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November 2005

Volume 74
Number 11
United States
Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Washington, DC 20535-0001
Robert S. Mueller III

Contributors’ opinions and statements Features

should not be considered an
endorsement by the FBI for any policy,
program, or service.

The attorney general has determined Situational Policing The Situational Policing Model offers
that the publication of this periodical is
necessary in the transaction of the
By James J. Nolan, Norman Conti,
and Jack McDevitt
1 departments a guide to help them
choose policing strategies.
public business required by law. Use
of funds for printing this periodical has
been approved by the director of the
Office of Management and Budget.
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Construction Licensing Nevada implemented a program to
(ISSN-0014-5688) is published
monthly by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania
By George Lyford 13 provide training on basic contractor
licensing requirements that assists
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. officers in their quest to protect the
20535-0001. Periodicals postage paid public.
at Washington, D.C., and additional
mailing offices. Postmaster: Send
address changes to Editor, FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy,
Madison Building, Room 201, McKeesport Aging Program Prevention and intervention programs of
Quantico, VA 22135. By Sharyn A. Gesmond,
Nadereh Tafreshi-Darabi,
26 this type can significantly improve both
the quality of life for older adults and the
security of the larger community.
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John E. Ott
Associate Editors
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Art Director
Denise Bennett Smith
Assistant Art Director 10 Perspective 22 Police Practice
Stephanie L. Lowe Use of Force and High- “The List”
Intensity Tactical Police
This publication is produced by Flashlights 25 ViCAP Alert
members of the Law Enforcement Unidentified Homicide Victim
Communication Unit, Training and
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Situational Policing
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recent study explored To this end, the authors
“Would you tell me, please, whether community present a theoretical framework
which way I ought to go from policing could work to help police decide what type
here?” in different types of neighbor- of community policing strategy
Alice hoods. The analysis found it could work best in specific
“That depends on where you
successful in some communi- neighborhoods. Making this
want to get to.” ties, but not in others. Of the decision requires an identifica-
The Cheshire Cat 15 participating Chicago police tion of the ultimate goal of
beats, the researchers rated policing (i.e., its desired end).
—Lewis Carroll’s 9 excellent or reasonable and 6 This holds particular impor-
Alice in Wonderland struggling or failing. Although tance because it provides the
the study’s findings prove basis for evaluating competing
enlightening, the research strategies and the ultimate
question itself garners even measure of police effectiveness.
more interest for it suggests Through the Situational Polic-
that community policing should ing Model, the authors hope to
have similar benefits in differ- present a clear and observable
ent types of neighborhoods.1 desired end state for officers as

November 2005 / 1
they work to respond to neigh- More recently, researchers shared responsibility relates to
borhood crime and disorder. have raised important questions the level of crime.
Choosing the right road, or about any causal link between In a comprehensive study
policing strategy, depends on disorder and crime because they of 196 Chicago communities,
where the police are heading. say the two are, essentially, the these researchers found that not
Once this destination becomes same thing. In other words, only was neighborhood-level
set, officers will be better able disorder is crime—they just collective efficacy the most
to decide which roads most differ in seriousness. These significant predictor of crime
likely will get them there. experts suggest that disorder and disorder but when collec-
and crime stem from the same tive efficacy and structural
BROKEN WINDOWS OR societal problem (i.e., weakened characteristics, like poverty,
BROKEN EFFICACY informal social control).4 They population density, and mixed
For over 20 years, the argue that it is not disorder that land use, were taken into con-
Broken Windows Theory—that predicts crime but the level of sideration, the connection
neighborhood disorder leads collective efficacy—“the co- between disorder and crime all
to serious violent crime—has hesion among residents com- but disappeared. These findings
influenced policing.2 Many bined with shared expectations have implications for modern
authorities believe that physical for the social control of public policing policies and practices.
and social disorder serve as space”—that predicts both
predictors of violent crime. To crime and disorder.5 Put another NEIGHBORHOODS AS
this end, practices, such as way, residents feel liable for DEVELOPING GROUPS
zero-tolerance and order- safety and upkeep in some Collective efficacy charac-
maintenance policing, have neighborhoods more than terizes the neighborhood as a
become popular.3 others, and this feeling of whole. The social sciences

Dr. Nolan, a former police officer, Dr. Conti teaches at the Department Professor McDevitt is the associate
is an assistant professor at West of Sociology and the Graduate dean for research and graduate
Virginia University’s Division of Center for Social and Public Policy studies at Northeastern University
Sociology and Anthropology in at Duquesne University in in Boston, Massachusetts.
Morgantown. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

2 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

have established that groups, through the first two stages and as having a mandate to protect
organizations, and entire societ- into the third, where the mem- the community.7 If police
ies have collective properties, bers work together most effec- cannot meet the neighborhood’s
like efficacy. Much of the tively. However, this process is expectations, the community
knowledge about the dynamics dynamic, and, at any time, a moves to the next stage of
of collective entities comes group may regress to or get development.
from studies of small groups, stuck in one of the first two
an emerging focus of scientific stages, which limits its efficacy. Stage 2: Conflict
analysis starting in the 1940s A consideration of how this In situations where police
and continuing today. developmental sequence might cannot address community
For example, these studies play out in a neighborhood problems or keep the neighbor-
pointed out that many groups dealing with crime and disorder hood safe, residents become
pass through, regress to, or get can make this concept clearer. dissatisfied and frustrated—
stuck in identifiable develop- both with authorities and with
mental stages.6 For their pur- each other. They still see offi-

poses, the authors suggest that cers as having the primary
at any point in time, a neighbor- responsibility for maintaining
hood can exist primarily in one Choosing the right order in the neighborhood and
of three. road, or policing keeping them safe, but they
1) Dependence: The group strategy, depends consider the police ineffective.
depends on the leader for on where the police Individual residents may decide
direction and the members are heading. to act on their own because of a
share the assumption that negative view of officers and a

the individual is competent recognition that the community
and able to provide effective has yet to develop the struc-
leadership. tures, processes, and trusting
Stage 1: Dependence relationships that would inspire
2) Conflict: The group expe- Community members collective action. The dissatis-
riences conflict that, likely, depend on the police to solve faction and frustration that exist
occurs over incongruent problems related to public in the neighborhood may result
assumptions about its goals, order, and officers are willing in complaints against the police.
the roles of the members, or and sometimes able to do so. In defending themselves, offi-
whether the leader can meet Most residents view officers as cers may consider additional
the unrealistic expectations competent and respect them. As programs, such as high-visibil-
of the membership. long as the police can address ity foot or bicycle patrols, to
3) Interdependence: The most of the problems of com- try to appease the residents and
group successfully has munity disorder, the neighbors regain their confidence. At this
resolved its conflicts and likely will remain satisfied with point, police may feel vulner-
members work together their services and continue to able because they face unrealis-
interdependently toward depend on them. Officers may tic expectations with limited
their agreed-upon goals. view the neighborhood as un- resources.
Normal group development able or unwilling to care for To move out of stage
occurs this way, sequentially itself. They may see themselves two and toward stage three,

November 2005 / 3
Figure 1. Stages of Neighborhood Development

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

Stage 1) Dependence – Residents rely on the police to solve problems of public order.

Stage 2) Conflict – Residents are in conflict with the police because they perceive them
as ineffective in maintaining public order.

Stage 3) Interdependence – Residents rely on each other to ensure enforcement of

community values/norms/laws.

interdependence (i.e., collective social networks and processes than others and have more
efficacy), officers must give up needed to make this happen resources to help them evolve.
the notion that they alone can begins. At this point, officers This realization leads to four
protect the neighborhood may play a less prominent and types of neighborhoods.
against public disorder. Both less directive role in the mainte- 1) Strong: These communi-
the police and the residents nance of public order. As they ties experience low levels
must recognize the importance continue to work together of crime and have residents
of collective action and infor- interdependently, police and that interact interdepen-
mal social controls in restoring residents likely will develop dently (or are organizing
and maintaining order in the stronger and more trusting themselves to do so) on
community before the neighbor- relationships. In this final stage issues of community
hood can move toward stage of neighborhood development, disorder.
three. Promises by the police solid community networks exist
that they will work harder or to ensure order and safety. 2) Vulnerable: Similarly,
deploy more officers to the Officers work with the neigh- vulnerable neighborhoods
location serves only to move borhood as needed to deal with have low rates of crime
the neighborhood back to situations beyond the scope and and disorder, but they also
stage one, dependence. capability of the residents. feature minimal levels of
neighborhood development.
Stage 3: Interdependence TYPES OF When a particular form of
Once the community and NEIGHBORHOODS disorder (e.g., graffiti, trash,
the police come to recognize Obviously, neighborhoods loud music, or barking
their mutual responsibilities in will differ in their ability to dogs) emerges, residents
restoring order and neighbor- move along these stages of depend on officers to deal
hood safety, development of the development. Some are stronger with it. As long as police

