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DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS

Compiled and Edited by Engr. Dr. T.M. Olatunji, FNSE

NSE Headquarters, Abuja

1.0

Definitions

To design is to plan or organize something for a specific use, or to create something to meet a specific need. Often, designs provide solutions to problem situations. Design solutions are created through the Design Process . This process will vary depending upon what is being designed.

The quality of the solution the design provides is important. A good design not only solves a problem, but does so in an artful and elegant way. Reliability and cost effectiveness are important considerations. A good design is often simple, effective and efficient, with minimal use of resources and energy.

Design Fundamentals are the basic principles or rules of design.

2.0

Elements and Principles of Design

The successful designer understands both the elements and principles of design.

Elements of Design

Principles of Design

Line

Balance

Shape

Unity

Form

Contrast

Space

Emphasis

Texture

Proportion

Pattern

Movement

Colour

Rhythm

The elements of design are the means by which a designer communicates ideas visually. The principles of design have to do with how the elements of design are arranged or organized.

3.0 Design Considerations

Good design also requires that the designer takes into account other considerations:

Functionality

• Does the object function as it was intended?

• Is the object designed to require little maintenance?

 

• Is the object safe to use?

Safety

Have only nontoxic and non-hazardous materials been used in the object's production?

• Does the object conform with standards and regulations?

Ergonomics

• Does the object's design (size, shape, materials) suit the user?

 

• Is the object's appearance appealing?

Appearance

Does form follow function? (That is, does the object's appearance suit its use?)

4.0 The Design Process Designers work through the design process to solve design problems. The design process is used widely in all industries, from engineering and architecture, to web page design and fashion design.

It is important to note that design is a process, not an event. Design is cyclical, not linear, in nature. The designer may revisit the stages during the design process.

Figure 1 - The Design Process Cycle

the design process. Figure 1 - The Design Process Cycle The exact design process a designer

The exact design process a designer follows may vary depending upon what the designer is creating. Some design processes have more stages, others have fewer stages. The simple design process presented here has seven stages.

The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The
The complete Design Process is now described in some details: 1. The Design Need The

The complete Design Process is now described in some details:

1. The Design Need

The design need is determined by the Client or Sponsor of a project or product. It is the

of a gap or a requirement by the Client or Sponsor.

2. The Design Brief

The Design Brief is the foundation of the entire design process. It should focus the efforts of the design team and serve as a frame of reference for all decision making.

The Design Brief shall include the following elements:

Description of the problem situation with criteria The problem statement What the designer must accomplish What the solution must accomplish

3.

Research

This section details your research efforts.

What concepts specific to this design project did you need to learn? Where did you look for the necessary information? What sources did you use in your research? (Cite completely) What specific concepts did you learn that were critical to solving the design problem? What vocabulary did you learn and use?

4. Generation and Evaluation of Possible Solutions

In this section you will

Document all of the possible solutions that your design team considered and created Discuss the design team’s three best solutions, explaining the reasons that resulted in one solution being selected as the best solution and the reasons why the other solutions were rejected.

5. Solution Development (Model/Mockup)

In this section, record the design team’s plan.

What steps did the team take to develop the chosen solution? Describe the specific skills that had to be learned in order to develop the solution. Describe how the team learned those skills (peer tutoring, expert advice, tutorial, experimenting, resource materials, etc.) Identify the draft work that was completed (Sketches, outlines, rough drafts, etc.) State that the draft work is appended (attached) to the project log. Be sure to append the work. Did you make a model or a mockup? (Be sure to have model or mockup available for evaluation) Append the rough drawings and any working drawings. Append the presentation drawings, if any6 were created. Describe the creation of the prototype, if one was created. What did the design team learn during the creation of the model or mockup? Did anything need to be changed or improved? Describe.

6. Project Evaluation

Describe how the project model or mockup meets or fails to meet each of the requirements as outlined in the assignment Requirements and in the Design Brief.

7. Model/Mockup Evaluation

How does the model or mockup show evidence of attention to detail and craftsmanship? If a prototype was created, does it function as it should? Does the prototype solve the problem?

8.

Self-Evaluation

Was your individual work on the project poor, fair, acceptable, or superior? Cite detailed evidence to support your self-evaluation. Explain what you would do differently or better if you were able to do the project over again. Tell why these changes would improve your project.

9.

Presentation

Was your presentation thoroughly prepared and sufficiently detailed? Cite evidence. Did you use appropriate media? Explain Did you show/demonstrate your model, mockup or prototype?

5.0

Specific Design Example

The Facilitator should bring out a typical design example in his or her field to illustrate the

application of the above processes and principles for class discussions.

(See attached document “Engineering Design Process” for further illustration)

END.