus increase the number of strokes per unit time
(rpm)
4) The rule state that the speed of the motor shaft must be in a multiple of
10 rpm. Thus, after trial and error, we have chosen ω = 110 rpm.

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

2.2 DERIVATION OF FORMULAS

a
β

α
P

stroke

Where:
a = L2+L3
b = L3 - L2
Stroke, c = 350 mm

We will get the value of the imbalance angle, β and P by using cosine rule:
c2 = a2 + b2 – 2 abcos (β)
b2 = a2 + c2 – 2 accos (P)

By using sine rule we obtain L1:

__L1 = a__
sin P sin 90°

L1 b

By using pythogoras theorem:


d = b 2 − L12
d+c=e

e = a 2 − L21
Used Lmax = e + L2

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

L2
θ2

L3

L1 θ3

L4

θ 2 = crank angle

θ 3 = sin-1 [(L1+L2 sin θ 2) / L3]

L4 = L2 cos θ 2 + L3 cos θ 3

To calculate time:

∆t=∆θ/ω

And to calculate time ratio by:

180 o + β
Q=
180 o − β

To determine the time taken by the return stroke be anywhere between 60% to
95% of the time for the working stroke, we use this equation:

Percentage = 100 / Q

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Calculate used L and width for working space:

Used, L = e + L2

Width, W = L1 + L2

Working area, A = L x W

Used L

Calculate velocity and acceleration for the slider

Velocity:

 ∆R − ∆Ri −1   ∆Ri +2 − 2∆Ri +1 + 2∆Ri −1 − ∆Ri −2 


V =  i +1 − 
 2∆t   12 ∆t 

Where:
i = data point index
∆Ri = displacement at data point i
∆t = t2 – t1 = t3 – t2 = t4 – t3
ti = time at data point i

Acceleration:

 ∆V − ∆Vi −1   ∆Vi +2 − 2∆Vi +1 + 2∆Vi −1 − ∆Vi −2 


a =  i +1 − 
 2∆t   12 ∆t 

Where :
i = data point index
∆Vi = displacement at data point i
∆t = t2 – t1 = t3 – t2 = t4 – t3
ti = time at data point i
3. RESULTS

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

All the calculations below are based on the final data selected from the table A1
in appendix in which try and error approach is applied.

Crank Slider Slider Slider


Data Point Time
Angle Displacement Velocity Acceleration
Index (0.001s)
(deg) (mm) (mm/s) (mm/s2
1 0 0 325.1 -1158.2 -25814.5
2 30 45.45 245.3 -2307.2 -21765.1
3 60 90.91 124.3 -2838.7 3030.8
4 90 136.36 17.8 -1382.3 56394.4
5 120 181.82 4.3 444.5 18952.8
6 150 227.27 37.4 924.9 6248.5
7 180 272.73 85.1 1158.2 4516.1
8 210 318.18 142.1 1347.8 3706.8
9 240 378.79 206.5 1466.2 1003.2
10 270 409.09 272.4 1382.3 -5374.4
11 300 454.55 326.5 927.9 -14918.8
12 330 500.00 350.0 34.4 -23245.8
13 360 545.45 325.1 -1158.2 -25814.5

3.1 The crank radius, the length of the coupler and the offset

The crank radius, L2 is selected from table A1 is the best length of the design,
which is:

L2=120mm

The length of the coupler:

Coupler ratio = L3/L2

where coupler ratio is set as 3.1

L3 = 3.1 x 120
L3 = 372mm

The offset:

L1 a
=
sin P sin 90

L1 = a sin P

Where

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

a = L2+L3
a = 120 + 372= 492 mm

b = L3 - L2
b =372– 120 = 252 mm

c = 350mm

P = cos-1 ((a2+ c2)-b2) / 2ac


P = cos-1 ((4922+ 3502)-2522) / 2(492)(350)
P = 29.1o or 0.5078 rad

Thus:

L1 = a sin P
= 492 sin 29.1o = 238.9mm

3.2 The cycle time, the times for the working and return strokes, the time ratio and
the imbalance angle

The cycle time:

Tcycle = 1/ω

where ω = 110rpm is selected from table A1

= 1 rev / (110 rev/min) x (1min/60sec)


= 0.5454 sec

The imbalance angle:

c2 = a2 + b2 – 2 abcos(β)
β = cos-1((a2+ b2)-c2) / 2ab
= cos-1 ((4922+ 2522)-3502) / 2(492)(252)
= 42.4o

The time ratio;

180 o + β
Q=
180 o − β
180 o + 42.4o
=
180 o − 42.4o
= 1.6

The times for the working (assumed forward) and return strokes;

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Tcycle= tworking + treturn


Tworking + treturn = 0.5454………………...(1)

Q = 1.6 = tworking / treturn

Tworking = 1.6 treturn ……………………….(2)

Solve for (1) and (2)

treturn = 0.21 sec


tworking = 0.34 sec

3.3 The crankshaft speed in rpm

The speed has been determined by try and error approach and selected from
Table A1, which is:

ω = 110 rpm

3.4 Working area required by the mechanism

A = Lused x W
= 550.1 x 358.9 = 197445.4mm2

DIAGRAMS

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

3.5 The slider displacement curve for a single cycle

3.6 The slider velocity curve for a single cycle

3.7 The slider acceleration curve for a single cycle

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

3.8 The scaled kinematic diagram of the mechanism

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Maximum position

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Minimum position

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MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

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Slider is at the middle of its working stroke
MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

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The scaled velocity diagram of the mechanism at the middle of its working stroke
MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

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The scaled acceleration diagram of the mechanism at the position when the slider is at
the end of its working stroke
MAB2083 MECHANICS OF MACHINES

4. CONCLUSION

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications Values
4.1 The crank radius 120mm

The length of the coupler 372mm

The offset 238.9mm


4.2 The cycle time 0.5454sec

The times for the working strokes 0.34sed

The times for the return strokes 0.21sec

The time ratio 1.6

The imbalance angle 42.4˚

4.3 The crankshaft speed in rpm 110rpm

4.4 Working area required by the mechanism 197445.4mm2

4.5 The maximum velocity of the slider in the


working stroke

4.6 The acceleration of the slider at the end of the


working stroke

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