4 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

can solve these problems, crime and disorder and a high levels of crime and
neighbors gladly will turn low level of neighborhood disorder, but residents work
over their responsibilities to development. Residents together with the police to
them. However, as disorder typically are both dependent resolve problems.
and crime grow beyond the on officers to take care of
capacity of officers to deal community safety problems SITUATIONAL POLICING
effectively with them, resi- and dissatisfied because of The authors opine that po-
dents can become dissatis- their lack of success. Police licing styles should not follow a
fied with police services, respond to excessive num- department’s standard mode of
and conflict can develop. bers of neighborhood com- operation but should reflect the
A vulnerable neighborhood plaints far beyond their conditions of the community.
is comparable to a person ability to handle them To this end, each neighborhood
who, although not yet sick, successfully, resulting in type can be matched with a
has a weak immune system tension and frustration preferred policing style.
and, therefore, a high sus- between officers and the Supporting and Recognizing:
ceptibility to illness. community. Strong Neighborhoods
3) Anomic: These commu- 4) Responsive: These Residents of strong neigh-
nities have a high rate of neighborhoods experience borhoods may not have concern

Figure 2. Neighborhood Types


Type 1: Strong Type 4: Responsive

Crime and Disorder

Low Conflict High

Type 2: Vulnerable Type 3: Anomic


November 2005 / 5
Figure 3. Policing Styles


Style 1: Supporting Style 4: Systems

and Recognizing Planning and Response
Strong Neighborhood Responsive Neighborhood
Crime and Disorder
Low Conflict High

Style 2: Substituting Style 3: Securing,

and Selling Then Organizing
Vulnerable Neighborhood Anomic Neighborhood


Neighborhood Development

about crime and disorder be- neighborhoods generally de- For example, several years
cause they experience few such mand and need the least amount ago, one of the authors resided
problems. Officers assigned to of police services. in a vulnerable city neighbor-
these communities might offer hood, consisting of 16 square
police resources that support Substituting and Selling: blocks, where about 60 families
and enhance local, community- Vulnerable Neighborhoods with young children lived. Most
based efforts (e.g., youth activi- As in strong neighborhoods, of these households considered
ties). They also may work to crime and disorder do not child care a huge issue. Recog-
expand neighborhood access represent serious problems for nizing this, the neighborhood
to resources and decision- residents. This fact makes it organized a babysitting co-op
making processes and broaden difficult to motivate neighbors where the families would take
the involvement of residents. to organize around these issues. turns watching each other’s
The police department might However, residents may have children for points (four per
want to recognize community concerns other than crime that hour). Each month, the points
members or groups who have they would want to work on were balanced and each mem-
had particular successes. Strong together. ber received a report. This

6 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

cooperative arrangement culti- most significant problems, planners, especially those
vated strong relationships officers must participate in focused on economic develop-
among the residents. Over the organizational efforts. Police do ment; and other neighborhood-
years, when crime and disorder not necessarily have to serve as based services) become neces-
began to appear, the neigh- community organizers, but they sary to deal with the problems
borhood was well prepared must make sure that organiza- in these communities. Change
to work with the police tional efforts are going on and requires a vision and a coordi-
interdependently. support them. This is the only nated response. Police in these
To this end, in many vulner- way for an anomic neighbor- neighborhoods can help bring
able neighborhoods, the police hood to become a responsive together local residents with
simply might help to develop a one. other public service agencies.
crime watch or other residential One example of this is the
crime prevention group that also ability of local community

may become involved with policing officers in Chicago to
addressing other nonpublic submit priority requests for city
safety problems. Policing Recent studies services to the appropriate
vulnerable neighborhoods have shown that agency.
involves broadening the defini- collective efficacy
tion of public safety to include is a significant SITUATIONAL POLICING
other concerns that normally do predictor of both IN MOTION
not fit into its framework. crime and disorder. The authors contend that
effective policing involves not

Securing, Then Organizing: only reducing crime and disor-
Anomic Neighborhoods der but facilitating neighbor-
Because anomic neighbor- hood development. In other
hoods have widespread crime Systems Planning and words, police must strive to
and disorder and disconnected, Response: Responsive move the community along
frustrated, and fearful residents, Neighborhoods two dimensions: toward low
they depend on the police for These residents organize levels of crime and disorder
help. As they begin work in an and work to regain control of and high levels of integration
anomic neighborhood, officers public spaces. However, many and collective efficacy (interde-
should help via more traditional of the social problems that give pendence). Therefore, matching
means, such as stepped-up law rise to crime and disorder in the policing style to the neigh-
enforcement (e.g., traditional these neighborhoods lie far borhood type represents only
law enforcement practices, such beyond their ability to deal the first step in the process.
as drug raids and sweeps, effectively with them. Most of From this point, officers must
undercover operations, and these issues also extend outside find the appropriate methods
strict enforcement of relatively the expertise and resources of for moving the community in
minor crimes). Once police the police department. Other the right direction, toward the
have demonstrated to residents means (e.g., city and state desired end goal—a strong
their commitment to working public safety and social ser- neighborhood.
together with them by tempo- vices; the public school system; The anomic neighborhood
rarily resolving some of their local advocacy groups; urban can serve as an example. The

November 2005 / 7
Figure 4. Situational Policing in Motion


Strong Responsive
Neighborhood Neighborhood Systems Thinking
and Planning

Crime and Disorder
Low Conflict High Dialogue and
Problem Solving
Vulnerable Anomic

Neighborhood Neighborhood

Police Problem
Neighborhood Development
Respond to
Traditional Assumption: Calls for Service
Police alone can solve problems.
This path not recommended.

right side of figure 4 lists responding to citizen com- idea that, given increased
policing strategies that will help plaints as law enforcers, offi- resources or more efficient
move these communities toward cers can begin to deal with the responses to calls for service,
the responsive, then to the neighborhood crime problems they could reduce crime without
strong quadrants. If crime is and demonstrate to residents collective effort. This assump-
high and the citizens are depen- that their problems can be im- tion has proven fictional over
dent (stage one), police should pacted. The dotted line at the the years because departments
use a professional, service- bottom of figure 4 indicates the do not have the resources
oriented approach as the logical direction police usually want to needed to eliminate crime and
and preferred first step. By follow based on the utopian disorder through more or better

8 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

services. Even if some circum- Through comprehensive, sys- The police should view the
stances allowed this possibility, tem-level planning and action, Situational Policing Model as a
it would serve only to keep the the goals of reducing crime and guide. It bridges the philosoph-
neighborhood psychologically disorder while forming interde- ical gap between traditional
dependent (stage one). pendent neighborhood relation- law enforcement and commu-
After an initial stage of ships can be accomplished. nity policing by identifying
stepped-up law enforcement, a situations where each style is
second wave of activity might CONCLUSION appropriate. Most important, it
include problem solving.8 Although neighborhood provides a desired end state at
Problem-oriented policing has disorder has been associated which police departments can
proven effective over the years with crime, researchers have aim and against which compet-
in identifying and eliminating challenged its causal relation- ing strategies can be evaluated.
the underlying causes of many ship. For the past 20 years or
of the calls for service. At first, more, policing practices have Endnotes
the police might do problem been based on the belief that 1
W.G. Skogan, S.M. Hartnett,
solving on their own, without neighborhood disorder causes
J. DuBois, J.T. Comey, M. Kaiser, and
the participation of residents. serious crime. Consequently, J.H. Lovig, U.S. Department of Justice,
But, at some point fairly early a number of contemporary Office of Justice Programs, National
in the process, officers must es- policing strategies, such as Institute of Justice, Problem Solving in
tablish dialogue with residents zero-tolerance campaigns to Practice: Implementing Community
Policing in Chicago (Washington, DC,
to include them as problem- rid neighborhoods of visible 2000).
solving partners. As relation- signs of disorder, have been 2
J.Q. Wilson and G.L. Kelling,
ships build and communication developed and implemented. “Broken Windows: Police and Neighbor-
develops and deepens, police However, in recent years, the hood Safety,” The Atlantic Monthly 249
and citizens must reach a shared rationale behind order-mainte- (1982): 29-38.
W.G. Skogan, Disorder and Decline:
realization that officers alone nance policing has come into Crime and the Spiral of Urban Decay in
cannot fix neighborhood prob- question. Recent studies have American Neighborhoods (New York,
lems and keep residents safe. shown that collective efficacy NY: The Free Press, 1990).
With this common understand- is a significant predictor of R.J. Sampson and S.W. Raudenbush,
ing, activities may begin to take both crime and disorder. “Systematic Social Observation of Public
Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban
place that move the neighbor- By applying knowledge of Neighborhoods,” American Journal of
hood toward the responsive group and social processes to Sociology 105, no. 3 (1999): 603-651.
quadrant, where residents are local neighborhoods, the au- 5
Ibid., 603.
ready to organize for systems thors argue that police effi- S.A. Wheelan, Group Processes: A
thinking and planning around ciency in solving problems of Developmental Perspective (Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon, 1994).
crime, disorder, and related community disorder may unin- 7
P.K. Manning and J. Van Maanen,
issues. Recent years have tentionally and unwittingly eds., Policing: A View from the Street
brought a number of successful contribute to the maintenance (New York, NY: Random House, 1978).
methods for this level of plan- of low measures of collective H. Goldstein, Problem-Oriented
ning and coordinated action.9 efficacy at the neighborhood Policing (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
These means could easily be level. However, officers can 9
M. Weisbord and S. Janoff, Future
adapted to neighborhood-level play a significant role in pro- Search (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
efforts aimed at restoring order. moting collective efficacy. Koehler, 1995).

November 2005 / 9
Use of Force vision becomes impaired partly depends on the
and High-Intensity intensity and duration of the exposure. The health
of the retina represents another variable; while this
Tactical Police Flashlights may relate to age,4 no scientific evidence exists
Policy Concerns that supports the theory taught by some trainers—
By R. Paul McCauley, Ph.D. that for every 10 years individuals age, they need
four times the light to see what they used to easily.

