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February 21, 2016

HE

THOUGHT
HE
COULD
CHANGE
THE
NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
FROM
THE
INSIDE. HE WOUND
UP
AS THE LEAD
PLAINTIFF
I N A P O T E N T I A L LY
E X P LO S I V E L AWS U I T.

THE
E D U C AT I O N
OF
E D W I N R AY M O N D
BY
SAKI KNAFO

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February 21, 2016

13

First Words

Rough Justice Next month, the Supreme Court will hear the
biggest abortion case in decades and consider whether laws
designed for the protection of women actually harm them.

By Emily Bazelon

16

On Money

The Imagination Gap Do technological advances determine


the health of our economy? Maybe but what matters most is
how they change us.

By Adam Davidson

22

Well

Contemplation Therapy A new study suggests theres some


science behind the claims made for mindfulness meditation.

By Gretchen Reynolds

00
28

22

00
13

24

Letter of
Recommendation

XpresSpa A place to recover from the T.S.A. experience.

By Ta y Brodesser-Akner

26

The Ethicist

Speaking Up for a Pet Pig. If the pig is hungry, feed it.

By Kwame Anthony Appiah

28

Eat

A New California Cuisine Roasted yams get the West


Coast treatment.

By Sam Sifton

30

Lives

Unorderly Conduct The treacherous process of learning


to recycle in Switzerland.

Katharina Heinrich
As told to Laura Bauerlein

78

Talk

Jon Taffer The host of Bar Rescue sees Shakespeare


in reality TV.

Interview by Ana Marie Cox

Behind the Cover: Jessica Lustig, deputy editor: Christopher Anderson photographed Edwin
Raymond on a drive to East Flatbush, Brooklyn, where Raymond grew up, capturing the isolation
of a black ocer who has joined a lawsuit against the New York Police Department. Photograph
by Christopher Anderson/Magnum, for The New York Times.

8
10
20
25

Contributors
The Thread
Poem
Tip

26 Judge John
Hodgman
74 Puzzles
76 Puzzles
(Puzzle answers on Page 66)

Continued on Page 6

T: 212 913 9082


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32

Woman
vs. Machine

Dana Spiottas quietly subversive American fictions.

By Susan Burton

36

Double Deal

A documentary reveals the tangled role of paid informants


in F.B.I. terrorism investigations.

By Mattathias Schwartz

40

Sea Sweepers

The 18 marine police officers of the island nation Palau are


fighting poachers in the Pacific Ocean. How they do it may help
the rest of the world save all of the oceans.

By Ian Urbina

50

The Education
of Edwin Raymond

He thought he could change the New York City Police


Department from the inside. He wound up the lead plaintiff
in a lawsuit brought by 12 minority officers.

By Saki Knafo

Palauans are a very proud people. The whole thing was


a tragedy and a really embarrassing one.
PAGE 40

Copyright 2016 The New York Times

Photograph of a Palauan patrol boat by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage, for The New York Times

February 21, 2016

BECAUSE SOMEDAY

My money will work for me.


Attachment:

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Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE, SIPC. 2015 FMR LLC. All rights reserved. 712138.3.0

Contributors

Saki Knafo

Photographed by Kathy Ryan at The New York Times on Jan. 5,


2016, at 12:25 p.m.

The Education
of Edwin Raymond,
Page 50

Saki Knafo is a reporting fellow with the


Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute. He
has written for New York Magazine, GQ
and Travel and Leisure. When he first interviewed
Edwin Raymond, a transit officer who joined a
class-action lawsuit against the N.Y.P.D., Raymond
immediately began quoting lines and citing facts
from The New Jim Crow, by Michelle Alexander,
and other influential books about criminal justice
and race. By that point Id interviewed other cops
about the pressures they were experiencing
at work, but Id never heard any of them connect
those problems to the larger societal issues in such
a compelling way, Knafo said. I knew right then
that if I was going to write a story about quotas,
I would be spending a lot of time with Raymond.

Editor in Chief
Deputy Editors

JAKE SILVERSTEIN
JESSICA LUSTIG,
BILL WASIK

Managing Editor
Design Director
Director of Photography
Features Editor
Digital Deputy Editor
Story Editors

ERIKA SOMMER
GAIL BICHLER
KATHY RYAN
ILENA SILVERMAN
CHARLES HOMANS
NITSUH ABEBE,
MICHAEL BENOIST,
SHEILA GLASER,
CLAIRE GUTIERREZ,
LUKE MITCHELL,
DEAN ROBINSON,
WILLY STALEY,
SASHA WEISS

Associate Editors

JEANNIE CHOI,
JAZMINE HUGHES

Chief National Correspondent


Staff Writers

MARK LEIBOVICH
SAM ANDERSON,
EMILY BAZELON,

Taffy Brodesser-Akner

Letter of Recommendation,
Page 24

SUSAN DOMINUS,

Taffy Brodesser-Akner is a contributing writer for


the magazine. She last wrote about the late
Roderick Toombs, known as Rowdy Roddy Piper.

MAUREEN DOWD,
NIKOLE HANNAH-JONES,
WESLEY MORRIS,
JENNA WORTHAM

Susan Burton

Woman vs. Machine,


Page 32

Susan Burton is a writer based in Brooklyn. She


is working on a memoir, The Invention of the
Teenage Girl, to be published by Random House.

Writers at Large
Art Director
Deputy Art Director
Designers

Mattathias Schwartz

Double Deal,
Page 36

Mattathias Schwartz is a contributing writer


for the magazine. His last feature was about
investors who buy shares in other peoples
litigation proceedings.

C. J. CHIVERS,
JIM RUTENBERG
MATT WILLEY
JASON SFETKO
FRANK AUGUGLIARO,
BEN GRANDGENETT

Digital Designer
Associate Photo Editors

LINSEY FIELDS
STACEY BAKER,
AMY KELLNER,
DAVID LA SPINA,
CHRISTINE WALSH

Ian Urbina

Sea Sweepers,
Page 40

Ian Urbina is an investigative reporter who has been


on the staff at The New York Times since 2003.

Virtual-Reality Editor
Photo Assistant
Copy Chief
Copy Editors

KAREN HANLEY
ROB HOERBURGER
HARVEY DICKSON,
DANIEL FROMSON,

Dear Reader: Real Books


or E-books?
Every week the magazine publishes the results
of a study conducted online in July and August
2015 by The New York Timess research-andanalytics department, reflecting the opinions of
2,987 subscribers who chose to participate.
This weeks question: Do you still read physical
books, or do you read them on electronic devices?

