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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 373-415, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_030


Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=7&IType=1
Journal Impact Factor (2016): 9.7820 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication

ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF


SOIL USING MULTI-LINEAR REGRESSION
MODELING
Abdullah Anwar and Yusuf Jamal
Assistant Prof., Civil Engineering Department, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (226022), India

Sabih Ahmad
Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (226022), India,

M.Z. Khan
Professor and Head, Civil Engineering Department, I.E.T. Sitapur Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (226022), India

ABSTRACT
The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most widely used in-situ test throughout the world for subsurface
geotechnical investigation and this procedure have evolved over a period of 100 years. Estimation of the
liquefaction potential of soils is often based on SPT test. Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in the field of
Geotechnical engineering. It is the phenomena when there is loss of shear strength in saturated and cohesion-less
soils because of increased pore water pressures and hence reduced effective stresses due to dynamic loading. In the
present study, SPT based data were analysed to find out a suitable numerical procedure for establishing a MultiLinear Regression Model using IBM-Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics v20.0.0) and
MATLAB(R2010a) in analysis of soil liquefaction for a particular location at a site in Lucknow City. A MultiStoreyed Residential Building Project site was considered for this study to collect 12 borehole datasets along 10 km
stretch of IIM road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). The 12 borehole datasets includes 06 borehole data up to 22m
depth and other 06 borehole data up to 30m depth to further analyse the behavior of different soil properties and
validity of the established Multi-Linear Regression Model. Disturbed soil sample were collected upto 22m and 30m
depth in every1.5m interval to determine various soil parameters. In recent years, various researchers have
expressed the need for location based specific study of seismic soil properties and analysis of Liquefaction in Soils.

Keywords: Liquefaction, Multi-Linear Regression Modeling, MATLAB, SPSS, SPT, CSR, CRR.

Cite this Article: Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan, Assessment of Liquefaction
Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling, International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 7(1), 2016, pp. 373-415.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Liquefaction had been studied extensively by researchers all around the world right after two main
significant earthquakes in 1964. Since than a number of terminologies, conceptual understanding, procedures and
liquefaction analysis methods have been proposed. A well-known example is the 1964 Niigata (Japan) and 1964
Great Alaskan Earthquake in which large scale soil liquefaction occurred, causing wide spread damage to building
structures and underground facilities [1]. Development of liquefaction evaluation started when Seed and Idriss
(1971) [2] published a methodology based on empirical work termed as simplified procedure. It is a globally
recognized standard which has been modified and improved through Seed (1979) [3], Seed and Idriss (1982) [4],
Seed et al. (1985)[5] ,National Research Council (1985) [6], Youd and Idriss(1997) [7], Youd et al. (2001) [8]; Idriss
and Boulanger(2006) [9]. Liquefaction of loose, cohesionless, saturated soil deposit is a subject of intensive
research in the field of Geo-technical engineering over the past 40 years. The evaluation of soil liquefaction
phenomena and related ground failures associated with earthquake are one of the important aspects in geotechnical
engineering practice. It will not only cause the failure on superstructure, but also the substructure instability and both
lead to catastrophic impact and severe casualties. For urban cities with alarmingly high population, it becomes
necessary to develop infrastructural facilities with several high rise constructions. It is one of the primary challenge
for Civil Engineers to provide safe and economical design for structures, particularly in earthquake prone areas. The
in situ data are used to estimate the potential for triggering or initiation of seismically induced liquefaction. In the
context of the analyses of in situ data, the assessment of liquefaction potential are broadly classied as:
1.
Deterministic (Seed and Idriss 1971; Iwasaki et al. 1978; Seed et al. 1983; Robertson and Campanella 1985;
Seed and De Alba 1986; Shibata and Teparaksa 1988; Goh 1994; Stark and Olson 1995; Robertson and
Wride 1998; Juang et al. 2000, 2003; Idriss and Boulanger 2006) [10-21]
2.
Probabilistic (Liao et al. 1988; Toprak et al. 1999; Juang et al. 2002; Goh 2002; Cetin et al. 2002, 2004; Lee
et al. 2003; Sonmez 2003; Lai et al. 2004; Sonmez and Gokceoglu 2005) [22-30]
The deterministic method provides a yes/no response to the question of whether or not a soil layer at a
specic location will liquefy. However, performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) requires an estimate of
the probability of liquefaction (PL) rather than a deterministic (yes/no) estimate (Juang et al. 2008) [31]. Probability
of Liquefaction (PL) is a quantitative and continuous measure of the severity of liquefaction. Probabilistic methods
were rst introduced to liquefaction modeling in the late 1980s by Liao et al. (1988) [22]. In recent years, innovative
computing techniques such as articial intelligence and machine learning have gained popularity in geotechnical
engineering. For example, Goh (1994) [16] and Goh (2002) [25] introduced the articial neural networks for
liquefaction potential, Cetin et al. (2004) [27] and Moss et al. (2006) [32] applied the Bayesian updating method
for probabilistic assessment of liquefaction, and Hashash (2007)[33] used the genetic algorithms for geomechanics.
An important advantage of articial intelligence techniques is that the nonlinear behavior of multivariate dynamic
systems is computed efciently with no a priori assumptions regarding the distribution of the data.
Various researchers, like Raghukanth and Iyengar [34], Rao and Satyam [35], Sitharam and Anbazhagan [36],
Hanumanthrao and Ramana [37], Maheswari et al. [38], Shukla and Choudhury [39] and few others showed the
need for location based study for seismic soil properties and analysis of Liquefaction in Soils. In view of the above,
for the present study, a site of Lucknow city is chosen for assessment of liquefaction in soil. As per Indian Seismic
Design Code (CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES) IS 1893 (Part 1):
2002 [40], Lucknow city is located in Seismic Zone III, and a moderate intensity (5.5 to 6.5) Earthquake may occur
which may lead to liquefaction of some typical soil sites. Liquefaction occurs due to rapid loading during seismic
events where there is not sufcient time for dissipation of excess pore-water pressures by natural drainage. Rapid
loading situation increases pore-water pressures resulting in cyclic softening in ne-grained materials. The increased
pore water pressure transforms granular materials from a solid to a liqueed state thus shear strength and stiffness of
the soil deposit are reduced. Liquefaction is observed in loose, saturated, and clean to silty sands. The soil
liquefaction depends on the magnitude of earthquake, peak ground acceleration, intensity and duration of ground
motion, the distance from the source of the earthquake, type of soil and thickness of the soil deposit, relative density,
grain size distribution, nes content, plasticity of nes, degree of saturation, conning pressure, hydraulic
conductivity of soil layer, position and uctuations of the groundwater table, reduction of effective stress, and shear
modulus degradation [41]. Liquefaction-induced ground failure is inuenced by the thickness of non-liqueed and
liqueed soil layers. Measures to mitigate the damages caused by liquefaction require accurate evaluation of
liquefaction potential of soils. The potential for liquefaction to occur at certain depth at a site is quantied in terms
of the factors of safety against liquefaction (FS). Seed and Idriss (1971) [10] proposed a simplied procedure to
evaluate the liquefaction resistance of soils in terms of factors of safety (FS) by taking the ratio of capacity of a soil

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


element to resist liquefaction to the seismic demand imposed on it. Capacity to resist liquefaction is computed as the
cyclic resistance ratio (CRR), and seismic demand is computed as the cyclic stress ratio (CSR). FS of a soil layer
can be calculated with the help of several in-situ tests such as standard penetration test (SPT), cone penetration test
(CPT), shear wave velocity (Vs) test etc. SPT-based simplied empirical procedure is widely used for evaluating
liquefaction resistance of soils. Factors of safety (FS) along the depth of soil prole are generally evaluated using the
surface level peak ground acceleration (PGA), earthquake magnitude (Mw), and SPT data, namely SPT blow counts
(N), overburden pressure (v), nes content (FC), clay content, liquid limits and grain size distribution.
A soil layerwith FS<1 is generally classied as liqueable and with FS>1 is classied as nonliqueable [10].
A layer may liquefy during an earthquake, even for FS>1.0. Seed and Idriss (1982) [42] considered the soil layer
with FS value between 1.25 and 1.5 as non-liqueable. Soil layers with FS greater than 1.2 and FS between 1.0 and
1.2 are dened as non-liqueable and marginally liqueable layers (MLL), respectively.