D uring a recent police shooting incident, an

officer parked his cruiser facing the direc-
tion of oncoming traffic in a narrow alley and
activated the red, white, and blue roof lights; high
Of course, suspects simply may close or avert
their eyes and continue to walk, run, swing their
arms, lunge with an edged weapon, or fire a gun.
While the light, at least, obscures subjects’ abili-
ties to visually target, it seemingly does not apply
beams; and takedown lights. He then exited the any physical force or pain to gain control or com-
vehicle, drew his weapon, and positioned himself pliance from these individuals.
in the darkness behind the car. The suspect ran Agency policy makers must decide for their
toward the bright lights, passed them, and entered departments if light is controlling or painful to
the unlit area. Upon recognizing that a police- determine where HITPFs fall in the use-of-force
man—or someone—waited in his path, the indi- continuum. And, they must formulate or adjust
vidual extended his arms forward. The officer use-of-force policy and training accordingly.
Law enforcement agencies routinely have used
patrol car lights to create a wall of illumination for Dr. McCauley is a
officers to maneuver behind; opinions exist that professor of criminology
departments can similarly employ high-intensity at Indiana University
tactical police flashlights (HITPFs).1 Some experts of Pennsylvania in
Indiana, Pennsylvania.
consider them powerful new tools that give offi-
cers a nonlethal force option, one that can control
potentially violent suspects by, for example,
diminishing their vision, affecting their depth per-
ception, intimidating them, and putting them at a
mental disadvantage.2 Further, they think that be-
cause of sensory overload, some individuals may
become less prone to violence during an incident.3
Officer use of handheld and gun-mounted
HITPFs presents serious considerations for depart-
ments. As with all police equipment, policy guid-
ance proves critical—particularly as related to use
of force.
Uses by Officers
Blinding illumination—whether experienced
from a flashbulb or a tactical police light—
bleaches out the retina. The length of time that

10 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Deadly force refers to any means reasonably ineffective or inappropriate. When practical,
likely to cause death; nondeadly force entails any officers should direct blows to the soft-tissue
other method, including physical efforts used to areas, such as the backs of the legs or but-
control, restrain, or overcome the resistance of an tocks, prior to striking a joint or bone.
individual. In this regard, the Confrontational 7) Deadly force: Police resort to this ultimate
Force Continuum6 represents an example of a step only to protect themselves or others from
model employed to train police officers in the death or serious injury or to apprehend a
appropriate application of force. It consists of forcible felon (after exhausting all other
seven levels. reasonable means) who presents an imminent
1) Officer presence: Police assume control risk to the community if not immediately
of the suspect through their announced or detained.
uniformed presence.
2) Verbal command: Presence has failed; Considerations for Departments
officers now begin verbal persuasion and, The author opines that light is only subjectively
if needed, issue commands or warnings. painful, that not all people will say it hurts
3) Open hand: Where practical, police place their eyes. Certainly, illumination can disrupt
their hands on suspects and normal behavior and cause
advise them that they are varying degrees of discomfort.
However, HITPFs do not pro-

under arrest. Officers
counter any resistance duce any physical contact or in-
beyond this point. Often, As with all police jury. Therefore, the author sug-
wrestling, grabbing, or equipment, policy gests that HITPF usage merely
pushing occurs. guidance proves results in visual effects, thereby
critical—particularly relegating it to a use of force ap-
4) Pain compliance: Police as related to
employ pressure-point plicable only at level 1.
use of force. But, at level 1, HITPF use
control or pepper spray

(which they sometimes may presents a potential problem.
deem appropriate at level 3). That is, cases could arise in
This greater force could be which investigators use the light
justified when the officer encounters weap- before individuals can identify
ons, a larger suspect, multiple individuals, them as officers; of course, suspects may respond
combative behavior, or persons under the in a manner that produces a threatening situation.
influence of alcohol or other drugs. Not only is an HITPF alone insufficient to an-
nounce an officer’s presence (anyone can carry a
5) Mechanical compliance: These methods flashlight) but, in fact, the light may create a visual
usually involve physical tactics that employ barrier preventing subjects from recognizing po-
counterjoint pressures and leverage, such as lice. This blinded person may or may not be armed.
wrist locks, arm bars, or other “come along” Obviously, this situation is not only dangerous but
techniques. Officers may apply them using subject to legal scrutiny and possible civil litiga-
handcuffs or the police baton. tion. Departmental policies, procedures, and train-
6) Impact: Police use impact weapons only ing must require officers to verbally identify them-
when mechanical control methods prove selves in HITPF-use situations.

November 2005 / 11
In this regard, the author recently conducted an Clearly, they need policy guidance and training.
experiment in which he asked 17 college students Confusion on the part of officers concerning ap-
to move toward him in a darkened hallway. Each propriate uses of force can present danger to them-
time, the author shined an HITPF into the selves, subjects, and innocent bystanders.
participant’s eyes. Fourteen of the students ex-
tended to some degree one or both arms in re- Conclusion
sponse to the light beam. In a real-world situation, High-intensity tactical police flashlights can
officers could mistake this response as threatening, serve as effective tools for law enforcement offi-
justifying an escalation of the level of force— cers. However, agencies must provide their per-
perhaps, even to deadly sonnel with clear policies
force, depending on the cir- and training regarding how
cumstances. Further, some and when to use light. And,
could argue that the officer’s when placed in dangerous
actions created the danger- situations, officers need to
ous situation. have the knowledge and
Also, departments must ability to decide—without
ensure that their officers do hesitation—if higher levels
not consider an HITPF a re- of force are appropriate. The
liable force option; it may safety of law enforcement
well not be. The author ar- personnel and the citizens
gues that it serves only as a they serve depends on it.
light source, merely used to
illuminate the suspect. Cer- Endnotes
tainly, it does not provide a © Corbis 1
B. Murphy, “Force Option
physical barrier that shields Lights,” Combat Tactics, January
law enforcement professionals from harm. It also 2003, 1.
Ibid; and R. Huntington, “Blinded by the Light,” American
does not apply force capable of gaining control of Rifleman, April 2003, 151.
or compliance from suspects; it may not even in- 3
Supra note 1.
timidate them. 4
American Academy of Ophthalmology, Basic and Clinical
Agencies must clarify when and how to use Science Course, sec. 12, Retina and Vitreous (San Francisco, CA:
HITPFs and when to employ higher levels of force. American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2002); and P. L.
Kaufman, A. Alm, and F. H. Adler, eds., Adler’s Physiology of
For example, if a male suspect in a low-lit area the Eye (St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby, 2002).
knowingly encounters a police presence and ig- 5
International Association of Chiefs of Police, Model Policy
nores a command to stop, continuing to move (Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police,
toward the officer, should pepper spray become the 2001).
next level of force used? Of course, factors, such as R. H. Traenkle, “Confrontational Force Continuum” (July
the distance between the subject and the officer,
presence of a weapon, and speed of movement,
The author acknowledges the contributions Dr. Thomas C.
would help answer that question. But, if police Trevorrow, a board-certified ophthalmologist, made to the
choose to use pepper spray will they face disciplin- preparation of this article.
ary action for failing to use the HITPF effectively?

12 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Construction Licensing
Nevada’s Response
© Digital Stock

T he construction industry
represents one of the
largest employers in
the United States. Nationally,
contractors, performing substan-
dard work, providing no war-
ranties, subjecting homeowners
to civil liability, and ignoring
develop. In these circumstances,
the contracts often are verbal
with little or no paper trail, and
payments are made in cash. The
approximately 7.1 million state and municipal licensing unlicensed contractor’s paper-
people work in the various requirements. Many unlicensed work usually displays a cell
trades.1 Most states regulate contractors cannot meet the phone number and a mail drop
the industry through contractor various licensing specifications, for an address. Further, home-
licensing laws designed to pro- which entail passing a trade test, owners may not know the
mote public confidence and providing dependable refer- individual’s last name.
trust in the competency and ences, and establishing suffi-
integrity of licensees and to cient financial responsibility The Problem
protect the health, safety, and to engage in the construction Contracting without a
welfare of the public. Although business. Other such unlicensed license is an administrative
most contractors comply with contractors may be employees or criminal violation in states
the applicable laws and perform of licensed contractors working that license contractors.
valuable services, a small mi- side jobs and unable to guaran- Aside from the various state
nority work as unlicensed tee their work when problems licensing requirements, many

November 2005 / 13
municipalities also require customer’s property. Many Law enforcement officers
some form of business registra- elderly homeowners are not and prosecutors mistakenly may
tion and impose administrative aware that the lien is illegal. believe that when a contractor,
or criminal penalties for non- In these cases, the unlicensed either licensed or not, enters a
compliance. contractor may pressure them to contract and, subsequently, fails
People who use the services pay for the unlawful services, to perform the requested ser-
of unlicensed contractors ex- thereby continuing the fraud. vices in a workmanship-like
pose themselves to civil liability manner, the matter is handled
under their homeowners’ poli- The Law Enforcement Aspect civilly. Further, they incorrectly
cies if contractors or their em- Many law enforcement may assume that these cases are
ployees are injured on the job. agencies have officers who more appropriately referred to
Moreover, homeowners have investigate fraud or the theft the civil court system for reso-
little recourse if the work is not of construction equipment. lution. The state regulatory
performed properly except to However, they do not enforce agency usually has the ability
sue the unlicensed contractor licensing requirements for to enforce the provisions of the
civilly and hope that they can contractors. Officers typically contract and ensure the work
locate some assets. Several are not aware of the various is performed properly. Home-
states have enacted legislation licensing tools available to owners who use unlicensed
that voids a contract if the con- them. Patrol officers often contractors’ services are pre-
tractor is not properly licensed, encounter contractors either cluded from seeking monetary
thereby releasing the home- through the investigation of recovery from the various
owner from the obligation to complaints or traffic stops. residential recovery funds
pay for faulty services. How- Such opportunities can produce established in many states, and
ever, this does not stop the significant results and provide they have little recourse through
unlicensed contractor from valuable information for the civil court system of collect-
placing an illegal lien on the homeowners. ing any judgments they may
Departments should ensure
that their officers know that

