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International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science

IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6
June 2015

Sonal varshney
M.tech Scholar
Galgotias University

Abhinandan Singh
M.tech Scholar
Galgotias University

ABSTRACT
The Ad Hoc network in mobile communication is divided into two groups i.e. Vehicular ad hoc
network (VANET) & Mobile ad hoc network (MANET). The word ad hoc means for this purpose,
so in VANET ad hoc network is used for vehicle only. Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a new
communication paradigm that enables the communication between vehicles moving at high speeds on
the roads. The main aim of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing method has better
performance in highly mobile environment of VANET. Routing protocols were selected carefully after
carrying out literature review. The selected protocols were then evaluated through simulation in terms
of performance metrics i.e. path optimality, packet delivery ratio and transmission ratio. After
simulation results, we used MATLAB to plot the graph to compare the results of selected routing
protocols with each other. Based on the results of performance metrics in different environments of
VANET, we realized that position based routing method of VANET outperformed the traditional ad
hoc topology based routing. The selection of a single routing protocol is hard in VANET because the
protocol performance depends on vehicle speed, driving environment etc. That may vary from one
environment of network to another.

KEYWORDS: VANET, Routing Protocols, Packet Delivery Ratio, Path Optimality, Transmission
Ratio
INTRODUCTION
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a kind of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). It is a new
network technology where the cars are used as mobile nodes to form a communication network. The
growth of the increased number of vehicles are equipped with wireless transceivers to communicate
with other vehicles to form a special class of wireless networks, known as vehicular ad hoc networks
or VANETs. VANET is an integral part of the intelligence transportation system architecture, which
aims to improve road. A VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing
cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect. VANET contains two entities: access
points and vehicles, the access points are fixed and usually connected to the internet and they could
participate as a distribution point for vehicles.

134

Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh


International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6

June 2015

Using vehicular communications, drivers can be well informed of vital traffic information such as
treacherous road conditions and accident sites by communicating amongst vehicles and/or with the
roadside infrastructure. With the large information of traffic conditions, vehicles will have better
knowledge and it is reasonable that the problem of road accidents can be alleviated. More than 60%
accidents happen due to the delay of less than a half second. We can avoid these types of problem by
introducing the VANET technology. It is also helpful for sharing documents, music and videos etc.
VANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS
Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. A routing
protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables
them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network.
Various ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed in recent years, whereas two main classes
of VANET routing protocols can be distinguished: location-based and topology-based protocols.
These protocols enable the exchange of data between distinct pairs of nodes, using intermediate
network participants for forwarding packets on their way to the destination. Location-based routing
protocols use additional information on the nodes geographical positions to find suitable routes. These
positions may be e.g. the nodes GPS coordinates. However, when using location-based protocols,
there is always a need for location services and servers.

Fig 1 classification of VANET routing protocols


VANET routing protocols are broadly divided into two categories Topology based and Geographic
routing.

134

Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh


International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6

June 2015

TOPOLOGY BASED ROUTING


It uses information about links that exist in the network to perform packet forwarding. Topologybased routing protocols make use of routing tables for storing the link information as a basis of packet
forwarding from source node to destination node. These protocols are further categorized into three
types based on the network architecture : Proactive, Reactive and hybrid routing protocols.
A) Proactive protocols- Proactive routing protocols, also known as table-driven protocols, allow
every network node to maintain a routing table for storing the route information to all other nodes,
every next hop node is maintained in the table entry that comes in the path towards the destination
from the source.Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR)
protocols are examples of proactive routing protocols.
B) Reactive protocols- Reactive routing protocols, also known as on-demand routing protocols.
They are called so because on requirement of a route that does not exist from source node to
destination node, the route discovery starts.
C) Hybrid protocols- these routing protocols are the combination of proactive routing protocols
and reactive routing protocols.
GEOGRAPHIC BASED ROUTING
Position-based routing protocol depends on the position/location data during the routing mechanism.
The source node sends information data packet to the destination making use of the packets location
instead of utilizing the network address. During this protocol mechanism, every node decides its
position and that of their neighboring nodes through help of Geographic Position System (GPS) which
is a position determining service.
Hence, position-based routing protocols are considered to be appropriate and stable for
highly mobile VANET environments with topology-based routing protocols. Position-based protocols
are categorized as namely, DTN i.e. Delay Tolerant Network, Non-DTN i.e. Non Delay Tolerant
Network and Hybrid protocols.
A) Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) Routing Protocol: DTN routing protocol is an efficient protocol for
networks with characteristics such as rapid disconnectivity during communication, massive/huge
scalability, large unavoidable delays, restricted bandwidth, high fault tolerance rates and power
constraints.
B) Non Delay Tolerant Network (Non DTN) Protocols: The Non-DTN protocols are a type of
position-based routing protocols that do not take into account the disconnectivity problem instead
assume that a large amount of nodes exist to attain successful communication, which implies that the
protocol is more appropriate for dense networks.