JENNA PIROG

MARGARET PREBULA,
ANDREW WILLETT

Head of Research
Research Editors

NANDI RODRIGO
NANA ASFOUR,
RENE MICHAEL,
LIA MILLER,
MARK VAN DE WALLE

Production Chief
38%
Only read
physical books

4%
Only read books on
electronic devices

58%
Read physical books
and books on
electronic devices

Production Editors

ANICK PLEVEN
PATTY RUSH,
HILARY SHANAHAN

Editorial Assistant

LIZ GERECITANO BRINN

Publisher: ANDY WRIGHT Associate Publisher: DOUG LATINO Advertising Directors: JACQUELYN L. CAMERON (Advocacy) SHARI KAPLAN (Live Entertainment and Books) NANCY KARPF (Fine Arts) MAGGIE
KISELICK (Automotive, Technology and Telecom) SCOTT M. KUNZ (International Fashion) SHERRY MAHER (Department Stores, Beauty and American Fashion) STEFANIE PALETZ (Studios) JASON RHYNE (Recruitment)
JOHN RIGGIO

(Legal Branding) JOSH SCHANEN (Media and Travel) SARAH THORPE (Corporate and Health Care, Education, Liquor and Packaged Goods) BRENDAN WALSH (Finance and Real Estate) National

Sales Office Advertising Directors: JACQUELYN L. CAMERON (Washington) LAUREN FUNKE (Florida/Southeast) DOUG LATINO (Detroit) STEFANIE PALETZ (Los Angeles/Southwest) CHRISTOPHER REAM (San
Francisco/Northwest) JEAN ROBERTS (Boston/Northeast) JIMMY SAUNDERS (Chicago/Midwest) SUSAN G. STEINBREDER (Atlanta/Southeast) KAREN FARINA (Magazine Director) LAURA BOURGEOIS (Marketing
Director, Advertising) MICHAEL ANTHONY VILLASEOR (Creative Director, Advertising) MARILYN M C CAULEY (Managing Director, Specialty Printing) THOMAS GILLESPIE (Manager, Magazine Layout) CHRIS RISO
(Publishers Assistant). To advertise, email karen.farina@nytimes.com.

2.21.16

A man, paralyzed from the chest down in a terrible accident,


using futuristic technology to do incredible things. Its
not the latest blockbuster. Its the real story of Robert Woo,
a Manhattan architect who was crushed by seven tons of falling
steel. His injuries were devastating. But thanks to the Mount
Sinai Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, hes walking

again with help from a bionic exoskeleton strapped to his legs.


Proof that sometimes, real life is even better than the movies.

1- 8 0 0 -MD-SINA I
mou nt si n a i.or g/re h ab

BIONIC
EXOSKELETONS CAN BE FOUND
IN COMIC BOOKS,
HOLLY WOOD MOVIES, AND NOW
AT MOUNT SINAI.

The Thread

RE: THE ETHICIST

Kwame Anthony Appiah discussed a query


from a reader wondering if he should have
informed his mother-in-law about her
impending death. The letter-writers wife,
along with her sisters, never explained the
severity of the situation to their mother, who
had memory problems.

Catholicism believes that Christ is


present in the sacraments, and one of
the traditional seven sacraments is the
anointing of the sick. It was never ocially seen as essential for salvation or
to avoid damnation, however. Movies
and novels emphasized the deathbed
conversion, containing confession,
anointing and the Eucharist, rather than
the consolation of Gods presence in
mercy for strengthening in illness and,
perhaps, in facing ones death. Appiah
conflates these notions and adds the
sense of the fear of damnation if this is
not received. This was never the intent
of this sacrament.
David E. Pasinski, Fayetteville, N.Y.

THE COVER,
ON TWITTER

This cover is
just so great/
vertigo-inducing.
@kayelbee

RE: N.F.L.

Mark Leibovich wrote about how Roger


Goodell, the N.F.L.s commissioner, and the
billionaire owners known as the Membership
have weathered a year of controversy over concussions, Deflategate and excessive salaries.
The Ethicist was right on with his
response; but I would have come down
harder on the duplicitous daughters. It
was their moral and ethical obligation,
when their mother asked what was
wrong with her, simply to say, You have
cancer. She could then at least have
indicated how much more she wanted
to know. In decades of volunteer work
with hospice and other end-of-life organizations, I never met a dying person
who benefited from being lied to. Conversely, I knew many who, facing lifes
end with understanding and compassion, were able to have rich and meaningful exchanges with those they loved,
and to maintain a level of control over
their final days. Both should be every
individuals human right.
Fran Moreland Johns, San Francisco

While admiring Mark Leibovichs


restraint as a Pats fan (like me), he only
scratched the surface of the core issue
that threatens the Shield.
On Deflategate and other disciplinary
failures, no one disputes that the collective-bargaining agreement gives the
commissioner full authority to mete
out justice. As in any contract, however, this assumes that he acts in good
faith. Goodells Deflategate debacle is
the poster child of bad-faith dealings
which he could not have conducted
without the full support of the majority
of the Membership. That same shortsightedness among the Membership
is driving toward an expansion that
will harm players and be of no interest
to fans (does anyone even care about

2.21.16

Mark Leibovich went easy on the N.F.L.


he didnt even mention antitrust! Thats
the root of the N.F.L. hubris it answers
to nobody but its billionaire beneficiaries.
If Senator Claire McCaskill of Missouri and other senators and representatives want to correct the N.F.L.s
disregard of society, communities and
honest business, she could lead an
antitrust-based movement to protect
United States taxpayers from subsidizing billionaires in sports while throwing
away taxpayer-paid incentives (stadiums, roads etc.).
Or a single season-ticket holder in St.
Louis could file a federal suit that might
eventually make the N.F.L. answer to
the wider society that it currently acts
like it owns.
W. Edward Wendover, Cadillac, Mich.

CORRECTIONS:

I agree that the patients daughters


should have at least attempted to answer
her question honestly about what was
happening to her, but the framing of that
is very important. Hospice workers and
others are experts in this field and certainly can be of great assistance in these
dicult conversations. (I served as a hospice chaplain for over 16 years.)
The remarks about contrition and damnation, however, are stereotypical and
quite a shortchanging of the end-of-life
review and to Catholic beliefs in particular.

10

Thursday Night Football let alone


year-round games?). With football, less
is definitely more.
The Membership should beware of
getting what they ask from their commissioner as they choke the goose that
lays their golden eggs.
Steve McConnell, Windsor, Conn.

Thats the
root of the
N.F.L. hubris
it answers
to nobody but
its billionaire
beneficiaries.
Illustrations by Tom Gauld

The Diagnosis column on Feb. 14 misidentified


the school Francis Graziano, the first reader
to arrive at the correct diagnosis, attends. It
is Georgetown University School of Medicine,
not George Washington University.

