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TABLE OF CONTANTS

CHAPTER 1.
1.1
1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5
1.6

CHAPTER 2.
2.1

SWITCH GEAR & ACCESSORIES

5-28

Definition of Switch Gear


Types of Switch Gear
1.2.1 L. T Switch Gear
1.2.2 H. T Switch Gear
Types of H.T Panel
1.3.1 In Coming panel
1.3.2 Out Going Panel
1.3.3 Bus Coupler Panel
1.3.4 Owner Type Panel
Types of Fault
1.4.1 Phase Fault
1.4.2 Instantaneous Fault
1.4.3 Ground Fault
1.4.4 Instantaneous Ground Fault
Generator Incoming Panel
Switch Gear Apparatus
1.6.1 Disconnectors
1.6.2 Switches Disconnectors
1.6.3 Earthing Switches
1.6.4 Position Indication
1.6.5 HV Fuse Links
1.6.6 Selecting Fuse Links for Specific Condition
1.6.7 Is-Limiter Fastest Switching Device
In the World

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5
5
5
6
7
11
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25

VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER


Technical Data
2.1.1 Motor Drive
2.1.2 Multiple Auto-Reclosing
2.1.3 Interlock Mechanism of the

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29-58
31
31
33

Draw-Out Type Breaker


2.1.4 Closing (Y9) and Anti-Pumping (k1)
2.1.5 Open Solenoid (Y1)
2.1.6 Auxiliary Switch (S1)
2.1.7 Under Voltage Release (Y7)
2.1.8 2nd Open Solenoid (Y2)
2.1.9 Cutout Switch
2.1.10 Closing Spring Charge Signal
2.2
Handling and Installing the Breaker
2.2.1 Unloading and Storage
2.2.2 Unpacking
2.2.3 Inspection after Unpacking
2.2.4 Installation
2.2.5 Inspection before Operation
2.2.6 Manual Operation
2.3
Structure and Operation
2.3.1 Component List of HAF
2.3.2 Component List of HVF
2.3.3 Operation Mode
2.3.4 Draw In & Out Operation of HAF VCB
2.3.5 Draw In & Out Operation of HVF VCB
2.4
Maintenance and Inspection
2.4.1 Periodical Inspection
2.5
Function of Breaker
2.6
Facilitated Maintenance
2.7
SF6 circuit breaker
2.8
Terminal Connection for Medium Voltage Installation
2.8.1 Fully Insulated Transformer Links with Cable
2.9
SF6 Insulated Bus Bar Connection
2.10 Solid insulated Bus Bar Connection

CHAPTER 3.

Instrument Transformer
3.1
3.2
3.3

3.4
3.5

Introduction
Types of Instrument Transformer
Current Transformer
3.3.1 Construction
3.3.2 Clip On Type Current Transformer
General Information
Type of CT
3.5.1 Wound Type
3.5.2 Bar Type
3.5.3 Dry Type
3.5.4 Ring Type

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36
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40
43
45
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47
49
51
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55
55
57
57

59-77
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60
61
62
64
64
65
65
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66

3.6

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14

CHAPTER 4.

Winding of CT
3.6.1 Primary Winding
3.6.2 Secondary Winding
Current of CT,S
CT Ratio and Error
Burden
Accuracy
Measurment
Potential Transformer
3.12.1 Construction
General Information
Function of Potential Transformer

Protection and Control


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13

CHAPTER 5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Introduction
Protection
Protection Relay and Protection System
Relay
Operation
Types of Relay
Generator Unit Protection
Control Measurement Regulation
D.C Voltage Supply
Interlocking
Mimic Diagram of Double Bus Bar Substation With
Branch Coupling and Bus Earthing Switch
Control
Devices

Insulator
Insulator
Physics of Conduction in Solid
History
Insulation of Antennas
Insulation in Electrical Apparatus
Class 1 and Class 2 Insulation

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67
68
69
70
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74
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76

78-94
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87
90
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94
94

95-100
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100

CHAPTER NO. 1

SWITCHGEAR AND ACCESSORIES

1.1 DEFINITION OF SWITCHGEAR


Switching device associated with combination control measurement
protects and regulate.
Or
All equipment' and instrument associated with the fault clearing
process is covered in the switchgear. Include magnetic contactors switches
breakers fuses and relays etc.

1.2 TYPES OF SWITCHGEARS


1. L.T Type
2. H.T Type

1.2.1 L.T SWITCHGEAR


L.T stands for low tension. These panel works on 440V three phase
supplies. We use these panels in factories

1.2.2 H.T SWITCHGEAR


H.T stands for high tension. We use these panels on 3.3 KV to 11
KV or higher. H.T panels. Place factories and in Sub Stations.

1.3 TYPE OF HT PANELS


TWO TYPES OF HT PANELS

1) WAPDA PANELS
2) PRIVATE PANEL

WAPDA PANELS

INCOMING PANEL.

OUT GOING PANLE.

BUS COUPLAR PANLE.

CONSUMER PANEL

CAPACITOR CONTROL PANEL

INDUSTRIAL PANEL

CONUMER PANEL

PRIVATE PANELS
1) CHANGE OVER PANEL.
2) OWNER PANEL

INDUSTRIAL PANEL

3) SWITCH BOARD

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION PANEL

1.3.1 INCOMING PANEL


Applications
This panel is used for 11 KV incoming Supply in Grid station

Main Components

CTs (Current Transformer)

Pts (Potential Transformer)

DC supervision Relay

CDG 21 relay

MIF II Relay/CDG-61 Relay (O/C & E/F)

Cos Meter

Volt Meter

Ampere Meter ,

Indication Lights

ON, Off Push Buttons

TOD Meter

Selector 'Switch

Test Block

Terminal Block

MCB (Miniature Circuit Breakers)

VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker)

Working
First of all supply will comes on current transformers (C.Ts) and PTs
(Potential Transformer).CTs are in series of all the circuit ad PTs are in
parallel. There are 6 'CTs in this panel. 3 for Differential Protections 3 for
Protection & Metering Supply will comes on CTs and Then on PTs and after
that through VCB goes on Outgoing Panel.
There are three, ampere meters in this panel, which are showing currents
separately where as one Voltmeter is used with a selector switch. We can
read volts with the help of selector switch on different phases.

1.3.2 OUTGOING PANEL


Applications
These panels' -gets the supply from the Incoming panel and send
supply to the users. Normally we use 8 (Eight) Outgoing panels with 1 (one)
Incoming panel. Every panel is specified for a specific area. The names of
areas are shown on the panels.

Main Components
O/C & E/F Relay (CDG-61 Relay)

DC Supervision relay
Cos meter
Indicating Lights
ON, Off Push. Buttons
Mcbs

(Miniature circuit breaker)

VCB (Vacuum Circuit breaker)


CT (Current Transformer)
Magnetic Contactors
TOD Meter

Working
First of all supply comes on CTs and then through VCB goes to users.
This supply is 11 KV So trough; transmission lines this supply comes on
Distribution Transformer for step down from 11 KV to 440 V. This 440 V
are in three-phase four-wire, system. Phase-to- Phase Voltages are 440 V
and Phase to Neutral Voltages is 220 V.

For its control circuit we give DC Supply Individually form a DC source that
would be a Generator or Battery. We also use a DC
Supervision Relay in Outgoing panel to observe DC supply. In case of
low or high voltages that relay will trip all the-'system. In this Panel 3 CTs
are used only for metering. Cable of CTs comes on Ampere meter only.

OUTGOING PANEL

SCHEME OF OUTGOING PANEL

TO PREPARE SOLUTION FOR DERUSTING


First of all we wash the tank with water. And then we fill the clean -water in
tank by the tow feet collars of tank. Then we added 1200 KG Derusting acid
that is Hydrochloric acid in this water. During this process we move the
solution continuously.

TESTING OF SOLUTION
We get 10 .ML solutions in Flask with help of puppet. After that we
added 100 ML clean .water and mix it. Then we get 10 ML form Flask in a
Beaker. And then we add Indicator no. 9 99hjiyi9993 drops. 1st drop after 15
seconds 2nd drop we add. After we add testing solution in the beaker. Yet the
colors of solution changed in Yellow from Red. Note the used Quantity of
used testing solution in ML.
The reading should be under 24.5 ML to 25.5 ML. In case of low
reading we add a 55 KG bag of acid for improve i1 ML reading. We check
this .reading 3 Times in a Day.

1.3.3 BUS COUPLER PANEL


Application
We use this panel in grid stations. In the case of off supply from one
incoming send supply on this incoming from the other incoming panel.

Main Components

Contactor scheme
MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)
Terminal blocks
Indicating lights
ON, OFF Push Buttons
VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker)
Finder Relay '
Bus Bars

BUSCOUPLER PANEL
Working
Normally VCB of Bus Coupler panel .is- in off position. And tow
supplies come on incoming' panels and through Outgoing panels goes to the
users. Whenever any supply switched off we will switch .on the VCB of bus
coupler. We also put a finder relay in the bus coupler. When OFF supply will
come this relay will switch off the VCB if bus coupler. In normal conditions
VCB of bus coupler should be open and no supply passes through it. In the
case of break 'down of any one supply this will be on or in close position.
When the off supply will energized then finder relay works VCB of' 'bus '
coupler will trip with the help of finder-relay.

