Leonid  Skotnikov  

International  Court  of  Justice  
 Chantilly  Model  United  Nations  
Conference  

 

Puneeth  Uttla  
Thomas  Jefferson  High  School  

 he  was  a   member  of  the  delegation  of  the  USSR   to  the  session  of  the  United  Nations   Human  Rights  Commission.  In  1986.  USSR  in  1951.  2006.  He  continued  to  serve  on   the  mission  to  the  United  Nations   until  2005.  Later  in  2002.   Antarctica.  In  2001.  he  served  as  a  member   of  the  delegation  of  the  USSR  to  the   sixth  committee  of  the  United  Nations   General  Assembly  from  1987  to  1988.   Additionally.  After   that  he  served  on  the  permanent   mission  of  the  USSR  to  the  United   Nations.       Skotnikov  was  also  head  of  the   Russian  delegation  to  the  2nd  Review   Conference  of  the  States  Parties  to  the   Convention  on  Prohibition  or   Restrictions  on  the  Use  of  Certain   Conventional  Weapons  Which  May  be   Deemed  to  be  Excessively  Injurious   or  to  have  Indiscriminate  Effects  in   2001.  he  was  the  head   of  the  Russian  Delegation  to  the   Forum  on  Afghan  Refugees  and   Displaced  Populations.  He  received  a   diploma  from  the  Moscow  Institute  of   International  Relations  in  1974.     Skotnikov  was  the  Deputy  Head   of  the  Russian  delegation  to  the   Substantive  Annual  Session  of  the   United  Nations  Economic  and  Social   Council  in  2003  and  in  the  same  year   was  Head  of  the  Russian  delegation  to   the  28th  International  Conference  of   the  Red  Cross  and  Red  Crescent.  Skotnikov  took  on   many  other  roles  as  a  representative   of  the  Russian  Federation.  He  was  the Government  Delegate  of  Russia  to  the   .       In  2004.  he   was  elected  to  the  International  Court   of  Justice.   Production  and  Stockpiling  of   Bacteriological  (Biological)  and  Toxin   Weapons  and  on  their  Destruction.  He   also  was  Head  of  the  Russian   delegation  to  the  One-­‐Hundred-­‐and-­‐ Eleventh  Session  of  the  Executive   Board  of  the  World  Health   Organization.  he  was  a  representative  of   Russia  to  the  Ministerial  on  Ice.I.   In  1999.  He   then  served  in  the  Minister  of  Foreign   Affairs  in  the  USSR  until  1977.   Leonid  Skotnikov  has  participated   in  many  international  forums  and   negotiations.  he  was  invited  to  a   fellowship  at  the  Center  for   International  Affairs  at  Harvard   University.  he  was  Head  of   the  Russian  delegation  to  the  5th   Review  Conference  of  the  States   Parties  to  the  Convention  on  the   Prohibition  of  the  Development.  Background  of  Leonid  Skotnikov     Leonid  Skotnikov  was  born  in   Kalinin.  In  February  6.  In  1990.

 He  believes  in  justice  in   world  affairs.       In  order  to  fully  understand  the   issue  at  hand.  This   strip  of  land  contained  the  only  sea   access  for  Bolivia  and  contained   .     Leonid  Skotnikov  has  also  been   heavily  involved  in  many  scholarly   and  research  activities.  Bolivia  and  Chile  disputed   the  ownership  of  a  small  strip  of  land   bordering  the  Pacific  Ocean.  Skotnikov  believes  that   the  history  of  the  conflict  must  be   taken  into  full  consideration.   International  Affairs  and  in  2004.  in  2003.     Skotnikov  has  an  immense  love   for  law  and  international  affairs  and   he  hopes  to  resolve  conflicts  in  the   International  Court  of  Justice  as  well   as  he  can.  he   authored  The  Right  of  Self-­‐Defense   and  the  New  Security  Imperatives.  Skotnikov   wrote  The  Use  of  Force:  Legal  Aspects.  Later.  In  1989.  and  hopes  to  bring  fair   judgment  to  issues  that  arise  in  the   International  Court  of  Justice.   he  wrote  Entering  the  21st  Century:   Towards  the  Rule  of  Law  in   International  Relations.  Fifty-­‐Ninth   Session.Ninety-­‐Second  Session  of  the   International  Labor  Conference  and   also  Representative  of  Russia  to  the   First  Committee.  United  Nations   General  Assembly.  International  Affairs.  Obligation  to  Negotiate  Access  to   the  Pacific  Ocean  (Bolivia  v. In  2000.     Skotnikov  has  many  interests  in   law  and  as  a  result  has  published   numerous  papers. International   Affairs.    He  took  part   as  a  panelist  in  the  99th  meeting  of  the   American  Society  of  International   Law  in  2005  at  Washington  DC.  He  is   also  a  member  of  the  Foundation   Council  of  the  Geneva  Centre  for   Security  Policy  and  he  participated  in   the  international  Workshop  on   Article  51  of  the  United  Nations   Charter  in  Light  of  Future  Threats  to   International  Peace  and  Security   organized  by  the  Government  of   Switzerland  as  a  contribution  to  the   work  of  the  High-­‐Level  Panel  on   Threats.  Challenges  and  Change.  Chile)       Leonid  Skotnikov  believes  that   the  issue  of  Bolivian  access  to  the   Pacific  Ocean  must  be  dealt  with   delicately  and  deliberatively.   International  Affairs.     In  the  middle  of  the  19th   century.     II.  he  co-­‐ authored  The  Primacy  of  Law  in   Politics.     Skotnikov  received  Order  of   Friendship  decoration  in  2002  and  a   Decree  of  Commendation  by  the   President  of  the  Russian  Federation   in  2004.

