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FEG 2113

CHEMISTRY I
CHAPTER 1
Atomic Structure

Atomic Theory of Matter

The theory that atoms are the fundamental
building blocks of matter reemerged in the early
19th century, championed by John Dalton.

Atomic Composition
3 subatomic particles made up all atoms:
Electrically positive protons
Electrically neutral neutrons
Electrically negative electrons

Structure of An Atom

Subatomic Particles
Protons and electrons are the only particles that have a
charge.
Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass.
The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.

Table: Properties & Location of Protons,

Neutrons & Electrons In Atom
Subatomic Symbol Relative Location
Particle
electrical
charge
Proton
p+
+1
In the
nucleus
Electron
e-1
Outside
the
nucleus
Neutron
n0
0
In the
nucleus

1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1 gmol-1

Symbols of Elements

letters.

Atomic Number

All atoms of the same element have the same

number of protons:
The atomic number (Z)

Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom in atomic mass units

(amu) is the total number of protons and
neutrons in the atom.

ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons

MASS NUMBER (A)

Sum of the number of protons and neutrons
in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number (A)
= Number of protons + Number of neutrons
= Atomic Number (Z) + Number of neutrons

X
Z

Mass number
Element symbol

Atomic number

Example :
What is the atomic number and the mass
number of the element FLUORINE that
contains 9 protons and 10 neutrons ? Write
the element symbol.
Atomic number =
Mass number =

Isotopes
Isotopes are same atomic number with different
masses.
Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons.

11
C
6

12
C
6

13
C
6

14
C
6

Exercise
How many neutrons are in each isotope of
oxygen? Write the symbol of each isotope.
Oxygen (atomic no.) = 8
a) Oxygen-16 b) Oxygen-17 c) Oxygen-18

Example :
Isotope Isotope mass (amu)
63

29Cu

65

29Cu

62.9298
64.9278

=
=
=

Abundance
(%)
69.09
30.91

Properties subatomic particle

Subatomic Symbol Relative Mass Mass Location
Particle
electrical
(g)
(amu)
charge
Proton
p+
+1
1.6726
1
In the
x 10-24
nucleus
Electron
e-1
9.1094 0.0005 Outside
x 10-28
the
nucleus
Neutron
n0
0
1.6749
1
In the
x 10-24
nucleus

mass units (amu)

Relative atomic mass - The mass of an atom is measured relative to

the mass of an atomic standard, Carbon-12

Relative atomic mass (symbol: Ar) is a dimensionless physical

quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from
a given source) to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

Atomic mass of an element the average relative mass of the

isotopes of that element compared to atomic mass of carbon-12 (12
amu)

1 amu 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon

with 6 protons and 6 neutrons (a carbon-12 atom)
1 amu = 1.66054 10 -24 g

Relative Molecular Masses, Mr

The mass of one MOLECULE of the
substance compared to 1/12 the mass of
one ATOM of carbon-12 isotope. Its
symbol is Mr.
Mr is calculated by adding together the
relative atomic masses of all the atoms
present in the molecular formula of the
substance.

Periodic Table
It is a systematic
catalog of the
elements.
Elements are
arranged in order
of atomic number.

Periodicity

When one looks at the chemical properties of

elements, one notices a repeating pattern of
reactivities.

Periodic Table
The rows on the
periodic chart are
periods.
Columns are groups.
Elements in the same
group have similar
chemical properties.

Mole Concept
Mole is a chemical unit used in
quantitative measurement of particles
involved in chemical reactions
A mole is the amount of a substance that
contains as many elementary entities
(atoms, molecules, ions or other particles)
as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of the
carbon-12 isotope.

Using Moles

Moles provide a bridge from the molecular

scale to the real-world scale.

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

One mole always contains the same
number of particles, no matter what the
substance is.
1 mole = 6.0221415 x 1023 particles
This value is known as Avogadros
number in honour of Amedeo Avogadro,
an Italian lawyer and physicist (17761856)

Empirical Formula
Simplest formula
Gives the smallest whole-number ratio of
atoms present in a compound

Molecular Formula
True formula
Total number of atoms of each element
present in one molecule of a compound
Knowing the relative numbers of atoms of
each element in a molecule

Molecular Formula
Molecular formula = [Empirical formula]n
where n should be integers (n = 1, 2, 3)
To determine molecular formula from
empirical formula, the molar mass must
be obtained from experiment

Empirical Formula from % Composition

For a compound composed of atoms of A & B,
Convert weight
% to mass (g)

%A
%B

gA
gB

Convert mass (g)

to moles (mol)

x mol A
x mol B

Ratio gives
formula

x mol A

y mol B
Find mole ratio

AxBy

Example 1:
Finding Empirical Formula
25.00g of orange compound, contains 6.64g
of potassium, 8.84g of chromium and 9.52g
of oxygen
K, Cr, O
Given the molar mass
K = 39.40 g/mol
Cr = 52.00 g/mol
O = 16.00 g/mol

Remember that we learn in school:

mass(g )
mol(mol)
molecularw eight (gmol )
1

Atom

Cr

Mass (g)

6.64 g

8.84 g

9.52 g

Mol

Atom Ratio

Wholenumber
Mol Ratio
Empirical
formula

Atom

Cr

Mass (g)

6.64 g

8.84 g

9.52 g

Mol

Mol Ratio

Wholenumber
Mol Ratio
Empirical
formula

6.64 g
8.84 g
9.52 g
39.40 g/mol 52.00 g/mol 16.00 g/mol
= 0.170 mol = 0.170 mol = 0.595 mol

0.170
0.170
=1

0.170
0.170
=1

0.595
0.170
3.5

1x2=2

1x2=2

3.5 x 2 = 7

K2Cr2O7

Example 2 : Finding Empirical

formula & Molecular formula
Eugenol is the major component in oil of
cloves. It has a molar mass of 164.2 g/mol
and is 73.14 % C and 7.37 % H, the
remainder is oxygen. What are the empirical
and molecular formulas of eugenol?
[ Assumption : Mass % mass (g)]
The mass of O in a 100.0 g sample :
73.14 g C + 7.37 g H + mass of O = 100.00 g
Mass of O = 19.49 g O

Atom

Mass (%)

73.14 %

7.37 %

19.49 %

Mass (g)
Mol

Mol Ratio

Empirical
formula

Atom

Mass (%)

73.14 %

7.37 %

19.49 %

Mass (g)

73.14 g

7.37 g

19.49 g

Mol

73.14 g
12.011 g/mol
= 6.089 mol

7.37 g
1.008 g/mol
= 7.312 mol

19.49 g
15.999 g/mol
= 1.218 mol

Mol Ratio

6.089 mol
1.218 mol
= 4.999 5

7.312 mol
1.218 mol
= 6.003 6

1.218 mol
1.218 mol
=1

Empirical
formula

C 5H 6O

[

]n = 164.2 g/mol

The molecular mass of eugenol

= 164.2 g/mol
[C5H6O]n = 164.2 g/mol
[(5x12.011 g/mol) + (6x1.008 g/mol) +
(1x15.999 g/mol)] n = 164.2 g/mol
(60.055 + 6.048 + 15.999) n = 164.2
n = 164.2 / 82.102 = 1.99995 2
Molecular formula = [C5H6O]2
= C10H12O2

Learning Outcomes
Determine the empirical and molecular
formulae of compounds and calculate
their relative formula/molecular mass
Use atomic number and mass number to
differentiate different element and
different isotopes of the same element