1.3.4 OWNER TYPE PANEL


Application
We use this panel in factories in owner's custody. When supply comes
in factory first comes on owner type panel. So this panel is also called
incoming panel or transformer incoming pane.

Main Components

Buckles .Relay.
TJN Relay.
Selector switch.
Ampere meter
Voltage meter
Buzzer
Push Buttons
Indicating lights
CTs (Current Transformer)
PTs (Potential Transformer)
TOD Mete
MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)
Terminal Block
CTU (Capacitor Trip Unit)

OWNER PANEL

Working
First of a11 11 KV supply will come on CTs and then on PTs and then
through goes to Outgoing panel. We supplied its control circuit through PTs.
Because these are AC Voltages and we want DC Voltages so connect CTU
(Capacitor Trip Unit) that will work as a converter and convert AC Supply
into DC Supply. In this panel we place Buckles Relay. Which is connected

to the step transformer 11 KV TO 440 V and protect this. In this panel.TJN


Relay is for different faults like.
Phase faults
Instantaneous phase fault
Ground faults
Instantaneous ground faults
In case of these faults this relay will trip all the system.

1.4 TYPES OF FAULTS


Phase faults j Instantaneous, phase fault u Ground faults j Instantaneous
ground faults I

1.4.1 Phase Faults


This fault occurs when panel will extra load.

1.4.2 Instantaneous Phase Faults


Whenever any tow; phases or three phases will short' a .high current will
pass through it then 'the type of fault is Instantaneous ^phase fault.

1.4.3 Ground Faults


If any phase break then the type of fault is ground fault.

1.4.4 Instantaneous Ground Faults


If any phase breaks and touch with another phase or anything then the type
of fault is Instantaneous ground fault.

1.5 GENERATOR INCOMING PANEL


Applications

We use this panel in factories and connected with- a transformerincoming panel by a. bus coupler. At transformer incoming panel supply
comes from Wapda where as generator-incoming panel gets the supply from
generator based in factory.

Main Components
ACB (Air-Circuit Breaker) CTs (Current Transformer) u Voltmeter j
Selector switch
Automatic Transfer Switch (DKG 205 relay)
ON, OFF Push buttons
Indication lights
Emergency off push buttons
Terminal Box
MCB (Miniature Circuit breaker)

Working
First of all supply through bus bars comes on CTs and then comes on Air
Circuit Breaker and goes outgoing panel
He uses this panel with transformer incoming panel. In case of breakdown of
Wapda supply generator will automatically on. And when transformer
incoming will restore generator will automatically off through DKG 205
Relay.
In this panel over voltage under voltage is used. 'This relay sense voltages in
case of fluctuation of voltages this relay will trip all the system.

1.6 SWITCHGEAR APPARATUS


This voltage range is generally referred to as medium voltage, even
though the term has not been standardized anywhere.
The principal terms relating to switchgear are defined in Section 10.1.

1.6.1 Disconnections
The classic design of the disconnect or is the knife-contact
disconnected (Fig.4-1). It has become less common with the increasing use
of withdraw able circuit-breakers and switch-disconnections. This
functional principle is now again becoming more frequent in gas-insulated
switchboard technology.
Fig. 4-1 Medium-voltage knife-contact disconnections

The blades of knife-contact disconnectors installed in an upright or


hanging position must be prevented from moving by their own weight.
Disconnectors can be actuated manually and, in remotely operated
installations, by motor or compressed-air drives.

1.6.2 Switch-disconnectors
Switch-disconnectors are increasingly being used in distribution
networks for switching cables and overhead lines. Switch-disconnectors in
connection with HV fuses are used for protection of smaller transformers.
Switch-disconnectors are switches that in their open position meet the
conditions specified for isolating distances. General purpose switches can
make and break all types of operating currents in fault-free operation and in
the event of earth fault. They can also make and conduct short-circuit
currents.

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Knife-contact switch-disconnectors and rod-type switch-disconnectors are


actuated in two ways:
a) Snap-action mechanism, also referred to as toggle-spring mechanism.
With this type of operating mechanism, a spring is tensioned and released
shortly before the operating angle is completed and its release force actuates
the main contact systems. This is used for both closing and opening.
b) Stored-energy mechanism. This mechanism has one spring for closing
and a second spring for opening. During the closing operation, the opening
spring is simultaneously tensioned and latched. The stored energy for the
opening operation is released by magnetic trips or the striker pin of the HV
fuse.
The rod-type switch-disconnector is particularly suitable for the design
of compact switchbays, because the knife-contact switch-disconnector
requires a greater depth for the switching zone because of the projecting
contact blade in its open state. The rod-type switch-disconnectors also enable
very small phase spacings without phase barriers.

1.6.3 Earthing switches


Earthing switches are installed in switchbays primarily near cable
boxes, i. e. before the main switching device. However, earthing switches are
often specified also for busbar earthing, for example in metering panels. If
the main switching device is a switch-disconnector, the earthing switch and
the switch-disconnector will often be on a common base frame (Fig. 8-4).
Every earthing switch must be capable of conducting its rated short-time
current without damage. Make-proof earthing switches are also capable of
making the associated peak current at rated voltage. For safety reasons,
Make-proof earthing switches are recommended with air-insulated
switchboards because of possible faulty actuations. In gas-insulated

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switchboards, the earthing of a feeder is often prepared by the earthing


switch and completed by closing the circuit-breaker. In this case, a makeproof earthing switch is not required.

1.6.4 Position indication


Because disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and earthing switches
are very important to the safety of the isolation of cables, lines and station
components, there are special requirements for their position indication. It is
true that the switch contacts themselves no longer need to be visible, but
actuation of indicators or control switches must be picked up directly at the
switch contacts or at a connecting point downstream of any operating spring
on the power kinematic chain. .

1.6.5 HV fuse links


The load current flows in fuse links through narrow silver conductor
bands, which are arranged spirally in a sealed dry quartz sand filling in the
interior of an extremely thermally resistant ceramic pipe. The conductor

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bands are designed with a narrower cross-section at many points to ensure


that in the event of an overcurrent or short-circuit current, a defined melting
will occur at many points simultaneously. The resulting arc voltage ensures
current limiting interruption in case of high short-circuit currents.

The cap-shaped end contacts of the HV fuse link are picked up by the
terminal contacts of the fuse base. HV fuse links can be fitted with indicators
or striker pins, which respond when the band-shaped conductors melt
through. The striker pin is required for mechanical tripping of the switching
device when used in the switch/fuse combination.
Characteristic current values for HV fuse links:
Rated current
The majority of fuse links in operation have a rated current 100 A.
For special applications with smaller service voltages (e.g. 12 kV), fuse links
up to 315 A are available. The associated melt-through times of the fusible
conductors are found from the melting characteristics (manufacturer
information for the range of the interrupting currents)
Rated breaking current
This value must be provided by the manufacturer of the fuse link. It is
influenced by the design for a specified rated current. When selecting fuse
links for transformer protection in distribution systems, the maximum
breaking current is not a critical quantity.
Rated minimum breaking current
Classification of fuse links into three categories
Back-up fuses smallest breaking current (manufacturer information) in

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general at 2.5 to 3.5 times rated current. Suited for application in switch/fuse
combinations. Very common!
General purpose fuses The minimum breaking current is that which results
in melt-through after 1 hour or more of exposure time (generally twice the
rated current).
Full-range fuses every current that results in a melt-through can be
interrupted.
Cut-off current characteristic
The maximum value of the current let-through by the fuse depends on its
rated current and the prospective short-circuit current of the system. Fig. 8-7
shows a characteristic field.

1.6.6 Selecting fuse links for specific conditions


When protecting transformers and capacitors with fuses, the inrush
currents must be taken into account. When protecting transformers,
selectivity by making the melting times match of low-voltage fuses and HV
fuses is required to ensure that the low-voltage fuses respond first. This is
taken into consideration in Table 8-1.
1) Maximum rated current of the low-voltage
protection that yields selectivity with the high-voltage
fuse. 2) CMF-type fuse link

In capacitor banks the rated current of the HV fuse links should be at least
1.6 times the rated current of the capacitors. Experience has demonstrated
that this covers also the influences of possible system harmonics and
increased voltage.
When selecting fuse links for protection of high-voltage motors, the starting
current and the starting time of the motors must be taken into account. The
frequency of startups must also not be neglected if this is frequent enough to
prevent the fuses from cooling down between starts.

