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# Results and Discussions

The first part of the experiment involved identifying the direction of the induced electric and
magnetic fields as a bar magnet moves away from or towards the solenoid. Prior to this, the
direction of the current in the galvanometer was determined to be positive, which means the
current enters the galvanometer at the positive terminal and exits at the negative terminal.
Moreover, the winding of the solenoid as viewed from left to right is counter clockwise.
The table below summarizes the experimental findings for the first part of the experiment. Note
that it is the motion that causes the deflection in the galvanometer. Placing a magnet stationary
inside the loop will not induce a magnetic field. This is in accordance to Faradays law [1].
MAGNETIC POLE
NORTH
SOUTH

DIRECTION
Away

IINDUCED

BINDUCED

Towards

Away

Towards

These results agree with the theoretical predictions regarding the direction of Iinduced and Binduced.
According to Lenzs law, the direction of the inductive effects suppresses the cause of the effect
[2]. When the north pole moves towards the current-carrying loop, there is an increase in
magnetic flux on the left side of the loop. The system should respond to this by introducing an
induced magnetic flux directed to the right to relieve the change. Following the same train of
thought, the direction of the induced magnetic fields for the other cases can be determined.
Based from the above table, inferences on the direction induced quantities can be made. When
the induced magnetic field is directed to the right of the secondary solenoid, the direction of the
induced current is counter clockwise. Otherwise, the induced current is clockwise.
The second part of the experiment involved placing a material inside the solenoid while turning
the power supply on and off. The results show that for air, aluminum, and iron, the magnitudes of
the induced current are 20 A, 15 A, and 180 A, respectively. It was also observed that the
direction of the induced current is always positive when the power supply is switched on and
negative when it is switched off.
Switching the power supply on and off is important since it provides the change in magnetic flux
needed to generate an induced current, as per the Faradays law [1]. Just like the case as in the
moving magnets, the deflection in the galvanometer is only momentary. An induced current will
only last for as long as the magnetic flux is changing. As soon as the change stops, the induced
current also dissipates. It is also worthwhile to notice that the direction of the deflection is
opposite when the switch was turned from on to off and vice versa. This is because when the
power supply is turned on, there is an increase in the magnetic flux, whereas when it is turned
off, there is a decrease in the magnetic flux. This gives rise to the difference in directions of the
induced current.

It can also be noted that there is a discrepancy in the magnitude of the induced current measured
for the solenoid with varying core material. This is due to the differences of the relative
permeability (KM) of the materials inserted, which is the ratio of the permeability of the material
to the permeability in free space o [3]. Permeability measures the ability of the material to
form a magnetic field within itself. The higher the permeability of the material, the greater the
change in the magnetic flux, and consequently, a higher magnitude of induced current. The KM
values of the air and aluminum are close to unity, whereas that of iron is approximately 5500 [2].
This explains why the magnitudes of the induced current for the setup with air and the setup with
aluminum are similar, while that for iron is considerably larger.
The last part of the experiment determined the relationship of the induced current to the overlap
length between two solenoids. The findings are presented in the figure below.

120
100
80

60
40
20
0

## Overlap length (cm)

The figure above shows that the magnitude of the induced current increases as the overlap length
between the primary and the secondary solenoid increases. This is in accordance to the expected
relationship of the two quantities. The portion of the primary solenoid that is inside the
secondary solenoid introduces an external magnetic field, and the longer the portion inside the
secondary solenoid, the larger the magnitude of the field that it introduces. That is why after
turning the power supply on and off, the deflection of the galvanometer increases with increasing
overlap length.

References
[1] Young, H; Freedman, R.; University Physics 13th ed., Chapters 28-30; Pearson Education
Inc., CA, 2012

[2] Tipler, P; Mosca, G; Physics for Scientists and Engineers 6th ed.; Chapter 27-28; W.H.
Freeman and Co., N.Y. 2008