2. STUDY AREA and NEED FOR STUDY


Lucknow (26.8N 80.9E) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the 2nd largest city in
north, east and central India after Delhi. It is the worlds 74th fastest growing city and also the largest city
in Uttar Pradesh. It continues to be an important centre of government, education, commerce, aerospace,
finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry. The city stands at an
elevation of approximately 123 metres (404 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 2,528 square
kilometers (976 sq mi). The climate of Lucknow district is predominantly subtropical in nature. Hot
atmosphere during the months of May and June and heavy rainfalls during the months of June, July and
August are the typical characteristics of Lucknow. Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the
Lucknows economy. Lucknow is one of the fastest growing city in construction industry. As per Seismic
Zonation Map of India[40], Lucknow city comes under seismic zone III, where an earthquake of
magnitude between 5.5 and 6.5 can be expected as shown in fig.1. Recently, on 25th April 2015,
Lucknow experienced an earthquake whose recorded intensity was approximately of 5 intensity as
reported by Geological Survey of India in Lucknow. Though Lucknow has not yet experienced any
disastrous earthquake for a long time, the possibility of one cannot be ruled out.
The Lucknow city falls in Zone III on the seismological ratings and lies on the Faizabad
faultline, which has a seismic gap of about 350 years. Experts say that Faizabad fault, which has been
under stress for long now, could spell a major disaster in future, when an earthquake does occur. As the
Indian plate continues to move north towards the Eurasian plate, the Indian subcontinent is bound to
experience more earthquakes. The movement of the Indian plate had been restricted by the Eurasian plate,
and now the former is slowly going under the Eurasian plate. The movement results in earthquakes as the
rocks cannot sustain the stress for too long. The Indian plate is likely to slip by 5.25 metre when an
earthquake does occur along the Faizabad fault. Experts believe that such a slip equates to an earthquake
of 8.0 on Richter Scale. Gomati basin and the Ganga basin have soft, alluvial soil, and an earthquake
could prove even more damaging for this area. There is a greater chance of liquefaction of soil resulting
in buildings sinking into the ground. On the other hand, this alluvial cushion has also protected the region,
as slight tremors and shocks are absorbed by it.
In a Disaster Risk Management Programme chalked out by the Ministry of Home Affairs in
association with United Nations Development Programme, 38 Indian cities have been identified in Zone
III and above. Six cities of Uttar Pradesh (UP) also feature on this list that includes Lucknow, Kanpur,
Agra, Varanasi, Bareilly, Meerut. For the present study, the area of IIM Road, in Lucknow city bounded
between latitude of about 19 1 N to 18 N and longitude of about 19 1 to 18 is chosen

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Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan

Figure 1 Uttar Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan for Earthquake


(Source: Uttar Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan For Earthquake, March 2010 )

Figure 2 Seismic Zonation Map of India


(Source : www.mapsofindia.com)

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling

SITE LOCATION

Figure 3 Site Location (IIM Road, Lucknow)

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


Site investigation and estimation of physical soil characteristics are essential parts of a geotechnical design process.
Evaluation of soil properties beneath and adjacent to the structures at a specific region is of importance in terms of
geotechnical considerations since behavior of structures is strongly influenced by the response of soils due to
loading. Due to difficulty in obtaining high quality undisturbed soil samples and cost & time involved their in, the
software based modeling may probably help in assessing the factor of safety relevant to location based assessment of
soil liquefaction which is being proposed herewith.
The main objectives of the study were:
a) Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil using the SPT bore hole data for a particular site in Lucknow.
b) To develop a reliability based Multi-Linear Regression Model to evaluate the liquefaction potential of soil at a
particular alignment of a site in Lucknow.
c) To validate the Multi-Linear Regression Model on comparing the modeled factor of safety to the actual site
factor of safety in the assessment of soil liquefaction for a particular site in Lucknow

3. IN-SITU TEST
3.1 STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
In this study, we use the data obtained by Standard Penetration Test. Estimation of the liquefaction potential of
saturated granular soils for earthquake design is often based on SPT tests. The test consists of driving a standard
50mm outside diameter thick walled sampler into soil at the bottom of a borehole, using repeated blows of a 63.5kg
hammer falling through 760 mm. The SPT N value is the number of blows required to achieve a penetration of 300
mm, after an initial seating drive of 150 mm. Correlations relating SPT blow counts for silts & clays and for Sands
& Gravels, from Peck et al. (1953) [43] is depicted in Table 1. The SPT procedure and its simple correlations
quickly became soil classication standards. stimated values of Soil friction and cohesion based on uncorrected
SPT blow counts from Karol (1960) [44] are presented in Table 2.

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Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan

Blows/Ft (NSPT)

Sands and
Gravels

Blows/Ft
(NSPT)

Silts and
Clay

0-4

Very Loose

0-2

Very
Soft

4-10

Loose

2-4

Soft

10-30

Medium

4-8

Firm

30-50

Dense

8-16

Stiff

Over 50

Very Dense

16-32

Very
Stiff

6.

Over 32

Hard

S. No.

Table 1 Correlations relating SPT blow counts for silts & clays and for Sands & Gravels, from Peck et al. (1953)

11.
12.

Cohesive Soil
Cohesi
onless
Soil

8.
9.
10.

Interme
diate
Soil

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Soil Type

SPT Blow
Counts

Undisturbed Soil

Very Soft
Soft
Firm
Stiff
Very Stiff
Hard
Loose

<2
2-4
4-8
8-15
15-30
>30
<10

Cohesion
(psf)
250
250-500
500-1000
1000-2000
2000-4000
>4000
0

Friction
Angle ()
0
0
0
0
0
0
28

Medium
Dense
Loose

10-30
>30
<10

0
0
0

28-30
32
28

Medium

10-30

28-30

Dense

>30

32

Table 2 Estimated values of Soil friction and cohesion based on uncorrected SPT blow counts, from Karol
(1960)

3.2 STANDARDIZED SPT CORRECTIONS


In Skempton (1986) [45], the procedures for determining a standardized blow count were presented, allowing
hammers of varying efciency to be accounted for. This corrected blow count is referred to as N 60 because the
original SPT hammer had about 60 percent efciency, being comprised of a donut hammer, a smooth cathead, and
worn hawser rope, and this is the standard to which other blow-count values are compared. Trip release hammers
and safety hammers typically exhibit greater energy ratios (ER) than 60 percent (Skempton, 1986). N60 is given as
where, N60 is the SPT N-value corrected for eld procedures and apparatus, m is the hammer efciency, CB is the
borehole diameter correction, CS is the sample barrel correction, CR is the rod length correction, and N is the raw

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SPT N-value recorded in the eld. Robertson and Wride (1997) [46] have modied Skemptons chart and added
additional correction factors to those proposed by Liao and Whitman (1986) [47]. This chart is reproduced in Table
3. The overburden stress corrected blow count, (N1)60, provides a consistent reference value for penetration
resistance. This has become the industry standard in assessments of liquefaction susceptibility (Youd and Idriss,
1997) [48]. Robertson and Wride (1997) dened (N1)60 as :
where, N is the raw SPT blow-count value, CN = (Pa/'vo)0.5 (with the restriction that CN 2) is the correction for
effective overburden stress (Liao and Whitman,1986), P a is a reference pressure of 100 kPa, 'vo is the vertical
effective stress, CE = ER/60% is the correction to account for rod energy, ER is the actual energy ratio of the drill
rig used in percent, CB is a correction for borehole diameter, CS is a correction for the sampling method, CR is a
correction for length of the drill rod.
Factors

Equipment Variables

Term

Corrections

Overburden Pressure

CN

(Pa/'vo)0.5 (but CN 2)

