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FEG 2113

CHEMISTRY I
CHAPTER 1
Atomic Structure

Atomic Theory of Matter


The theory that atoms are the fundamental
building blocks of matter reemerged in the early
19th century, championed by John Dalton.

Atomic Composition
3 subatomic particles made up all atoms:
Electrically positive protons
Electrically neutral neutrons
Electrically negative electrons

Structure of An Atom

Subatomic Particles
Protons and electrons are the only particles that have a
charge.
Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass.
The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.

Table: Properties & Location of Protons,


Neutrons & Electrons In Atom
Subatomic Symbol Relative Location
Particle
electrical
charge
Proton
p+
+1
In the
nucleus
Electron
e-1
Outside
the
nucleus
Neutron
n0
0
In the
nucleus

1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1.6605 x 10-24 g

1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1 gmol-1

Symbols of Elements

Elements are symbolized by one or two


letters.

Atomic Number

All atoms of the same element have the same


number of protons:
The atomic number (Z)

Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom in atomic mass units


(amu) is the total number of protons and
neutrons in the atom.

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)


Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons

MASS NUMBER (A)


Sum of the number of protons and neutrons
in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number (A)
= Number of protons + Number of neutrons
= Atomic Number (Z) + Number of neutrons

X
Z

Mass number
Element symbol

Atomic number

Example :
What is the atomic number and the mass
number of the element FLUORINE that
contains 9 protons and 10 neutrons ? Write
the element symbol.
Atomic number =
Mass number =

Isotopes
Isotopes are same atomic number with different
masses.
Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons.

11
C
6

12
C
6

13
C
6

14
C
6

Exercise
How many neutrons are in each isotope of
oxygen? Write the symbol of each isotope.
Oxygen (atomic no.) = 8
a) Oxygen-16 b) Oxygen-17 c) Oxygen-18

Example :
Isotope Isotope mass (amu)
63

29Cu

65

29Cu

62.9298
64.9278

Average atomic mass for Cu


=
=
=

Abundance
(%)
69.09
30.91

Properties subatomic particle


Subatomic Symbol Relative Mass Mass Location
Particle
electrical
(g)
(amu)
charge
Proton
p+
+1
1.6726
1
In the
x 10-24
nucleus
Electron
e-1
9.1094 0.0005 Outside
x 10-28
the
nucleus
Neutron
n0
0
1.6749
1
In the
x 10-24
nucleus

Relative Atomic Masses, Ar

Masses of fundamental atomic particles often expressed in atomic


mass units (amu)

Relative atomic mass - The mass of an atom is measured relative to


the mass of an atomic standard, Carbon-12

Relative atomic mass (symbol: Ar) is a dimensionless physical


quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from
a given source) to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

1 carbon atom has a mass of 12.000 amu

Atomic mass of an element the average relative mass of the


isotopes of that element compared to atomic mass of carbon-12 (12
amu)

1 amu 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon


with 6 protons and 6 neutrons (a carbon-12 atom)
1 amu = 1.66054 10 -24 g

Relative Molecular Masses, Mr


The mass of one MOLECULE of the
substance compared to 1/12 the mass of
one ATOM of carbon-12 isotope. Its
symbol is Mr.
Mr is calculated by adding together the
relative atomic masses of all the atoms
present in the molecular formula of the
substance.

Periodic Table
It is a systematic
catalog of the
elements.
Elements are
arranged in order
of atomic number.

Periodicity

When one looks at the chemical properties of


elements, one notices a repeating pattern of
reactivities.

Periodic Table
The rows on the
periodic chart are
periods.
Columns are groups.
Elements in the same
group have similar
chemical properties.

Mole Concept
Mole is a chemical unit used in
quantitative measurement of particles
involved in chemical reactions
A mole is the amount of a substance that
contains as many elementary entities
(atoms, molecules, ions or other particles)
as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of the
carbon-12 isotope.

Using Moles

Moles provide a bridge from the molecular


scale to the real-world scale.

