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4.5 A well contains methane gas occupying the upper 6,000 ft of

annulus. The mean gas temperature is 170 F and the surface
pressure is 4,000 psia.
(a) Estimate the pressure exerted against a sand below the
bottom of the surface casing at a depth of 5,500 ft. Assume
ideal gas behavior. (b) Calculate the equivalent density at a
depth of 5,500 ft.
Solutions:
(a) Using eq.(4.6):

(b) Using the above value into eq. (4.8):

ppg
4.6 A casing string is to be cemented in place at a depth of 10,000
ft. The well contains 10-lb m/gal mud when the casing string is
placed on bottom. The cement operation is designed so that
the 10-lbm/gal mud will be displaced from the annulus by (1) 500

ft of 8.5 lbm/gal mud flush, (2) 2,000 ft of 12.7-lb m/gal filler

cement, and (3) 1,500 ft of 16.7-lb m/gal high-strength cement.
The high-strength cement will be displaced from the casing by
9-lbm/gal brine. Calculate the minimum pump pressure required

to completely displace the casing. Assume no shoe joints are

used.
Solution:
Using equation 4.7, and assuming Po is zero;

4.7 A well being drilled at 12,000 ft using an 11-lb m/gal mud when a
permeable formation having a fluid pressure of 7,000 psig is cut
by the bit.

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(a) If the circulation is stopped, what hydrostatic pressure will

exerted by the mud against the permeable formation?
(b) Will the well flow if the blowout preventers are left open?
(c) Calculate the surface drillpipe pressure if the blowout
preventers are closed?
(d) If the formation brine of specific gravity 1.1 enters the
annulus up to a depth of 11,000 ft before the blowout preventers
are close, what will be the surface annular pressure after the
well is shut in?
Solutions:
(a) Using equation 4.2b;
(b) Yes, because the formation pressure is higher than the
hydrostatic pressure.
(c) Let:
(d)

pbp=pformation - phydrostatic = 7000-6864=136 psig

4.16 The maximum weight to be applied to the bit during the next
interval of hole is 60,000 lbm. The drilling string will be
composed of 5-in., 19.5- drillpipe and 2.75x8.0 in drill collars
and the maximum mud density anticipated is 13
.
Compute the minimum length of the drill collars required to
prevent a buckling tendency in the drillpipe.
Solution:

The weight of drill collars in air necessary to produce a bit

weight of 60,000 lb is:
The weight of the drill collars in the mud is:
Using equation 4.25a:

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Note: The above value is true only if the mudweight is 13lbm/gal. If

the mudweight is larger than this, one would need a larger
length of drill collars to get the same bit weight as well as to
keep the neutral point at the junction of drill collars and drillpipe.
If the mudweight is smaller one could use the same length of
drill collar, slacking off just enough from the hookload to give
60,000 lb-f at the bit. This would cause the neutral point to be
way inside the drill collar region itself. This would not be a
problem as the only place that the neutral point should avoid
falling in is the drillpipe region.

4.18 Determine the pressure at the bottom of the drill collars if the
frictional loss in the drilling string is 900 psi, the flow rate is 350
, the mud density is 10-

, and the well depth is

8,000 ft. The internal diameter of the drill collars is 2.75 in., and
the pressure developed by the pump is 2,600 psig.
Solution:
Using equation 4.29:

and a

pressure of 3,000 psig. The density of the drilling fluid is 15

, and the total nozzle area of the bit is 0.589
.
(a) Compute the power developed by the pump.
(b) Compute the power loss to viscous effects. What happens
to this energy?
(c) Compute the impact force of the jets of fluid against the
bottom of the hole.
Solutions:
(a) Using equation 4.34:

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(b)

It converted into heat (friction).

(c) Using equation 4.37:

4.33 A fluid is reported as having a plastic viscosity of 40 cp and a

yield point of 7 . Compute a consistency index and flowbehavior index for this fluid.
Solution:
Using Table 4.3,

4.35 A 9.2 lbm/gal Newtonian fluid having a viscosity of 30 cp is

being circulated at a rate of 100 gal/min in a vertical well
containing a 6-in.-ID casing and a 4.5-in.-OD drillstring.
Compute the static and circulating pressure in the annulus of
15,000 ft. Assume the flow pattern is laminar.
Solution:
Static:

Circulating:

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