1.6.7 Is-limiter fastest switching device in the world


The increasing requirements for energy throughout the world demand
higher rated or supplementary transformers and generators and tighter

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integration of the supply systems. This can also result in the permissible
short-circuit currents of the equipment being exceeded and the equipment
being dynamically or thermally destroyed.
It is often not technically possible or not economical for the user to replace
switchboards and cable connections with new equipment with increased
short-circuits current capability. The implementation of Is-limiters when
expanding existing installations and constructing new installations reduces
short-circuit currents and costs.
A circuit-breaker does not provide protection against impermissibly high
peak short-circuit currents, because it is too slow. Only the Is-limiter is
capable of detecting and limiting a short-circuit current in the initial rise, i.e.
in less than one millisecond. The maximum instantaneous current value that
occurs remains well below the peak value of the short-circuit current of the
system.
Typical Is-limiter applications
In couplings,
In coupling the public system with a private supply,
parallel to reactor coils, (avoids copper losses and voltage drop at the
reactor coils)
In transformer or generator feeders,
In outgoing feeders.
The Is-limiter is a current-limiting switching device, which detects and limits
the short-circuit current in the initial rise. The short-circuit current through
the I-limiter is limited so
Quickly that it does not contribute in any way to the peak value of the shortcircuit current at the fault site.
a) Current path total current without Ilimiter

21

b) Basic layout

Total current with Ilimiter


In principle, the Is-limiter consists of an extremely fast switching
device that can conduct a high rated current, but has a low switching
capacity and a parallel configured fuse with high breaking capacity. To

22

achieve the desired short switching delay, a small charge is used as energy
storage for opening the switching device (main current path). Once the main
current path has been opened, the current still flows through the parallel fuse,
where it is limited within 0.5 ms and then is finally interrupted in the next
voltage zero.

Holder and insert of an Is-limiter 1 Insulating tube 2 Charge 3Bursting


bridge (main current path) 4 Fuse 5 Insulator with pulse transformer
Table

Rated voltages and currents for Is-limiter


Rated
voltage
kV
0.75
12.0
17.5
24.0
36.0 (40.5)

Rated current

....
....
....
....
....

A
4.500
4.000
4.000
2.500
2.500

Is-limiter inserts are parallel connected for higher currents


The Is-limiter is from all points of view the ideal switching device for
solving short-circuits problems in switchboards in power plants, in heavy
industry and for power supply companies.

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CHAPETER NO. 2

VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

THESE FLLOWING BREAKERS USE IN HT PANELS.


1)

VCB

2)

MOCB

3)

OCB

4)

SF6

BUT MOSTLY VCB BREAKER USE IN PANEL.

2.1 TECHNICAL DATA

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2.1.1 Motor Drive


HVF & HAF VCB have motor-spring type stored-energy operating
mechanism. The closing operation can be done only after the closing spring
is charged. Consumption during the operation is shown in Table 2-2, and the
inrush current may be disregarded since it lasts for only a brief period.
The closing spring is fully tensioned by motor (Ml) with the rated voltage
applied through terminal no. 1&2 of standard control circuit. Then the limit
switch (S21, S22) stop the motor, and the spring indicator shows "SPRING
CHARGED" by link activation as shown in Fig. 2-1. The charged VCB can
carry out the open-close-open sequential operation and also the next closeopen operation without delay.

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26

2.1.2 Multiple Auto-Reclosing


HVF & HAF circuit breakers are capable of auto-reclosing and can also be
used for multiple reclosing for the following operating sequence 0-0.3s-CO15s-co-l5s-CO..... (0: tripping; C: closing)

2.1.3 Interlock Mechanism of the Draw-Out Type Breaker


The draw-out type circuit breaker has an interlock mechanism which
prevents trouble due to disoperation. The sensing parts check the position of
the circuit breaker and prevent it from closing if the associated disconnect or
are not allowed for safe operation.

2.1.4 Closing (Y9) and Anti-Pumping (Kl)


When closing authorization is applied through terminals no. 6 & 7, Solenoid
Y9 unlatches the closing spring, and thus closes the circuit breaker
electrically, immediately after the breaker closes, Aux. S/W, Si the closing
circuit, and limit switch S3 and anti-pumping relay K1 switch affect to Y9 so
that they can not be reactivated until the continuous closing command is
interrupted. Thus the breaker can meet the IEC requirements for antipumping and trip-free operation. At the same time, the contact pressure
spring is compressed properly to maintain sufficient contact pressure on the
moving contact of the vacuum interrupters while the breaker is in the closed
position, and the tripping spring is compressed for the opening operation.

2.1.5 Open Solenoid (Y1)


When the opening command is applied, the tripping spring is unlatched by
the trip solenoid Y1 and the force turns the torque to rotate the brake shaft to
make the opening position, immediately after the breaker is open, the
indicator displays the open state and Aux. S/W, Si open the opening circuit.

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2.1.6 Auxiliary Switch (S1)


The standard auxiliary contacts for external connection are composed of
4NO+4NC; these contacts are wired to the control jack (XO).
Rated Insulation voltage: AC/DC 250 V
Continuous Current: 10 A
Making Current: 30 A
Switching Current: 2 A at DC 220 v, T=2Q ms
The maximum connection 10NO+10NC is available on request.

2.1.7 under Voltage Release (Y7)


The UVR (Y7) having a spring-energy storing mechanism, is used for the
continuous monitoring of circuits, and can open the circuit breaker
automatically when the control voltage drops lower than the drop-out
voltage. And the latching mechanism of the release can be excited to hold
the closing condition of the circuit breaker when the control voltage rises
than the pick-up voltage.
Drop-out voltage: 35-60% of rated control voltage
Pick-up voltage: 75-85% of rated control voltage
If it is nearly to lock the automatically tripping function of the release at the
lower control voltage, you can place the lock-screw and the release can be
operated again by shifting the screw down

2.1.8 2nd Open Solenoid (Y2)


2nd trip solenoid (Y2) can be attached to the HYUNDAI HAF/HVF circuit
breaker putting aside the 1st trip solenoid (Yl), so that the circuit breaker can
be opened with more safety.

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2.1.9 Cutout Switch


The cutout switch consists of two limit switches, which are connected in
series with the impulse contact of the auxiliary switch in the alarm circuit.
When the VCB is opened locally, the cutout switch interrupts the tripping
signal. Closing time of impulse contact is more than 10ms.

2.1.10 "Closing Spring Charge" Signal


Using the auxiliary switches S41, S42 operated by the closing spring, the
spring charged indicator is displayed for visual checking.

2.2 HANDILING AND INSTALLING THE BREAKER


2.2.1 Unloading and Storage
When unloading from the vehicle, avoid turning if over. Special care should
be taken to avoid shocks. If vacuum circuit breakers must be stored prior to
use, they should be stored only in dry, dust-free and well ventilated rooms,
with the breakers in the

OFF

position and the stored-energy spring

mechanism in the released position.


Fig. 3-1 HAF VCB / HU 3-1 HAF VCB

2.2.2 Unpacking
When opening the package, also avoid turning it over and special care
should be taken to not damage the breaker. Handle carefully disconnecting
unit, front panel and so on.

2.2.3 Inspection after Unpacking


1) Check the type rating and quantities with the specification sheet.
2) Check the circuit breaker for any damage or missing materials.

29

3) Check all accessories and spares supplied. Also, check to see if these parts
are damaged.

2.2.4 Installation
Before installing the circuit breaker into the switchgear, check the type rating
and for any signs of damage again. Wipe the breaker with a dry cloth to
remove dirt and dust. Mount the draw-out unit (if it is used) on a level floor
by means of screwing through the mounting holes on the bottom. Then, the
tolerance on the level should be within 1 mm. If required, adjust the level
using a liner.
Wipe the connecting surface with a dry cloth to remove dirt and dust before
connecting main circuit bus-bars and earth terminal and be careful not to
shock the draw-out unit and breaker.
Note

Refer to our catalogue "HAF&HVF Vacuum Circuit

Breaker" for mounting whole size of the each draw-out unit and earth
terminal's size.

2.2.5 Inspection before Operation


1) Check to see if the breaker is installed properly.
2) Operate the breaker a few times manually to ensure that the breaker is
closed and opened smoothly. Then, operate the breaker using the motor
operating mechanism with the auxiliary power, and check the ON/OFF
indicator and charged state of the closing spring
3) Check that no tools and materials are left near the breaker. 4} Ground all
possible parts of circuit breaker.

2.2.6 Manual Operation


1) Insert the handle-crank in the hole and turn it clockwise until the indicator
displays "SPRING CHARGED".

30

2) Press the "ON" button. Be sure to check that the breaker is closed and the
ON/OFF indicator displays "CLOSE".
3) Press the "OFF" button. And be sure to check that the breaker is opened
and the ON/OFF indicator displays "OPEN".
4) Operate 2-3 times as mentioned sequence. Finally, check that no tools and
materials are left near the breaker.