  Chile  was  the  clear  victor  and  the   strip  of  land  that  had  been  Bolivia’s   only  window  to  the  Pacific  was  now   in  Chile’s  sovereignty.  both  countries  wanted  this   strip  of  land  for  their  own  uses.  The   .   Therefore.  The   citizens  of  Bolivia  believe  that  the   current  problems  facing  Bolivia  all   stem  from  the  lack  of  access  to  the   sea.         In  order  to  resolve  any   continuing  tensions  between  Chile   and  Bolivia.  Thus   in  1904.       When  the  War  of  the  Pacific   began.  Thus.  as   the  war  started  it  pitted  the  forces  of   Chile  against  the  combined  forces  of   Peru  and  Bolivia.  Bolivia  and  Chile   began  a  boundary  treaty  that  set  the   boundary  between  the  two  countries   at  the  24th  parallel.  Therefore.  Chile  and  Bolivia  signed  the   Treaty  of  Peace  and  Friendship.  Thus.  there  was  a  disagreement   between  the  countries  because  the   type  of  mining  that  could  occur  was   not  specified.  However.  both  countries   signed  another  treaty  in  1874  that   split  up  that  strip  and  land  and     allowed  the  owners  of  each  part  of   the  strip  to  do  as  they  wished  with   the  strip.  When  the  War  of   the  Pacific  finally  ended  in  1883.   Bolivia  believes  that  it  is  still  unfair   that  it  is  landlocked  and  that  it  has  no   sovereign  access  to  the  sea.  Bolivia  invoked  a  secret  pact   to  obtain  the  help  of  their   neighboring  country  Peru.       Leonid  Skotnikov  believes  that   the  Treaty  of  Peace  and  Friendship   clearly  shows  the  type  of  behavior   that  is  allowed  by  each  country   (Bolivia  and  Chile).  they  decided  to  sign  one   last  peace  treaty  to  last  a  while.  they  strongly  wish  to   regain  this  territory.  It  also   initiated  the  creation  of  a  railroad   track  between  the  Pacific  Coast  and   the  capital  of  Bolivia.  it  also   gave  Bolivia  the  unlimited  right  to  use   this  land  to  transport  whatever   materials  they  wanted.  This  allowed  both   countries  to  use  the  strip  of  land  and   also  allowed  them  to  share  profits  of   minerals  mined  in  that  strip  of  land.  This   Treaty  once  again  assured  Chile’s   claim  on  the  strip  of  land  from  the   23rd  to  25th  parallel.  It  demonstrates   the  rights  and  the  responsibilities   that  Bolivia  and  Chile  have.  However  tensions   continued  to  rise  between  the  two   nations  and  eventually  led  to  the  War   of  the  Pacific.       Regardless  of  this  treaty.         In  1866.many  minerals  to  be  mined  for  Chile.   However.

