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# Physics

Test

(2nd Semester )

## Date: 25 February 2016

Time: 40 minutes
RAW MARK

PERCENTAGE

(a) State the similarity and the difference between scalars and vectors.
(2)

similarity

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## difference .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(b) Complete the table by ticking (3) the correct boxes to show whether each quantity
is a scalar or a vector.
The first one has been done for you.
(3)

Quantity

Scalar

density

Vector

time
force
momentum
speed
velocity
(Total for Question 1 = 5 marks)

Turn over

## Some cars have a pedestrian airbag for safety.

If a pedestrian is hit and lands on the front of the car, the airbag inflates.

pedestrian
airbag

volvocars

Use ideas about momentum to explain how this airbag can reduce injuries to pedestrians.
(4)
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Turn over

##  The diagram shows a box attached to a parachute, falling at constant velocity.

(B) Explain, in terms of forces, why the box and parachute fall at constant velocity.
(4)
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Turn over

## Motion and forces

4 Sam and Joe are on their bikes. They are on a flat, straight road.
(a) Joe is stationary when Sam rides past at a constant velocity of 10 m/s.
Joe waits for 4 s and then follows Sam.
This is a velocity/time graph of their motion.
20
velocity /
m/s

Joe

15

Sam

10

Sam

Joe

0
0

10

15
time / s

## (i) How far did Sam travel during these 15 s?

Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer.

(1)

A
B

10 m

C 100 m
D 150 m

Turn over

(ii) At which of these times is the resultant force on Joe bigger than the resultant
force on Sam?
Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer.
(1)
A at 3 s
B at 7 s
C at 11 s
D at 15 s
(iii) For how many seconds was Joe accelerating?
(1)

## number of seconds = ................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s

(iv) Calculate Joes acceleration during this time.
(2)

## Joes acceleration = ........................................... . . . . . . . . m/s2

Turn over

(b) The diagram shows the horizontal forces acting on Joe at one point while he is
accelerating.

backwards force = 30 N

## forwards force = 100 N

(i) Calculate the size of the resultant horizontal force acting on Joe and his bike.
(2)

## size of resultant force = ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N

(ii) The total mass of Joe, his heavy bag, and his bike is 55 kg.
Calculate the total weight.
Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N/kg
(1)

## total weight = ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N

(c) On another day, Joe is riding the same bike on the same piece of road.
This time he does not have the heavy bag on his back.
He finds that it is easier to accelerate.
Explain why Joe finds it easier to accelerate.
(2)
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## (Total for Question 4 = 10 marks)

Turn over

5 The graph shows the minimum stopping distances, in metres, for a car travelling at
different speeds on a dry road.
100
80
stopping
distance
in m

60

Braking distance

40

Thinking distance

20
0
20

30

40

50

60

70

## speed of car in miles per hour

(a) Complete the equation to show the link between stopping distance, thinking
distance and braking distance.
Stopping distance =

(1)

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## (b) Describe the patterns shown in the graph.

(2)

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Turn over

## (c) The tests were carried out on a dry road.

If the road is icy, describe and explain what change there would be, if any, to
(i) the thinking distance

(2)

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## (ii) the braking distance

(2)

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Turn over

##  A bowling ball rolls for 3 s and hits a pin.

pin

ball

The graph shows how the velocity of the ball changes with time.
7
6

5
4
Velocity
in m/s
3

2
1

Time in s
(a) How can the graph be used to find the DFFHOHUDWLRQ of the ball before it hits the pin?
(1)
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## (b) The mass of the ball is 6.4 kg.

(ii) Calculate the momentum of the ball before it hits the pin.
Give the unit.

(3)

Momentum = . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. Unit . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .

(c) (i) What is the velocity of the ball after it hits the pin (Hint: use the graph)?

(1)

Velocity = . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . m/s
(ii) After the collision, the ball and the pin have the same velocity.
Calculate the mass of the pin.