2.3 STRUCTURE AND OPERATION


2.3.1 Component List of VCB
No

Item

10

Housing Box

11

Closing Mechanism

12

Closing spring

13

Trip Spring

14

Link

15

Coupling Bar

16

Breaker Shaft

17

Dash Pot

18

Counter

19

On/Off Indicator

20

Spring Charged Indicator

21

Closing Button

22

Trip Button

23

Name Plate

24

Hole for Manual Charging

31

Motor

31

32

Closing Solenoid

33

Trip Solenoid

34

Limit Switch (S3, S21, S22)

35

Anti-Pumping Contact (K1)

36

Auxiliary Switch (S1)

41

Vacuum Interrupter

42

Upper Female Arm

43

Upper Pole Support

44

Lower Pole Support

45

Flexible Terminal

46

Upper Insulator

47

Lower Insulator

48

Insulator Coupler

49

Contact Pressure Spring

50

Cross Arm

51

Struts

52

Earthling Terminal

53

Centering Ring

60

Hole for Draw-Out Operation

61

Interlock Handle

2.3.2 Component List of HVF


No. Item
10

Housing Box

11

Closing Mechanism

32

12

Closing Spring

13

Tri Spring

14

Link

15

Coupling Bar

16

Breaker Shaft

17

Dash Pot

18

Counter

19

ON/Off Indicator

20

Spring Charged Indictor

21

Closing Button

22

Trip Button

23

Name Plate

24

Hole for Manual Charging

31

Motor

32

Closing Solenoid

33

Trip Solenoid

34

Limit Switch (S3, S21, S22)

35

Anti-Pumping Contact (K1)

36

Auxiliary Switch (S1)

41

Vacuum Interrupter

33

42

Upper Female Arm

43

Upper Pole Support

44

Lower Pole Support

45

Flexible Terminal

49

Contact Press Spring

54

Female Contact

55

Insulation Frame

56

Rear Insulation cover

57

Insulation Rod

58

Spring Guide

59

Coupling Bolt

62

Position Indicator

63

Draw I & Out Device

2.2.3 OPERATION MODE


1.

CHARGING
When the charging mechanism is activated by hand or motor

(31), the charging shaft (11-1) turns by the gears and the driver
(11-2) so that the closing spring (12) is tensioned. When the
closing spring is fully tensioned, the closing pawl (11-3) makes th3
closing spring be latched.

34

2.

CLOSING
When closing command is applied, the closing spring s

unlatched by the activation of the closing pawl. Through the energy


from the discharging of the closing spring, the coupling bar s
powerfully pushed down via the charge shaft and the cam.
Consequently, the breaker shaft is turned until the moving contact
is fully closed and latched by the trip pawl (25-1) at the some time,
the contact pressure spring (49) is compressed to insure sufficient
contact pressure not the moving contact while the breaker is in the
closed positional and the tripping spring (13) s compressed for the
opening operation.

35

3.

RECHARGING
After the closing operation, the closing spring can be

immediately recharged by motor (3-1) or hand so that the breaker


immediately re-closed in case the closing authorization re-closes is
applied.

36

4.

OPENING
When opening command is applied, the tripping spring is

unlaced by the activation of the trip pawl, and the breaker shaft is
returned to the open position.

2.3.4 Draw in & Out Operation of HAF VCB

HYUNDAI HAF Type Vacuum circuit breakers have several


versions of draw-Out mechanism and the breaker types which were
produced according to customer requests.
The following procedure is for the circuit breaker of our standard
version having worm and worm gear type draw-out mechanism. For
the instruction of nonstandard version,

1.

Checking before inserting the breaker to the switchgear or

37

cradle check first whether the link is horizontal as show in Fig 410, if not, put the handle not the hole and turn it any direction to
set the link horizontal after that, check to see if the breaker is
open.

2.

Inserting to the disconnection position put the breaker to the

switchgear so that the wheel of the breaker is exactly on the guide


rail of switchgear. After that lift up the interlock and fully and
push it slowly until it stops. When the breaker s in the connection
position, check whether the interlock pin is securely dropped into
the lock hole as shown in |Fig 4-11. This is the Disconnection
position.

3.

Inserting to the connection position After checking to see if

the breaker s open in the disconnection position, insert the crank


handle to the hole to draw out handle, and lift up the interlock
handle fully.; then, turn the crank handle clockwise so that the
breaker moves to the connection position.

38

When the breaker is in the connection position, check that the


interlock pin drops into the lock hole.

2.3.5 Draw in & Out Operation of HVF VCB


HYUNDAI

HVF

Vacuum

Circuit

Breaker

has

several

versions of draw-out mechanism which were produced according to


customer request and the breaker types. Type following procedure
is for the circuit breaker of our standard version having screw draw
out mechanism.

Checking before inserting the breaker in to the switchgear

before putting the breaker into the cradle or switchgear, check


whether all part of the breaker are in the right position as follows.

39

2.

Inserting to the disconnection position put the breaker to the

switchgear or cradle and push it slowly until it stops. When it is


stopped, set the manual lock handle to the LOCK position.

3.

Inserting to the connection position after checking that the

break is open n the disconnection position, insert the handle into


the faxing screw head and turn it in a clockwise direction so that
the breaker moves to the connection position. When the breaker s
in that connection position check that the position indicator
displays the Connection
4.

With drawing the breaker first of all, open the breaker and

put the handle into the flexing screw head and turn in a count
clockwise direction to withdraw the breaker, the position indicator
will display DISCONNECTION, when the breaker reaches the
disconnection position.

40

To withdraw the breaker fully from the cradle, put the manual
locker to the unlock state and pull the breaker out slowly.

2.4 MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION


2.4.1 Periodical Inspection
Periodical inspection is generally made once every 3 years thought it
depends on the operatic condition of the circuit breaker.
The operating mechanisms should be oiled and lubricated in specific parts or
every 10 years or after 5,000 make- break operations.

Inspection Item

General Check

Operation Test

Description
1. Clean the insulated
surface with a dry cloth
to remove dusty and
moisture.
2. 2. Check the exterior
for damage.
3. Check the exterior for
damage
4. Check stop ring and
stop
retainer
for
damage.
5. Check the connection
between
1. Operate a few times
manually
and
electrically and check
each part for proper
function.
2. Check
NO/OFF
indicator and counter
for proper function.
3. Check the compressed
length of contact press
sp.
According
to

Interval Remark

3 years

2,000 operations
or 10 operations
of short circuit
currents

41

1.

Insulation resistance
2.

Withstand
Test

Voltage

1.

1.
Lubrication

1.

Vacuum Interrupter

2.

appendix A and B
Measure
insulations
resistance
between
phase and between
phases and between
pole-earth with 100 V
megger, if the measured
value is less than 500m,
3 years
Check the cause.
Check
insulation
resistance
between
control circuit and earth
500v megger. If the
measured value is less
than 2M, Check the
cause.
Test the breaker with
power
withstand
voltage test according
to appendix A and B.
Lubricate each part of
operating mechanism.
5,000 Operations
Clean
disconnection
unit with a dry cloth
and a small amount of
grease
(conductive
grease. Lithium soap
based grease
With
the
circuit
opened, check vacuum
degree.

2.5 FUNCTION OF BREAKER


The breakers, including the vacuum interrupters, are manufactured by
HYUNDAI in ISO 9001

42

Certified facilities, fully tested to IEC standards and available in the


range of IEC ratings.
7.2kV, up to 25kA, up to 1250A.
This series have a light weight and compact structure with a simple
motor-spring stored energy
Mechanism and pole parts which are fitted on a molded insulation
frame.
On the vacuum principle, the vacuum circuit breakers retain high
dielectric strength with only
a small contact gap, which provide minimum wear of contact point and
long service life.
The total breaking time requires only 3 cycles which reduce system
fault damage.

COMPACT SIZE AND LIGHT WEIGHT


HVG circuit breakers are very compactly sized and light in weight.
Overall dimensions of the breakers including draw-out unit are;
Width: Less than 600mm
Depth: Less than 780mm
Height: Less than 780mm
This reduction in size makes it possible to reduce the switchgear size
and to minimize its

43

Installation space.

2.6 FACILITATED MAINTENANCE


HVG circuit breaker requires little maintenance, only the parts subject
to normal wear and
Aging need be serviced to ensure fully reliable operation.
Current conductive parts can be easily inspected and maintained, and
mechanical parts are
Easily accessible for maintenance by removing the front cover.
Because of extremely small amount of contact erosion, contact life is
very long, and the
Vacuum interrupters and their supports need not to be serviced.

44

Position switches are applicable to the draw-out type It is


recommended employing the capacitor trip unit breakers on request.
For the trip operation of the breaker when the control The switches are
operated when the breaker is in source is lost in the AC control
system. The connected position or disconnected position.

45

2.7 SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER


After its successful implementation in the range of transmission voltages (cf.
Section 10 and 11!), SF6 has also become established in the medium-voltage
range. The puffer-type arc-quenching principle, which was introduced first,
provides an effective arc-quenching gas flow by a mechanically driven
piston. However, this requires high-energy driving systems. Hence self-blast
arc-quenching systems of different types were developed, where the relative
movement between the gas and the arc is provided by the arc itself, either by
continuous movement of the arc in a circular route or by pressure built up in
a temporarily enclosed volume.
The newest generation of ABB SF6 circuit-breakers for medium-voltage type HD4 -makes use of a combination of these two-different arc-quenching
principles (Auto puffer). Circuit-breakers of this type are available for
service currents from 630 A to 4000 A and for short-circuit currents up to 50
kA. The arc-quenching system (Fig. 8-15) applies the gas compressed in the
lower chamber to interrupt small currents with overvoltage factors < 2.5 p.u.
even in case of small inductive currents. High short-circuit currents are
interrupted by the self-blast effect applying the pressure built up in the
moving chamber by the arc energy.

