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The door security alarm circuit gives an audio visual alarm when somebody enters from
a door. This project can also be used in locker and almirah door. This circuit is based on
operational amplifier LM741 and LDR. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is
hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input
LM741 is a 8 pin IC that works as a single operational amplifier circuit, it's pin diagram is
shown below:


List of Figures

Page No.

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Project Description

1.3 Circuit Design
1.4 Schematic Design
1.5 Working
1.6 Hardware Description


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Project Description
2.3 Circuit Design
2.4 Schematic Design
2.5 Working
2.6 Hardware Description









1.1 Power Supply


1.2 Circuit Diagram


1.3 Schematic Diagram of project


1.4 Input AC Voltage


1.5 DC Output Voltage


1.6 Filtered Voltage


1.7 Output Voltage


1.8 Transformer


1.9 Diodes


1.10 Capacitor


1.11 Voltage Regulator


2.1 Security Alarm


2.2 Circuit Diagram


2.3 Schematic Diagram of project


2.4 Low Voltage Drop


2.5 High Voltage Drop


2.6 Alarm Path


2.7 Battery


2.8 Resistor


2.9 LDR


2.10 Transistor


2.11 Buzzer


Also called a power supply unit or PSU, the component that supplies power to a
computer. Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical outlets. The
power supply then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts the AC current to
DC current. It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in most
electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, do an adequate voltage-regulation
job, so a computer is always susceptible to large voltage fluctuations.
Power supplies are rated in terms of the number of watts they generate. The more
powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components.
A power supply is a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The term is
most commonly applied to electric power converters that convert one form of electrical
energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy
(mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that
controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held
nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the
power supply's energy source.
Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it
consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a
power supply may obtain energy from:
Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power
supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage.
Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.
Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators.
Solar power.
A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral
device that is hardwired to its load. Examples of the latter case include the low voltage
DC power supplies that are part of desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.
Commonly specified power supply attributes include:
The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load.
How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions.
How long it can supply energy without refuelling or recharging (applies to power
supplies that employ portable energy sources).



A regulated power supply is an embedded circuit; it converts unregulated AC into a

constant DC. With the help of a rectifier it converts AC supply into DC. Its function is to
supply a stable voltage (or less often current), to a circuit or device that must be operated
within certain power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be
alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly always DC (Direct Current).
The type of stabilization used may be restricted to ensuring that the output remains within
certain limits under various load conditions, or it may also include compensation for
variations in its own supply source. The latter is much more common today.
The door security alarm circuit gives an audio visual alarm when somebody enters from
a door. This project can also be used in locker and almirah door. This circuit is based on
operational amplifier LM741 and LDR. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is
hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals

D.C. variable bench supply (a bench power supply usually refers to a power supply
capable of supplying a variety of output voltages useful for bench testing electronic
circuits, possibly with continuous variation of the output voltage, or just some pre-set
voltages; a laboratory (lab) power supply normally implies an accurate bench power
supply, while a balanced or tracking power supply refers to twin supplies for use
when a circuit requires both positive and negative supply rails).
Mobile Phone power adaptors
Regulated power supplies in appliances
Various amplifiers and oscillators

Fig 1.1 Power Supply


Fig 1.2 Circuit Design of Power Supply System

Circuit consists of 4 parts: Step down transformer, 4 diodes, resistor, capacitor filter &
voltage regulator IC.


Fig 1.3 Schematic View of Power Supply


Circuit consists of 4 parts: Step down transformer, bridge rectifier, capacitor filter
and voltage regulator IC.
The transformer step downs the high voltage AC to a low voltage AC.

Fig 1.4 Input Voltage

During the positive half cycle of secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D3 are forward
biased and diodes D1 and D4 are reverse biased, now the current flows through
D2 >Load>D3
During the negative half cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D4 are
forward biased and diodes D2 and D3 are reverse biased Now the current flows
through D4>Load>D1
In both the cycles load current flows in same direction, hence we get a pulsating
DC voltage across the points B-B.

Fig 1.5 DC Output Voltage


The pulsating content are called ripples and a filter capacitor is used to remove the
ripples from pulsating DC.
When the instantaneous values of pulsating DC voltage increases, the capacitor
gets charged up to peak value of the input.
When the instantaneous values of pulsating DC voltage decreases, the stored
voltage in the capacitor reverse biases the diodes D2 and D4. Hence it will not
conduct, now capacitor discharges through the load. Then voltage across the
capacitor decreases.
During the next cycle, when the peak voltage exceeds the capacitor voltage, diode D2
or D4 forward biases accordingly, as a result capacitor again charges to the peak
value. This process continues. Hence we get almost smooth DC voltage as shown.

Fig 1.6 Brown color indicates pulsating DC and Red color is the filtered DC voltage .