“ Contracting without
a license is an
contracting requires a license.
Failing to obtain the proper
license or advertising (without
a license) as a contractor may
be crimes in some states. As
administrative or a result, what initially appears
criminal violation in to be a civil or administrative
states that license matter also may constitute a
contractors. criminal issue. The prosecution
of unlicensed contractors
through the criminal court
Mr. Lyford, a retired FBI agent, serves as the director of
investigations for the Nevada State Contractors Board in Henderson.
” system may result in restitution
ordered by the court, giving
consumers a viable avenue to

14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Nevada Contractor Licensing Requirements Pocket Information Card

Nevada’s Response numbers of unlicensed contrac- misdemeanor if they do not

Most state regulatory agen- tors, regulate the advertising have a valid contractor’s license
cies actively pursue unlicensed of contractors, and make the number displayed. Officer
contractors. In Nevada, the first diversion of funds from a observations, coupled with their
offense is a misdemeanor, the construction project a felony background, training, experi-
second a gross misdemeanor, if the amount exceeds $1,000. ence, and knowledge of con-
and the third a felony. Nevada Additionally, Nevada struction licensing laws, may
also enacted unique legislation implemented a law enforcement provide sufficient cause to stop
that empowers the state contrac- awareness program that pro- the vehicle and inquire further.
tors board to conduct back- vides the contractor licensing Law enforcement officers
ground investigations, obtain requirements, in approximately know that stopping a vehicle
the fingerprints of applicants 15 minutes, to local law en- for a minor violation can result
and licensees, require contrac- forcement agencies during in a significant arrest or seizure.
tors to pass law and trade tests briefings. As a result, officers Having knowledge of local
prior to licensing, and ensure receive the basic information contractor licensing require-
that contractors establish their and tools they need to better ments provides patrol officers
financial responsibility. The serve the public during the with another tool to assist in
Special Investigations Unit of normal course of their duties. the performance of their duties.
the Nevada State Contractors Officers aware of the local They should take a proactive
Board was established to ag- licensing requirements may take approach and ask for licensing
gressively pursue unlicensed appropriate action when they identification. Consequently,
contractors and uses proactive observe a vehicle carrying Nevada developed a pocket card
patrols of commercial and construction equipment and (modeled after Miranda cards)
residential construction sites displaying a company name for law enforcement officers
to identify them. This legisla- without a license number. In that provides them with basic
tion includes specific statutes to Nevada, exhibiting a company information identifying the
give on-scene criminal citations, name is considered advertising, specific statutes and elements
issue cease-and-desist orders, and officers can charge unli- of licensing violations. Thus,
disconnect the telephone censed contractors with a they can make a probable cause

November 2005 / 15
arrest if appropriate. The card violation. Although law en- basic knowledge of local con-
also includes telephone num- forcement officers may investi- tractor licensing requirements
bers officers can use to verify a gate construction-related provides law enforcement
license and report unlicensed crimes, they often are unaware officers with another tool to
contracting activity. Officer of licensing requirements and protect and serve their
inquiries of unlicensed contrac- the tools available to enforce communities.
tors routinely identify fugitives, state contracting laws.
unregistered sex offenders, In Nevada, the State Con- Endnotes
convicted felons, people using tractors Board responded to this 1
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
false identities, illegal aliens, dilemma by establishing a unit Labor Statistics, May 2003.
the recovery of stolen construc- that pursues unlicensed contrac- 2
Nevada State Contractors Board,
tion equipment, and various tors by using proactive patrols.
schemes to defraud. Further, Nevada law enforce-
ment agencies provide officers Agencies can visit the Nevada State
Conclusion Contractors Board Web site at
with training on basic licensing or the
Laws regulating licensed requirements, identifying what National Construction Investigators
contractors protect the public.2 officers should look for when Association Web site at http://
In many states, contracting they conduct patrols, issue to identify
without a license may be an traffic citations, and respond to individual state contractor licensing
administrative or criminal various complaints. Having a

The Bulletin’s
E-mail Address
© Digital Vision

T he FBI Law Enforcement Bulle-

tin staff invites you to communi-
cate with us via e-mail. Our Internet
address is
We would like to know your
thoughts on contemporary law en-
forcement issues. We welcome your
comments, questions, and suggestions
about the magazine. Please include
your name, title, and agency on all
e-mail messages.
Also, the Bulletin is available for
viewing or downloading on a number
of computer services, as well as the
FBI’s home page. The home page
address is

16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Focus on Strategic Planning
“SWOT” Tactics The entire strategic planning process may take
Basics for Strategic Planning many forms and follow a variety of paths. At some
By Randy Garner, Ph.D.
point in the process, however, planners will iden-
tify or update the strategic philosophy. This may
include a mission, vision, or value statement—or
some combination. While each has similarities,
some general distinctions exist. Typically, a mis-
sion statement is a brief description of the intent of
the organization, an expression of the agency’s
unique reason for existence usually contained in a
formal statement of purpose. A vision statement,
which many agencies increasingly use, offers a
vivid image of the desired future. It compellingly
describes how the department will or should oper-
ate at some point in the future and how customers
benefit from its services. A value statement often
lists the overall priorities of how the organization
will operate. It may focus on moral values, such as
integrity, honesty, and respect, or operational val-
ues, such as efficiency or effectiveness. This also
may include an agency’s core values or principles
that describe how it should conduct itself in carry-
ing out its mission.

“We must plan for the future because people who stay in
the present will remain in the past.” Four basic questions comprise the essence of
—Abraham Lincoln the strategic planning process: 1) Where is the
organization now? 2) Where does it want to be? 3)

How will it get there? and 4) How does it measure
ften considered a daunting task filled its progress? While a number of terms are associ-
with such complicated procedures and ated with this process, departments should focus
terms that it makes some want to ignore the activity only on what works for them. Some agencies have
altogether, strategic planning need not be an overly separate mission, vision, and value statements;
complicated process. Instead, managers can view it others combine them. Some organizations create
as simply considering where their organizations strategic goals, strategies, objectives, and tactics;
are—or should be—going over the next year or others merely offer an identified goal and the ob-
more and how they will get there. As it relates to jectives to reach it. Some review and update their
law enforcement agencies, a strategic plan is the current mission or vision statements before doing
product of a leadership process that helps depart- an analysis of their environments; others examine
ments better focus their energies and resources to their mission statements after completing an as-
ensure that all members work toward the same sessment. More important than any particular or-
goal. der is examining all aspects of the agency and the

November 2005 / 17
environment it operates in while remaining flex- helps determine exactly where the agency is and
ible enough to make adjustments as needed. what resources it may or may not have. Strength
Regardless of the terms or order used, getting assessment identifies what the department tends to
started remains one of the most important parts of do well and can include a skilled, professional staff
the strategic planning process. It is akin to pushing and a modern, well-equipped facility. Weaknesses
a car: the greatest difficulty lies in getting it rolling; denote what the agency may not do so well or what
after that, the task becomes easier. Departments diminishes its effectiveness. Inadequate financial
should not get lost in the search for the perfect resources may fit into this category. Opportunities
method or approach; it does not exist. Rather, they reflect what the organization might seize upon to
should start with the basic questions and move do better. This area could include increasing com-
forward, not getting sidetracked munity interactions and taking
by “analysis paralysis” wherein advantage of particular grants.
they overly obsess about getting Finally, threats are environmen-
everything just right or worrying
about “neatness” in the begin- “ Simply put, this
tal factors that may hinder per-
formance. Examples could in-
ning. They should concentrate
on just getting the process
Generally, agencies should
“ acronym stands for
assessing an agency’s
strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and
clude a rising demand for service
or increased legislative mandates
that can impact resources. Man-
agers should consider “SWOT”
consider three main tasks when threats.... analysis for issues both external
working on a strategic plan. The to the agency, such as population

first, strategic analysis, is a re- growth and increased industrial-
view of the organization’s envi- ization, and internal to it, such as
ronment, both internal and exter- an aging workforce that might
nal. The next, strategic direction, result in excessive turnover or
involves what the department must do as a result of competing priorities for resources. “SWOT”
the major issues and opportunities that it may face. analysis constitutes one of the most important
Finally, action planning deals with explaining how aspects in the overall strategic planning process.
the agency will accomplish its strategic goals.
Each component is important in creating the over- Strategic Direction:
all plan. SMARTER Goals
To move from an assessment of where it is to a
Strategic Analysis: plan for where it wants to be, a law enforcement
“SWOT” Tactics agency must articulate particular strategies and
Not surprisingly, for an organization to deter- identify strategic goals. When considering goals, a
mine where it wants to go in the future, it must department can use the acronym SMARTER to
assess where it is now. In this part of the strategic create specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic,
planning process, law enforcement administrators and timely goals that extend the capabilities of
can call on the “SWOT” team for help. Simply put, those working to achieve them while being re-
this acronym stands for assessing an agency’s warding for the organization and its members. An
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, organization should make its goals as specific as
a critical phase in the general planning process as it possible so as not to cover too broad an area or to