1-Upper terminal
2-Main contact
3-Nozzle
4-Arcing contact
5-Moving chamber
6-Valves
7-Lower chamber
8-Insulating housing left: closed right: open
Auto puffer-arc quenching system
46

2.8 TERMINAL CONNECTION FOR MEDIUMVOLTAGE INSTALLATIONS


2.8.1 Fully insulated transformer link with cables
Plastic-insulated cables and fully insulated (plug-in) cable terminals
provide a number of operational improvements in substation design when
consistently used at the interfaces between cables and station components.
The key component for a new type of cable link, Fig. 8-28, between the
power transformer and the switchboard is a multiple transformer terminal,
Fig. 8-29, for four parallel power cables. The multiple terminal is designed
for a rated voltage of up to 36 kV and enables rated currents of up to 3150 A.
It can be retrofitted to all power transformers. In addition to the operational
advantages, this technology offers savings because the transformer no longer
requires a cable rack. For more information on plug connectors for power
cables.
Substation design with fully insulated cable link to the transformer,
1-transformer multiple terminal,
2-substation building,
3-switchboard,
4-cable plug,
5-cable link in protective conduit

47

View a) and section b) of a transformer multiple terminal


1-Cable connector
2-Moulded resin body with sockets
3-Metal housing
4-Conductor bar
5-Contact system
6-Transformer housing
7-Control shield

2.9 SF6-INSULATED BUSBAR CONNECTION


The bus bar shown below in Fig. 8-30 is designed for a rated voltage
of up to 36 kV and rated currents of up to 3150 A.
The bus bar system consists of several individual parts that can be combined
to make all required connections. It is suitable for combining bursars of
different sections of switchboards and for making connections to power
transformers. Use at 12 kV is also possible with the use of N2 as insulating
gas.
Sectional view of an SF6-insulated bus bar
1 Inner conductor 2 Outer tube 3 Flange joint with insulator 4 internal
expansion joint 5 External expansion joint
(Metal bellows) 6 T-junction enclosure 7 Cross-junction enclosure 8 Cover
with and without connection

48

2.10 SOLID-INSULATEDBUSBAR CONNECTION


Another option for making bus bar connections with low space
requirements is to use epoxy-resin-insulated capacitor-controlled singlephase conductors. They are available for service voltage of up to 72.5 kV
and for operating current of up to 5000 A.
Design of the bus bar system
The preferred conductor material is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical
strength and low weight. The insulation (Fig. 8-31) is in direct contact with
the conductors, with capacitive control provided by conducting layers at the
ends. The covering layer at earth potential is fully embedded in the
insulation. For outdoor use the bars are also enclosed in a protective tube.

The bar section lengths are up to 12 m. Single or multiple bends are


available as required made to fit the assembly and connection
Dimensions. The bars are con-nested rigidly or flexibly to the devices with
screw or plug-type joints. Individual lengths are joined with an insulating
cylinder. The recommended phase clearances, e.g. 200300 mm at 2500 A,
correspond to the phase spacing of the switchgear. Standard support
structures and clamps withstand the short-circuit forces the earth connections
comply with the relevant specification.

49

CHAPTER NO.3

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER

3.1 Introduction
In d.c. circuits when large circuits when large currents are to be
measured, it is usual to use low-range used with high resistances connected
in series with them. But it is neither convenient nor practical to use this
method with alternating current and voltage instruments. For this purpose,
specially constructed accurate ration instrument transformers are employed
in Conjunction with standard low range a.c. instruments.
50

Their purpose is to reduce the line current or supply voltage to a value small
enough to be easily measured with meters of moderate size and capacity. In
other words, they are used for extending the range of a.c. ammeters and
voltmeters.

3.2 TYPE OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS


(i)

Current transformers (CT)

for

measuring

large

alternating

for

measuring

high

alternating

currents.
(ii)

Potential transformers (VT)


voltage.

Advantages of using instrument transformers for range extension of a.c.


meters are as follows.
1. The instrument is insulated from the line voltage, hence it can be
grounded.
2. The cost of the instrument (or meter) together with the instrument
transformers is less than that of the instrument alone if it were to be
insulated for high voltages.
3. It is possible to achieve standardizations of instruments and meters at
secondary ratings of 100-120 volts and 5 or I amperes
4. Necessary, several instruments can be operated from a single
transformer.
5. Power consumed in the measuring circuits is low.

In using instrument transformers for current (or voltage) measurements, we


must know the ration of primary current (or voltage) to the secondary current
(or, voltage). These ratios give us the multiplying factor for filling the
primary values from the instrument reading on the secondary side.

51

However, for energy or power measurements. It is essential to know


not only the transformation ration but also the phase angle between the
primary and secondary currents (or voltages) because it necessitates further
correction to the meter reading.
For range extension on a.c. circuits, instrument transformers are more
desirable than shunts (for current) and multipliers (for measurements) for the
following reasons:
1. Time constant of the shunt must closely match the time constant of the
instrument. Hence, a different shunt is needed for each instrument.
2. Range extension is limited by the current carrying capacity of the
shunt i.e. Up to a few hundred amperes at the most.
3. If current is at high voltage, instrument insulation become a very
difficult problem.
4. Use of multipliers above 1000 becomes almost impracticable.
5. Insulation of multipliers against leakage current and reduction of their
distributed capacitance becomes not only more difficult but expensive
above a few thousand volts.

3.3 CURRENTTRANSFORMER (CT)

3.3.1 Construction
A current transformer takes the place of shunt in d.c. measurements
and enables heavy alternating currents to be measured with the help of a
standard 5-A range a.c. ammeter,

52

The current or series transformer has a primary winding of one or


more turns of thick wire connected in series with the line carrying the current
to be measure. The secondary consists of a large number of turns of fine wire
and feeds a standard 5-A ammeter or the current coil of a watt-meter or watt
hour meter.
For example, a 1,000/5-A current transformer with a single-turn
primary swill have 200 secondary turns, obviously, it steps down the current
in the 200 : 1 ration whereas it steps up the voltage drop across the single.
Turn primary (an extremely small quantity) in the ratio 1: 200. Hence, if we
know the current ration of the transformer and the reading of the a.c.
ammeter, the line current can be calculated.

53

It is worth noting that ammeter resistance being extremely low, a current


transformer operates with its secondary under nearly short circuit conditions.
Should it be necessary to remove the ammeter or the current coils of the
wattmeter or a relay, the secondary winding must, first of all, are short.
Circuited before the instrument is disconnected.
If it is not done, than due to the absence of counter ampere turns of the
secondary, the unopposed primary m.m.f. will set up as abnormally high flux
in the core normally high flux in the core which will produce excessive core
loss with will produce excessive core loss with subsequent heating of and
damage to the transformer insulation and a high voltage across the secondary
terminals. This is not the case with the ordinary constant potential
transformers because their primary current is determined by the load on their
secondary whereas in a current transformer, primary current is determined
entirely by the load on the system and not by the load on its own secondary.
Hence, the secondary of a current transformer should never by left open
under any circumstances.

3.3.2 Clip on Current Transformers


It has a laminated core which is so arranged that it can be opened out at a
hinged section by merely pressing a trigger-like projection. When the core is
thus opened, it permits the admission of very heavy current. Carrying bus
54

bars or feeders whereupon the trigger is released and the core is tightly
closed by a spring. The current carrying conductor or feeder acts as a single.
Turn primary where the secondary is connected. Across the standard
ammeter conveniently mounted in the handle itself.

3.4 GENERAL INFORMATION


Transformer is an apparatus for obtaining an electric current from
another apparatus of a different voltage. They are intending to supply.
currents / voltages to measuring instruments, protective relays and
other similar apparatus. These transformers find application where
instruments cannot be connected directly because of their inherent
limitations.
Such common situations are Measuring Parameter exceed instrument
range.
Voltage levels exceed insulation level of instrument. Besides
overcoming the above limitations the instrument transformers provide
following other advantages also Standardization of instruments.

3.5 TYPE OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS


Current Transformers is an instrument transformer in which the
secondary current, in normal conditions of use, is substantially
proportional to the primary current and differs in phase from it by an
angle that is
55

approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.

3.5.1

Wound Type

A current transformer having a primary winding of more than one full


turn wound on the core.

3.5.2 Bar Type


A current transformer in which the primary winding consists of a bar
of suitable size and material forming an integral part of the current
transformer.

3.5.3 Dry Type


A current transformer, which does not require the use f any liquid or
semi liquid material.

3.5.4 Ring Type


A current transformer that has an opening in the centre to
accommodate primary winding through it.

3.6

W I N DING OF CTs

3.6.1 Primary Winding


The winding through which the current to be transformed flows.

3.6.2 Secondary Winding

56

The winding which supplies the current circuits of measuring


instruments, meters, relays or similar apparatus

3.7 CURRENT OF CTs


Rated Primary Current
The value of the primary current on which the performance of the current
transformer is based.

Rated Secondary Current


The value of the secondary current on which the performance of transformer
based.

3.8 CT RATIO AND ERRORs


Actual Transformation Ratio
The ratio of the actual primary current to the actual secondary current.

Current Error (Ratio Error)


The error that arises from the fact that the actual transformation ratio is not
equal to the rated transformation ratio.

Ratio and Phase angle Errors


For satisfactory ad accurate performance, it s necessary that the ratio
of trans formation of the instrument transformer should be constant within
57

close limits. However, in practice, it is found that neither current


transformation ratio I1/I2 (in the case of current transformers) nor voltage
transformation ration V1/V2 (in the case of potential transformers) remains
constant. The transformation ration is found to depend on the exciting
current as well as the current and the power factor of the secondary circuit.
this fact leads to an error called ratio error of the transformer which depends
on the working component of primary.

