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Worksheet 6: Protein Synthesis

Multiple Choice and True or False

1. Which of the following statements about the genetic code is False?
A) The genetic code is not redundant and not ambiguous
B) Each codon specifies an amino acid.
C) There are 20 different types of amino acids in a protein
D) None of the above
2. Each group of __________ consecutive nucleotides in mRNA is called a _______ and specifies
one amino acid:
A) Three, Anticodon
B) Three, Codon
C) Two, codon
D) Two, anticodon
3. Which of the following statements is True:
A) Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize and attach the correct
amino acid to the tRNA
B) Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases attach amino acids to tRNAs via noncovalent bonds.
C) All amino acids have the same aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
D) The amino acid recognizes the appropriate codon on the mRNA
E) All the above

Pseudouridine, is a post-transcriptional modifications of RNA that:

A) Stabilizes the local tRNA structure
B) Is found in all tRNA and rRNA but not in mRNA
C) destabilizes the RNA structure and makes it more flexible
D) both A&B are correct
E) both B&C are correct

5. Eukaryotic mRNAs:
A) are translated after they are exported from the nucleus.
B) are transcribed and translated simultaneously.
C) must be folded into the correct three-dimensional shape before they can
be translated.
D) are processed in the same way as prokaryotic mRNAs.
6. Before mRNA can be translated, it is transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm via pores
A) Nuclear pore complexes
B) mRNA pore complexes
C) export pore complexes
D) none of the above

7. How many nucleotides are necessary to specify a single amino acid?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 20
8. Which of the following statements about ribosomes is False?
A) Some ribosomes are free in the cytosol, others are attached to membrane surfaces of the rER
B) The ribosome is not a ribozyme
C) Ribosomes are located in chloroplasts and mitochondria
D) None of the above
9. Within the ribosome, the formation of peptide bonds is catalyzed by:
A) aminoacyl-tRNAsynthetase
B) the tRNA itself
C) an RNA molecule in the large ribosomal subunit
D) a peptidase in the small ribosomal subunit.
10. What is a polyribosome?
A) A cluster of ribosomes translating the same mRNA, but
positioned at different sites along the mRNA.
B) A ribosome that is in the middle of translating an mRNA into a
C) A ribosome translating a polycistronic mRNA molecule.
D) None of the above
11. Proteasomes act primarily on proteins that have been marked for
destruction by the covalent attachment of which small protein?
A) Protease
B) Proteome
C) Ubiquitin
D) Histone
13. Proteins synthesized on free ribosomes are stabilized by covalent bonds and are bound to be
secreted out of the cell.
A) True
B) False

Fill in the blanks:

A ribosome contains two dissociable subunits: _____________ and ______________. These
subunits are a mixture of _________________ and _________________. Ribosomal proteins are

made in the _________________, and then they are transported to the ______________to join with
___________ to assemble the two ribosomal subunits.
The ribosome has four important binding sites for translation. The __________________ site is
where the mRNA binds. Once bound, the _____________ site binds each newly arriving charged
tRNA and holds it until _______________ bond is formed with the carboxy end of growing
polypeptide. To continue growth of the polypeptide chain, the tRNA is then shifted to the
________________ site. Finally, the tRNA is shifted to the ________________site where their
amino acids are discharged and it is released from the ribosome.

Define the following:

Adaptor Molecules:


Short Answer:
Give two explanations for how RNA may have preceded DNA and proteins in evolution.

What types of proteins are involved in exporting mRNA out of the nucleus?

What does the following statement mean: the code is redundant but not ambiguous?

What does dihydrouridine contribute to tRNA?

List the three primary roles that ribosomes play during protein synthesis

What contribution has Joachim Frank made to the mechanistic understanding of protein synthesis?

Many proteins require additions or subtractions to the primary sequence before they are useful to the cell.
A) Define post-translation modification and describe how it is different from post-transcriptional
B) List 3 post-translational protein modifications.

Name and list the functions of the four sites on the ribosome involved in protein synthesis.

Why are ribosomes and splisosomes thought of a ribozymes but tRNA and mRNA not?