Then the filtered voltage is applied to the input of 7805 voltage regulator IC, it in
turn regulates the voltage for line and load fluctuations.

Fig 1.7 Output Voltage




Step down transformer (IC 606).

Diodes x 4 (1N4001 for low power 1N4007 for moderate power)
Capacitor (1000F)
Voltage regulator



Fig 1.8 Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two circuits through
electromagnetic induction. A transformer may be used as a safe and efficient voltage
converter to change the AC voltage at its input to a higher or lower voltage at its output.
Other uses include current conversion, isolation with or without changing voltage and
impedance conversion.
A transformer most commonly consists of two windings of wire that are wound around a
common core to provide tight electromagnetic coupling between the windings. The core
material is often a laminated iron core. The coil that receives the electrical input energy is
referred to as the primary winding, while the output coil is called the secondary winding.
An alternating electric current flowing through the primary winding (coil) of a transformer
generates a varying electromagnetic field in its surroundings which causes a varying magnetic
flux in the core of the transformer. The varying electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the
secondary winding induces an electromotive force in the secondary winding, which appears a
voltage across the output terminals. If a load impedance is connected

across the secondary winding, a current flows through the secondary winding drawing
power from the primary winding and its power source.
A transformer cannot operate with direct current; although, when it is connected to a DC
source, a transformer typically produces a short output pulse as the current rises.
Transformers perform voltage conversion; isolation protection; and impedance matching.
In terms of voltage conversion, transformers can step-up voltage/step-down current from
generators to high-voltage transmission lines, and step-down voltage/step-up current to
local distribution circuits or industrial customers. The step-up transformer is used to
increase the secondary voltage relative to the primary voltage, whereas the step-down
transformer is used to decrease the secondary voltage relative to the primary voltage.
Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units weighing
hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A broad range of transformer designs are
used in electronic and electric power applications, including miniature, audio, isolation,
high-frequency, power conversion transformers, etc.

Basic principles
The functioning of a transformer is based on two principles of the laws of electromagnetic
induction: An electric current through a conductor, such as a wire, produces a magnetic
field surrounding the wire, and a changing magnetic field in the vicinity of a wire induces
a voltage across the ends of that wire.
The magnetic field excited in the primary coil gives rise to self-induction as well as
mutual induction between coils. This self-induction counters the excited field to such a
degree that the resulting current through the primary winding is very small when no load
draws power from the secondary winding.
The physical principles of the inductive behaviour of the transformer are most readily
understood and formalized when making some assumptions to construct a simple model
which is called the ideal transformer. This model differs from real transformers by
assuming that the transformer is perfectly constructed and by neglecting that electrical or
magnetic losses occur in the materials used to construct the device.



Fig 1.9 Diode

Structure of a vacuum tube diode. The filament may be bare, or more commonly (as
shown here), embedded within and insulated from an enclosing cathode.
In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric
conductance; it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one direction, and high
(ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type
today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a pn junction connected to
two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a
heated cathode. Semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices.
The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand
Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed
around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena. Today, most diodes are made
of silicon, but other semiconductors such as selenium or germanium are sometimes used.
The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one
direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite
direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of
a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert
alternating current to direct current, including extraction of modulation from radio signals
in radio receivers these diodes are forms of rectifiers.
However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple onoff action, due to
their nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Semiconductor diodes begin conducting
electricity only if a certain threshold voltage or cut-in voltage is present in the forward
direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward-biased). The voltage drop across

a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current, and is a function of
temperature; this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference.
Semiconductor diodes' currentvoltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the
semiconductor materials and doping, introducing impurities into the materials. These are
exploited in special-purpose diodes that perform many different functions. For example,
diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes), to protect circuits from high voltage
surges (avalanche diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes),
to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes),
and to produce light (light emitting diodes). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance,
which makes them useful in some types of circuits.


Fig 1.10 Capacitor

A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical

component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of
practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates)
separated by a dielectric (i.e., insulator). The conductors can be thin films of metal,
aluminium foil or disks, etc. The 'non-conducting' dielectric acts to increase the
capacitor's charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic, plastic film, air, paper,
mica, etc. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common
electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, a capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a
capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates.
When there is a potential difference across the conductors (e.g., when a capacitor is
attached across a battery), an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive
charge (+Q) to collect on one plate and negative charge (-Q) to collect on the other plate.
If a battery has been attached to a capacitor for a sufficient amount of time, no current can
flow through the capacitor. However, if an accelerating or alternating voltage is applied
across the leads of the capacitor, a displacement current can flow.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value for its capacitance.
Capacitance is expressed as the ratio of the electric charge (Q) on each conductor to the
potential difference (V) between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad (F), which
is equal to one coulomb per volt (1 C/V). Typical capacitance values range from about 1
pF (10 F) to about 1 mF (10 F).