The Talk column on Feb. 7, featuring the


restaurateur Danny Meyer, misstated an
aspect of the new compensation model at his
restaurant group. Waiters will share in the
restaurants revenue, not its profits.
Send your thoughts to magazine@nytimes.com.

Cover illustration by Dan Cassaro

Readers respond to the 2.7.2016 issue.

Wellness lives in Tribeca.

YOU NEVER KNOW


WHO YOULL MEET
AT

Bryan Cranston in Trumbo, courtesy of Bleecker Street

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First Words

Next month, the Supreme Court will hear the biggest abortion case in decades and consider
whether laws designed for the protection of women actually harm them. By Emily Bazelon

Over Bearing
In September 1905, a laundress named Emma Gotcher reported Curt
Muller, the owner of Portland Grand Laundry, for making her work
more than 10 hours the states legal limit for women on, of all days,
Labor Day. Gotcher was a labor activist, married to a leader of the
Shirtwaist and Laundry Workers Union. The court found Muller guilty
of violating Oregon law and fined him $10. He refused to pay, and on
appeal to the Supreme Court, his lawyer drew national attention by
making a feminist argument: Limits on womens work hours actually
discriminate against them. Two years earlier, in the well-known case
Lochner v. New York, the Supreme Court struck down a state law
that restricted bakers, most of them men, to the same 10-hour day.
The bakers were in no sense wards of the state, the court said. Why,
Mullers lawyer asked, should women be treated dierently? The
justices found a reason. A woman, like a child, has been looked upon in
the courts as needing especial care, the Supreme Court pronounced
in 1908, unanimously upholding Oregons 10-hour restriction in Muller
2.21.16

13

v. Oregon. She is properly placed in a class


by herself, and legislation designed for her
protection may be sustained.
After the courts decision, states all over
the country passed employment rules that
professed to protect women by setting
special health and safety requirements or
barring them from working at night or taking jobs like bartending. The court said
that whereas male workers should have
the freedom to contract for themselves,
women could be denied that freedom,
says Alice Kessler-Harris, a historian at
Columbia University who writes about
labor and gender. They justified the lack
of freedom as protection. That language
comes up again and again. Its really a
euphemism for the public welfare: Womens purpose is to become healthy mothers
who produce healthy children. Their bodies should not be weakened, and the values
of the home shouldnt be undermined by
the coarse workplace.
Feminists objected. If night work was
against nature, the lawyer Blanche Crozier said dryly in 1933, then starvation
was even more so. In 2008, on the 100th
anniversary of Muller v. Oregon, Justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg said in a speech,
Having grown up in years when women,
by law or custom, were protected from
a range of occupations, including lawyering, and from serving on juries, I am
instinctively suspicious of women-only
protective legislation.
By then, thanks in no small part to
Ginsburgs eorts, the Supreme Court had
helped to undo Muller, recognizing that
equality for women meant giving them
the same right that men had to fend for
themselves. In 1973, the court ruled 8 to 1
in favor of a female Air Force ocer who
challenged a law that gave her husband
less access to benefits than the wives of
male service members. In his opinion,
Justice William Brennan disavowed the
courts previous romantic paternalism
which, in practical eect, put women not
on a pedestal, but in a cage.
In light of this history, its telling that
todays abortion opponents have dusted
o the word protection to justify regulations that are shutting down clinics across
the country. The anti-abortion group
Americans United for Life, which drafts
model legislation for states, has what it
calls a Womens Protection Project, with
out-of-the-box bills called the Womens
Health Protection Act and the Womens

Health Defense Act. After decades of battling for the life of the unborn child, abortion opponents have started arguing that
for the sake of women seeking abortions
to protect their health and safety the
state must impose strict new regulations
on clinics. In 2013, the Texas Legislature
passed a bevy of new rules (the epilogue
to State Senator Wendy Daviss filibuster in her pink tennis shoes). The new
law requires clinics to employ a doctor
who has privileges to admit patients at
a nearby hospital and to meet the construction and equipment standards for
an ambulatory surgical center, which
include temperature controls, hallways
wide enough for a gurney and special
ventilation units. The estimated cost
of renovating an existing clinic is $1.5
million to $3 million.
On March 2, the Supreme Court will
hear a challenge to the Texas law. Whole
Womans Health, which operates four
clinics in the state, has brought the suit,

14

Illustration by Javier Jan

2.21.16

Four antiabortion
doctors testified
on the side
of Texas,
portraying
women as
vulnerable
to a lurking
threat.

arguing that Texas stated goal of protecting women is a cover for closing clinics
and that the law has no real medical purpose. Instead, it imposes an undue burden the Supreme Courts constitutional
test on womens right to reproductive
care. If the Texas restrictions are allowed
to go fully into eect, the number of abortion clinics in the state is projected to drop
to eight or nine, from 44 three years ago,
across nearly 270,000 square miles. More
than 20 states have enacted laws with
some or all of the Texas restrictions.
In July 2014, I visited a clinic in Austin
run by Whole Womans Health, where
women recovering from abortions rested in reclining chairs, drinking tea with
fleece blankets over their laps. Such comforts have been oered by abortion clinics since they were founded (mainly by
feminists) in the 1970s. Tea and blankets
arent allowed, however, in the sterilized
environment of a surgical center. The Austin clinic closed a couple of weeks after my

Statue: Inga Dronsutaviciene/iStock, via Getty Images

First Words

visit, anticipating the high cost of complying with the new regulations.
Whole Womans Health v. Hellerstedt
is the biggest abortion case the Supreme
Court has heard in a quarter-century. At
the trial in Austin, four anti-abortion doctors testified on the side of Texas, portraying women as vulnerable to a lurking
threat. Calling the states law protective
of patients, James Anderson, the head
of Virginia Physicians for Life, said it was
necessary to address cracks in the health
system, claiming that the complication
rate for abortion is underreported. After
a similar trial in Alabama, the judge discredited Andersons testimony, expressing concerns about his judgment or
honesty because he submitted a report,
without verifying its content, written by
Vincent Rue, who has a Ph.D. in home
economics and whose testimony was
thrown out in two past abortion cases
for lack of scientific rigor.
The language of fear has been even
plainer in the recent push by conservative Republicans to deny Planned Parenthood government funding. Planned
Parenthood is not a safe place for vulnerable women, the president of the conservative group Concerned Women for
America said on Fox News last summer,
claiming that the group coerces women
into abortion and sells their baby parts.
These claims are not backed by evidence. But still the alarms ring, playing into
our usual assumptions that the impulse to
protect is benevolent and, perhaps, that
women are especially deserving of solicitude. The association between protection and women is deeply embedded
in culture. The image of the domesticviolence victim who receives a protective
order is female, though men have the same
right to go to court. Shakespeare described
Gods protection of the king, but over the
centuries, writers from E. M. Forster to
Norman Mailer to Jonathan Franzen have
rhapsodized about the male impulse to
shelter women. Once in a while, a female
character voices vexation. I wont be
protected, Lucy protests to her irritating
suitor in Forsters A Room With a View. I
will choose for myself what is ladylike and
right. To shield me is an insult.
Theres no phrase for men equivalent
to damsel in distress and no such thing
as protective legislation for men. No
one says anything about sending men to
surgical centers for colonoscopies, says