Energy Ratio

Borehole Diameter

Rod Length

Sampling Method

Donut Hammer
Safety Hammer
Automatic Hammer
65-115mm
150mm
200mm
3-4m
4-6m
6-10m
10-30m
>30m
Standard Sampler
Sampler without liners

CE

CB

CR

CS

0.5-1.0
0.7-1.2
0.8-1.5
1.0
1.05
1.15
0.75
0.85
0.95
1.0
<1.0
1.0
1.1-1.3

Table 3 Recommended Corrections for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow count values, taken from Robertson
and Wride (1997), as modified from Skempton (1986)
(Source: Subsurface Exploration Using the Standard Penetration Test and the Cone Penetrometer Test by J. DAVID
ROGERS, Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XII, No. 2, May 2006, pp. 161179 )

4. METHODOLOGY
In the present research, SPT based datasets on different soil parameters were analysed to find out suitable numerical
procedure for establishing a Multi-Linear Regression Model using MATLAB(R2010a) and IBM- Statistical Package
for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics v20.0.0) in analysis of soil liquefaction at a particular location of a site
in Lucknow City. A Multi-Storeyed Residential Building Project site was considered for this study to collect 12
borehole datasets along 10 km stretch of IIM road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). The 12 borehole datasets
includes 06 borehole data up to 22m depth and other 06 borehole data up to 30m depth to further analyse the
behavior of different soil properties and validity of the established Multi-Linear Regression Model. Disturbed soil
sample were collected up to 22m and 30m depth in every1.5m interval to determine various soil parameters. The
different soil parameters includes particle size analysis, grain size distribution, water content, Atterbergs limit, bulk
density, dry density, specific gravity, void ratio, shear strength parameters and uniformity coefficient etc. Excel
Spreadsheets (v 2007) was used to input of over 200 data for the above said different soil parameters including the
SPT-N values and Ground Water Table at different locations on the site. The soil at the site were found to be alluvial
deposits. By using all these data- a Multi Linear Regression Model in terms of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) was
developed in SPSS, a predictive statistical analysis software (to make smarter decisions, solve problems and
improve the outcomes). After developing the CRR model, it was tested on the available site data and the results were
examined in MATLAB (v R2010a), a high-level language and interactive environment for numerical computation,

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visualization, and programming. The results obtained from modeled CRR is then compared and analysed with the
calculated value of CRR (based on Boulanger & Idriss) of the soil at varying depth. Seismic soil liquefaction was
evaluated for this site in terms of the factors of safety against liquefaction (FSLiq) along the depths of soil profiles for
peak ground acceleration of 0.30g and earthquake magnitude of 7.5 on Richter scale. The evaluated factor of safety
against liquefaction (FSLiq) (based on Boulanger & Idriss) is compared to the modeled factor of safety against
liquefaction (FSLiqMod) to observe its reliability in the assessment of liquefaction potential of soil.

5. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF SOIL (USING SPT)


5.1. Calculation of Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio (CSR)
The expression for CSR induced by earthquake ground motions formulated by Idriss and Boulanger (2006) [49] is as
follows :

0.65 is a weighing factor to calculate the equivalent uniform stress cycles required to generate same pore water
pressure during an earthquake; amax is the maximum horizontal acceleration at the ground surface; vo and 'vo are
total vertical overburden stress and effective vertical overburden stress, respectively, at a given depth below the
ground surface; rd is depth-dependent stress reduction factor; MSF is the magnitude scaling factor and K is the
overburden correction factor.

Stress reduction coefficient (rd) is expressed as a function of depth (z) and earthquake magnitude (M):

where, z is depth (in metre); M is the Magnitude of earthquake


The above equations were appropriate for depth, z 3 m. However, for depth, z > 34m the following expression is
used:
The magnitude scaling factor, MSF, is used to adjust the induced CSR during earthquake magnitude M to an
equivalent CSR for an earthquake magnitude, M = 7.5

Idriss (1999) [50] re-evaluated the MSF relation which is given by:

where; M is the Magnitude of the earthquake . The MSF should be less than equal to 1.8, i.e. MSF 1.8
Boulanger and Idriss (2004) [51] found that overburden stress effects on the Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR). The
recommended K curves are expressed as follows:

The coefficient C is expressed in terms of (N1)60

where, (N1)60 is the overburden stress corrected blow count

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5.2. Calculation of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR)


Determination of cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) requires nes content (FC) of the soil to correct updated SPT blow
count (N1)60 to an equivalent clean sand standard penetration resistance value (N 1)60cs. Idriss and Boulanger (2006)
[49] determined CRR value for cohesionless soil with any nes content using the following expression:

Subsequent expressions describe the way parameters in the above equation are calculated as:
where,
(N1)60 is the correction for fines content in percent (FC) present in the soil and is expressed as:

(N1)60 is the overburden stress corrected blow count; N60 is the SPT N value after correction to an equivalent 60%
hammer efficiency (because the original SPT (Mohr) hammer has about 60% efficiency, and this is the standard to
which other blowcount values are compared) and CN is the Overburden Correction Factor for Penetration resistance.

5.3. Determination of Factor of Safety (FSLiq)


The factor of safety against liquefaction (FSLiq) is commonly used to quantify liquefaction potential. The factor of
safety against liquefaction (FSLiq) can be dened by

If the Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) caused by an earthquake is greater than the Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) of the
in-situ soil, then liquefaction could occur during the earthquake and vice-versa. Liquefaction is predicted to occur
when FS 1.0, and liquefaction predicted not to occur when FS > 1. The higher the factor of safety, the more
resistant against liquefaction [52]. Both CSR and CRR vary with depth, and therefore the liquefaction potential is
evaluated at corresponding depths within the soil prole.

5.4. SPT N-value Corrections


To calculate liquefaction potential corrected SPT-N values are used. Value correction was adopted as given by IS:
2131-1981 [53].

5.4.1. Correction for Overburden Pressure


N-value obtained from SPT test is corrected as per following equation:

C N- Correction factor obtained directly from the graph given in Indian Standard Code (IS: 2131-1981) [53]. (Fig.4)

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Figure 4 Correction due to overburden Pressure


It can also be calculated using the relationship:

'z= effective overburden pressure in kN/m2.

5.4.2. Correction for Dilatancy


The values obtained in overburden pressure (N1) shall be corrected for dilatancy if the stratum consist of fine sand
and silt below water table for values of N1 greater than 15 as under [55]:

6. STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCES (IBM SPSS STATISTICS)


MODELING
The study was conducted to produce a Multi Linear Regression Model in terms of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR)
for soil profile using SPSS. SPSS abbreviated as Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics
v20.0.0), a predictive statistical analysis software is used for this purpose at a particular location of a site in
Lucknow City. The parameters involved in CRR model for soil profile along its depth (z) are fine content (FC),
water content (w), bulk density () and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR).

7. MATLAB ANALYSIS
The present study was aimed to examine the reliability of CRR model, developed in SPSS environment, by
computing, visualizing and comparing its results to the calculated value of CRR(based on Boulanger & Idriss) of the
soil at varying depth. MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive environment for numerical computation,
visualization, and pro-gramming. MATLAB is used to analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and
applications. The language, tools and built-in math functions enable to explore multiple approaches and reach a
solution faster than with traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. (Anon., 1994-2015) [56].
MATLAB was used to provide with a convenient environment for performing many types of calculations and
implementation of numerical methods. The results obtained from modeled CRR (computed in MATLAB) is then
compared and analysed with the calculated value of CRR (based on Boulanger & Idriss). Further, modeled factor of
safety against liquefaction (FSLiqMod) is calculated and its compared to the computed value of factor of safety against
liquefaction (FSLiq) (based on Boulanger & Idriss) to study the reliability of model in the assessment of soil
liquefaction.