18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

require completing a large number of steps or satis- whole thing stagnate for a lack of action. In fact,
fying a vast array of objectives. Usually easier to strong leadership at this critical stage often proves
assess for success, specific goals lend themselves key to successfully implementing a strategic plan.
to helping an agency determine if it has accom- An action plan simply sets forth the goals, speci-
plished them. Those charged with carrying out the fies the set of objectives needed to reach them, and
goals must find them acceptable and realistic in identifies the responsible entity for accomplishing
scope. “Pie in the sky” ideas or goals that have no each one and in what time frame. This process
reasonable chance of success do not help the orga- ensures that the hard work of developing the strate-
nization or the individuals who must work toward gic plan will become more than an exercise of
a goal’s completion. Some, believing that they are enumerating “dreams.” The difference between a
providing challenging direction to an agency, may wish and a goal is the initiation of an action plan
set such lofty or demanding that specifically outlines the
goals that no one possibly responsibilities for success.
can satisfy them and, thus,
predestine the organization CONCLUSION
The Essence of the
to fail—exactly the opposite Strategic Planning Process The purpose of strategic
of the intended effect. planning is to help a law en-
Timely goals identify a forcement agency better rec-
• Where is the organization now?
specific issue that a depart- ognize where it is, where it
• Where does it want to be?

ment can accomplish in a wants to go, and how it can
reasonably appropriate time • How will it get there? best get there. Although dif-
frame. Additionally, an • How does it measure its ferent departments use vary-
agency should avoid overly progress? ing terms, they should focus
simplistic, easy, or obvious on the creation of a thought-
goals. Instead, goals should ful plan to achieve growth
challenge the organization and success. This need not
within its limits and extend the capabilities of be an overly difficult task. As the saying goes, “if
those working to achieve them. Careful consider- you fail to plan, you plan to fail.” This proves
ation in goal creation can lead to renewed enthusi- particularly true in organizations that may face
asm for the agency and its mission. numerous challenges and competing priorities.
The law enforcement profession cannot afford to
Strategic Success: practice “pinball leadership,” getting bounced
Action Planning around by every unexpected event. Instead, leaders
Once a department has assessed the environ- must plan proactively to create a future that en-
ment (“SWOT” tactics) and arrived at a set of compasses the vision they desire and the plan re-
(SMARTER) goals, it must place the strategic plan quired to achieve its success.
into action. One of the biggest problems in strate-
gic planning (after giving up on trying to find the Dr. Garner, a former police chief and executive director of
“perfect way”) is not following the steps to imple- the Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas and
ment the plan. It does little good to spend the time the Texas Regional Community Policing Institute, currently
is the associate dean of the College of Criminal Justice at
and energy identifying where the organization is Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas.
and determining where it wants to be to then let the

November 2005 / 19
Book Review

Spores, Plagues, and History: The Story treatment, and prevention. From the present-
of Anthrax by Chris Holmes, M.D., Durban day medical, veterinary, and scientific knowl-
House Publishing, Dallas, Texas, 2003. edge of anthrax and other pathogens and with
Spores, Plagues, and History: The Story of a forensic epidemiologist’s eye, Dr Holmes
Anthrax provides a well-researched, historical looks back to the time of Moses then moves
perspective on the origin and use not only of forward through recorded history to provide
anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) but other biologi- new possible theories to long-ago plagues and
cal pathogens that have afflicted humans and mysterious deaths.
animals over the centuries, both as an act of Dr. Holmes uses his unique novelist skills
nature and as a deliberate act of man. Dr. to create a narrative and dialogue in “The
Holmes presents interesting new theories on Plague of Athens, 430 B.C.” via a fictional
the causation of devastating plagues through- Macedonian physician who discusses the real
out history and the deaths of prominent his- plague of Athens with fellow citizens, religious
torical figures that may be attributable to an- leaders, and a general and head of the Athe-
thrax. He also documents the lives and work of nian state. This introduces the teachings of the
both ancient and modern-day doctors and sci- cult of Aesclepius and of Hippocrates, the “Fa-
entists—some obscure, others well known— ther of Medicine,” whose Hippocratic Oath
whose efforts have led to the discovery, devel- every medical school graduate repeats to this
opment, prevention, and even weaponization day.
of these pathogens. He discusses developing technologies of
Dr. Holmes begins by examining the Octo- the industrial revolution that caused new out-
ber 2, 2001, “Index Case” of a Florida man breaks of anthrax and other occupational dis-
infected with inhalation anthrax at his place of eases, creating the need for a true public health
work. He then follows with the exposures and care system. He documents the work of many
infections resulting from letters mailed to notable scientists, such as John Henry Bell,
Senators Daschle and Leahy, Tom Brokaw, Robert Koch, and Louis Pasteur, whose re-
and other media corporate offices. He de- search (sometimes scientific, sometimes fortu-
scribes the ensuing panic and alterations of itous), findings, and experiments have created
daily routine caused by thousands of hoax an- worker health standards, manufacturing pro-
thrax letters received throughout the nation cesses, laboratory procedures, and life-saving
during the months of October and early No- vaccines still in use today.
vember 2001 and the FBI’s ongoing investiga- Finally, coming full circle, Dr. Holmes pre-
tion. Then, the attacks stopped. Why? sents the use of anthrax and other pathogens as
To fully understand its effects on the body biological weapons, starting with the
and use as a biological weapon, Dr. Holmes Assyrians poisoning their enemies’ wells in the
dedicates one chapter, aptly titled “The ninth century B.C., the medieval practice of
View from the Petri Dish,” to explain the an- catapulting infected human and animal bodies
thrax development process, from animal dis- over walled cities under siege, and the Japa-
ease to human disease, along with diagnosis, nese biological experiments on both humans

20 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

and animals during World War II. These ex- health response be mounted and mass prophy-
periments and ensuing research data captured laxis be considered.
by both the United States and the Soviet Union This book provides historic and scientific
lead Dr. Holmes to his detailed discussion of perspectives of anthrax and its likewise devas-
the bioweapons of today. tating sister pathogens. It could benefit all pro-
Dr. Holmes completes this history of bio- fessionals in the law enforcement, hazardous
logical pathogens and their devastating results materials, scientific, forensic, veterinary, and
with a simple yet ongoing question that titles medical communities.
his final chapter, “Are We Prepared for the
Next One?” He looks at personal, community, Reviewed by
and national preparedness, not to scare but to John A. Sylvester
educate and understand. Only by proper under- Retired FBI special agent
standing of the biologic, both its capabilities President of Executive Response Solutions
and weaknesses, can an appropriate public San Diego, California

Book Reviews

T he Bulletin invites criminal justice professionals to submit reviews of recently published

nonfiction books they have read on topics relative to their field of expertise for possible
inclusion in its Book Review department. The magazine publishes only positive reviews of
between 350 and 500 words or 1 ½ to 2 pages double-spaced. As with article submissions,
the Bulletin staff will edit book reviews for style, length, clarity, and format.
Book reviewers should include two or three compelling points that the author makes,
along with the complete title of the work; the names of the authors or editors; and the pub-
lishing company, city and state, and publication date. As a guide, the staff suggests that
reviewers examine book reviews in past issues of the Bulletin to acquaint themselves with
the magazine’s requirements. Reviewers should submit their book reviews typed and double-
spaced on 8 ½- by 11-inch white paper with all pages numbered. When possible, an elec-
tronic version of the review saved on computer disk should accompany the document. Send
book reviews to:
Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
FBI Academy
Madison Building, Room 201
Quantico, VA 22135
telephone: 703-632-1952

November 2005 / 21
Police Practice
“The List” of the fugitives were wanted for violent crimes,
A Warrant Service Strategy including the use of weapons upon their victims.
By James D. Fox and Michael S. New
The department’s small Fugitive Apprehension
Unit could not reduce the number of warrants with
its normal service process partly because almost
half of the fugitives lived beyond the city limits.
The unit often sent letters to nonviolent fugitives
living outside the area advising them to come to the
station to have the warrant served on them. For
violent offenders, the unit relied on the jurisdiction
in which the fugitive lived to attempt to serve the
warrant. These other agencies, however, also had
backlogs of unserved warrants. With older war-
rants not being served and approximately 1,800
new ones coming in each month, the department
needed a solution that would reduce the surplus.
The Idea
Appointed on August 1, 2004, the chief has a
mantra of “fighting crime is our number one prior-
ity” that drives every operational decision in the
department. His statements and actions have am-
ply demonstrated that the department will work
with the citizens of Newport News to reduce crime

and make the city a safe place to work, live, and
ocated in southeastern Virginia, the New- spend leisure time. He has tasked each division
port News Police Department serves a to think “outside the box” and develop new, proac-
population of over 180,000 in a jurisdiction cover- tive strategies to deal with crime. Every action
ing nearly 70 square miles. With a force of just should reinforce the crime-fighting effort that he
over 400 full-time law enforcement officers, the has embraced.
department found itself plagued with thousands of
outstanding warrants. To help remedy this, it de- The Plan
cided to publish “The List,” as citizens referred to The decision to publish “The List” required an
it, in the local newspaper. The alphabetical, two- in-depth operational plan. The commander of the
page announcement containing the name of every Fugitive Apprehension Unit prepared the details to
person who had an outstanding warrant in the city handle the project, dubbed Operation Clean
of Newport News ran only for 1 day, but the resultsSweep. With emphasis on ridding the city of fugi-
proved long lasting. tives, drugs, and guns, the department knew that
once the newspaper published the announcement,
The Problem it had to have a system approach for responding to
As of November 29, 2004, the department had the telephone calls.
over 4,000 outstanding warrants on file, comprised Operation Clean Sweep involved members of
of 2,692 misdemeanors and 1,395 felonies. Many many units in the department, as well as personnel