Kessler-Harris, who submitted a brief in


the Texas case, along with 15 other historians. (Colonoscopies have a mortality
rate more than 30 times as high as the
rate for abortion.) Abortion is one of the
safest medical procedures performed in
the United States, states another brief by
the American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists and the American Medical
Association. The major medical groups
were exceptionally blunt in disputing
the protective rationale for the Texas law,
saying there is no medical purpose for
requiring abortion clinics to meet the standards for a surgical center. The admittingprivileges requirement for doctors likewise does nothing to improve the health
and safety of women.
The brief from the medical groups
argues damningly that far from protecting women, the Texas law endangers
them. By causing clinics to close, and thus
forcing women to travel longer distances
to have abortions, the law has delayed,
and in some cases blocked, womens

Theres
no phrase
for men
equivalent
to damsel
in distress
and no such
thing as
protective
legislation
for men.

access to the procedure. Both outcomes


jeopardize womens health.
The main audience for these briefs is
the courts single swing voter on abortion,
Justice Anthony M. Kennedy. He upheld
the core of Roe v. Wade in 1992, but his
latest opinion on abortion, in 2007, hinted
of old-school paternalism. Some women
come to regret their choice of abortion,
Kennedy wrote then. In a decision so
fraught with emotional consequence,
some doctors may prefer not to disclose
precise details of the means that will be
used. In other words, to spare women
from hearing about a type of late-term
procedure, Kennedy permitted Congress to ban it. Contrast that to his stirring endorsement of liberty and equality
in proclaiming a constitutional right to
same-sex marriage last summer. For gay
couples, Kennedy championed the autonomy to make profound choices. He has
yet to express the same faith in women.
Its not hard to see, though, that Texas is
protecting women at their peril.!

On Money By Adam Davidson

Do technological advances determine


the health of our economy? Maybe
but what matters most is how they
change us.

16

2.21.16

Illustration by Andrew Rae

One day in 1980, when I was 10, I sat in


my great-grandmothers living room
and poured out questions about what life
was like for her as a girl in Belarus. At 90,
she was still sharp and could answer my
questions. But she didnt betray any of the
emotion I hoped for. Born in 1890, in a tiny
village powered by horses and the sun in a
manner hardly changed from the time of
ancient Rome, she grew up to witness the
invention of the airplane and the adoption
of electricity and the telephone. I wanted
her to join me in marveling at this series of
world-changing transformations, which
I knew were beyond anything her girlhood self could have imagined. She just
answered my questions calmly, politely.
No, I dont remember the first airplane I
saw. No, I dont remember the first person I called on a telephone.
A key question in economics today is:
Does technological advancement, and the
improvement in average peoples material
conditions that it creates, continue upward
at a steady rate? Or has it already peaked?
Its no small question. If we have learned
anything, it is that peace, democratic values and even self-reported happiness are
closely connected with economic growth.
Economies that are stagnant lead to conflict; if the pie isnt getting bigger, after all,
the only way to improve your lot is to grab
someone elses slice. Its telling to look at
the current presidential campaign through
this lens. Bernie Sanders is arguing that
this stagnant-pie-stealing has been going
on for some time, while Donald Trump
says that he can keep outsiders away from
our desserts altogether. In a nation whose
politics have long been characterized by
indefatigable optimism in rhetoric if not
in reality its striking that no presidential
candidate in 2016 is oering an expansive,
optimistic vision of the future.
In articulating such a vision, the candidates will find little help in Robert
Gordons The Rise and Fall of American
Growth. Published by Princeton University Press last month, the book is this years
equivalent to Thomas Pikettys Capital in
the 21st Century: an essential read for all
economists, who are unanimously floored
by its boldness and scope even if they dont
agree with its conclusions. Through a careful study of the entire history of American
technological advancement, Gordon concludes that despite all the upheaval of the
past 200 years, there have really been only
a handful of fundamental steps forward:

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On Money

electricity, the telephone, the combustion


engine, mass production, indoor plumbing, the conquest of infectious diseases
and the computer. He argues that everything else, including the Internet and the
smartphone, is simply a variation on these
themes and that for all our 21st-century
talk of innovation, the pace of real transformative innovation has radically slowed
during the past half-century.
We can see this, he argues, in the
diminishing impact on productivity in
the American work force. Productivity
growth, at its simplest, means that people
can achieve more in a given amount of
time than they used to be able to. Its the

only way that human beings, as a group,


can become better o. There was an enormous upward shift in productivity between
1920 and 1970, a rate of growth unseen at
any other time in human history. But after
1970, that growth slowed. Then there was
another, lesser blip upward during the
years surrounding 2000, as computers
went mainstream and became married to
communication, in the form of the Internet. If we exclude that blip, though, the past
50 years have seen roughly half the rate of
productivity growth as the 50 that preceded them. Gordon argues that this relatively
slow growth in productivity, together with
rising inequality, helps explain not just the
stagnation in American wages but the general feeling of anger and despair. Worse,
he argues that this post-1970 sluggishness
is with us to stay, because the remarkable
series of inventions of the previous 100
years is unlikely to be repeated.

18

Illustration by Andrew Rae

2.21.16

Adam Davidson
is a founder of NPRs
Planet Money and
a contributing writer
for the magazine.

The strongest backlash against Gordon


has come from techno-optimists in Silicon Valley, who assure us that more
wonders are coming soon. They point
out that even the things we already know
about robots, drones, artificial intelligence, smart devices will be sucient
to significantly improve productivity
once they have been fully unleashed.
Better still, they argue, there will also
be new, radical inventions that we cant
even predict yet.
I, too, am more optimistic than Gordon,
but for reasons that have little to do with
future technological advances. As Gordon
acknowledges, there is generally a long
gap between a new technologys invention and its wide impact on productivity.
Primitive steam engines began appearing
in the 17th century, and the telephone was
patented in 1876. Yet we didnt see that
huge spike in productivity until 1920.
Thats because productivity, and our
lives in general, improve not at the moment
of invention but when society creates the
conditions to allow new ideas to become