8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This study refers to the prediction of liquefaction potential of soil by conducting Standard Penetration Test (SPT),
to develop a Multi Linear Regression Model in terms of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and to examine its reliability
in the assessment of liquefaction potential of soil at a particular site in Lucknow. To meet the objectives twelve
boreholes sets (BH-1, BH-2, BH-3, BH-4, BH-5, BH-6, BH-7, BH-8, BH-9, BH-10, BH-11 and BH-12) were
analyzed, field and laboratory tests were conducted for the prediction of liquefaction potential. The water table at

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varying depth and earthquake magnitude of (M= 7.5) value were considered. In the assessment of Liquefaction
Potential YES represents the Liquefiable Layer whereas NO represents the Non-Liquefiable Layer.

Table 4 Water Table and Earthquake Magnitude


Parameter
Depth of water
table (m)
Earthquake
magnitude
(Rector scale)

BH-1

BH-2

BH-3

BH-4

BH-5

BH-6

BH-7

BH-8

BH-9

BH-10

BH-11

BH-12

4.100

4.600

4.600

4.750

4.670

4.350

4.100

4.600

4.600

4.750

4.700

4.670

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

Table 5 IS Soil Classification (IS: 1498-1970)


Symbol
SP
SM
ML
CL
CI
CH

Soil Description
Poorly graded sand
Silty sand
Very fine sand
Silty clay with low plasticity
Sandy clay with medium plasticity
Silty clay with high plasticity

7.1. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION ASSESSMENT USING SPT


Bore Hole (BH-1)
Table 6: Study about liquefaction potential for Water Table at 4.100m

1.
2.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00
2.50

3.

4.00

0.082

0.10

1.22

No

4.

5.50

0.096

0.15

1.56

No

5.

7.00

0.105

0.14

1.33

No

6.

8.50

0.111

0.15

1.35

No

7.

10.00

0.115

0.11

0.95

Yes

8.
9.
10.
11.

11.50
13.00
14.50
16.00

11
13
15
17

0.117
0.119
0.119
0.118

0.13
0.19
0.21
0.23

1.10
1.59
1.76
1.94

MLL
No
No
No

12.

17.50

17

0.117

0.22

1.88

No

13.

19.00

19

0.116

0.25

2.15

No

14.

20.50

19

0.114

0.24

2.10

No

S.No.

SPT N value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

11
4

0.084
0.083

0.23
0.13

2.74
1.56

No
No

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Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-1)
3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 5 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-1)


Bore Hole (BH-2)
Table 7 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

SPT N
value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.

1.00
2.50

11
4

0.084
0.083

0.23
0.13

2.74
1.57

No
No

3.

4.00

0.082

0.11

1.34

No

4.

5.50

0.090

0.17

1.88

No

5.

7.00

10

0.101

0.17

1.68

No

6.

8.50

10

0.107

0.17

1.58

No

7.

10.00

11

0.112

0.13

1.16

MLL

8.

11.50

13

0.115

0.14

1.20

MLL

9.

13.00

14

0.116

0.20

1.72

No

10.

14.50

15

0.117

0.21

1.79

No

11.

16.00

16

0.116

0.21

1.81

No

12.

17.50

19

0.116

0.26

2.24

No

13.

19.00

19

0.114

0.25

2.19

No

14.

20.50

20

0.113

0.26

2.30

No

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-2)
3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 6 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-2)


MLL = Marginally Liquefiable Layer
Bore Hole (BH-3)
Table 8 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
SPT N
value
12
10
1

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.
3.

Depth
(Z) m
1.00
2.50
4.00

0.084
0.083
0.082

0.22
0.19
0.10

2.61
2.28
1.22

No
No
No

4.

5.50

0.090

0.10

1.11

MLL

5.

7.00

0.099

0.13

1.31

No

6.

8.50

0.106

0.15

1.41

No

7.

10.00

11

0.110

0.12

1.09

MLL

8.

11.50

11

0.112

0.12

1.07

MLL

9.

13.00

12

0.114

0.16

1.40

No

10.

14.50

15

0.114

0.18

1.57

No

11.

16.00

16

0.114

0.18

1.57

No

12.

17.50

20

0.113

0.22

1.94

No

13.

19.00

20

0.112

0.21

1.87

No

14.

20.50

18

0.110

0.19

1.72

No

S.No.

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385

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Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-3)
3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 7 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-3)


Bore Hole (BH-4)
Table 9 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.750

1.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00

2.

S.No.

SPT N value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

11

0.084

0.23

2.73

No

2.50

0.083

0.10

1.22

No

3.

4.00

0.082

0.11

1.34

No

4.

5.50

0.088

0.10

1.13

MLL

5.

7.00

0.099

0.14

1.41

No

6.

8.50

0.105

0.15

1.42

No

7.

10.00

0.110

0.11

1.00

Yes

8.

11.50

11

0.113

0.12

1.06

MLL

9.

13.00

11

0.114

0.16

1.40

No

10.

14.50

13

0.115

0.18

1.56

No

11.

16.00

16

0.115

0.21

1.82

No

12.

17.50

15

0.114

0.19

1.66

No

13.

19.00

17

0.113

0.21

1.85

No

14.

20.50

19

0.112

0.24

2.14

No

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-4)
3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 8 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-4)


Bore Hole (BH-5)
Table 10 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
SPT N
value
12
10

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00
2.50

0.084

0.25

0.083

0.15

2.97
1.81

No
No

3.

4.00

0.082

0.10

1.22

No

4.

5.50

0.089

0.10

1.12

MLL

5.

7.00

0.099

0.14

1.41

No

6.

8.50

0.106

0.16

1.51

No

7.

10.00

11

0.11

0.13

1.18

MLL

8.

11.50

11

0.112

0.12

1.07

MLL

9.

13.00

12

0.114

0.17

1.49

No

10.

14.50

15

0.114

0.20

1.75

No

11.

16.00

16

0.114

0.21

1.84

No

12.

17.50

20

0.113

0.23

2.03

No

13.

19.00

20

0.112

0.24

2.14

No

14.

20.50

18

0.111

0.23

2.07

No

S.No.

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Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-5)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 9 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-5)


Bore Hole (BH-6)
Table 11 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.350
SPT N
value
11
4

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.

Depth
(Z) m
1.00
2.50

0.084
0.083

0.23
0.13

2.73
1.57

No
No

3.

4.00

0.082

0.11

1.34

No

4.

5.50

0.093

0.17

1.82

No

5.

7.00

0.103

0.16

1.55

No

6.

8.50

10

0.109

0.17

1.56

No

7.

10.00

11

0.114

0.13

1.14

MLL

8.

11.50

13

0.116

0.14

1.20

MLL

9.

13.00

14

0.117

0.20

1.71

No

10.

14.50

16

0.118

0.22

1.86

No

11.

16.00

17

0.117

0.23

1.96

No

12.

17.50

19

0.116

0.26

2.24

No

13.

19.00

19

0.115

0.25

2.17

No

14.

20.50

20

0.114

0.26

2.28

No

S.No.

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-6)
3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 10 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-6)


Bore Hole (BH-7)
Table 12 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.100
SPT N
value
5
8
11

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.
3.

Depth
(Z) m
1.00
2.50
4.00

0.0840
0.0830
0.0820

0.1400
0.1900
0.2000

1.67
2.28
2.43

No
No
No

4.

5.50

13

0.0970

0.2400

2.47

No

5.

7.00

15

0.1070

0.2700

2.52

No

6.

8.50

11

0.1130

0.1900

1.68

No

7.

10.00

12

0.1160

0.1900

1.63

No

8.

11.50

15

0.1180

0.2300

1.94

No

9.

13.00

14

0.1190

0.2000

1.68

No

10.

14.50

17

0.1180

0.2400

2.03

No

11.

16.00

20

0.1180

0.3000

2.54

No

12.

17.50

21

0.1160

0.3200

2.75

No

13.

19.00

23

0.1150

0.2200

1.91

No

14.

20.50

20

0.1130

0.1700

1.50

No

15.

22.00

19

0.1110

0.1600

1.44

No

16.

23.50

21

0.1090

0.1700

1.56

No

17.