(3)

Mass = . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . kg
(Total for Question 6 = 8 marks)

7. A book is resting on a table. A student draws a correct free-body diagram for the book as
shown below:
Push of table

Weight

A

## None of the above

(Total 1 mark)

8. A plane moves 400 km south, then 400 km west and finally 400 km north.
The distance and displacement of the plane is:
Distance

Displacement

400 km north

400km

400 km south

1200 km

400 km
400 km west

(Total 1 mark)

Mark scheme
Question
number
1(a)

(b)

Notes

## Similarity - both have

magnitude/OWTTE; Difference - vector
has direction OR scalar does not have
direction;

Marks
2

3
Ignore density
completed)

## any four from MP1

momentu
m
One or two correct ticks = 1
reduced;
mark Three or four correct
MP2
ticksby
= 2 marks All five
same
correct ticks = 3 marks
amount;
MP3 over
longer
Any four of time;
MP4 so
MP1. weight acts downwards;
force
reduced;
MP5 use of force =
MP2. drag/friction acts upwards;
rate of change of
momentum;
MP3. Idea that forces are
MP6 less
force means less
balanced;
damage/injuries;
MP4.
MP5.

## reference to f(R ) = ma;

Idea that when forces are
balanced then acceleration
is zero;

Responses
should be in
the context of
momentum

max 4

ignore momentum
absorbed
ignore impact reduced
simple
ignore mention of eqn is
insufficient
motion before
terminal velocity
gravity
allow
force of gravity
air resistance
acts to oppose motion
drag = weight
force up = force down
no resultant force
NI

MP6.

constant velocity = no
acceleration;
forces may be shown
on diagram

4(ai)
4(aii)
4(aiii)

4(aiv)

4(bi)

D 150 m
(1)
B at 7 s
(1)
6 (s)
(1)

(1)
(1)
(1)

Substitution:
15 6
(1)

## Allow ecf from 4(aiii)

Must be 15 divided
by their 4(aiii)

Evaluation
2.5 (m/s2)
(1)

## ECF allowed from first

marking point ie
evaluation of 15 divided
4(aiii)

100 - 30
(1)
70 (N)
(1)

## Award 2 marks for

working
100 + 30 or 130 gains 1
mark
Award 2 marks for correct
working

(2)

(2)

4(bii)
550 (N)
(1)

4(c)

## 539 (N) allow use of g =

9.8
N/kg
539.55 (N) for use of g =
9.81N/kg
Award mark for correct
no
working

(1)

(combined) mass is less
(1)
smaller force required for same
acceleration
OR
more acceleration from same
force
(1)

ignore references to
weight,
friction or backwards force
ignore easier to
accelerate as in
stem
less force needed (to
accelerate)

(2)

5 (a)
(b)

## (stopping distance =) thinking

distance + braking distance
Any two of:
as speed increases /
car goes faster, the
(thinking/braking/sto
pping) distance
increases;
as thinking distance
increases so does braking
distance;

(c)

difference in pattern
between thinking/braking
distances identified;
e.g:
increase in thinking distance <
increase in braking distance /
increase in thinking
distance is linear or
proportional /
increase (in braking /
stopping) is non linear /
WTTE
(i) thinking distance
no change;
depends on speed/ driver /
reaction (time)
(ii braking distance
) increase;
less friction/ less grip

ou

ld
be
re
ve
rs
ed
Ig
no
re
Ignore reference to time
e.g. takes
longer sliding,
Ignore
skidding,
slippery
re
fe
re
nc
es
to
ti
m

2
2

Questio
n
(a)
6number

Accept

Reject

Marks
1

zero

(b)

7(a)
7(b)

(c)

() Substitution
in correct
equation;
Calculation;
e.g. 6.4 x 6
= 38.4
; ;
(i kg
4.8m/s
(m/s)
)
Idea that
(ii momentum is
) conserved;
Substitution;
Calculation;

Ns;
1

Allow
e.c.f.
from
incorrect
momentu
m
e.g.
calculatio
n in
p1 = p2 / m1 x
(b)(ii)
v1 = (m1 + m2) x v2
and /or
6.4 x 6 = (6.4 +
incorrect
m2) x 4.8
velocity
m2 = (38.4 4.8) 6.4 = 8 6.4 reading
= 1.6 (kg)
e.g.:
Idea of
conservatio
n of
momentum;
m2 = [(b)(ii)
B
(c)(i)]
6.4 ;
D
correct
evaluatio
n of this;
e.g. 5 m/s
1.28 kg
Allow for
one mark A
calculation
that only