YE S

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On Money

integrated into our daily lives. The basic


technological conditions for the expansive
productivity growth of the 1950s and 1960s
existed in 1900 and, arguably, long before
that. But society had to do a lot of work
first. There had to be new schools (only
about 10 percent of Americans attended
high school in 1900, and far fewer went to
college) so that people had the education
to use the new inventions. Unions and the
modern corporation matured to help allocate labor. A new political system evolved
to fit an economy that operated nationally,
not just as far as a mule could walk.
It was, of course, a messy, often ugly,
nonlinear process. The single hardest task
was internal: Americans had to change
how they thought about themselves. Not
only did some of the iconic jobs of the 20th
century not exist in the 19th century; they
werent conceivable. There werent many
large corporations, so there was less of
a tradition of specialized jobs with narrow tasks. People had to learn to think of
national markets, huge firms, accredited
professions, new forms of urban identity.
While writing this column, I was emailing
with a friend, a woman who does brand
marketing for a credit-card company. It
occurred to me that literally every noun in
her job title would have made no sense to
her great-grandmother, or to mine.
The very evidence Gordon cites for
pessimism persistent inequality, low
productivity growth, lack of major innovations can also be read as signs of opportunity. In the last century, the main way a
persons productivity rose was by going to
work at a large company and doing what
the boss said. Today, lots of people are finding ways to improve their own lot and
overall productivity on their own. They
sell crafts on Etsy, get funding on Kickstarter, build toys with 3-D printers. They
learn through online classes and prove
their skills on sites like Topcoder.
Right now, the benefits of this digital, shared, distributed economy are
accruing only to a tiny group of people
and, even more, to the companies that
serve them. But its at least conceivable
that digital technology could help build
new models of education, new ways for
workers to collectively bargain, new tools
to allow more people to identify and sell
their skills and ideas to those who want
them. There could be financial products
that make it easier to withstand increasing volatility and insecurity. There could

It occurred to
me that literally
every noun
in her job title
would have
made no sense
to her greatgrandmother,
or to mine.

20

Illustration by R. O. Blechman

2.14.16

be an easier path to entrepreneurship,


so more people with good ideas could
present them to the market.
I called Gordon and described this
vision to him. He replied, with a kind
chuckle: You are in a dream world. Your
list of needed improvements in institutions and society are a wish list that isnt
happening now and is very unlikely to happen in the future. And maybe hes right.

The language of the current presidential


campaign when its coherent at all
is of taxes and regulation, immigration
and carpet-bombing. It is the language of
zero-sum stagnancy, not expansive, shared
growth. But its worth being clear: If we are
indeed doomed to a generation of slow
growth, its a lapse in our collective imagination, not in technological innovation,
that is holding us back.#

Poem Selected by Natasha Trethewey

A poem should not mean/But be, wrote the American poet Archibald MacLeish. In this
poem by Larry Levis, the movement from ideas about blossoms to concrete images the
petals of the magnolia blossom/Flattened by passing trac reflects a transformation
in the mind of the speaker. From that precise seeing, something ineable arrives.

Threshold of the Oblivious Blossoming


By Larry Levis

When I said one blossom desires the air,


Another the shadows, I was free
Of desires. Beyond the doorsill the caf tables
Were empty because it was raining.
The rain was empty as well, & there was no poignancy
Left in it when I looked up at it falling, & went on
Sitting inside & waiting for my dealer to show up so I could buy
Two grams of crystal methedrine from her, talk for a moment,
And finish my coee.
When I thought of the petals of the magnolia blossom
Flattened by passing trac to the pavement & the gradual
Discoloration of them, their white like that of communion dresses
Becoming gray & a darker gray moment by moment,
When I knew I wanted them to mean nothing
And suggest everything, desire rushed back into things,
But not into the blossoms & not into the air.

Natasha Trethewey served as the poet laureate of the United States from 2012 to 2014. Larry Levis was
the author of five poetry collections when he died in 1996. The Darkening Trapeze: Last Poems was published
last month by Graywolf Press.

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Well By Gretchen Reynolds

Contemplation Therapy
A new study suggests theres some science
behind the claims made for mindfulness meditation.

The benefits of mindfulness meditation,


increasingly popular in recent years, are
supposed to be many: reduced stress
and risk for various diseases, improved
well-being, a rewired brain. But the experimental bases to support these claims have
been few. Supporters of the practice have
relied on very small samples of unrepresentative subjects, like isolated Buddhist
monks who spend hours meditating every
day, or on studies that generally were not
randomized and did not include placebocontrol groups. This month, however, a
study published in Biological Psychiatry
brings scientific thoroughness to mindfulness meditation and for the first time
shows that, unlike a placebo, it can change
the brains of ordinary people and potentially improve their health.
To meditate mindfully demands an
open and receptive, nonjudgmental
awareness of your present-moment experience, says J. David Creswell, who led
the study and is an associate professor of
psychology and the director of the Health
and Human Performance Laboratory at
Carnegie Mellon University. One diculty of investigating meditation has been
the placebo problem. In rigorous studies,
some participants receive treatment while
others get a placebo: They believe they are
getting the same treatment when they are
not. But people can usually tell if they are
meditating. Creswell, working with scientists from a number of other universities,
managed to fake mindfulness.
First they recruited 35 unemployed
men and women who were seeking work
and experiencing considerable stress.
Blood was drawn and brain scans were
given. Half the subjects were then taught
formal mindfulness meditation at a residential retreat center; the rest completed
a kind of sham mindfulness meditation
that was focused on relaxation and distracting oneself from worries and stress.
We had everyone do stretching exercises, for instance, Creswell says. The

mindfulness group paid close attention


to bodily sensations, including unpleasant
ones. The relaxation group was encouraged to chatter and ignore their bodies,
while their leader cracked jokes. At the
end of three days, the participants all told
the researchers that they felt refreshed
and better able to withstand the stress
of unemployment. Yet follow-up brain
scans showed dierences in only those
who underwent mindfulness meditation.
There was more activity, or communication, among the portions of their brains
that process stress-related reactions and
other areas related to focus and calm. Four

22

Illustration by Anna Parini

2.21.16

Follow-up brain
scans showed
differences
in only those
who underwent
mindfulness
meditation.

months later, those who had practiced


mindfulness showed much lower levels
in their blood of a marker of unhealthy
inflammation than the relaxation group,
even though few were still meditating.
Creswell and his colleagues believe that
the changes in the brain contributed to the
subsequent reduction in inflammation,
although precisely how remains unknown.
Also unclear is whether you need to spend
three uninterrupted days of contemplation
to reap the benefits. When it comes to how
much mindfulness is needed to improve
health, Creswell says, we still have no idea
about the ideal dose.#