25.00

0.1070
0.1060

0.2400
0.2700

No

26.50

21
23

2.24

18.

2.54

No

19.

28.00

22

0.1040

0.2400

2.30

No

20.

29.50

25

0.1030

0.3000

2.91

No

S.No.

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389

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Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-7)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 11 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-7)


Bore Hole (BH-8)
Table 13 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
S.No.
1.

Depth (Z) m
1.00

SPT N value
5

CSR
0.0840

CRR
0.1400

FSLiq
1.67

Status
No

2.

2.50

0.0830

0.1500

1.80

No

3.

4.00

0.0820

0.1700

2.07

No

4.

5.50

10

0.0900

0.1800

2.00

No

5.
6.

7.00
8.50

11
12

0.1000
0.1060

0.1800
0.1900

1.80
1.79

No
No

7.

10.00

13

0.1100

0.1900

1.72

No

8.

11.50

14

0.1130

0.2000

1.77

No

9.

13.00

16

0.1140

0.2200

1.93

No

10.

14.50

16

0.1140

0.2100

1.84

No

11.
12.

16.00
17.50

19
18

0.1140
0.1130

0.2500
0.2200

2.19
1.94

No
No

13.

19.00

22

0.1120

0.2000

1.78

No

14.
15.

20.50
22.00

21
20

0.1100
0.1090

0.1800
0.1600

1.63
1.46

No
No

16.

23.50

22

0.1070

0.1800

1.68

No

17.

25.00

23

0.1050

0.2800

2.67

No

18.

26.50

23

0.1040

0.2700

2.59

No

19.

28.00

23

0.1020

0.2600

2.54

No

20.

29.50

25

0.1010

0.3000

2.97

No

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-8)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 12 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-8)


Bore Hole (BH-9)
Table 14 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
1.
2.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00
2.50

3.

S.No.

SPT N value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

5
6

0.0840
0.0830

0.1400
0.1500

1.67
1.80

No
No

4.00

0.0820

0.1600

1.95

No

4.

5.50

10

0.0900

0.1800

2.00

No

5.

7.00

11

0.1000

0.1800

1.80

No

6.

8.50

12

0.1070

0.1900

1.77

No

7.

10.00

13

0.1110

0.1900

1.71

No

8.

11.50

14

0.1140

0.2000

1.75

No

9.

13.00

16

0.1150

0.2200

1.91

No

10.

14.50

16

0.1150

0.2100

1.82

No

11.

16.00

19

0.1150

0.2500

2.17

No

12.

17.50

18

0.1140

0.2200

1.93

No

13.

19.00

22

0.1130

0.2100

1.85

No

14.

20.50

21

0.1120

0.1800

1.60

No

15.

22.00

20

0.1100

0.1700

1.54

No

16.

23.50

22

0.1080

0.1800

1.67

No

17.

25.00

23

0.1070

0.2900

2.71

No

18.

26.50

23

0.1050

0.2800

2.67

No

19.

28.00

23

0.1040

0.2700

2.59

No

20.

29.50

25

0.1030

0.3100

3.00

No

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Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-9)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Fig. 13: Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-9)

Bore Hole (BH-10)


Table 15 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.750

1.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00

2.

S.No.

SPT N value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

0.0840

0.1400

1.67

No

2.50

0.0830

0.1500

1.80

No

3.

4.00

0.0820

0.1600

1.95

No

4.

5.50

10

0.0890

0.1700

1.91

No

5.
6.

7.00
8.50

11
12

0.0990
0.1060

0.1800
0.1900

1.81
1.79

No
No

7.

10.00

13

0.1110

0.1900

1.71

No

8.

11.50

14

0.1140

0.2000

1.75

No

9.

13.00

16

0.1150

0.2200

1.91

No

10.

14.50

16

0.1160

0.2100

1.81

No

11.
12.

16.00
17.50

19
18

0.1150
0.1150

0.2600
0.2300

2.26
2.00

No
No

13.

19.00

22

0.1140

0.3200

2.80

No

14.
15.

20.50
22.00

21
20

0.1120
0.1110

0.1900
0.1700

1.69
1.53

No
No

16.

23.50

22

0.1090

0.1900

1.74

No

17.

25.00

23

0.1080

0.3000

2.77

No

18.

26.50

23

0.1060

0.2800

2.64

No

19.

28.00

23

0.1050

0.2700

2.57

No

20.

29.50

25

0.1040

0.3200

3.07

No

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Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Soil Using Multi-Linear Regression Modeling


Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-10)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 14 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-10)


Bore Hole (BH-11)
Table 16 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.700
S.No.
1.
2.

Depth (Z) m
1.00
2.50

SPT N value
5
6

CSR
0.0840
0.0830

CRR
0.1400
0.1500

FSLiq
1.67
1.80

Status
No
No

3.
4.

4.00

0.0820

0.1700

2.07

No

5.50

10

0.0890

0.1800

2.02

No

5.

7.00

11

0.0990

0.1800

1.82

No

6.

8.50

12

0.1060

0.1900

1.79

No

7.

10.00

13

0.1100

0.1900

1.73

No

8.

11.50

14

0.1130

0.2000

1.76

No

9.

13.00

16

0.1140

0.2200

1.93

No

10.

14.50

16

0.1140

0.2200

1.93

No

11.

16.00

19

0.1140

0.2600

2.28

No

12.

17.50

18

0.1130

0.2300

2.03

No

13.

19.00

22

0.1120

0.2100

1.88

No

14.

20.50

21

0.1110

0.1800

1.62

No

15.

22.00

20

0.1090

0.1700

1.56

No

16.

23.50

22

0.1080

0.1800

1.67

No

17.

25.00

23

0.1060

0.2900

2.74

No

18.

26.50

23

0.1050

0.2800

2.67

No

19.

28.00

23

0.1030

0.2600

2.52

No

20.

29.50

25

0.1020

0.3100

3.04

No

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Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-11)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 15 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-11)


Bore Hole (BH-12)
Table 17 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.670
S.No.

Depth (Z) m

SPT N value

CSR

CRR

FSLiq

Status

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.00
2.50
4.00
5.50

5
6
9
10

0.0840
0.0830
0.0820
0.0890

0.1400
0.1500
0.1600
0.1800

1.67
1.80
1.95
2.02

No
No
No
No

5.

7.00

11

0.0990

0.1800

1.81

No

6.
7.
8.

8.50
10.00
11.50

12
13
14

0.1060
0.1100
0.1130

0.1900
0.1900
0.2000

1.79
1.73
1.76

No
No
No

9.

13.00

16

0.1140

0.2200

1.93

No

10.

14.50

16

0.1140

0.2100

1.84

No

11.

16.00

19

0.1140

0.2500

2.19

No

12.

17.50

18

0.1130

0.2200

1.94

No

13.

19.00

22

0.1120

0.2000

1.78

No

14.

20.50

21

0.1100

0.1800

1.64

No

15.

22.00

20

0.1090

0.1700

1.55

No

16.

23.50

22

0.1070

0.1800

1.68

No

17.
18.
19.
20.