The capacitance is greater when there is a narrower separation between conductors and
when the conductors have a larger surface area. In practice, the dielectric between the
plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength
limit, known as the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired
inductance and resistance.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of
power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric
power transmission systems they stabilize voltage and power flow.

A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region.

non-conductive region is called the dielectric. In simpler terms, the dielectric is just an
electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper, vacuum, and even a
semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is
assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence
from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on
their facing surfaces,
and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a
capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a
voltage of one volt across the device.
An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the
ratio of charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:

Because the conductors (or plates) are close together, the opposite charges on the
conductors attract one another due to their electric fields, allowing the capacitor to store
more charge for a given voltage than if the conductors were separated, giving the
capacitor a large capacitance.
Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to
vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:



Fig 1.11 Voltage Regulator

A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage

regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control
loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on
the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where
they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile
alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the
output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be
installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady
voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line.
The output voltage can only be held roughly constant; the regulation is specified by two
Load regulation is the change in output voltage for a given change in load current
(for example: "typically 15 mV, maximum 100 mV for load currents between 5
mA and 1.4 A, at some specified temperature and input voltage").
line regulation or input regulation is the degree to which output voltage changes
with input (supply) voltage changes - as a ratio of output to input change (for
example "typically 13 mV/V"), or the output voltage change over the entire
specified input voltage range (for example "plus or minus 2% for input voltages
between 90 V and 260 V, 50-60 Hz").
Other important parameters are:
Temperature coefficient of the output voltage is the change with temperature
(perhaps averaged over a given temperature range).
Initial accuracy of a voltage regulator (or simply "the voltage accuracy") reflects
the error in output voltage for a fixed regulator without taking into account
temperature or aging effects on output accuracy.

Dropout voltage is the minimum difference between input voltage and output
voltage for which the regulator can still supply the specified current. A low dropout (LDO) regulator is designed to work well even with an input supply only a
volt or so above the output voltage. The input-output differential at which the
voltage regulator will no longer maintain regulation is the dropout voltage. Further
reduction in input voltage will result in reduced output voltage. This value is
dependent on load current and junction temperature.
Absolute maximum ratings are defined for regulator components, specifying the
continuous and peak output currents that may be used (sometimes internally
limited), the maximum input voltage, maximum power dissipation at a given
temperature, etc.
Output noise (thermal white noise) and output dynamic impedance may be
specified as graphs versus frequency, while output ripple noise (mains "hum" or
switch-mode "hash" noise) may be given as peak-to-peak or RMS voltages, or in
terms of their spectra.
Quiescent current in a regulator circuit is the current drawn internally, not
available to the load, normally measured as the input current while no load is
connected (and hence a source of inefficiency; some linear regulators are,
surprisingly, more efficient at very low current loads than switch-mode designs
because of this).
Transient response is the reaction of a regulator when a (sudden) change of the
load current (called the load transient) or input voltage (called the line transient)
occurs. Some regulators will tend to oscillate or have a slow response time which
in some cases might lead to undesired results. This value is different from the
regulation parameters, as that is the stable situation definition. The transient
response shows the behaviour of the regulator on a change. This data is usually
provided in the technical documentation of a regulator and is also dependent on
output capacitance.
Mirror-image insertion protection means that a regulator is designed for use when
a voltage, usually not higher than the maximum input voltage of the regulator, is
applied to its output pin while its input terminal is at a low voltage, volt-free or
grounded. Some regulators can continuously withstand this situation; others might
only manage it for a limited time such as 60 seconds, as usually specified in the
datasheet. This situation can occur when a three terminal regulator is incorrectly
mounted for example on a PCB, with the output terminal connected to the
unregulated DC input and the input connected to the load. Mirror-image insertion
protection is also important when a regulator circuit is used in battery charging
circuits, when external power fails or is not turned on and the output terminal
remains at battery voltage.




A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion unauthorized entry into a
building or area. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and
military properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as
personal protection against intruders. Car alarms likewise protect vehicles and their
contents. Prisons also use security systems for control of inmates.
Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection; combination systems
provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion alarm systems may also be combined
with closed-circuit television surveillance systems to automatically record the activities of
intruders, and may interface to access control systems for electrically locked doors.
Have you ever thought about implementing your own home security alarm systems? It's
one of the simplest and interesting circuits for electronic beginners. Our new home
security equipment uses a LDR (Light Depended Resistor) to detect security problems.
Theft attempt and other security threats can be controlled by using this simple circuit to
improve your security systems.
To implement this alarm system for home, you have to provide an optical path (with
LASER beams) around your home. The LASER path is made possible with one LASER
torch and 3 mirror arrangements which encloses the whole area.


