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Letter of Recommendation

XpresSpa
By Taffy Brodesser-Akner

Getting permission to travel by air should


not be as degrading as it is. As a matter
of course, you with your wide eyes and
genuine smile and clear conscience and
valid identification are bombarded by
invisible rays that reveal explicit details
of your anatomy. You are made to endure
unwanted touching, particularly if, like me,
the scanning of your body invariably leads
to follow-up searches of the tip of your
head and the seat of your pants. Every single
time. Then, the blue latex gloves come out,
and even if you have the presence of mind

to ask that they put on a new pair to comb


through your hair and conduct something
that is not not a rectal exam no penetration, not exactly, and yet they will be
resentful. And though they will acquiesce,
they will punish you for your request by
going extra rough on both your tender
head and your poor, weary rear.
I bring this up only because a postsecurity-line mind-set is important to
understanding the allure of XpresSpa. I
spent several years ignoring the incongruous Zen glow that emanated from those

24

Photograph by Jonno Rattman

The airport spa


offers the perfect
counterpoint to the
poking and prodding
of the security
checkpoint, restoring
your dignity to
baseline levels.

stalls tucked among the Cheeburger


Cheeburgers and the Hudson Newses
with their women in chinos and utilitarian
polo shirts, cracking their knuckles with
readiness. I would recover from the trauma of the T.S.A. line-grope by shrinking
into myself and avoiding all human interaction. Besides, like everything else in the
airport, XpresSpa seemed like something
you didnt want to touch.
Ive never sought out massages anyway, except when I am forced to on dire
occasions: baby-shower gift-certificate

redemptions and compulsory girls


day sorts of things. Its not that I
couldnt use a massage; I spend most
of my waking hours hunched over my
computer, curled into a question mark.
I worry some days that I might lose my
neck entirely as my shoulders pursue a
permanent engagement with my ears.
But I cant stand the expectation of
mindfulness that you find at nonairport
spas. Out there in the regular world,
they hand you towels and slippers and
ask that you escape your life amid their
warm oils and groping hands and tinkly
music. They force you to surrender to a
sort of relaxation that doesnt exist for
me. They ask that you leave at the door all
your obligations and become a version
of yourself that is as pure and unsaddled
and malleable as a newborn.
My conversion was sudden; it happened last summer, just before a flight
to Russia. I arrived three hours early as
you must when you know that you will
have to use all of your feeling words to
bargain for an aisle seat, and, if that fails,
fake a pregnancy and I had a crick in
my back, a result of having hoisted my
luggage into an overhead compartment
the week before. In the Turkish Airlines
terminal at Kennedy Airport no power
outlets anywhere, no Wi-Fi to be found
I finally submitted to the glow.
I took my place in a leather Barcalounger, in a line of other Barcaloungers, in full
view of other travelers. A woman in a
smock stood over me, staring straight
into my eyes. I didnt tell her about the
crick, or about how Id gone to several
chiropractors and yoga classes to treat
it, or about how I also bought a cervical
pillow, or about how none of this had
made the slightest dierence. I just sat
there. She reached behind my back, felt
around, found the spot and, locking eyes
with me, manipulated whatever strings
there are in my back until it was released.
How did you know? I asked her.
Its my job, she answered. Only then
did she look away.
If it sounds sexual, I dont know what
to say. It wasnt. But it was a special experience shared by two people, and I will
always treasure her and wonder what her
name was. Part of it was the massage,
yes. The other part was a touch of kindness and healing after the blue-latexglove experience, like a cold plunge in
the pool after the sauna.

Flight-departure
performance at
some of the busiest
airports in the
United States,
according to the
T.S.A.:
Delayed
Newark: 23%
OHare: 22%
J.F.K.: 20%
Boston: 18%
Philadelphia: 19%
Dulles: 18%
Honolulu: 8%
Canceled
Newark: 4%
OHare: 4%
J.F.K.: 3%
Boston: 4%
Philadelphia: 3%
Dulles: 3%
Honolulu: 1%

XpresSpa does not pretend to be a


palace of luxury. Before you even enter,
it conveys to you its brisk eciency
through its name, with that economical
omission of an initial E and a final,
redundant S. You wont take o your
shoes (unless youre getting the foot
massage). You can even continue to
work your phone while your service is
happening, for certainly XpresSpa does
not expect you to close your eyes in an
airport. There is no implied moral judgment against you for continuing to be
the person who got this stressed in the
first place.
The modern airport has evolved to
mimic the world outside of airports, to
varying degrees of success. Theres a
Kiehls at J.F.K. now, around the corner

from a Michael Kors. There are islands


in between selling artisanal wine and
cheese experiences, all peddling the
illusion that you would be here if you
absolutely didnt have to be. Everything
is receiving an upgrade, except the Core
Airport Experience, which remains as
awful as ever. And this makes XpresSpa
an oasis for those whose expectations
have been wisely lowered. It doesnt pretend it is heaven. Its only job is to restore
your dignity to baseline levels, because
it also knows whats ahead for you:
arcane preboarding exercises, the guy
taking up the entire arm rest, the preurinated-upon toilet seat. And thats why
they wish you luck as you leave, because
they know exactly what youre headed
into: an airport, and then an airplane.#

Tip By Malia Wollan

that vulnerable space between wakefulness and dreams, you need to be simultaneously calm and wildly imaginative,
or what Ackerman calls the good type
of weird but not creepy.
Be empathetic; no matter the cause,
the inability to fall asleep is deeply unsettling. Tens of thousands of people download each episode of Ackermans podcast
(there are more than 340 of them). Based
on feedback from listeners, he estimates
that a third suer from chronic pain.
Your job is not to fix the problem, he
says. It is just to be there to tell a story.
It is helpful to have an outline in mind
before you begin, whether youre reimagining a fairy tale or recounting a trip. In
his three weekly shows, Ackerman often
recaps television programs. Instead of
focusing on plot twists, he might spend
five minutes describing a painting on the
wall of a characters home (chronicling
minutiae just melts peoples minds).
Most episodes run longer than an hour,
but Ackerman estimates that a majority
of listeners tune in for just over 20 minutes. Even if you begin to hear snoring,
never ask your audience if theyre sleeping. That question provokes anxiety in
those who are still awake.
Dont close with the end. Instead,
slow down your speech. Finish the tale,
and then keep going a little longer, quietly
saying a few more nonsensical things into
the dark. Gently taper to silence. Be like
a parent, Ackerman says, walking backward out of the room of a sleeping child.#

How to Lull a
Grown-Up to Sleep

Dont do baby talk or have a parental


tone, says Drew Ackerman, a librarian in
the San Francisco Bay Area and the host
of Sleep With Me, a podcast designed
to help adult listeners fall asleep. Your
subject matter can be mature, but keep
it sedative in nature; avoid topics like
religion, politics, sex, violence and spiders. Be careful not to overengage your
audience. Im always asking myself, Do I
need to make it more boring? Ackerman
says. Your goal is not to get your listeners
to stay with you to the finish; it is to lose
them along the way.
Choose content that dips into the
otherworldly; you want to trigger that
bizarre neurological state at the edge
of sleep. If the outlandish makes you
feel self-conscious, imagine yourself as
a character. To lead someone else into

Illustration by Radio

2.21.16

25

The Ethicist By Kwame Anthony Appiah

To submit a query:
Send an email to
ethicist@nytimes
.com; or send mail
to The Ethicist, The
New York Times
Magazine, 620
Eighth Avenue, New
York, N.Y. 10018.
(Include a daytime
phone number.)

