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Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Restless Earth
How and why do tectonic plates move?

Convection currents
from the hot outer
core and mantle move
the tectonic plates on
the earths surface

Lithosphere
Asthenosphere

The Iron in the outer core produces


a magnetic field which protects the
earth from radiation from space

What are the different types of plate boundary and what hazards
are found there?

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Volcano
Montserrat, Caribbean (LEDC)
Montserrat is found on a destructive plate boundary

Primary Effects
Social

Economic

Environmental

Secondary Effects

23 people died in 1997


50% of the population were
evacuated to the north of the
island to live in makeshift shelters
Plymouth - the capital became a
ghost town
Many schools and hospitals were
destroyed
Homes were destroyed and
abandoned

Infrastructure, including the


airport, was destroyed - 2/3 of
the island was covered in ash
Farmland was destroyed

Tourism came to a halt


Unemployment rose as tourism
industry declined

More than half Montserrat


become uninhabitable.
Pyroclastic flows destroyed
everything in their path

Floods as valleys blocked by


ash
Forest fires caused by
pyroclastic flows

Scientists monitored the volcano and


set up warning systems via radio,
loudhailer and sirens
The UK government sent 17 million of
emergency aid, including temporary
buildings and water purification systems
Charities like the Red Cross set up
temporary schools
People were evacuated to the north of
the island, and then to other countries

Immediate Responses

Health problems were


reported (due by volcanic ash
containing quartz that can then
cause silicosis)
Ageing population as many
young people have left the
island
Over half the population left
the island and have not
returned (many went to the
UK)

Long Term Responses

Ten years later the South of the island


is still out of bounds, and scientists are
still monitoring the volcano
The UK government funded a three year
re-development plan. It is building
homes, schools, infrastructure and
hospitals
The Red Cross have built a home for the
elderly
Tourists may come back and the volcano
itself could become a tourist attraction

Prediction
Seismometers: to monitor earthquakes as magma rises to the surface
Tiltmeters: to monitor the volcano swelling as it fills with magma
Aircraft: To measure the amount of gas given off by the volcano
Protection
Concrete channels: To divert dangerous lahar mudflows
Concrete shelters: To protect people from volcanic bombs and ash
Evacuation routes: Clearly signposted. People also have regular drills

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Earthquakes in MEDCs and LEDCs


Haiti (LEDC)
Haiti is found on a conservative plate boundary. The earthquake in 2010. Magnitude 7
Primary (caused directly by the earthquake)

Secondary (result from primary effects)

316,000 people were killed and 1 million people


were made homeless.

1 in 5 people lost their jobs because so many


buildings were destroyed.

250,000 homes and 30,000 other buildings,


including the Presidents Palace were either
destroyed or badly damaged

The large number of deaths meant that


hospitals and morgues became full and bodies
then had to be piled up on the streets

Transport and communication links were also


badly damaged by the earthquake

The large number of bodies meant that diseases,


especially cholera, became a serious problem

Hospitals (50+) and schools (1,300+) were


badly damaged, as was the airports control
tower

It was difficult getting aid into the area


because of issues at the airport and generally
poor management of the situation

The main prison was destroyed and 4,000


inmates escaped

People were squashed into shanty towns or onto


the streets because their homes had been
destroyed leading to poor sanitation and health,
and looting became a real problem

Immediate Responses

Long Term Responses

$100 million in aid given by the USA and $330


million by the European Union

98% of the rubble on the roads hadnt been


cleared restricting aid access

Lack of immediate aid through poor planning,


management and access meant that people had
to try and rescue each other

1 million people still without houses after 1 year


so still have to live in aid camps

115,000 tents and 1,000,000+ tarpaulin


Support for people without jobs, which equates
shelters provided, 810,000 people placed in aid to nearly 70% of the population, through
camps. Healthcare supplies provided to limit
cash/food-for-work projects
disease

Earthquake proof
design in the developing
world.

Japan (MEDC)

Dynamic Planet - Restless Earth - 1

Japan is found on a destructive plate boundary. The earthquake in 2011. Magnitude 9


Primary (caused directly by the earthquake)

Secondary (result from primary effects)

Ground shaking: parts of Japan were shifted


2.4 metres further east.

Tsunami: this was caused by a 58 metre up


thrust along a 180 km long section of the
seabed.

Ground subsidence: a 400 km stretch of


coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 metres,
which allowed the tsunami to overtop defences
and travel further and faster inland.

Flooding: there was massive coastal flooding as


a consequence of the tsunami flowing inland

Soil liquefaction: this was found to have


occurred in areas of reclaimed land around
Tokyo, damaging more than a thousand
buildings.

The economic impact on the region and on Japan


as a whole is severe. The Japanese government
estimated that the damage alone could cost
US$300 billion. By June that year, 209
companies in Japan had been forced into
bankruptcy by the disaster.

15,845 killed
128,479 properties totally destroyed
3,918 roads damaged
78 bridges damaged.

Nuclear power plants were damaged. In the


Fukushima region over 200,000 residents were
evacuated and are still unable to return to the
area.

Immediate Responses

Long Term Responses

Text messages were sent and TV broadcasts


interrupted to warn people of the potential
tsunami following the earthquake

Long term planning: They have regular


earthquake drills to educate people. Emergency
services practice how to rescue people. People
keep emergency kits at home (torch, food, radio)

The nuclear power plant at Fukoshima was


automatically shut down

Many buildings in Japan are earthquake proof


deep foundations, strong, flexible steel frames,
and shock absorbers in the buildings frame.

Emergency rescue teams were mobilised


quickly and effectively to reach and rescue
affected people.

Earthquake proof design in the


developed world. E.g. Japan