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Sulaimaan Bhatti

Hesss Law: Enthalpy of Combustion of Magnesium


Sulaimaan Bhatti, Andrew Gao
SCH4U
Ms. Boulougouris
December 4, 2015

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

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Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to use Hesss Law to experimentally determine the enthalpy of
combustion of magnesium. Because the combustion of magnesium is dangerous and impractical
to determine directly, the enthalpy reactions of three related reactions were used to calculate the
enthalpy change.
Hesss Law: The enthalpy change of a physical or chemical process depends on only the
initial and final conditions of the process. The enthalpy change of a multistep process is the sum
of the enthalpy changes of its individual steps.
Materials
1. 200 mL 1.00 mol/L HCl(aq)
2. 0.3606 g of Mg ribbon
3. 0.8000 g of MgO powder
4. 1 simple calorimeter
5. 100 mL graduated cylinder
6. 1 scoopula
7. Steel wool
8. An electronic scale
9. A thermometer
10. A stirring rod
11. Gloves
12. Goggles
13. Lab Coats

Procedure
1. A table for mass and temperature data was prepared.
2. A 100 mL graduated cylinder was filled with 100 mL of 1 mol/L HCl(aq).
3. The aqueous hydrochloric acid was poured into the simple calorimeter.
4. The initial temperature of the solution was recorded.
5. 0.80 grams of MgO(s) powder was added to the solution.
6. The cover was quickly placed on top and the calorimeter was stirred.
7. The highest reached temperature was recorded.
8. The contents of the calorimeter were disposed of and it was rinsed and dried.
9. 100 mL of HCl(aq) was poured into the graduated cylinder again.
10. The contents of the graduated cylinder were transferred to the calorimeter.

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

11. Using steel wool, a ribbon of magnesium was scrubbed of the MgO layer that had
formed.
12. It was then weighed and cut up into small pieces.
13. The Mg ribbon pieces were added to the calorimeter and stirred
14. The highest reached temperature was recorded.
15. The solution was disposed of and the work area was cleaned and materials and equipment
were put away.

Observations
Substance

Mass

Mg
HCl
MgO
HCl

0.3606 grams
100 grams
0.8000 grams
100 grams

Initial

Final

T (Tf Ti)

Temperature
21C

Temperature
38C

17C

21C

28C

7C

Analysis
Assumptions:
1. Assume the specific heat capacity and density of HCl and the resulting solution is
the same as the specific heat capacity of water. This is valid because it allows for
calculations to be made without knowing the exact value for then given solution.
It is also valid because the solution is aqueous enough for it not to matter.
2. The thermal energy exchanged with the calorimeter polystyrene cups,
thermometer, lid, and stirring rod is small enough to be ignored. This is necessary
in order to calculate the enthalpy change, and it is valid because the materials of
the calorimeter are insulators which means that they will not absorb much thermal
energy.
3. The system is isolated. Any exchange with the surroundings is small enough to be
ignored. This is valid because this calculation needs to be make with reasonable

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

accuracy, and all possible measures have been taken to keep it as isolated as
possible given the equipment.
1) Enthalpy of Reaction 2:
Given: mMgO = 0.8 g; mHCl = 100.00 g; Ti = 21.0C; Tf = 28C; c = 4.19 J/ g C
Required: Hr = ?
Q = m c T
= 100.00 g 4.19 J/ g C (28C - 21C)
= 2933J
= 2.933 kJ
nMgO =

m
M

0.8 g

= 40.31 g /mol = 0.01985 mol MgO

H = -Q; = -2.933kJ
Hr =

H
n

2.933 kJ
0.01985mol

= - 147.76 kJ / mol

The enthalpy of reaction for reaction 2 is -147.76kJ / mol.

Enthalpy of reaction 3:
Given: mMg = 0.3606 g; mHCl = 100.00 g; Ti = 21.0C; Tf = 38.0C; c = 4.19 J/ g C
Required: Hr = ?
Q = m c T
= 100.00 g 4.19 J/ g C (38C - 21C)
= 7123 J
= 7.123 kJ

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium


m
M

nMg =

0.3606 g

= 24.31 g/mol = 0.01483 mol Mg

H = -Q; -7.123 kJ
H
n

Hr =

7.123 kJ
0.01483mol

= -480.31 kJ / mol

The enthalpy for reaction 3 is -480.31 kJ / mol.


2) (2): MgO(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (l)
(3): Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

H2 = -147.76 kJ
H3 = -480.31 kJ

3) Using Hesss Law


(1): Mg(s) +

1
2

O2 (g) MgO(s)

(2): MgO(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (l)

H2 = -147.76 kJ REVERSE

(3): Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)


(4): H2 (g) +

1
2

H3 = -480.31 kJ SAME

O2 (g) H2O(l)

Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) + H2((g) +

1
2

H4 = -285.8 kJ SAME
O2(g) + MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) + H2O(l) + MgO(s) + 2

HCl(aq)
Mg(s) +

1
2

O2(g) MgO(s)

H1: H3 + H4 + H5 = -480.31 kJ + (-285.8 kJ) + (-) (-147.76 kJ)


= -480.31 kJ - 285.8 kJ + 147.76 kJ
= -618.35 kJ
The enthalpy change for the combustion of magnesium is -618.35 kJ / mol.
Discussion

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

theoretical
4) % error = theoreticalexperimental

601.6 kJ
= (601.6 kJ ) (618.35 kJ )

100%

100%

= 2.78 %
The percent error is 2.78%.
5) I think that there are quite a few sources of error in our experiment. First, washing the
calorimeter in between experiments could have led to contamination. Second, while the
magnesium ribbon was scrubbed thoroughly, there was likely still some residue left on it. We
also accidentally opened the calorimeter slightly during one of the experiments. We waited a
long time before stirring the magnesium ribbon experiment. There was heat energy loss, although
we assumed it was negligible. I think the biggest difference makers were that our thermometer
was not accurate to a tenth of a degree. Our numbers were estimated because we could not give
them exactly. Also, the electronic balance may have been inaccurate, which would have lead to
us showing a higher enthalpy of combustion that in reality. The measurement of HCl was done
by what we could see so it was not exact. Finally, our assumption that HCl has the same
properties as water may have caused slightly different results.
We could improve the procedure with the use of higher grade calorimeters and electronic
thermometers. It would also help to have magnesium without an oxidized coating. It would also
be useful to create a more isolated system with less energy loss. In essence, to improve the
procedure, we need to improve the efficiency of the reaction in order to create the lowest error
percentage.
Conclusion

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

We used Hesss Law to determine the enthalpy change for the combustion of magnesium by
using the steps of the reaction and manipulating them into creating the desired product and
reactants. Using our observations, we used the equation: Q = m c t in order to calculate the
enthalpy change for the reaction and then used molar mass to convert the answer to moles and
find the molar enthalpy for each reaction. Finally we added the resulting enthalpies to give us the
enthalpy for our desired reaction which was -618.35 kJ / mol.

Enthalpy of combustion of magnesium

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References

Clancy, C. (2001). McGraw-Hill Ryerson chemistry 11 (p. 301). Whitby, Ont.: McGraw-Hill
Ryerson.