26

2.21.16

I am in a profession where I often go to


peoples houses to work with their children.
I have one client whom I like very
much and who has requested my services
a number of times, but whenever I leave
that clients house, I find myself troubled.
This family has a teacup pig, which lives
with them in a medium-size apartment.
I consider myself an animal lover, and it so
happens that I have looked into the fad
of teacup pigs. I know that they are really
piglets of a larger variety, the potbellied
pig, which are unintentionally underfed by
owners who have been led by dishonest
sellers to believe that the pigs need to eat
less than they really do. Right now the
pig is small, perhaps 10 to 15 pounds, but
I know it will keep growing and that
the lowest healthy weight for a full-grown
teacup pig is about 60 pounds; a
potbellied pig can easily grow to more than
100 pounds. I asked the family how big
the pig would get, thinking perhaps they
knew the facts and had some plan. They
told me that they expect it to remain the size
it is now. The worst part? They often remark
that the pig is acting hungry; I imagine they
feed him the too-small amount they were
directed to by the seller. I believe that this
family loves their pig very much and that
I am witnessing an unintentional act of
animal cruelty, but I am in a quandary:
Should I tell them that they are unwittingly
mistreating their beloved pet? I worry that
I would be overstepping my professional
bounds. People can be very touchy when
it comes to their pets, and I want to maintain

Illustration by Tomi Um

enough to know that for sure. He also has


children who might want to know their
actual genetic line. I truly dont know the
right thing to do.

Name Withheld

Name Withheld

If youre right, this pig is suering from


hunger and malnourishment, and its owners dont know. Because animals cant
speak, its especially important that we
speak for them. These owners, in your
view, dont mean to harm their pet. So in
theory, they ought to be grateful to you
for bringing the facts to their attention.
In reality, as you fear, they might be chagrined and reluctant to see you again.
Much comes down to diplomacy. You can
say that coming to know their pet led you
to explore what you had heard about the
breed . . . and then tell them what youve
found out. When it comes to the treatment
of animals, Jeremy Bentham captured the
essentials more than two centuries ago:
The question is not, Can they reason? nor,
Can they talk? but, Can they suer?

This issue is going to come up more


and more often. Genetic testing makes it
increasingly clear that fatherhood involves
more faith than motherhood. Studies have
come up with figures ranging from 2 percent to 30 percent for rates of nonpaternity, though the most likely figure for the
contemporary United States is at the very
low end of that range.
The combination of expanded genetic
testing with a growing interest in genealogy means that people will have to decide
whether they care about their biological
ancestry or their social ancestry. The
hardest cases will involve men learning
that their children arent biologically
theirs, and children learning the same
about their fathers.
If there were a standard form that you
and your relative filled out together, you
could rely on that previous agreement
as you proceed. But there isnt. So youll
have to do your best to take into account
a variety of considerations.
To start with, the revelation could be
painful to your relative. Not only would
he have to think dierently about his connection to his familys famous forebear;
he might feel the shame of illegitimacy.
Although that stigma has (thankfully) mostly disappeared, he comes from a generation for which it was a more serious matter.

For a research project on a famous


ancestor of mine whose father is unknown,
Ive genetically tested (with their full
permission) a number of male descendants.
(Im female, so my own DNA wont give
me the information about the male line.)
One of these relatives is an elderly man
who is very proud of this ancestor. But the
results showed that the man he thinks is
his biological father is not. I havent shared
this news with him because I think it might
hurt him terribly, but I dont know him well

Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman


Denise writes: We are expecting our first baby, and I want
her to grow up in a home where people still pay attention to
one another. Id like to put a friendly sign on our door that
asks guests to use phones in our home only in the event of
an emergency. My husband cringes at the thought.

A sign would certainly solve the problem, because it will


make your home look like a school library or a radiology clinic,
and your friends will never come back. Or you could just speak
to them face to face, as in the old days, and say, Would you
mind not checking your Kik account right now? Oh, but your
child? Even way back when, that kid wouldnt pay attention
to you. Whether through TV, comic books or just exploring
dangerous caves and well bottoms, kids had ways to ignore
their parents long before smartphones.

Illustration by Kyle Hilton

Should
I Speak Up
For a
Pet Pig?

cordial relations with them for the sake of


my continued employment. Do I have
an ethical obligation to tell them the truth
about teacup pigs?

Some might invoke the privacy rights of


the mother or the husband. But I wouldnt
give either much weight: Presumably your
relatives parents are long dead. What
about the medical case for disclosure?
Unless theres something in the data that
suggests biological risks that he and his
children wouldnt have anticipated (and
that they could usefully act on), I doubt that
knowing about his mothers infidelity will
be of much use. Still, as you say, his children
may want to know what you found.
Finally, you have to ask yourself what
truths about your parents or grandparents relationships are important enough
that you would want to know them even if
they were painful. Would you resent it if
someone had such information about you
and withheld it? If you think you would,
this can be your compass here, however
dicult the resulting conversation. A general moral, though: Talk before you test.

I live in a suburb of Minneapolis and have


shared a driveway with our neighbors for
10 years. Some days, I come home from
work for lunch, and my neighbors son (who
is in high school) is also home. He is
sometimes with a girl and sometimes with
friends. I frequently smell illegal drugs
being smoked. Should I let his parents know
what Ive observed? Or should I keep
my nose out of their business?
Name Withheld

You mention the length but not the depth


of your relationship with your neighbors, so
Ill assume youre not close. But as with our
DNA tester, it will help to ask yourself what
you would want the other party to do if your
situations were reversed. You neednt agree
with the laws against marijuana (thats what
were talking about, right?) to think that a
young person who smokes in the driveway
is laying himself open to trouble. In Minnesota, possession of more than one and a
half ounces is theoretically punishable by
up to five years in prison. And there are
other reasons to worry about a high-school
kid getting blitzed in the middle of the day.
Consider how you would feel how you
would be entitled to feel if your neighbor
failed to pass on similar observations about
your own children. Id be guided by that."
Kwame Anthony Appiah teaches philosophy
at N.Y.U. He is the author of Cosmopolitanism and
The Honor Code: How Moral Revolutions Happen.