25.00
26.50
28.00
29.50

23
23
23
25

0.1060
0.1040
0.1030
0.1020

0.2900
0.2700
0.2600
0.3000

2.73
2.59
2.52
2.94

No
No
No
No

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Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-12)
3.5

3.0

FSLiq

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Figure 16 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-12)


7.1. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL USING MULTI-LINEAR REGRESSION
MODELING
Multi Linear Regression Model in terms of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) for soil profile was developed using
SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics v20.0.0) at a particular location of a site on IIM road in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India).
The parameters involved in CRR model for soil profile along its depth (z) are fine content (FC), water content (wc),
bulk density () and cyclic stress ratio (CSR).
7.1.1. MULTI-LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

CRRModel = - 0.010619 + 0.005028 z + 0.000655 FC 0.002386 wc + 0.029002 + 1.085240 CSR


Model Summaryb
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
df1
df2
Change
1
.878a
.771
.628
.0205641536
.771
5.398
5
8
a. Predictors: (Constant), Cyclic Shear Stress, Fine Content, Depth, Water Content, Bulk Density
b. Dependent Variable: Cyclic Resistance Ratio
Model

R
Square

Adjusted R
Square

Std. Error of
the Estimate

Sig. F Change
(p-value)
.018

Durbin-Watson
1.490

The p-value defined as the probability value is computed using the test statistic, that measure the support (or lack of
support) provided by the sample for the Null Hypothesis (H o). Since p-value is less than the level of significance
(= 0.0 ) for the developed Multi-Linear Regression Model, i.e; (0.018 < 0.05), hence the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected and Alternate Hypothesis (H1) is accepted resulting the developed model to be strongly accepted. The term
R is defined as Multiple Coefficient of Correlation. The value of R= 0.878 signifies that 87.8% changes are due to
the factors considerd in Regression Modeling. The Coefficient of Determination (R2) is used to identify the strength
of relationship. The Coefficient of Determination is defined as the ratio of Explained Variation to Total Variation.
The value of R2 = 0.771 signifies that the strength of relationship for the developed model is 77%.
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA)a
Model
1

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Regression

.011

.002

Residual

.003

.000

Total

.015

13

5.398

a. Dependent Variable: Cyclic Resistance Ratio


b. Predictors: (Constant), Cyclic Shear Stress, Fine Content, Depth, Water Content, Bulk Density

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Sig. (p-value)
.018b

Abdullah Anwar, Sabih Ahmad, Yusuf Jamal and M.Z. Khan

Unstandardized Coefficients

Model
(Constant)

Std. Error

-.011

.757

Depth
.005
Fine
Content
.001
1.
Water Content
-.002
Bulk Density
.029
Cyclic Shear Stress
1.085
a. Dependent Variable: Cyclic Resistance Ratio

Coefficientsa
Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

.002
.001
.005
.494
1.407

.935
.445
-.312
.058
.433

Sig.
(pvalue)

t-test
-.014

.989

2.465
.866
-.521
.059
.772

.039
.412
.617
.955
.463

Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance

VIF

.199
.109
.080
.029
.091

5.037
9.215
12.530
34.596
11.006

The t-test shows the test of difference between the predicted value and the observed value. Smaller difference shows
the fall in the t-test values resulting in rise of p-value thus improving the fitness of parameters in the developed
model.
7.1.2. DISCRIMINANT TEST FOR OUTLIERS IN THE MULTI-LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

a. Summary of Canonical Discriminant Functions


Function

Eigenvalue

Eigenvalues
% of Variance
Cumulative %

1
2.395a
100.0
100.0
a. First 1 canonical discriminant functions were used in the analysis.

Test of Function(s)
1

Wilks' Lambda
Wilks' Lambda
Chi-square
.295
11.612

Canonical
Correlation
.840

df
5

Sig.
.041

b. Classification Statistics
Classification Processing Summary
Processed

14

Missing or out-of-range group


codes
Excluded
At least one missing
discriminating variable
Used in Output

0
0
14

Classification Function Coefficients


CRR Mod
.00000
1.00000
Depth
-9.586
-8.917
Fine Content
20.790
21.470
Water Content
-37.584
-37.108
Bulk Density
16734.253
17048.437
Cyclic Shear Stress
-38937.170
-40042.473
(Constant)
-12886.153
-13375.574
Fisher's linear discriminant functions

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7.1.3. CORRELATION TEST FOR PARAMETERS IN THE MULTI-LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

7.1.4. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL


After developing the CRR model, it was tested on the available bore hole data and the results were examined in
MATLAB (v R2010a). The results obtained from modeled CRR is then compared and analysed with the calculated
value of CRR (based on Boulanger & Idriss) of the soil at varying depth. The assessed factor of safety against

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liquefaction (FSLiq) (based on Boulanger & Idriss) is compared to the modeled factor of safety against liquefaction
(FSLiqMod) to observe the reliability of CRR model in evaluation of liquefaction potential for a particular location and
to validate the outcomes.

Bore Hole (BH-1


Table 18 Study about liquefaction potential for Water Table at 4.100m
Status
Modeled
Calculated

Depth
(Z) m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

2.

1.00
2.50

0.23
0.13

0.1671
0.1804

2.74
1.56

1.4040
1.5160

No
No

No
No

3.

4.00

0.10

0.1156

1.22

1.4098

No

No

4.

5.50

0.15

0.1221

1.56

1.2718

No

No

5.
6.

7.00
8.50

0.14
0.15

0.1638
0.1777

1.33
1.35

1.3763
1.4935

No
No

No
No

7.

10.00

0.11

0.1332

0.95

1.1583

Yes

MLL

8.

0.13
0.19
0.21

0.1387
0.1723
0.1906

1.10
1.59
1.76

1.1855
1.4478
1.6016

MLL

MLL

10.

11.50
13.00
14.50

No
No

No
No

11.

16.00

0.23

0.2220

1.94

1.8657

No

No

12.

17.50
19.00
20.50

0.22
0.25
0.24

0.2333
0.2387
0.2454

1.88
2.15
2.10

1.9608
2.0056
2.0619

No
No
No

No
No
No

S.No
1.

9.

13.
14.

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-1)


3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 17 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-1)

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Bore Hole (BH-2)
Table 19 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
Status

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.

1.00

0.23

0.1744

2.74

2.

2.50

0.13

0.1850

1.57

3.

4.00

0.11

0.1631

4.

5.50

0.17

5.

7.00

6.

S.No

Calculated

Modeled

1.4903

No

No

1.5816

No

No

1.34

1.3944

No

No

0.1370

1.88

1.1712

No

MLL

0.17

0.1553

1.68

1.3276

No

No

8.50

0.17

0.1712

1.58

1.4634

No

No

7.

10.00

0.13

0.1653

1.16

1.4132

MLL

No

8.

11.50

0.14

0.1764

1.20

1.5073

MLL

No

9.

13.00

0.20

0.2079

1.72

1.7766

No

No

10.

14.50

0.21

0.2173

1.79

1.8569

No

No

11.

16.00

0.21

0.2188

1.81

1.8704

No

No

12.

17.50

0.26

0.2261

2.24

1.9326

No

No

13.

19.00

0.25

0.2301

2.19

1.9670

No

No

14.

20.50

0.26

0.2361

2.30

2.018

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-2)


3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 18 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-2)

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MLL = Marginally Liquefiable Layer

Bore Hole (BH-3)


Table 20 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
Status

S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.
2.

1.00
2.50

0.22
0.19

0.1826
0.1912

2.61
2.28

3.

4.00

0.10

0.1643

4.

5.50

0.10

5.

7.00

6.

Modeled

1.6016
1.6770

Calculated
No
No

1.22

1.4416

No

No

0.1044

1.11

1.1600

MLL

MLL

0.13

0.1533

1.31

1.3445

No

No

8.50

0.15

0.1712

1.41

1.5016

No

No

7.

10.00

0.12

0.1264

1.09

1.1491

MLL

MLL

8.

11.50

0.12

0.1339

1.07

1.1955

MLL

MLL

9.

13.00

0.16

0.2009

1.40

1.7618

No

No

10.

14.50

0.18

0.2076

1.57

1.8208

No

No

11.

16.00

0.18

0.2163

1.57

1.8974

No

No

12.

17.50

0.22

0.2215

1.94

1.9432

No

No

13.

19.00

0.21

0.2272

1.87

1.9928

No

No

14.

20.50

0.19

0.2340

1.72

2.0530

No

No

No
No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-3)


3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 19 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth(z) for Bore Hole (BH-3)

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Bore Hole (BH-4)
Table 21 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.750
S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.
2.

1.00
2.50

0.23
0.10

0.1692
0.1889

2.73
1.22

3.

4.00

0.11

0.1607

4.

5.50

0.10

5.

7.00

6.

