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core substitute A thematic unit standing in place of a regular core in a development. It

may be a pseudo-core or be organized like a transition or (modulating) subordinate
couplet In rondo form, a large-scale section situated between, and contrasting with,
statements of the refrain.
da capo The third part of minuet/trio form, bringing a return of the minuet proper.
deceptive cadence The failure to realize an implied authentic cadence by replacing the
final tonic with another harmony (usually LK, but possibly K^), which nonetheless
represents the end of the prevailing cadential progression.
deceptive cadential progression A variant of the authentic cadential progression in
which the final tonic is replaced by a related harmony (usually LK).
deceptive resolution* The resolution of dominant harmony to some harmony that
substitutes for tonic (usually LK).
development A medial section function standing between an exposition and a recapitulation. It creates the loosest formal expression in the movement, and it may contain
a pre-core, one or more cores (or core substitutes), and a retransition.
development key (DK) A tonal region (besides the home or subordinate keys) that is
confirmed, usually in a development section, by some cadential function, though
not necessarily by an actual cadence: in major-mode movements, LK, KKK, and KK; in
minor-mode ones, KL and L.
direct modulation* A technique of changing tonal orientation whereby the very start
of a formal unit is set in a new key without the obvious use of a pivot chord (compare
pivot-chord modulation).
dominant arrival A noncadential articulation of formal closure marked by the appearance of a dominant harmony near the end of a thematic unit (especially a contrasting
middle, transition, retransition, or development) (compare premature dominant
arrival; half cadence).
dominant harmonic function Various harmonies whose primary role is to progress to
tonic. All dominant functioning harmonies contain the leading tone.
dominant version A unit (typically a basic idea) whose initial harmonic support is
dominant (compare tonic version).
double exposition* In concerto form, the combination of both the opening ritornello
and the solo exposition as analogous to a repeated exposition in sonata form.
double return* The idea that a recapitulation is fundamentally marked by the simultaneous return of both the opening of the main theme and the tonic of the home key.
double-region couplet In Mozarts rondo forms, a couplet that contains thematic units
residing in both the subdominant and the submediant regions.
drum bass* A conventional accompanimental pattern consisting of repeated block
chords (compare Alberti bass; murky bass).
dynamic curve A particular pattern of progressive and regressive dynamics.
early authentic cadence In minuet form, the appearance of a home-key authentic
cadence before the end of the exposition (A section).
elided cadence A cadential arrival that simultaneously marks the beginning of the next
elision A boundary process involving a moment of time that simultaneously marks
the end of one unit and the beginning of the next unit (compare accompanimental
overlap; melodic overlap).