22 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

from the sheriff’s department. In addition, the FBI The Planning Division had provided an alpha-
learned of the venture and committed nine agents betized list of warrants divided into precincts.
from its Norfolk office. Each unit had a function Each had two or three street teams assigned to
that would contribute to the project’s success. attempt service of these warrants when not acting
Overall, the department assembled a staff commit- on leads received from citizens. If they made an
ted to the operation that began on December 6 at arrest that required transportation for booking, a
3 a.m. and lasted until 11:30 p.m. the following team comprised of a sheriff’s deputy and a police
night. officer took the prisoner to the jail. The sheriff’s
The Public Information Office worked out the department handled the entire booking and
details of the publication of the names with the magistrate’s process, rather than requiring one of
newspaper, including the cost. Ultimately, the U.S. the street team members to become involved.
Attorney’s Office agreed to pay for the two-page As soon as the newspaper arrived at residences
notice because the operation included the removal and businesses on the morning of December 6,
of guns and drugs from the community, a tie-in leads began to come in to the published telephone
with the Project Safe Neighborhoods program.1 number. “The List” became commonplace, hang-
ing on office walls throughout the community. The
The Action newspaper sold all of its copies that day. The de-
On the morning of December 6, the announce- partment received an offer from a local car dealer-
ment containing 3,947 names appeared in the ship to pay for future announcements due to the
newspaper. It gave the telephone number of the increased volume of sales of the newspaper. Rep-
Fugitive Apprehension Unit resentatives from the local
with instructions for citizens to news stations and the national
call the number if they knew media accompanied the street
the whereabouts of someone teams and generated positive
named. stories about the operation.
The Operation Clean
Sweep plan consisted of an of- The Results
fice team of dispatchers, staff Operation Clean Sweep
assistants, volunteers, and de- ended on December 7, 2004,
tectives. The civilian personnel after the department received
and volunteers fielded calls 381 calls from citizens
from citizens and persons who throughout the region. Offi-
had outstanding warrants. They cers attempted to serve 294
directed those individuals warrants and arrested 127 of
whose names appeared where these individuals on 135
to turn in themselves to have the warrant served. charges. One week after the operation, 207 arrests
They also completed lead sheets on tips received had been made with more occurring in the follow-
from citizens who called with information on the ing months. An incredible number of individuals
location of fugitives. Detectives immediately re- surrendered with many doing so because of pres-
ceived the lead sheets to determine if an active sure from family members after reading their
warrant existed. If one did, they contacted the ap- names in the newspaper. The notice also caused
propriate operation street team for an attempted fugitives from outside the city limits to submit to
service of the warrant. arrest.

November 2005 / 23
While the primary objective of the operation Enforcement Bulletin
was to reduce the number of active warrants, the
department had other successes from it as well. It Author Guidelines
offered a dramatic statement to the citizens that
the department had directed its focus on fighting Length: Manuscripts should contain
crime. Arresting fugitives undoubtedly reduced the 2,000 to 3,500 words (8 to 14 pages,
potential for them to commit more crimes, and the double-spaced) for feature articles and
operation sent a strong message to individuals con- 1,200 to 2,000 words (5 to 8 pages,
templating criminal activity in the city. Needless to double-spaced) for specialized depart-
say, the citizens in the community were extremely ments, such as Police Practice.
pleased that the department removed the fugitives Format: Authors should submit three
from their midst. copies of their articles typed and double-
spaced on 8 ½- by 11-inch white paper
with all pages numbered, along with an
The Newport News, Virginia, Police Depart- electronic version saved on computer
ment faced a challenge that many other law en- disk, or e-mail them.
forcement agencies have encountered: a large Criteria: The Bulletin judges articles
number of outstanding warrants. With limited on relevance to the audience, factual ac-
resources, the department decided to attack the curacy, analysis of the information, struc-
problem using an innovative approach. It pub- ture and logical flow, style and ease of
lished the names of the people who had outstand- reading, and length. It generally does not
ing warrants in the city in its local newspaper. publish articles on similar topics within a
The members of the department once again had 12-month period or accept those previ-
applied the problem-solving concept of using a ously published or currently under con-
creative response to a traditional law enforcement sideration by other magazines. Because it
problem. A total of 141 people participated over is a government publication, the Bulletin
the 48 hours of the operation, and city residents cannot accept articles that advertise a
felt the impact of their efforts. product or service. To ensure that their
writing style meets the Bulletin’s require-
Endnote ments, authors should study several issues
For additional information, access http://www. of the magazine and contact the staff or access
leb/leb.htm for the expanded author
guidelines, which contain additional
Chief Fox heads the Newport News, Virginia, Police specifications, detailed examples, and ef-
Department. fective writing techniques. The Bulletin
Lieutenant New commands the Fugitive Apprehension Unit will advise authors of acceptance or rejec-
of the Newport News, Virginia, Police Department. tion but cannot guarantee a publication
date for accepted articles, which the staff
edits for length, clarity, format, and style.
Submit to: Editor, FBI Law Enforce-
ment Bulletin, FBI Academy, Madison
Bldg., Room 201, Quantico, VA 22135;
telephone: 703-632-1952; fax: 703-632-
1968; e-mail:

24 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

ViCAP Alert

Homicide Victim
Drawing of Suspect

O n May 25, 2003, a hiker walking his dog

near the Shady Rest campground in the
Mammoth Lakes National Forest in California
shoulder-length black hair. (The photograph is a
skull reconstruction of the victim.)
A few days after the skeleton was found, a
discovered a shallow grave with human remains witness was located who remembered an incident
scattered around the area. In addition to the skel- that occurred in the fall of 2002 when a short
eton, the following clothing items were found: female with Asian characteristics came into the
women’s pants, size 1-2; a bra, size 32A; Bass Mammoth Lakes Visitor Center with her husband.
shoes, size 5M; a small top; a Cold Air Design The woman told an employee that her husband
coat; and a Jacqueline Smith watch, still running. treated her bad, and she was fearful of him. The
Investigators estimate that the victim had been husband asked about campsite rules and stay lim-
dead for 6 to 9 months and had spent the winter its. The employee described the woman’s husband
under the snow. The victim has been entered as “abrasive” and “mean-spirited.” He was a white
into NCIC and the ViCAP National Database. male, heavyset, 5 feet 9 inches tall, 175 to 200
DNA analysis showed that the victim was 100 pounds, with brown hair.
percent Native American whose life history
may be that she was born and raised through Alert to Law Enforcement
childhood in the American Southwest or in north- Law enforcement agencies should bring this
ern Mexico. She subsisted on a very poor diet, information to the attention of all crime analysis
including a great deal of corn. Sometime later, units, officers investigating crimes against per-
she moved south to southern Mexico, possibly sons, and missing person units. Any agency with
Oaxaca, where she spent about 10 years of her life. information on the identity of the homicide victim
Finally, during the last 2 years of her life, she or suspect in this case should contact either Detec-
traveled to California where she was killed. The tive Sergeant Paul Dostie of the Mammoth Lakes
victim is described as a Zapotec Indian from Police Department at 760-934-2011 or Crime Ana-
Mexico, 30 to 40 years old, 80 to 90 pounds, 4 feet lyst Ken Whitla of the Violent Criminal Apprehen-
6 inches to 4 feet 8 inches tall, with longer than sion Program (VICAP) Unit at 800-634-4097.

