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Fundamental of vehicle dynamic

Pages 217-218

Vehicle Handling Dynamic
theory and application pages 30-33
3. Tire Dynamics 127

3.5.4 F Effect of Camber Angle on Rolling

Resistan ce
When a tire travels with a camber angle γ, the component of rolling
moment Mr on rolling resistance Fr will be reduced, however, a
component of aligning mome nt Mz on rolling resistance will appear.

Fr = −Fr ˆı (3.91)
1 1
Fr = M cos γ + Mz sin γ (3.92)
Rh r Rh
Pr oof. Rolling moment Mr appears when the normal force Fz shifts for-
ward. However, only the component Mr cos γ is perpendicula r to the tire-
plane and prevents the tire’s spin. Further more, when a moment in z-
direction is applied on the tire, only the component Mz sin γ will prevent
the tire’s spin. Therefore, the camber angle γ will affect the rolling resis-
tance according to

Fr = −Fr ˆı
1 1
Fr = Mr cos γ Mz sin γ (3.93)
h h
where Mr may be substitute d by Equatio n (3.66) to show the effect of
normal force Fz .
∆x 1
Fr = Fz cos γ Mz sin γ (3.94)
h h

Vehicle Dynamic
Theory and applications - page 127
Camber Angle Theory
This means that the wheel camber angle can be reduced
considerably, leaving a small angle to compensate the axis
deformation caused by the load in rigid-axle vehicles, at the same
time, this would lead to a reduction in the kingpin offset and the
negative effects this has on the steering, in fact, it can be seen that
the wheels tend towards a zero camber angle under the effect of the
deforming load,
With improvements in construction techniques, and with the
introduction of independent-arm suspension, the wheel camber angle
tends towards a value very close to zero under the most common use
or load conditions, it should be taken into account, however that the
camber angles of the wheels will tend to vary as the vehicle is jolted
When the suspension is in compression, the bump position of the
wheel will be higher relative to the body, with the release however,
the bump position of the wheel will be lower relative to the body,
during these movements the wheel, with it’s ideal position being
perpendicular to the ground, will take on a negative camber angle
during compression, and a positive camber angle during release, this
is created by the combination of factors related to the de-formability
of the parallelogram formed by the upper and lower suspension arms
and the wheel kingpin,
This was one of the many factors that led to independent-arm
suspension being preferred to rigid-axle suspension, the benefits of
this effect is most apparent on bends, where the compression of the
suspension on the outer wheel on the bend caused by centrifugal
force, produces a negative camber on the wheel itself that acts
against the overturning of the vehicle, this does not occur with rigid-
axle suspension systems,
Another positive aspect of independent suspension systems, is as
follows, with reference to the distance between the elastic reactions
of the two systems, with independent suspension, this distance has
the same value as the impact of the wheels on the ground, thus giving
greater stability and increased elasticity to the system, as compared
to rigid-axle suspension,
The de-formability of the parallelogram formed by the upper and
lower suspension arms and the wheel kingpin is linked to a series of
well defined dimensional ratios,
The ratio between the lengths determine the degree of angular
variation in the camber of the wheel, either positive or negative,
according to the vertical bump or jolt movement, the bigger the
bump, the bigger the variation in the camber angle.

Positive or negative camber angle is determined by the distances ‘A’

and ‘B’, depending on whether or not these two distances are the
same, and by the position of the arms relative to the ground under
normal use conditions of the vehicle, if, for example, it is decided
that the wheel should have a zero camber angle under normal load
conditions, then obviously it must be at the mid-point in the range of
movement between complete compression and complete release, the
camber will then tend towards positive when empty, and negative
when fully loaded, when the suspension system is in a classical
position, the condition described above will be satisfied,
In fact, with the suspension system in this arrangement, which means
that the distance ‘A’ will be different to distance ‘B’ for any
minimum upward or downward, movement the wheel camber angle
will inevitably change, for a large number of reasons, it is not always
possible for the manufacturer to follow the classical arrangement
rules, and a complex number of possibilities arise from this regarding
the geometrical arrangement of the suspension systems,
Effects of Camber
• Tire wear - Camber is a tire wear angle. Correct camber
keeps the tire tread in good contact with the road. Zero
camber while driving is the ideal position for this purpose, but
wheels and tires seldom maintain zero camber under actual
driving conditions. Too much positive camber makes the tire
wear out faster on the outside, and too much negative camber
makes it wear out on the inside.
• Steering stability - Camber is also a directional control
angle. If camber is unequal side-to-side, the auto pulls toward
the side with more camber.
• The reason both for the tire wear and the steering pull is that
a cambered tire rolls like a cone - as if one side of the tire had
a larger diameter than the other (Fig. 1-
20). The tread on the smaller side gets pushed under the tire
and makes that side of the

Assoc. Prof. Nguyen Van Nhan - Theory of Motor Vehicles