Vector Diagram of CT & PT

3.9 BURDEN
The out put is composed of the individual burdens of the instruments and for
meters and connecting leads. When the length of the connecting leads is such
that the output at SA secondary current would be excessive consideration
should be given to the use of a rated secondary current would be excessive,
58

consideration should be given to the use of a rated secondary current of a


lower value. i.e. 1 amp.

3.10 ACCURACY
The accuracy of the CT required would depend on connected equipment i.e.
approximate indication like Ammeter, say class 5 for industrial metering like
kilo watt hour meter, say class 1 and for precision grade for laboratory use
say class 0.2. The required class of accuracy for various metering application
use as follows

APPLICATION

CLASS OF
ACCURACY

for precision testing or as a substandard for


A

0.1
testing Laboratory current transformers
For laboratory and test work in conjunction
with high Accuracy indicating instruments

0.2
integrating meters And who substandard for
testing industrial CT's
For precision industrial metering for

0. 5 or 1.0
commercial Industrial metering

59

3.11

MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS
The output of current transformer is derived from the primary input

ampere turns (Primary current X primary turns) and therefore the number of
primary ampere - turns available limits the accuracy and related burden of
the CT. Due to single turn primary on ring type CT's the ampere turns are
limited by primary current rating and hence the burden and accuracy
available on ring type CT are limited, especially for low ratios. For higher
burden and accuracy classes required on lower ratios current transformers
with wound primary, i.e. primary winding with adequate number of turns
would be required. Generally ring type CT's are used for ratios 100/5amp
above and wound primary CT's are usually used for ratios below 100/5amp.
The tables below show the burden guide, selection of accuracy class and
limits of error for measurement CT's (extract from IS 2705 19

60

3.3/6.6/11 KV Indoor
Current Transformer

3.3/6.6/11 KV
Indoor
1 Phase Voltage
Transformer
with Fuse

11KV
Metering/Protection
Transformer

11KV 3 Phase
Horizontal
Type
Voltage
Transformer

11KV Auxiliary
11/22/33 KV Bar Type
Current Transformer

Transformer
With Fuses
Primary
E nc ap sula ted

11KV Metering Cubicle

11KV

Current Transformer

Metering
Cubicle
2Pole

61

11/22/33 KV

11/22KV
Bus duct

Ring Type

Current

Current

Transformer

Transformer
33KV

33KV

Metering/protectio

Voltage

Transformer

Current

Earthed

Transformer

Type
Without

11KV

3Phase

Vertical

11KV
Auxiliary

Type

Voltage

Transformer

Transformer
With

Fuses

Totally
11KV

Phase

Draw Out Voltage


Transformer
With Fuses

11KV
Generator
Neutral
Grounding
Transformer

62

3.12 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (PT)


3.12.1 CONSTRUCTION
These transformers are extremely accurate ratio step down
transformers and are used I conjunction with standard low range voltmeters
(100-120V) whose deflection when divided by transformation ratio. Gives
the true voltage on the primary or high voltage side. In general, they are of
the shell type and do not differ much from the ordinary two winding
transformers accepts that their power rating is extremely small. Since their
secondary windings are required to operate instruments or relays or pilot
lights, their ratings are usually of 40 to 100W. For safety, the secondary is
completely insulated from the high voltage primary and is in addition
grounded for affording protection t the operator.

63

3.13 GENERAL INFORMATION


Transformer is an apparatus for obtaining an electric current from
another apparatus of a different voltage. They are intending to supply.
Currents / voltages to measuring instruments, protective relays and
other similar apparatus. These transformers find application where
instruments cannot be connected directly because of their inherent
limitations.
Such common situations are Measuring Parameter exceed instrument
range.
Voltage levels exceed insulation level of instrument. Besides
overcoming the above limitations the instrument transformers provide
following other advantages also Standardization of instruments.

PHASE DISPLACEMENT
The difference in phase between the primary and secondary current
vectors, the direction of the vectors being so chosen that the angle is
zero for a perfect transformer. The phase displacement is said to be
positive when the secondary current vector leads the primary current
vector. It is usually expressed in minutes.

ROUTINE TEST
The Tests carried out on each current transformer to check
requirements likely to very during production.

64

3.14

FUNCTION OF POTENTIAL
TRANSFORMER

First of all, the HV experimenter who wants to work in the range of tens or
hundreds of kilovolts is confronted with the problem that suitable parts are
not readily available in electronic stores. In general, they are manufactured
by specialized companies, and they are very expensive, sometimes
unaffordable, when purchased new. With some luck, used parts or NOS (new
old stock) parts can be acquired through junk yards, recycling facilities,
surplus stores, or EBay. Prices vary over a wide range. The following is a
display of some of the various HV components I was able to procure in
recent years. My experimental HV power supplies described later are based
on some of these components.

The first photo shows a 100:1 potential transformer (PT). Such


transformers are used to monitor 11 kV AC power lines by measuring the
much lower secondary voltage with a conventional voltmeter. The
transformer is extremely robust and can handle considerable voltage and
current overload temporarily. When using the transformer in reversed mode,
it is a very nice source for high voltage (AC). Driving the secondary (now
primary) coil with 150 V RMS @ 50 Hz yields a peak voltage (PV) of
approx. 21 kV at the high voltage terminal (the big screw on top of the
transformer). This is about the maximum voltage the transformer can handle
at 50 Hz. At this point, core saturation becomes a problem. The wave form
of the output voltage gets distorted, the humming noise of the core
(magnetostriction) changes due to the increasing amplitude of harmonics,
and, more important, the primary current increases rapidly. Since we have a

65

line voltage of 230 V @ 50 Hz in Europe, a step-down transformer is


required. Feeding the PT with 115 V AC (resulting in 16 kV PV) for several
hours does not cause overheating. Potential transformers are very expensive
and hard to get. I was lucky to find three of the same type at a local junk
yard (dirt-cheap). They were brand-new, and each one of them was still in a
sealed box! This gives me the chance to build a three-phase HV power
supply some day. PTs are much more powerful than neon sign transformers
or oil burner ignition transformers often used by HV experimenters.

66

CHAPTER NO.4

PROTECTION AND CONTROL


4.1 INTRODUCTION
Contained under the heading of protection and control in substations and
power networks are all the technical aids and facilities necessary for the
optimum supervision, protection, control and management of all system
components and equipment in high-and medium-voltage networks. The task
of the control system begins with the position message at the HV circuitbreaker and ends in complex control systems and substations for network
and load management.
In Fig. gives an indication of the functions and subsystems that go to
make up control technology in the context of electricity transmission and
distribution. The purpose of the secondary systems is to gather information
directly at the high-and medium-voltage apparatus in the substations and to
effect their on-site operation, including the maintenance of secure power
supplies. Additional contacts or integral sensors establish the interface with
the telecontrol system and hence with the network control facility.
Modern automation techniques can provide all the means necessary for
processing and compressing information at the actual switchgear locations in
order to simplify and secure normal routine operation, make more efficient
use of existing equipment and quickly localize and disconnect faults in the
event of trouble, thereby also relieving the burden on the communication
paths and the network control centers.
Protective devices are required to safeguard the expensive equipment
and transmission lines against overloads and damage by very quickly and
selectively isolating defective parts of the supply network, e.g. in the event
of short circuit or earth faults. They are thus a major factor in ensuring
consistent operation of the network.
The purpose of network management as a subdivision of power
system control is to secure the transmission and distribution of power in ever
more complex supply networks by providing each control centre with a
continually up-to-date and user friendly general picture of the entire
network. All essential information is sent via telecontrol links from the
substations to the control centre, where it is instantly evaluated and
corrective actions are taken. The growing flood of information has meant

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that the conventional control rooms with mimic displays as used in the past
for controlling the processes directly have been virtually superseded by
management systems with computers and video terminals, and are employed
only to depict the networks geographical layout or for emergencies.
Load management consists in directly influencing the system load,
possibly with the aid of ripple control which, acting via the normal power
network, can selectively disconnect and re-connect consumers or consumer
categories. On the basis of current figures and forecasts, it is possible to even
out the generating plants load curves and make better use of available power
reserves.
It would be beyond the scope of this book to consider in detail all the
subsystems and components relating to network control. This chapter can
therefore serve only as an introduction to the complex tasks, fundamentals,
problems and solutions encountered in power network control and its
systems. Closer attention is paid, however, to all components and interfaces
which directly concern the switching installation and the switchgear
engineer, and which must be considered in the planning, erection and
operation of substations.

4.2 PROTECTION
Various protection devices in systems with rated voltages > 1kV
are available to protect generators, transformers, cables, bus bars and
consumers. The purpose of these devices is to detect faults and isolate them
selectively and quickly from the network as a whole so that the
consequences of the fault are limited as much as possible. With todays high
fault levels and highly integrated networks, faults have far-reaching
consequences, both direct (damaged equipment) and indirect (loss of
production). Protection relays must therefore act very fast with the greatest
possible reliability and availability.