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Avogadros Number
One mole always contains the same
number of particles, no matter what the
substance is.
1 mole = 6.0221415 x 1023 particles
This value is known as Avogadros
number in honour of Amedeo Avogadro,
an Italian lawyer and physicist (17761856)

Empirical Formula
Simplest formula
Gives the smallest whole-number ratio of
atoms present in a compound

Molecular Formula
True formula
Total number of atoms of each element
present in one molecule of a compound
Knowing the relative numbers of atoms of
each element in a molecule

Molecular Formula
Molecular formula = [Empirical formula]n
where n should be integers (n = 1, 2, 3)
To determine molecular formula from
empirical formula, the molar mass must
be obtained from experiment

Empirical Formula from % Composition


For a compound composed of atoms of A & B,
Convert weight
% to mass (g)

%A
%B

gA
gB

Convert mass (g)


to moles (mol)

x mol A
x mol B

Ratio gives
formula

x mol A

y mol B
Find mole ratio

AxBy

Example 1:
Finding Empirical Formula
25.00g of orange compound, contains 6.64g
of potassium, 8.84g of chromium and 9.52g
of oxygen
K, Cr, O
Given the molar mass
K = 39.40 g/mol
Cr = 52.00 g/mol
O = 16.00 g/mol

Remember that we learn in school:

mass(g )
mol(mol)
molecularw eight (gmol )
1

Atom

Cr

Mass (g)

6.64 g

8.84 g

9.52 g

Mol

Atom Ratio

Wholenumber
Mol Ratio
Empirical
formula

Atom

Cr

Mass (g)

6.64 g

8.84 g

9.52 g

Mol

Mol Ratio

Wholenumber
Mol Ratio
Empirical
formula

6.64 g
8.84 g
9.52 g
39.40 g/mol 52.00 g/mol 16.00 g/mol
= 0.170 mol = 0.170 mol = 0.595 mol

0.170
0.170
=1

0.170
0.170
=1

0.595
0.170
3.5

1x2=2

1x2=2

3.5 x 2 = 7

K2Cr2O7

Example 2 : Finding Empirical


formula & Molecular formula
Eugenol is the major component in oil of
cloves. It has a molar mass of 164.2 g/mol
and is 73.14 % C and 7.37 % H, the
remainder is oxygen. What are the empirical
and molecular formulas of eugenol?
[ Assumption : Mass % mass (g)]
The mass of O in a 100.0 g sample :
73.14 g C + 7.37 g H + mass of O = 100.00 g
Mass of O = 19.49 g O

Atom

Mass (%)

73.14 %

7.37 %

19.49 %

Mass (g)
Mol

Mol Ratio

Empirical
formula

Atom

Mass (%)

73.14 %

7.37 %

19.49 %

Mass (g)

73.14 g

7.37 g

19.49 g

Mol

73.14 g
12.011 g/mol
= 6.089 mol

7.37 g
1.008 g/mol
= 7.312 mol

19.49 g
15.999 g/mol
= 1.218 mol

Mol Ratio

6.089 mol
1.218 mol
= 4.999 5

7.312 mol
1.218 mol
= 6.003 6

1.218 mol
1.218 mol
=1

Empirical
formula

C 5H 6O

The molecular mass of eugenol = 164.2 g/mol


[

]n = 164.2 g/mol

The molecular mass of eugenol


= 164.2 g/mol
[C5H6O]n = 164.2 g/mol
[(5x12.011 g/mol) + (6x1.008 g/mol) +
(1x15.999 g/mol)] n = 164.2 g/mol
(60.055 + 6.048 + 15.999) n = 164.2
n = 164.2 / 82.102 = 1.99995 2
Molecular formula = [C5H6O]2
= C10H12O2

Learning Outcomes
Determine the empirical and molecular
formulae of compounds and calculate
their relative formula/molecular mass
Use atomic number and mass number to
differentiate different element and
different isotopes of the same element