    III.  According  to  Skotnikov.  he  also   realizes  that  this  process  of   disarmament  is  a  very  laborious  and   challenging  task  and  when  nations   are  preparing  for  disarmament.  but  rather  it  creates  a  sense  of   peace  and  sustainability  in  the  world.  Legality  of  the  Threat  or  Use   of  Nuclear  Weapons       Leonid  Skotnikov  strongly   believes  that  all  countries  in  the   United  Nations  should  be  committed   to  the  goal  of  nuclear  disarmament  in   compliance  with  Article  VI  of  the   Treaty  on  the  Non-­‐Proliferation  of   Nuclear  Weapons. .  understands  the   importance  of  peace  and  nuclear   disarmament  throughout  the  world.     Skotnikov  further  recognizes   that  the  proposed  Fissile  Material   Cut-­‐Off  Treaty  (FMCT)  must  be   signed  to  stop  the  further  production   of  fissile  material  for  nuclear   weapons.  the  International  Court   of  Justice  should  declare  the   disarmament  of  nuclear  arsenal  legal.Treaty  of  Peace  and  Friendship  also   clearly  defines  the  border  between   Bolivia  and  Chile  and  therefore   Skotnikov  recognizes  that  Chile  has   no  obligation  to  negotiate  Bolivian   access  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.       Therefore.  the   FMCT  should  be  discussed  at  the   Conference  on  Disarmament  in   Geneva  and  he  strongly  believes  that   this  treaty  should  be  ratified.  Thus.       Skotnikov  does  not  believe  that   the  NPT  creates  an  imbalance  of   power.     Other  treaties  that  Skotnikov   supports  are  the  Comprehensive   Nuclear-­‐Test-­‐Ban  Treaty  (CTBT)  and   South  Pacific  Nuclear  Free  Zone   Treaty.  or  the  Treaty  of  Rarotonga.   he  hopes  to  work  with  the  other   judges  on  this  case  to  reach  a  correct   decision.  He  believes  that  the   strategic  aspect  of  nuclear  weapons   poses  the  most  threat  to  the  peace  of   the  world  and  that  the  strategic   aspect  should  be  considered  most   heavily.  it  is  the  opinion  of   Leonid  Skotnikov  that  it  is  legal  to   support  the  disarmament  of  nuclear   stockpiles  through  a  deliberative  and   gradual  process.  However.  He   acknowledges  the  ramifications  of   these  multilateral  treaties  on  the   future  of  nuclear  weapons  and   believes  that  the  only  way  for  a   nuclear-­‐free  future  is  through  treaties   like  these.  Skotnikov.  having   been  involved  in  international  law  for   almost  40  years.  Therefore.  they   must  proceed  in  a  very  careful  and   gradual  manner.   according  to  Skotnikov.

UN. Wolfgang K. Web. 6 Jan.com/2012/04/03/how-bolivia-lost-itshat/>. Web. The New York Times.org/docket/index.mid. 6 Jan. <http://www. UN. "Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons.icjcij." United Nations News Center. 2015. Frank. Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation at the Plenary Meeting of the Conference on Disarmament. 8 Jan. AQ. 2012.doc. <http://americasquarterly. 2015.blogs. India. 2013.org/court/index. "Judge Leonid Skotnikov. H. 8 Jan. 4 Jan. 2015.org/act/1998_06-07/letjj98>." International Court of Justice. Chile).html>.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=e1&p3=4&case=95>. <http://www. 2015. 7 Jan. Online. "Bolivia Takes Chile to International Court of Justice over Land Dispute." International Court of Justice." International Court of Justice.org/content/bolivia-takes-chile-international-court-justice-overland-dispute>. Skotnikov. "The 1996 ICJ Opinion and the Legality of Nuclear Weapons.un." Americas Quarterly. 2015. "How Bolivia Lost Its Hat.   . Panofsky.htm>. Arms Control Association. Chile). 2015.armscontrol. 8 July 1996. UN. Web. "Statement by Ambassador Leonid Skotnikov. Web.icjcij.geneva. 16 July 2014.org/docket/files/153/18350. Web. Web. 7 Jan. 2015. 2015. Leonid. 3 Jan. 23 June 2005. 2 June 2005. Web. "Russia. <http://www. 3 Apr.ru/speeches/27.pdf>." International Court of Justice. 7 Jan. UN." Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva. Web.org/docket/index. <http://www." Arms Control Today. 2015. Turkey Address Disarmament Conference On Nuclear." The New York Times. "Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v. <http://www.org/press/en/2005/dcf448.nytimes. Web. Other Issues. Algeria. "Press Release of Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v. <http://www.php?judge=159&p1=1&p2=2&p3=1>. UN. Americas Quarterly.icjcij.Works  Cited   Jacobs. <http://www. 16 July 2014. Poland.icjcij. 23 Apr. <http://opinionator.php?p1=3&p2=3&case=153&code=bch>.

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