Status

1.4712
1.6423

Calculated
No
No

Modeled
No
No

1.34

1.3974

No

No

0.1027

1.13

1.1670

MLL

MLL

0.14

0.1561

1.41

1.3574

No

No

8.50

0.15

0.1680

1.42

1.4610

No

No

7.

10.00

0.11

0.1231

1.00

1.1187

Yes

MLL

8.

11.50

0.12

0.1361

1.06

1.2044

MLL

MLL

9.

13.00

0.16

0.2023

1.40

1.7591

No

No

10.

14.50

0.18

0.2130

1.56

1.8525

No

No

11.

16.00

0.21

0.2204

1.82

1.9164

No

No

12.

17.50

0.19

0.2256

1.66

1.9616

No

No

13.

19.00

0.21

0.2306

1.85

2.0056

No

No

14.

20.50

0.24

0.2378

2.14

2.0682

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-4)


3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 20 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth(z) for Bore Hole (BH-4)

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Bore Hole (BH-5)
Table 22 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
Status

S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

Calculated

Modeled

1.

1.00

0.25

0.1762

2.97

1.5456

No

No

2.

2.50

0.15

0.1903

1.81

1.6697

No

No

3.

4.00

0.10

0.1628

1.22

1.4285

No

No

4.

5.50

0.10

0.1053

1.12

1.1831

MLL

MLL

5.

7.00

0.14

0.1550

1.41

1.3599

No

No

6.

8.50

0.16

0.1701

1.51

1.4925

No

No

7.

10.00

0.13

0.1265

1.18

1.1501

MLL

MLL

8.

11.50

0.12

0.1349

1.07

1.2045

MLL

MLL

9.

13.00

0.17

0.2019

1.49

1.7710

No

No

10.

14.50

0.20

0.2101

1.75

1.8429

No

No

11.

16.00

0.21

0.2181

1.84

1.9135

No

No

12.

17.50

0.23

0.2233

2.03

1.9591

No

No

13.

19.00

0.24

0.2287

2.14

2.0062

No

No

14.

20.50

0.23

0.2359

2.07

2.0696

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-5)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 21 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-5)

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Bore Hole (BH-6)

Table 23 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.350


Status

S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.

1.00

0.23

0.1707

2.73

2.

2.50

0.13

0.1830

3.

4.00

0.11

4.

5.50

5.

Calculated

Modeled

1.4468

No

No

1.57

1.5512

No

No

0.1655

1.34

1.4022

No

No

0.17

0.1415

1.82

1.5215

No

No

7.00

0.16

0.1595

1.55

1.3521

No

No

6.

8.50

0.17

0.1748

1.56

1.4814

No

No

7.

10.00

0.13

0.1323

1.14

1.1605

MLL

MLL

8.

11.50

0.14

0.1397

1.20

1.2043

MLL

MLL

9.

13.00

0.20

0.2074

1.71

1.7574

No

No

10.

14.50

0.22

0.2158

1.86

1.8289

No

No

11.

16.00

0.23

0.2204

1.96

1.8679

No

No

12.

17.50

0.26

0.2295

2.24

1.9451

No

No

13.

19.00

0.25

0.2344

2.17

1.9866

No

No

14.

20.50

0.26

0.2413

2.28

2.0446

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-6)


3.0

2.5

FSLiq

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 22 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-6)

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Bore Hole (BH-7)
Table 24 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.100
Status

S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

Calculated

Modeled

1.

1.00

0.1400

0.1575

1.67

1.3236

No

No

2.

2.50

0.1900

0.1264

2.28

1.5225

No

No

3.

4.00

0.2000

0.1365

2.43

1.6641

No

No

4.

5.50

0.2400

0.1804

2.47

1.8593

No

No

5.

7.00

0.2700

0.1831

2.52

1.5584

No

No

6.

8.50

0.1900

0.1910

1.68

1.6049

No

No

7.

10.00

0.1900

0.2020

1.63

1.6979

No

No

8.

11.50

0.2300

0.2169

1.94

1.8225

No

No

9.

13.00

0.2000

0.2271

1.68

1.9084

No

No

10.

14.50

0.2400

0.2310

2.03

1.9413

No

No

11.

16.00

0.3000

0.2368

2.54

1.9897

No

No

12.

17.50

0.3200

0.2351

2.75

1.9752

No

No

13.

19.00

0.2200

0.2123

1.91

1.7839

No

No

14.

20.50

0.1700

0.2174

1.50

1.8270

No

No

15.

22.00

0.1600

0.2235

1.44

1.8781

No

No

16.

23.50

0.1700

0.2284

1.56

1.9191

No

No

17.

25.00

0.2400

0.2840

2.24

2.3868

No

No

18.

26.50

0.2700

0.2911

2.54

2.4462

No

No

19.

28.00

0.2400

0.2956

2.30

2.4841

No

No

20.

29.50

0.3000

0.3013

2.91

2.5319

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-7)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 23 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth(z) for Bore Hole (BH-7)

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Bore Hole (BH-8)
Table 25 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.

1.00

0.1400

0.1635

1.67

2.

2.50

0.1500

0.1703

3.

4.00

0.1700

4.

5.50

5.
6.

S.No.

Status

1.4345

Calculated
No

Modeled
No

1.80

1.4940

No

No

0.1370

2.07

1.2018

No

MLL

0.1800

0.1498

2.00

1.3137

No

No

7.00
8.50

0.1800
0.1900

0.1571
0.1645

1.80
1.79

1.3784
1.4426

No
No

No
No

7.

10.00

0.1900

0.1784

1.72

1.5648

No

No

8.

11.50

0.2000

0.1869

1.77

1.6393

No

No

9.

13.00

0.2200

0.1953

1.93

1.7135

No

No

10.

14.50

0.2100

0.2051

1.84

1.7990

No

No

11.
12.

16.00
17.50

0.2500
0.2200

0.2124
0.2154

2.19
1.94

1.8636
1.8894

No
No

No
No

13.

19.00

0.2000

0.2137

1.78

1.8749

No

No

14.
15.

20.50
22.00

0.1800
0.1600

0.2176
0.2235

1.63
1.46

1.9086
1.9606

No
No

No
No

16.

23.50

0.1800

0.2325

1.68

2.0397

No

No

17.

25.00

0.2800

0.2860

2.67

2.5084

No

No

18.

26.50

0.2700

0.2946

2.59

2.5839

No

No

19.

28.00

0.2600

0.2996

2.54

2.6284

No

No

20.

29.50

0.3000

0.3074

2.97

2.6968

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-8)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 24 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-8)

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Bore Hole (BH-9):
Table 26: Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.600
Status
Calculated
Modeled
No
No
No
No
No
MLL
No
No

1.
2.
3.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00
2.50
4.00

4.

5.50

0.1800

0.1430

2.00

1.2433

5.

7.00

0.1800

0.1618

1.80

1.4071

No

No

6.

8.50

0.1900

0.1696

1.77

1.4751

No

No

7.

10.00

0.1900

0.1833

1.71

1.5937

No

No

8.

11.50

0.2000

0.1932

1.75

1.6804

No

No

9.

13.00

0.2200

0.2018

1.91

1.7552

No

No

10.

14.50

0.2100

0.2069

1.82

1.7992

No

No

11.

16.00

0.2500

0.2168

2.17

1.8849

No

No

12.

17.50

0.2200

0.2213

1.93

1.9248

No

No

13.

19.00

0.2100

0.2193

1.85

1.9073

No

No

14.

20.50

0.1800

0.2244

1.60

1.9516

No

No

15.
16.

22.00
23.50

0.1700
0.1800

0.2294
0.2380

1.54
1.67

1.9947
2.0700

No
No

No
No

17.

25.00

0.2900

0.2916

2.71

2.5353

No

No

18.
19.
20.

26.50
28.00
29.50

0.2800
0.2700
0.3100

0.2988
0.3042
0.3133

2.67
2.59
3.00

2.5980
2.6453
2.7247

No
No
No

No
No
No

S.No.