November 2005 / 25
McKeesport Aging Program
A 3-Year Survey

he elderly population than younger persons.5 Property

T in the United States

is expected to expand
by about 50 percent over the
perception depicts them as more
frequent victims of crime—
particularly, more serious,
violent crime—than other
crime constitutes the highest
percentage of illegal activity
against older people.6 Victims
next two decades.1 It, therefore, segments of the population. age 65 and older report some
becomes increasingly important Perhaps, this results from media types of crime, such as personal
to identify areas of risk that can and public attention given to theft and personal violence,
impact the safety, indepen- elderly victims of violence2 more often than younger indi-
dence, and overall well-being and because of the mental and viduals,7 likely due to the
of senior citizens. Promoting physical changes with aging that greater negative impact these
safety interventions based on can compromise older people’s crimes have on their lives.
identified areas of risk can abilities to anticipate, avoid, and
enhance their quality of life escape crime.3 Social isolation BACKGROUND
and reduce their healthcare and depression also can contrib- Most research on police
expenditures. ute to their vulnerability.4 issues with elderly individuals
The growing number of Senior citizens, however, has focused on their fear of
older adults concerns public experience crime, especially crime, decisions to report such
safety officials. A common violent crime, at a lower rate occurrences, and perceptions of

26 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

service, rather than on the (16 percent), auto theft (13 with faulty wiring also face a
frequency and nature of their percent), vandalism (8 percent), greater risk of fire-related injury
contacts with police.8 An and robbery (6 percent). Subject and death.14 Defective heating
exception, a study in one of four characteristics associated with equipment, space heaters, and
National Institute on Aging sites victimization again included electric blankets cause more
for Established Populations for being male and non-Caucasian, injuries and deaths among
Epidemiologic Studies in the as well as high functioning (no elderly individuals than in the
Elderly (EPESE),9 used infor- impairments in activities of rest of the population.15 Unsafe
mation from public health, daily living). The study con- use of smoking materials con-
medical, criminological, and cluded that older adults have stitutes the leading cause of fire
law enforcement personnel to substantial police contacts, deaths among older adults,16 and
analyze the prevalence and primarily as crime victims, and cooking accidents represent the
types of police interactions with that disparate crime and health main reason for fire-related
older adults. In a random sam- data sets can be linked to inform injuries in this age group.17
ple of 200 senior citizens from the relationship between senior Although many public
the New Haven, Connecticut, citizens’ victimization status safety agencies have special
EPESE cohort of 2,182 elderly and their quality of life.11 programs for senior citizens,18
individuals, researchers found few communitywide studies on
that 47 (24 percent) had 86 this segment of the population

police encounters over a 7-year and its contact with these
period (1985 to 1991). Forty- organizations exist. The au-
three percent of the contacts Senior citizens, thors, therefore, designed the
involved an older adult as a however, experience McKeesport Aging Program
crime victim. Burglary, the most crime, especially (MAP) to gain such information
prevalent, represented 16 per- violent crime, at a about older adults’ safety inside
cent of all contacts. The next lower rate than and outside their homes by
highest concerned mental health younger persons. examining contacts with
issues with 10 percent, followed fire and police agencies in

by larceny with 9 percent. Sub- McKeesport, Pennsylvania.
ject characteristics most associ- Authorities in the community
ated with victims included and surrounding areas have
being male and non-Caucasian. Persons age 65 and older used the findings to direct and
An 8-year follow-up of have three times the risk of fire- promote home safety, commu-
1,800 senior citizens in the New related deaths and a higher rate nity education, and other pro-
Haven EPESE cohort yielded of nonfatal fire-related injuries grams for elderly residents.
similar results: 523 (29 percent) than younger adults.12 The
had 1,056 police encounters.10 higher fire-related death and METHODS
Elderly people were victims in injury rates in elderly people MAP, a multifaceted pro-
61 percent of the incidents, likely are due to their reduced gram, investigates and provides
complainants in 16 percent, mental capacity to detect a fire support for senior citizens living
perpetrators in 7 percent, and or their compromised physical independently in McKeesport
witnesses in 4 percent. The abilities to escape one.13 and surrounding communities.
most prevalent crimes were Senior citizens living The authors conducted a 3-year
larceny (17 percent), burglary independently or in older homes (1995 to 1997) retrospective

November 2005 / 27
Home Safety Incidents history, and medication record,
Police Department Incidents (total = 731) % and details about the incident,
Burglary (no contact with victim/mail tampering) 32 such as why the call was placed,
Vandalism 27 who placed the call (self or
Auto related (theft/damage) 20 other and relation to victim),
Robbery (theft with force/violence) 9 whether the elderly person was
Suspicious activity 4 the offender, the specifics of the
Financial exploitation (forgery/fraud) 4 incident, and its resolution. The
Imposters (scams/cons) 2 authors employed terms com-
Assistance with fires 2 monly used by law enforcement
agencies to categorize the types
of incidents.21 Then, they
Fire Department Incidents (total = 40) % separated them into either home
Smoke related (food on stove, safety related (HS) or personal
smoking near alarm) 68 health/safety related (PH). The
Utility problems (gas leak) 15 HS category included fire
Person stuck in elevator or in house 12 hazards (gas leaks and smoke
Suspicious noise 2.5 alarms) and home security
Person locked out of apartment 2.5 issues (burglaries and vandal-
ism). The PH group covered
mental health problems (demen-
tia and suicide), safety within
the community (wandering and
survey of police and fire depart- male residents 65 years of age public intoxication), and fatali-
ment records to identify types and older have a median annual ties before safety personnel
of contacts involving elderly income of nearly $19,000 and arrived.
individuals (those at least 60 females of the same age group
years of age). They chose approximately $12,000.20 FINDINGS
McKeesport because of its The authors carefully The authors grouped HS
demographics—a small, stable reviewed all police and fire incidents into major categories
city 15 miles southeast of department records that in- by frequency of occurrence.
Pittsburgh. Of McKeesport’s volved an individual at least 60 Sixty-seven percent of police
24,000 residents, nearly 6,000 years of age or that referenced and 80 percent of fire depart-
(25 percent) are age 60 and such a person. The institutional ment contacts involved home
over, representing a high per- review boards of Allegheny safety. The authors also divided
centage of older adults com- General Hospital and the Uni- PH incidents into major catego-
pared with the state at 20 versity of Pittsburgh approved ries by frequency of occurrence.
percent and the nation at 16 the conduct of the survey and Thirty-three percent of police
percent. McKeesport also has a the materials used. and 20 percent of fire depart-
racially mixed population of 72 Systematic data collection ment encounters related to
percent Caucasian, 24 percent included sociodemographic personal health/safety.
African-American, and 4 per- information, such as age, sex, This retrospective review,
cent other.19 Not a wealthy area, race, marital status, medical representing the first phase of

28 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

MAP, yielded important infor- the stove. This type of forgetful- issues, such as death, disputes
mation regarding two main ness often is pathological, being with other persons, intoxication
categories of incidents: 1) issues a common sign of dementia or driving under the influence,
related to the safety of dwell- and, therefore, a major health mental health-related issues,
ings and 2) those involving issue. Previous research has and missing senior citizens.
personal health and safety. The cited cooking-related fires and These findings have suggested
types and frequencies of inci- smoke inhalation as the largest the need for community pro-
dents accorded with many cause of fire-related injuries grams that provide social and
previously published reports. among older adults.24 The other contacts for older adults
authors’ findings underscored living alone. As well, public
Home Safety the importance of the kitchen as service agencies should include
The majority of police a danger area in home safety. staff training on behavioral
department incidents related to issues related to elderly indi-
home safety, and most involved Personal Health/Safety viduals, including depression,
nonviolent property crimes Thirty-three percent of suicide attempts, substance
(burglary, vandalism, and auto police department incidents abuse, and dementia. In con-
theft or damage). These findings involved personal health and trast, only 20 percent of fire
proved congruent with national safety and included a variety of department incidents related to
trends indicating that elderly
people are disproportionately
affected by property crimes and
relatively less by violent ones.22 Personal Health and Safety Incidents
Nonviolent property crimes
against senior citizens often Police Department Incidents (total = 426) %
receive little attention because Dead on arrival 21
they are not sensational. But, Disputes with others (domestic, harassment) 20
their frequency has indicated Intoxicated/driving under the influence 17
that they should be given Mental health (confusion, completed suicide) 13
prominence in home safety Seniors missing 10
programs, similar to the empha- Assaults on seniors 6
sis on fire prevention.23 Fortu- Check on welfare 6
nately, the study revealed Assistance to fire department, EMS 2
relatively few cases of financial Reported gun shots in neighborhood 2
exploitation (forgery, fraud, Dog bite 2
imposters, and scams), repre- Abuse/neglect by caregiver 1
senting crimes that appear on
the rise and, therefore, attracting
the attention of law enforcement Fire Department Incidents (total = 10) %
agencies and the media. Assistance to police department, EMS 50
Most of the fire department Mental health (confusion, attempted suicide) 40
incidents concerned home Dead on arrival (smoking while using oxygen) 10
safety, with a vast amount
caused by food left cooking on

November 2005 / 29
personal health and safety, and specific areas in which special- safety needs of older adults.32
most involved assists to police ized training for public safety Potential obstacles, such as
and emergency medical services personnel can prove useful. Health Insurance Portability and
or concerned senior citizens’ Public safety officers are Accountability Act (HIPAA)
mental health. particularly well suited for regulations, will require atten-
partnerships with social service tion but should not prove
SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMS providers because they share a insurmountable.
Some public safety agencies common goal, the welfare of Building on this retrospec-
have succeeded with training the community.29 Since 1988, tive review, the next phases of
programs targeted toward the a program called Triad has MAP, which include in-home
needs of older adults. Short supported information exchange safety and personal health
training sessions for community between the law enforcement surveys of older adults living
police officers in Aiken, South profession and the elderly independently in McKeesport
Carolina, increased their ability and adjacent communities, are
to recognize and address the

in progress. To date, 278 senior
health needs of senior citizens.25 citizens have participated. The
A training program for police findings of these surveys accord
officers in 11 New Jersey Public safety with the fire and police record
counties focused on understand- personnel must reviews, and community offi-
ing Alzheimer’s disease and understand the cials are using the data to mount
how to handle dangerous age-related changes home and health improvement
behaviors associated with it.26 and the risks and programs.
The Milwaukee, Wisconsin, concerns of elderly
Police Department organized a CONCLUSION
group of officers, the Gray
people. While the issues brought to
Squad, who received special- light by the McKeesport Aging

ized training in communicating Program are important for the
with and being sensitive to elderly population in every
concerns of elderly people.27 population in a number of community, they appear particu-
Older adults who dealt with the communities.30 Triad consists larly relevant for smaller com-
Gray Squad, rather than regular of a three-way effort among the munities that have a high
officers, expressed greater sheriff, the police chief, and proportion of senior citizens
satisfaction and had more older or retired leaders in the with limited incomes. Finan-
positive attitudes about police area to enhance services.31 cially strapped older adults
in general. often neglect both their home
Public safety personnel FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS safety and their personal health.
must understand the age-related Uniform reporting forms In this regard, local community
changes and the risks and con- will enable future studies to agencies have relied on the data
cerns of elderly people. This link personal information, from this study to introduce and
increased awareness will facili- medical history, and public enhance community programs
tate more effective communica- safety encounters to better for elderly people.
tion with many senior citizens.28 inform community programs Based on the frequency
The authors’ findings indicated that address the health and of police and fire department