Relays can be divided into various categories. A basic distinction is made with
respect to function between contactor relays and measuring relays. Other
distinguishing characteristics are the relays construction the relays construction
the relays construction (e.g. circuit-board relays, reed relays, miniature relays,
mercury-wetted relays); the relays operating principle (e.g. attracted-armature
relays, immersed-armature relays, moving-coil relays); the relays location (e.g.
telephone relays, antenna relays, generator protection relays, network protection
relays); the relays specific function. (E.g. signaling relays, time-delay relays,
control relays, momentary-contact relays, auxiliary relays); the relays required
performance (e.g. heavy-current relays, high/low temperature relays, d.c. relays).
The relays used for protection purposes, together with supervisory relays, fall into
the category of measuring relays, and as electronic relays become more

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widespread, of solid-state measuring relays. All the types of relays mentioned are
used to transmit clearly defined, fast and carefully isolated indication and control
signals from low-energy electronic circuits to external circuits.

4.3

PROTECTION RELAYS AND PROTECTION SYSTEM

Todays standard protection relays and protection systems are in some cases
still preferably static but are designed to be numerically controlled (with
microprocessors). Electromechanical relays are practically never specified in
new systems. They have to meet the following international specifications:

TJN-316 RELAY

E/C & E/F Relay

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4.4 RELAY
A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of
another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an
electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts.
It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control
an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered
to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier.

4.5 OPERATION
When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field
attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. The
movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When
the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force
approximately half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position.
Usually this is a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial
motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low
voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current
application, this is to reduce arcing.
If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across
the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at
deactivation, which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might
cause damage to circuit components. Some automotive relays already
include that diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact protection
network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the
surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring
can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small

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out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature


during the AC cycle.
By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device,
a solid-state relay is made with a thruster or other solid-state switching
device. To achieve electrical isolation an opt coupler can be used which is a
light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor.

4.6 TYPES OF RELAY


Latching Relay
A latching relay has two relaxed states (bitable). These are also called
'keep' relays. When the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last
state. This is achieved with a solenoid operating a ratchet and cam
mechanism, or by having two opposing coils with an over-center spring or
permanent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the
coil is relaxed, or with a remnant core. In the ratchet and cam example, the
first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns it off. In
the two coil example, a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to the
opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the advantage that it

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consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains
its last setting across a power outage.

Reed Relay
A reed relay has a set of contacts inside a vacuum or inert gas filled
glass tube, which protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion. The
contacts are closed by a magnetic field generated when current passes
through a coil around the glass tube. Reed relays are capable of faster
switching speeds than larger types of relays, but have low switch current and
voltage ratings. See also reed switch.

Mercury Wetted Relay


A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay in which the
contacts are wetted with mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage
signals (one volt or less) because of its low contact resistance, or for highspeed counting and timing applications where the mercury eliminates contact
bounce. Mercury wetted relays are position-sensitive and must be mounted
vertically to work properly. Because of the toxicity and expense of liquid
mercury, these relays are rarely specified for new equipment. See also
mercury switch.

Polarized Relay
A Polarized Relay placed the armature between the poles of a
permanent magnet to increase sensitivity. Polarized relays were used in
middle 20th Century telephone exchanges to detect faint pulses and correct

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telegraphic distortion. The poles were on screws, so a technician could first


adjust them for maximum sensitivity and then apply a bias spring to set the
critical current that would operate the relay.

Machine Tool Relay


A machine tool relay is a type standardized for industrial control of machine
tools, transfer machines, and other sequential control. They are characterized
by a large number of contacts (sometimes extendable in the field) which are
easily converted from normally-open to normally-closed status, easily
replaceable coils, and a form factor that allows compactly installing many
relays in a control panel. Although such relays once were the backbone of
automation in such industries as automobile assembly, the programmable
logic controller mostly displaced the machine tool relay from sequential
control applications.

Contactor Relay
A contactor is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching electric
motors and lighting loads. With high current, the contacts are made with
pure silver. The unavoidable arcing causes the contacts to oxidize and silver
oxide is still a good conductor. Such devices are often used for motor
starters. A motor starter is a contactor with overload protection devices
attached. The overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay
where a coil heats a bi-metal strip, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a
spring to operate auxiliary contacts. These auxiliary contacts are in series
with the coil. If the overload senses excess current in the load, the coil is de-

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energized. Contactor relays can be extremely loud to operate, making them


unfit for use where noise is a chief concern.

Solid State Contactor Relay


A solid state contactor is a very heavy-duty solid state relay, including
the necessary heat sink, used for switching electric heaters, small electric
motors and lighting loads; where frequent on/off cycles are required. There
are no moving parts to wear out and there is no contact bounce due to
vibration. They are activated by AC control signals or DC control signals
from Programmable logic controller (PLCs), PCs, Transistor-transistor logic
(TTL) sources, or other microprocessor controls.

Buchholz Relay
A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in
large oil-filled transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas
or shut down the transformer if gas is produced rapidly in the transformer
oil.

Forced-Guided Contacts Relay


A forced-guided contacts relay has relay contacts that are
mechanically linked together, so that when the relay coil is energized or deenergized, all of the linked contacts move together. If one set of contacts in
the relay becomes immobilized, no other contact of the same relay will be
able to move. The function of forced-guided contacts is to enable the safety
circuit to check the status of the relay. Forced-guided contacts are also
known as "positive-guided contacts", "captive contacts", "locked contacts",
or "safety relays".

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4.7 GENERATOR UNIT PROTECTION


The term generator unit protection is used when the means of
protecting the generator, the main transformer and the station services
transformer are combined with those for protecting the generator circuitbreaker or load disconnected.
Numerical relays are used almost exclusively with modern generator
unit protection. Important factors influencing the form of the protection
system within the overall electrical design concept include:
Whether the generator is switched by a circuit-breaker or a load switch,
Whether the station services transformer has two or three windings,
The number of station services transformers,
The method of excitation (solid-state thyristors or rotating rectifiers).
The general layout is drawn up accordingly for each individual project. As
an example, Fig. Shows the single-line diagram for a unit-type arrangement
with generator circuit-breaker in a large thermal power plant.
Single-line diagram of generator unit protection system, unit connection wlth
generator circuit-breaker
A function diagram shows how the individual protective devices are linked
to the operating circuits. The protection device OFF commands are
configured on the switching devices (for example, generator circuit-breaker,
magnetic field switch, etc.) and switching systems (for example, automatic
internal transfer gear) with a software matrix (component of the relays) or, in
the case of larger systems, with a tripping matrix (diode matrix).The tripping
schedule can then easily be modified later.
To maximize availability, the protection facilities are split into two separate
and largely independent groups and installed in different cubicles. Protection
systems that complement or at times may step in for each other can be
assigned to both groups.

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4.8 CONTROL, MEASUREMENT AND


REGULATION (secondary systems)
Secondary systems are all those facilities needed to ensure reliable
operation of the primary system, e.g. a high-voltage substation. They cover
the functions of controlling; interlocking, signaling and monitoring,
measuring, counting, recording and protecting (see also Fig. 14-6). The
power for these auxiliary functions is taken from batteries so that they
continue in the event of network faults. Whereas in the past conventional
techniques were used for decentralized control, e.g. from a local panel, this
can now be done using substation control techniques such as ABBs
PYRAMID system. Today, overall network management is undertaken by
computer-assisted systems based at regional or superregional control centers
and load-dispatching stations. The interface that this necessitates, however,
is moving ever closer to the process, i.e. to the primary system. How near
this interface can be brought to the process depends, for example, on how
practical and reliable it is to convert from electromechanical methods to
electronic techniques, or whether the information to be transmitted can be
provided by the process in a form which can be directly processed by the
electronics.

4.9 D.C. VOLTAGE SUPPLY


It is essential that the components of the secondary systems have a secure
DC power supply. For HV and EHV installations, this means that the DC
power supply must include redundancy (see also Fig. 14-7) so as not to be
rendered inoperative by a single fault. Indeed it is advisable to provide two
separate in feeds for the low-voltage three-phase network. If these in feeds
are not very dependable, a diesel generator should also be provided for
emergencies. The three-phase loads are connected as symmetrically as
possible to the two three-phase bus bars thus formed; the battery rectifiers
are also connected here, one to each bus bar.

If the battery equipment is suitable,

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The DC output from the rectifier and also the battery can be connected
independently to the DC bus bars, so giving greater flexibility. It is best to
use 220 V and 110 V for direct control, with 60 V, 48 V and 24 V for
remote control and signal circuits. With the aid of inverters, a secure AC
bus bar can then be created from the DC bus bar if necessary.
The DC network must be carefully planned. The auxiliary circuits must be
assigned to each function and branch so that only one function or one bay is
affected by a fault. Faults in the signal circuit, for example, do not then
influence the control circuit, and vice versa.

4.10 INTERLOCKING
To ensure reliable control, the high voltage switching devices within each bay,
and at a higher level within the entire installation, are interlocked with respect to
each other. The interlock conditions depend on the circuit configuration and
status of the installation at any given time. The interlocks must in particular
prevent an isolator from operating while under load. The interlock conditions must
be defined according to the station layout, such as in the following example for a
double bus bar with branch, coupling and bus earthlng switch, see Fig.