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

0.1400
0.1500
0.1600

0.1649
0.1722
0.1340

1.67
1.80
1.95

1.4339
1.4974
1.1649

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-9)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 25 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-9)

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Bore Hole (BH-10)
Table 27 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.750
Status

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

1.

1.00

0.1400

0.1628

1.67

2.

2.50

0.1500

0.1646

3.

4.00

0.1600

4.

5.50

5.
6.

7.00
8.50

7.

S.No.

1.4033

Calculated
No

Modeled
No

1.80

1.4189

No

No

0.1080

1.95

1.3170

No

No

0.1700

0.1219

1.91

1.3697

No

No

0.1800
0.1900

0.1545
0.1633

1.81
1.79

1.4336
1.4578

No
No

No
No

10.00

0.1900

0.1769

1.71

1.5252

No

No

8.

11.50

0.2000

0.1862

1.75

1.6048

No

No

9.

13.00

0.2200

0.1946

1.91

1.6777

No

No

10.
11.
12.

14.50
16.00
17.50

0.2100
0.2600
0.2300

0.2054
0.2143
0.2177

1.81
2.26
2.00

1.7709
1.8470
1.8767

No
No
No

No
No
No

13.

19.00

0.3200

0.2284

2.80

1.9691

No

No

14.
15.

20.50
22.00

0.1900
0.1700

0.2192
0.2251

1.69
1.53

1.8897
1.9408

No
No

No
No

16.

23.50

0.1900

0.2341

1.74

2.0177

No

No

17.

25.00

0.3000

0.2873

2.77

2.4768

No

No

18.

26.50

0.2800

0.2984

2.64

2.5412

No

No

19.

28.00

0.2700

0.3009

2.57

2.5942

No

No

20.

29.50

0.3200

0.3093

3.07

2.6667

No

No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-10)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 26 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-10)

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Bore Hole (BH-11)
Table 28 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.700
Status

1.
2.
3.
4.

Depth (Z)
m
1.00
2.50
4.00
5.50

5.

7.00

0.1800

0.1398

1.82

1.4123

No

No

6.

8.50

0.1900

0.1665

1.79

1.4602

No

No

7.

10.00

0.1900

0.1796

1.73

1.5755

No

No

8.

11.50

0.2000

0.1888

1.76

1.6565

No

No

9.

13.00

0.2200

0.1980

1.93

1.7369

No

No

10.

14.50

0.2200

0.2110

1.93

1.8507

No

No

11.

16.00

0.2600

0.2176

2.28

1.9089

No

No

12.

17.50

0.2300

0.2194

2.03

1.9247

No

No

13.

19.00

0.2100

0.2156

1.88

1.8915

No

No

14.

20.50

0.1800

0.2206

1.62

1.9354

No

No

15.

22.00

0.1700

0.2255

1.56

1.9784

No

No

16.

23.50

0.1800

0.2355

1.67

2.0656

No

No

17.

25.00

0.2900

0.2864

2.74

2.5125

No

No

18.

26.50

0.2800

0.2942

2.67

2.5810

No

No

19.

28.00

0.2600

0.2993

2.52

2.6251

No

No

20.

29.50

0.3100

0.3071

3.04

2.6936

No

No

S.No.

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

0.1400
0.1500
0.1700
0.1800

0.1625
0.1650
0.1143
0.1247

1.67
1.80
2.07
2.02

1.4253
1.4471
1.3947
1.4012

Calculated
No
No
No
No

Modeled
No
No
No
No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-11)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 27 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-11)

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Bore Hole (BH-12)
Table 29 Study about liquefaction potential for water table at 4.670
Status

S.No.

Depth (Z)
m

CRRcal

CRRMod

FSLiq

FSLiqMod

Calculated

Modeled

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.00
2.50
4.00
5.50

0.1400
0.1500
0.1600
0.1800

0.1642
0.1712
0.1034
0.1146

1.67
1.80
1.95
2.02

1.4405
1.5021
1.2610
1.2872

No
No
No
No

No
No
No
No

5.

7.00

0.1800

0.1587

1.81

1.3921

No

No

6.
7.
8.

8.50
10.00
11.50

0.1900
0.1900
0.2000

0.1662
0.1796
0.1907

1.79
1.73
1.76

1.4576
1.5756
1.6725

No
No
No

No
No
No

9.

13.00

0.2200

0.1989

1.93

1.7449

No

No

10.

14.50

0.2100

0.2062

1.84

1.8089

No

No

11.

16.00

0.2500

0.2139

2.19

1.8759

No

No

12.

17.50

0.2200

0.2180

1.94

1.9120

No

No

13.

19.00

0.2000

0.2161

1.78

1.8953

No

No

14.

20.50

0.1800

0.2179

1.64

1.9116

No

No

15.

22.00

0.1700

0.2261

1.55

1.9831

No

No

16.

23.50

0.1800

0.2353

1.68

2.0641

No

No

17.
18.
19.
20.

25.00
26.50
28.00
29.50

0.2900
0.2700
0.2600
0.3000

0.2880
0.2959
0.3045
0.3111

2.73
2.59
2.52
2.94

2.5261
2.5954
2.6714
2.7290

No
No
No
No

No
No
No
No

Liquefaction Potential for Bore Hole (BH-12)


3.5
3.0

FSLiq

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Depth below Ground Surface (m)


Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Cal

Depth below Ground Surface (m) vs FSLiq

Mod

Figure 28 Graph of FSLiq vs Depth (z) for Bore Hole (BH-12)


CONCLUSION
In the present research study, the following conclusions are drawn based on the results and discussion of location
based liquefaction potential evaluation :
a)

The developed Multi-Linear Regression based CRR Model is presented and it can be used to assess site
specific liquefaction potential of soil.

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b)

c)

d)
e)
f)

g)

Based on SPSS, the Coefficient of Determination (R2) of the developed Multi-Linear Regression Model is
77%. As Coefficient of Determination signifies the strength of relationship in the model, hence the proposed
model is a tool for assessment of liquefaction potential of a particular site in Lucknow.
Based on SPSS, the probability value (p-value) of the developed Multi-Linear Regression Model is 0.018.
The p-value is computed using the test statistic, that measure the support (or lack of support) provided by the
sample for the Null Hypothesis (Ho). Since p-value is less than the level of significance (= 0.0 ) for the
developed Multi-Linear Regression Model, i.e; (0.018 < 0.05), hence the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) is accepted resulting the developed model to be strongly accepted.
The overall success rate of prediction of liquefaction and non-liquefaction cases by the proposed method for
all 204 cases in the present database is found to be 97.54% on the basis of calculated Factor of Safety (Fs)
The proposed Multi-Linear Regression Model could also be used for any such location, where the evaluation
of parameters are similar to that obtained and considerd in the development of this model.
A soil layer with FSLiq<1 is generally classied as liqueable and with FS Liq>1 is classied as non-liqueable.
However, some of the studies reveals that liquefaction have also occurred when FS Liq> 1 [18], uncertainties
exist due to different soil conditions, validity of case history data and calculation method chosen.
Out of the total evaluated 204 cases in the present study i.e.; from Bore Hole 1 to Bore Hole 12, the model
shows insignificant results in Bore Hole 2, Bore Hole 8 and Bore Hole 9. Therefore, further studies is still
required to determine the limitations of the developed Multi-Linear Regression based CRR Model for
assessment of liquefaction potential of soil.

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APPENDIX
A.

Box-Plot Test for Outliers in the Multi-Linear Regression based CRR Model (CRRMod)

Figure 1 Box Plot Test for Fine Content

Figure 2 Box Plot Test for Water Content

Figure 3 Box Plot Test for Bulk Density

Figure 4 Box Plot Test or Cyclic Shear Stress

Figure 5 Box Plot Test or Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR)

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B. Curve Estimation: Cyclic Resistance Ratio Calculated (Observed) and Modeled (Linear)

Figure 6 Curve Estimation between Cyclic Resistance Ratio Calculated and Modeled (CRRCal and CRRMod)

C. Bore Log Chart (Bore Hole 1 to Bore Hole 12)

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