134 Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science


IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6
June 2015

C) Hybrid Position-based Routing: Hybrid routing is the position-based routing that reduces control
overhead/traffic and do not want to maintain the table since they make use of the location information
about the neighboring nodes and destination node which makes position-based routing more scalable.
There are various differences between topological based routing protocols and position based routing
protocols. Some differences are given below by using table-

Table 1- Differences Between Topology Based Routing Protocols And Position Based Routing
Protocols
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The software used in this study is MATLAB. The advantage that MATLAB offers is that it is widely
available, continuously updated and has wider reach. Mobility and generation topologies for various
models are already available for MATLAB which can be made use of to save development time. As
the majority of tools available at present do not have the ease and widespread reach, using MATLAB
offers unique advantage over other systems.

134 Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh


International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6

June 2015

SIMULATION SETUP : In our simulation, the simulation area of 100 m 100 m is used. packet sizes
of 2000 kbits are used. Four routing protocols are examined; AODV, DSR, GPSR and GSR. Table 2
shows the input parameters that we have used in our simulation using matlab.

Simulation Parameters
Different performance metrics are used in the evaluation of routing protocols. They represent different
characteristics of the overall network performance. In this report, i evaluate three metrics used in our
comparisons to study their effect on the overall network performance. These metrics are Path
optimality, packet delivery ratio, transmission range.
Path optimality:
It defined as difference between the no of hops a packet took to reach its destination and the length of
shortest path that physically existed through the network when packet was originated.
Packet delivery ratio:
packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) is the ratio between the number of packets transmitted by a traffic source
and the number of packets received by a traffic sink.
Transmission ratio:
Transmission ratio is defined as ratio of fixed and variable transmission energy losses. The
transmission range that achieves the most economical use of energy is studied for uniformly
distributed vehicles nodes in VANET.

134 Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh


International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616

Volume 4, Issue 6
June 2015

RESULT & DISCUSSION

PATH OPTIMALITY OF AODV, DSR, GPSR & GSR

Fig 2 path optimality


We observe that GPSR with high values is able to give better path optimality consistently as
compared to other protocols. AODV in this scenario not performs well, although in fewer connections
its performance is more than various parameters of other three protocols.
Packet delivery ratio of AODV, DSR,GPSR &GSR

Fig 3 packet delivery ratio


Packet delivery ratio Of GPSR increases as the no of node increases, but in case of AODV, it increases
in large number than GSR and DSR but less than GPSR. In case of DSR, it increases in small value
than GSR. So, GPSR is more suitable routing protocol than GSR, AODV and DSR.

134 Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh


International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616

Volume 4, Issue 6
June 2015

TRANSMISSION RATIO OF AODV, DSR, GPSR & GSR

Fig 4 transmission ratio


For the better performance of VANET, there should be large transmission ratio. And from this
figure it is clear that AODV has better transmission ratio than the other three routing protocols. GSR
has better transmission ratio than GPSR & DSR but lower than the transmission ratio of AODV.
Based on this parameter it is concluded that DSR has worst performance than other three
protocols. And AODV performs better than other routing protocols in based of transmission ratio
parameter.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK
I have evaluated four different ad hoc routing protocols with respect to their Path optimality, packet
delivery ratio, and transmission range. Based on these three parameters I can say that GPSR has better
performance than AODV, DSR & GSR in terms of Path optimality and packet delivery ratio. But
AODV has better performance than GPSR, GSR & DSR. So from this study, i conclude that among
the protocols considered, there is no single one with an overall superior performance. One protocol
may be superior in terms of path optimality whilst others may be superior in terms of packet delivery
ratio, packet end-to-end delay or throughput. The choice of a particular routing protocol will depend
on the intended use of the network.
In future work one can analyze these techniques for a wide network by increasing the number of nodes
greater than 200 or more and also for varying pause time.
REFRENCES
1) Otmani Mohamed, fihri mohammed Analysis Of Routing Protocols Over Vanet Through
Using Matlab Simulator Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Advances In Computing, Communication
and Information Technology - CCIT 2014.
2) Tajinder Kaur, A. K. Verma Simulation and Analysis of AODV routing protocol in VANETs
International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2,
Issue-3, July 2012.

134
Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science


IJIACS
ISSN 2347 8616
Volume 4, Issue 6

June 2015

3) Akhtar Husain , Amit Doegar Performance Comparison Of Topology And Position Based
Routing Protocols In Vehicular Network Environments International Journal of Wireless &
Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011.
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Modules Using MATLAB International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and
Software Engineering Volume 4, Issue 5, pp. 1302-1308 May 2014.
5) J. Haerri, F. Filali, and C. Bonnet, (2006) Performance comparison of AODV and OLSR in
VANETs urban environments under realistic mobility patterns, 5 th annual IFIP
Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2006), Lipari, Italy.
6) C. Lochert, H. Hartenstein, and J. Tian, (2003) A Routing strategy for vehicular ad hoc
networks in city environments, Proceedings of IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium,
Columbus, USA, pp. 156-161.
7) Y. Ko, and N. Vaidya, (2002) Location Aided Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, ACM
journal of Wireless Networks, vol. 6, no. 4, pp 307-321.

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Sonal varshney, Abhinandan singh