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Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Restless Earth
How and why do tectonic plates move?

Convection currents
from the hot outer
core and mantle move
the tectonic plates on
the earths surface


The Iron in the outer core produces

a magnetic field which protects the
earth from radiation from space

What are the different types of plate boundary and what hazards
are found there?

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Montserrat, Caribbean (LEDC)
Montserrat is found on a destructive plate boundary

Primary Effects



Secondary Effects

23 people died in 1997

50% of the population were
evacuated to the north of the
island to live in makeshift shelters
Plymouth - the capital became a
ghost town
Many schools and hospitals were
Homes were destroyed and

Infrastructure, including the

airport, was destroyed - 2/3 of
the island was covered in ash
Farmland was destroyed

Tourism came to a halt

Unemployment rose as tourism
industry declined

More than half Montserrat

become uninhabitable.
Pyroclastic flows destroyed
everything in their path

Floods as valleys blocked by

Forest fires caused by
pyroclastic flows

Scientists monitored the volcano and

set up warning systems via radio,
loudhailer and sirens
The UK government sent 17 million of
emergency aid, including temporary
buildings and water purification systems
Charities like the Red Cross set up
temporary schools
People were evacuated to the north of
the island, and then to other countries

Immediate Responses

Health problems were

reported (due by volcanic ash
containing quartz that can then
cause silicosis)
Ageing population as many
young people have left the
Over half the population left
the island and have not
returned (many went to the

Long Term Responses

Ten years later the South of the island

is still out of bounds, and scientists are
still monitoring the volcano
The UK government funded a three year
re-development plan. It is building
homes, schools, infrastructure and
The Red Cross have built a home for the
Tourists may come back and the volcano
itself could become a tourist attraction

Seismometers: to monitor earthquakes as magma rises to the surface
Tiltmeters: to monitor the volcano swelling as it fills with magma
Aircraft: To measure the amount of gas given off by the volcano
Concrete channels: To divert dangerous lahar mudflows
Concrete shelters: To protect people from volcanic bombs and ash
Evacuation routes: Clearly signposted. People also have regular drills

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Earthquakes in MEDCs and LEDCs

Haiti (LEDC)
Haiti is found on a conservative plate boundary. The earthquake in 2010. Magnitude 7
Primary (caused directly by the earthquake)

Secondary (result from primary effects)

316,000 people were killed and 1 million people

were made homeless.

1 in 5 people lost their jobs because so many

buildings were destroyed.

250,000 homes and 30,000 other buildings,

including the Presidents Palace were either
destroyed or badly damaged

The large number of deaths meant that

hospitals and morgues became full and bodies
then had to be piled up on the streets

Transport and communication links were also

badly damaged by the earthquake

The large number of bodies meant that diseases,

especially cholera, became a serious problem

Hospitals (50+) and schools (1,300+) were

badly damaged, as was the airports control

It was difficult getting aid into the area

because of issues at the airport and generally
poor management of the situation

The main prison was destroyed and 4,000

inmates escaped

People were squashed into shanty towns or onto

the streets because their homes had been
destroyed leading to poor sanitation and health,
and looting became a real problem

Immediate Responses

Long Term Responses

$100 million in aid given by the USA and $330

million by the European Union

98% of the rubble on the roads hadnt been

cleared restricting aid access

Lack of immediate aid through poor planning,

management and access meant that people had
to try and rescue each other

1 million people still without houses after 1 year

so still have to live in aid camps

115,000 tents and 1,000,000+ tarpaulin

Support for people without jobs, which equates
shelters provided, 810,000 people placed in aid to nearly 70% of the population, through
camps. Healthcare supplies provided to limit
cash/food-for-work projects

Earthquake proof
design in the developing

Japan (MEDC)

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Japan is found on a destructive plate boundary. The earthquake in 2011. Magnitude 9

Primary (caused directly by the earthquake)

Secondary (result from primary effects)

Ground shaking: parts of Japan were shifted

2.4 metres further east.

Tsunami: this was caused by a 58 metre up

thrust along a 180 km long section of the

Ground subsidence: a 400 km stretch of

coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 metres,
which allowed the tsunami to overtop defences
and travel further and faster inland.

Flooding: there was massive coastal flooding as

a consequence of the tsunami flowing inland

Soil liquefaction: this was found to have

occurred in areas of reclaimed land around
Tokyo, damaging more than a thousand

The economic impact on the region and on Japan

as a whole is severe. The Japanese government
estimated that the damage alone could cost
US$300 billion. By June that year, 209
companies in Japan had been forced into
bankruptcy by the disaster.

15,845 killed
128,479 properties totally destroyed
3,918 roads damaged
78 bridges damaged.

Nuclear power plants were damaged. In the

Fukushima region over 200,000 residents were
evacuated and are still unable to return to the

Immediate Responses

Long Term Responses

Text messages were sent and TV broadcasts

interrupted to warn people of the potential
tsunami following the earthquake

Long term planning: They have regular

earthquake drills to educate people. Emergency
services practice how to rescue people. People
keep emergency kits at home (torch, food, radio)

The nuclear power plant at Fukoshima was

automatically shut down

Many buildings in Japan are earthquake proof

deep foundations, strong, flexible steel frames,
and shock absorbers in the buildings frame.

Emergency rescue teams were mobilised

quickly and effectively to reach and rescue
affected people.

Earthquake proof design in the

developed world. E.g. Japan