30 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

contacts with senior citizens U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau retrieved on May 6, 2004, from
regarding safety in and around of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice
Programs, Definitions (2003); retrieved publications/retire.pdf.
their homes, the city of on May 6, 2004, from http://bjsdata.ojp. 13
A.T. Elder, T. Squires, and A.
McKeesport has started a home Busuttil, “Fire Fatalities in Elderly
safety program for this popula- definitions.cfm. People,” Age and Ageing 25 (1996): 214-
tion group. Local government Supra note 5 (Crimes Against Persons 216; and G. McGwin, V. Chapman, J.
grants have funded the installa- Age 65 or Older, 1992-1997). Curtis, et al, “Fire Fatalities in Older
Supra notes 2 and 3; and R.G. Zevitz People,” Journal of the American
tion of glass-block windows, and A.M. Gurnack, “Factors Related to Geriatrics Society 47 (1999): 1307-1311.
deadbolt locks, smoke detec- Elderly Crime Victims’ Satisfaction with 14
Supra notes 12 (Let’s Retire Fire:
tors, handrails, and handicap Police Services: The Impact of Fire Safety Tips for Older Americans) and
ramps, as well as sidewalk Milwaukee’s ‘Gray Squad,’” The Geron- 13 (Elder, Squires, and Busuttil); C.
replacement, to qualifying tologist 31 (1991): 92-101. DiGuiseppi, P. Edwards, C. Godward, et
© Photo Disc al, “Urban Residential Fire and Flame
participants. Prevention and Injuries: A Population-Based Study,”
intervention programs of this Injury Prevention 6 (2000): 250-254; and
type can significantly improve G.R. Istre, M.A. McCoy, L. Osborn, et al,
both the quality of life for older “Deaths and Injuries from House Fires,”
adults and the security of the New England Journal of Medicine 344
(2001): 1011-1016.
larger community. 15
Supra notes 12 (Facts on Fire) and
13 (Elder, Squires, and Busuttil).
Endnotes Supra notes 12 (Facts on Fire) and
13 (Elder, Squires, and Busuttil); and U.S.
U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Fire Administration, Fire Risks for Older
summary file for McKeesport city, Adults (1999); retrieved on May 6, 2004,
Allegheny, Pennsylvania; retrieved on from http://www.usfa.
May 6, 2004, from http://www.factfinder. loads/pdf/publications/older.pdf.
17 Supra notes 12 (Let’s Retire Fire:
J. Lindesay, “Elderly People and Fire Safety Tips for Older Americans) and
Crime,” Reviews in Clinical Gerontology M.S. Lachs, C. Bove, M.H. Wearing, 14 (Istre, McCoy, Osborn, et al); and C.M.
6 (1996): 199-204. et al, “The Clinical Epidemiology of Ryan, W. Thorpe, P. Mullin, et al, “A
S. Benson, “The Older Adult and Fear Crime Victimization in Older Adults: A Persistent Fire Hazard for Older Adults:
of Crime,” Journal of Gerontological Multidisciplinary Pilot Study,” Journal Cooking-Related Clothing Ignition,”
Nursing 23 (1997): 24-31. of Elder Abuse and Neglect 13 (2001): Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
A.L. Falzon and G.G. Davis, “A 15- 79-90; and M.S. Lachs, R. Bachman, 45 (1997): 1283-1285.
Year Retrospective Review of Homicide in C. Williams, et al, “Crime, Health, and Supra note 8 (Zevitz and Gurnack);
the Elderly,” Journal of Forensic Science Police Department Contact with Older and P. Frommer and K. Papouchado,
43 (1998): 371-374. Adults: A Population-Based Exploratory “Police as Contributors to Healthy
Supra note 2; U.S. Department of Study,” (Abstract) The Gerontologist 43 Communities: Aiken, South Carolina,”
Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office (2003): 159. Public Health Reports 11 (2000): 249-
of Justice Programs, Crimes Against Supra note 9 (Lachs, Bachman, 252; and S. Lachenmayr, K.D. Goldman,
Persons Age 65 or Older, 1992-1997 Williams, et al). and F.S. Brand, “Safe Return: A Commu-
(2000); retrieved on May 6, 2004, from Supra note 9 (Lachs, Bachman, nity-Based Initiative Between Police Williams, et al). Officers and the Alzheimer’s Association
cpa6597.pdf; and U.S. Department of U.S. Fire Administration, Facts on to Increase the Safety of People with
Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Fire (2003); retrieved on May 6, 2004, Alzheimer’s Disease,” Health Promotion
Office of Justice Programs, Victim from Practice 1 (2000): 268-278.
Characteristics (2003); retrieved on May factsheets/facts.shtm; and U.S. Fire Supra note 1.
6, 2004, from Administration, Let’s Retire Fire: Fire Supra note 1.
bjs/cvict_v.htm. Safety Tips for Older Americans (1992); Supra note 6.

November 2005 / 31
Supra notes 2 and 6. The authors thank the city of McKeesport, including its mayor, police chief, and
Supra note 9 (Lachs, Bove, Wearing, fire chief, for providing access to police, fire, and emergency medical services
et al). records. Three successive administrations have supported the McKeesport
Supra note 17. Aging Program. Mary Ganguli, M.D., M.P.H., provided valuable consultative
Supra note 18 (Frommer and advice on the design of the study and the preparation of this article. Financial
Papouchado). support was provided by an anonymous community donor. In November 2003,
Supra note 18 (Lachenmayr, parts of the study were presented at the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the
Goldman, and Brand). Gerontological Society of America in San Diego, California.
Supra note 8 (Zevitz and Gurnack).
L. Jordan, “Law Enforcement and the Ms. Gesmond is the primary nurse care coordinator, Physical Rehabilitation
Elderly: A Concern for the 21st Century,” Unit, McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, Pennsylvania.
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May 2002,
20-23. Dr. Tafreshi-Darabi was a research associate with the McKeesport Aging
Supra note 18 (Lachenmayr, Program.
Goldman, and Brand).
30 Dr. Farkas is in private practice in McKeesport, Pennsylvania.
Ibid. Dr. Rubin chairs the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health at the
Supra note 9. Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.

The Bulletin Honors

T he Chula Vista, Cali-

fornia, Police Depart-
ment’s memorial wall is
the only monument in San
Diego County that honors
every county peace officer
killed in the line of duty—
currently numbering 77 from
14 different agencies since
1864. Dedicated on April 12,
2005, the memorial stands
at the west end of the de-
partment’s front courtyard. It
consists of a battery of flags;
a black, semicircular granite
wall; and a bronze statue of two officers—one standing and one kneeling—with their heads
bowed, paying tribute to and guarding over the names etched into the wall.

32 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

The Bulletin Notes
Law enforcement officers are challenged daily in the performance of their duties; they face each
challenge freely and unselfishly while answering the call to duty. In certain instances, their actions
warrant special attention from their respective departments. The Bulletin also wants to recognize
those situations that transcend the normal rigors of the law enforcement profession.

Early one morning, Deputy Chief Nathan Huss of the Bluffton, Indiana,
Police Department radioed the town dispatch center that he smelled smoke
and asked for wind direction and speed. He then searched for the source of
the scent and located a burning residence. Deputy Chief Huss woke the
seven residents, who were not aware that their home was on fire, and helped
them outside. The actions of Deputy Chief Huss ensured the safety of these

Deputy Chief Huss

One night, Deputies Rod

Cross and James Wilson of the
Blount County, Tennessee,
Sheriff’s Office responded to a
fire at an assisted-living home.
Upon arrival, the residence was
fully engulfed in flames, and the
deputies heard screams from by-
standers that residents still were
Sheriff Berrong Deputy Cross Deputy Wilson trapped inside. Sheriff James
Berrong then arrived on the scene,
and the three men began breaking windows and searching for victims. Deputy Wilson and Sheriff
Berrong entered the building to help residents to safety, and Deputy Cross assisted from outside.
In all, the deadly fire caused five deaths and several injuries. By putting the victims’ safety ahead
of their own, Sheriff Berrong and Deputies Cross and Wilson prevented even more tragedy.

Nominations for the Bulletin Notes should be based on either the rescue of one or
more citizens or arrest(s) made at unusual risk to an officer’s safety. Submissions
should include a short write-up (maximum of 250 words), a separate photograph of
each nominee, and a letter from the department’s ranking officer endorsing the
nomination. Submissions should be sent to the Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
FBI Academy, Madison Building, Room 201, Quantico, VA 22135.
U.S. Department of Justice Periodicals
Federal Bureau of Investigation Postage and Fees Paid
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