4.11 Mimic diagram of a double bus bar substation with


branch, coupling and bus earthling switch
The following conditions must be satisfied in this case:
1
Disconnections Q1, Q2 and Q9 can be operated only when breaker Q0
is open (protection against switching under load).
2
Breaker Q0 cannot be closed with disconnections Q1, Q2 and Q9 in
the intermediate position (intermediate position indication).
3
Disconnections Q1 and Q2 are mutually interlocked so that only one
can be closed at a time.

4
When the bus-tie is closed, a second bus disconnect or (Q1 or Q2)
belonging to the tied system can be closed. One of the two closed

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disconnections can then be opened (change of bus under load).


5
Disconnections Q1 and Q2 can be operated only if the related bus
earthling switches Q15 or Q25 is open.

6
Disconnect or Q9 can be operated only when earthling switch Q8 is
open (taking account of other end if necessary).
7
Earthling switch Q8 can be operated only when disconnect or Q9 is
open (taking account of other end of outgoing line if necessary).

8
Disconnections Q1, Q2 and Q9 can be operated only when
maintenance earthling switches Q51/Q52 are open.
9
Maintenance earthling switches Q51/Q52 can be operated only when
disconnections Q1, Q2 and Q9 are open.

10
The tie-breaker Q0 can be opened only if not more than one bus
isolator in each branch is closed (tie-breaker lock-in).
11
One bus earthling switch Q15 or Q25 can be operated if in the
respective bus section all bus disconnections of the corresponding bus
system are open.
12

All interlocks remain active if the auxiliary power fails.

13
An interlock release switch cancels the interlock conditions. Switching
operations are then the responsibility of the person authorized.

4.12 CONTROL
The purpose of a control device in a switchgear installation is to change a
defined actual condition into a specified desired condition.
The operating sequences of controlling, interlocking and signaling can be
performed either by simple contact-type electromechanical and
electromagnetic devices such as discrepancy switches, auxiliary contactors

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and auxiliary relays or by contact-less electronic components. Both methods


allow single switching operations and programmed switching sequences up
to fully automated switching routines.
With conventional control techniques, there are limits to the scope for
automation. These methods are becoming less popular because of the space
required, the equipments high power consumption, wear due to constant
operation, and the fixed wiring. Today they are used mainly for local control
within the switching installation.
Here, the devices can be divided into those relating to:
switching apparatus,
branch and
Station.
The apparatus-related devices are contained in a box on the circuit-breaker
or isolator. The branch-related devices are usually in a control cubicle or
local relay kiosk. Station-related devices are located in central relay kiosks
or in the station control building.
Because of the increasing reliability of electronic components, and also the
question of interference, the tendency is for contact-type systems to be
employed only for apparatus-related devices, and electronic components to
be used very extensively for branch-related and station-related

4.13 DEVICES
When drawing up the control system concept, it must be considered whether the
substation is to be largely manned or unmanned, or remotely monitored and
controlled. The kinds of control system can be broadly defined as follows.

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CHAPTER NO.5

INSULATOR

5.1 INSULATORS
Insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current. It is an
object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing
current through itself.
An insulation material has atoms with tightly bonded valence electrons. The
term electrical insulation has the same meaning as the term dielectric.
Some materials such as silicon dioxide or Teflon are very good electrical
insulators. A much larger class of materials, for example rubber-like
polymers and most plastics are still "good enough" to insulate electrical
wiring and cables even though they may have lower bulk resistivity. These
materials can serve as practical and safe insulators for low to moderate
voltages (hundreds, or even thousands, of volts).

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5.2 PHYSICS OF CONDUCTION IN SOLIDS


Electrical insulation is the absence of electrical conduction. Electronic band
theory (a branch of physics) predicts that a charge will flow whenever there
are states available into which the electrons in a material can be excited. This
allows them to gain energy and thereby move through the conductor (usually
a metal). If no such states are available, the material is an insulator.
Most (though not all see Mott insulator) insulators are characterized by
having a large band gap. This occurs because the "valence" band containing
the highest energy electrons is full, and a large energy gap separates this
band from the next band above it. There is always some voltage (called the
breakdown voltage) that will give the electrons enough energy to be excited
into this band. Once this voltage is exceeded, the material ceases being an
insulator, and charge will begin to pass through it. However, it is usually
accompanied by physical or chemical changes that permanently degrade the
material's insulating properties.

5.3 HISTORY
The first electrical systems to make use of insulators were telegraph lines;
direct attachment of wires to wooden poles was found to give very poor
results, especially during damp weather.
The first glass insulators used in large quantities had an unthreaded pinhole.
These pieces of glass were positioned on a tapered wooden pin, vertically
extending upwards from the poles cross arm (commonly only two insulators
to a pole and maybe one on top of the pole itself). Natural contraction and
expansion of the wires tied to these "thread less insulators" resulted in
insulators unseating from their pins, requiring manual reseating.

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Amongst the first to produce ceramic insulators were companies in the


United Kingdom, with Stiff and Dolton using stoneware from the mid 1840s,
Joseph Bourne (later renamed Danby) producing them from around 1860 and
Billers from 1868. Utility patent number 48,906 was granted to Louis A.
Civet on July 25, 1865 for a process to produce insulators with a threaded
pinhole. To this day, pin-type insulators still have threaded pinholes.
The invention of suspension-type insulators made high-voltage power
transmission possible. Pin-type insulators were unsatisfactory over about
60,000 volts.
A large variety of telephone, telegraph and power insulators have been made;
some people collect them.

5.4 INSULATION OF ANTENNAS


In most cases a broadcasting radio antenna requires an insulating mounting;
therefore insulators of steatite are used. They have to withstand not only the
voltage of the mast radiator to ground, which can reach values up to 400 kV
at some antennas, but also the weight of the mast construction and dynamic
forces. Arcing horns and lightning arresters are necessary because lightning
strikes in the mast are common.
At guyed mast radiators, it is often necessary to use insulators in the guy (if
they are not grounded via a coil at the anchor bases), in order to prevent
undesired electrical resonances of the guys. These insulators also have to be
equipped with overvoltage protection equipment. For the dimensions of the
guy insulation, static charges on guys have to be considered, at high masts
these can be much higher than the voltage caused by the transmitter
requiring guys divided by insulators in multiple sections on the highest
masts. In this case, guys which are grounded at the anchor basements via a
coil - or if possible, directly - are the better choice.

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5.5 INSULATION IN ELECTRICAL APPARATUS


The most important insulation material is air. A wide variety of solid, liquid,
and gaseous insulators are also used in electrical apparatus. In smaller
transformers, generators, and electric motors, insulation on the wire coils
consists of up to four thin layers of polymer varnish film. Film insulated
magnet wire permits a manufacturer to obtain the maximum number of turns
within the available space. Windings that use thicker conductors are often
wrapped with supplemental fiberglass insulating tape. Windings may also be
impregnated with insulating varnishes to prevent electrical corona and
reduce magnetically induced wire vibration. Large power transformer
windings are still mostly insulated with paper, wood, varnish, and mineral
oil; although these materials have been used for more than 100 years, they
still provide a good balance of economy and adequate performance. Bus bars
and circuit breakers in switchgear may be insulated with glass-reinforced
plastic insulation, treated to have low flame spread and to prevent tracking of
current across the material.
In older apparatus made up to the early 1970s, boards made of compressed
asbestos may be found; while this is an adequate insulator at power
frequencies, handling or repairs to asbestos material will release dangerous
fibers into the air and must be carried out with caution. Live-front
switchboards up to the early part of the 20th century were made of slate or
marble.
Some high voltage equipment is designed to operate within a high pressure
insulating gas such as sulfur hexafluoride.
Insulation materials that perform well at power and low frequencies may be
unsatisfactory at radio frequency, due to heating from excessive dielectric
dissipation.

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Electrical wires may be insulated with polyethylene, cross linked


polyethylene, PVC, rubber-like polymers; oil impregnated paper, Teflon,
silicone, or modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). Larger power
cables may use compressed inorganic powder, depending on the application.
Flexible insulating materials such as PVC (polyvinyl chloride) are used to
insulate the circuit and prevent human contact with a 'live' wire -- one having
voltage of 600 volts or less. Alternative materials are likely to become
increasingly used due to EU safety and environmental legislation making
PVC less economic.

5.6 CLASS 1 AND CLASS 2 INSULATION


Portable and hand-held electrical appliances must be electrically insulated to
protect users from electric shock.
Class 1 insulation requires that the metal body of the apparatus/equipment is
solidly connected via a "grounding" wire which is earthed at the main
Service Panel; but only basic insulation of the conductors is needed. This
equipment is easily identified by a third pin for the grounding connection.
Class 2 insulation means that the equipment/apparatus is double insulated
and is used on some appliances such as electric shavers, hair dryers and
portable power tools. Double insulation requires that the devices have basic
and supplementary insulation, each of which is sufficient to prevent electric
shock. All internal electrically energized components are totally enclosed
within insulated packaging which prevents any contact with "live" parts.
They can be recognized because their leads have two pins, or on 3 pin plugs
the third (earth) pin is made of plastic rather than metal. In the EU, double
insulated appliances all are marked with a symbol of 2 squares, one inside
the other.

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