Fig 2.1 Security Alarm


Fig 2.2 Circuit Diagram

The circuit consists of 4 parts: LDR, NPN Transistor, Buzzer and a Resistor



Fig 2.3 Schematic View of Security Alarm


This circuit is based on LDR (Light Depended Resistor), a variable resistor in
which the resistance varies according to the light intensity falling on it.
The LDR and resistor R1 forms a potential divider network, which is the main
part of our security alarm circuit.
We have already discussed about how transistor acts as a switch, the same
principle is used here.
The voltage drop across the LDR is used to drive the transistor switch. When the
voltage drop is above cut in voltage (0.6V), the transistor is turned ON.
LDR has low resistance (m range) in the presence of light and high resistance
(M range) in the absence of light.
In our security alarm, a LASER light is allowed to fall on the LDR continuously
.Light from other sources should not be allowed to fall on the LDR, so place the
LDR in a box with a single hole to pass LASER.
In this situation, the resistance offered by LDR is too low, since the LASER light
is continuously allowed to fall on the LDR surface.

Fig 2.4

Thus the voltage drop across the LDR is also low [V=IR (Ohms law)] which is

insufficient to turn ON the transistor, so the transistor remains in OFF state.

When a person (eg: thief) makes a block to the continuous flow of LASER beam,
then the light falling on the LDR gets blocked. Thus its resistance increases to a
high value in the order of M range (According to Ohms law V=IR).

Fig 2.5

While resistance increases the voltage drop also increases, when this voltage drop
exceeds the cut in voltage of the silicon NPN transistor (0.6V; BC547), it will turn
Then current from Vcc starts flowing to ground via the buzzer and transistor,
which makes the beep sound.
The beep sound from the security alarm gives the indication of some security
The project arrangement is given bellow:

Figure 2.6 The arrangement of Alarm path is shown in the above image.




Battery 6V
Resistors watt (150k)
LDR (Light Depended Resistor)
Transistor BC547
6V Buzzer


1.) Battery:
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert
stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or
cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the
electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode
materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline
battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable
batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the
electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries
used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics. Batteries come in
many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches
to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges
and computer data centers

Fig 2.7 Battery


2.) Resistor:

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical

resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the
voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential
difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the
conductor in units of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to
the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be
a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds
and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickelchrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analogue
devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.


Fig 2.8 Resistor


3.) LDR:
An LDR (Light dependent resistor), as its name suggests, offers resistance in response to
the ambient light. The resistance decreases as the intensity of incident light increases, and
vice versa. In the absence of light, LDR exhibits a resistance of the order of mega-ohms
which decreases too few hundred ohms in the presence of light. It can act as a sensor,
since a varying voltage drop can be obtained in accordance with the varying light. It is
made up of cadmium sulphide (CdS).

Fig 2.9 LDR

4.) Transistor:
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals
and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three
terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair
of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals.
Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power,
a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but
many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental

building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic

systems. Following its development in the early 1950s, the transistor revolutionized the
field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators,
and computers, among other things.

Figure 2.10 NPN v/s PNP Transistor


5.) Buzzer:
Here buzzer indicates the alarm condition. Its voice or sound indicates the defect in home
security .With respective to circuit it is just a load .but with respective to alarm it form the
important part of system. Alerting devices serve the dual purposes of warning occupants of
intrusion, and potentially scaring off burglars. These devices may also be used to warn
occupants of a fire or smoke
Basically, it is an electrical device that makes a buzzing noise and is used for signalling.
An audible warning device indicating it is time to do something. Buzzer or beeper is a
Device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a
Oven, or game shows. It most commonly consists of a number of switches or sensors
connected to a control unit that determines if and which button was pushed or a pre-set time
has lapsed, and usually illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel, and
sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound

Fig 2.11 Buzzer


About Proteus

Proteus is a great electrical suite for circuit simulation purposes.

Proteus is a Virtual System Modeling and circuit simulation application. The suite
combines mixed mode circuit simulation, animated components and
microprocessor models to facilitate co-simulation of complete microcontroller
based designs.

Proteus also has the ability to simulate the interaction between software running
on a microcontroller and any analog or digital electronics connected to it.

Overview of Proteus

Future Scope:It will implement in every home so that our country will secure and theft in our country
will be less.

Various other books and magazines



DIELECTRIC: A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by nonconductive regions. The non-conductive region is called dielectric
RECTIFIER: It is combination of diodes used to rectify an AC signal into a DC
TRANSFORMER: This device is used to vary the amplitude of a signal used in
almost all the home appliances.
SEMICONDUCTOR: A solid substance that has a conductivity between
that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition
of an impurity or because of temperature effects.

FILTER: A filter circuit is an electronic circuit made using capacitors and