Eat By Sam Sifton

A New California Cuisine


Roasted yams get the West Coast treatment.

28

Photograph by Grant Cornett

Food stylist: Maggie Ruggiero. Prop stylist: Rebecca Bartoshesky.

Travis Lett is a bearded, hippie-chic chef


who runs a trio of popular restaurants
in the beachside community of Venice,
Calif. The flagship is Gjelina, a loud, fashionable and vegetable-centric neighborhood spot as well known for the attractiveness of its clientele as for its pizzas
and salads, slathered toasts and smoky
pastas. The restaurant is an aspirational
lifestyle camp, replete with fire pit and
sloe-eyed waiters.
Thankfully, little of that scene is documented in Gjelina: Cooking From Venice, California, Letts excellent cookbook, which came out in the fall. The
restaurants dining room and patrons are
largely omitted from its pages. Instead,
the food dominates. There are dozens and
dozens of recipes set alongside luxurious
portraits of simple ingredients, simply
prepared, though in riots of contrast:
sweet against salty; spicy against sour;
crunchy against smooth.
I have spent the last few months cooking from the book, bringing a little California warmth and brio into my chilly
East Coast kitchen, along with a lot less
meat. I wanted the restaurant to oer
something that didnt demand too much
attention but at the same time had the
ability to inspire if you paused and truly
looked, Lett writes in the introduction.
The same goal animates his recipes.
Cooking them carefully can lead a home
cook down fascinating paths.
Grilled king oyster mushrooms with
tarragon butter could be luscious accompaniments to a massive steak (indeed,
they are). But served on their own, they
are even more singular: steaklike themselves beneath their gleam of herb-scented butter, perfect with a glass of wine
and roasted potatoes. Charred brussels
sprouts with dates and bacon? Likewise.
You could serve them with pork chops or
turkey cutlets. But maybe dont, and watch
as a double batch of the recipe goes down
as successfully as a full-throttle meat-andside dinner. More room for dessert.

Comment: nytimes.com/magazine

Lett has fine instructions for roasted


cauliflower with garlic, parsley and vinegar; so, too, for pizza with Castelvetrano olives, a wee bit of guanciale and the
mild heat of Fresno chiles. Come spring,
Ill grill his jumbo asparagus with sauce
gribiche and bottarga; in summer, Ill
make the most of ricotta gnocchi with
a cherry-tomato pomodoro. Cooking
this way takes on its own satisfactions
and makes the decision to cook a great
haunch of meat all the more special when
we come to it not as a matter of expectation but as an occasional treat.
Again and again this winter, I have
made Gjelinas roasted yams with honey,
Espelette pepper and lime yogurt. These
are a marvelous accompaniment to a
roast chicken. They are as good or better
as a platter served alongside a salad of
winter greens, cheese and nuts. Yams
are abundant and cheap in the winter
months, Lett writes, and customers
find them soul-satisfying and delicious.
Which is true. But what gets them there
is technique: tossing the tubers in honey
before roasting them intensifies their
caramelization. That crisp, near-burned
sweetness works beautifully against the
heat of the pepper and the acidic creaminess of the yogurt you dab onto the dish
at the end.
Forty years ago, SkateBoarder magazine published a series of articles on
the skate scene along Venice Beach,
near where Gjelina now operates, a
world that would later be captured in
the documentary film Dogtown and
Z-Boys in 2001. The magazines landed with force in cities far from California, where they were passed around
with reverence, like dispatches from a
promised land. The tricks depicted in
the photographs and described in the
text graceful turns on steep concrete,
one hand trailing behind as if through
the curl of an ocean wave had an
immediate and transformative effect
on skateboarding across the nation.

Gjelina could have some of the same


eect on the subset of Americans interested in cooking well and healthfully,
in laying down beautiful food on tables
accustomed to a dierent sort of fare. It
is simple cooking. It results in fantastic
meals. You dont need to go to Venice to
experience it.
Gjelinas Roasted Yams
Time: 1 hour
3

large yams

tablespoons honey

tablespoon Espelette pepper, or


crushed red-pepper flakes

tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil


Kosher salt and freshly ground
black pepper

cup Greek-style yogurt

tablespoons fresh lime juice,


approximately 2 limes

scallions, both green and white parts,


trimmed and thinly sliced, for garnish

1. Heat oven to 425. Cut the yams lengthwise


into 4 wedges per yam. Put them in a large
bowl, and toss them with the honey,
tablespoon of the Espelette pepper or crushed
red-pepper flakes and 2 tablespoons of the
olive oil. Let it sit for 10 minutes or so, tossing
once or twice to coat, as the oven heats.
2. Transfer the yams to a foil-lined, rimmed
baking sheet, season with salt and
pepper and then bake until they are deeply
caramelized around the edges and soft
when pierced with a fork at their thickest
part, approximately 30 to 35 minutes.
3. As the yams roast, combine the yogurt,
lime juice and remaining tablespoon of olive
oil in a small bowl, and whisk to combine,
then season with salt and pepper to taste.
Set aside.
4. When the yams are done, transfer them
to a serving platter, drizzle the yogurt over them
and garnish with the remaining Espelette
pepper or red-pepper flakes, the scallions and
some flaky sea salt if you have any.
Serves 3-6. Adapted from Gjelina: Cooking From
Venice, California.!

2.21.16

29

Lives

Unorderly Conduct
The treacherous process of
learning to recycle in Switzerland.
As told to Laura Bauerlein

Name:
Katharina Heinrich
Age: 36
Location:
Bern, Switzerland

30

2.21.16

Heinrich teaches
gardening at a center
for developmentally
challenged adults.
She told her story
in German.

After I moved to Bern, Switzerland, from


Jaibling, Germany, some time ago, I was
very careful to adapt to Swiss ways, whenever I could make them out. I paid particular attention to the garbage, dividing it
into various containers to be recycled, as
was required of all citizens. There were
glass, metal, compost, unidentified mixed
waste, cardboard and of course paper. It
was quite simple, except the paper part.
I didnt find any bins, and there were no
special bags to be bought as for other
types of trash. So I asked my friend and
landlord how to go about it.
You simply bundle it, he said. Only
hemp string is allowed, though, no plastic
or wire.
How am I supposed to bundle this?
I asked, pointing to my collection of scrap
paper and bits of cardboard, every small
piece of paper material I had gathered
over the past few weeks and put in a box.
He glanced at it and chuckled. Well, that
you just throw in with the mixed trash.
Throw it out? I snorted. Not in a
hundred years! I am a committed environmentalist, and I had already envisioned
a bright new future for my little scraps of
paper. I was not going to let them waste
away. I was not going to let these perfectly
good scraps of recycling material suocate amid other unworthy junk!
Well, theyre not going to collect
it with the paper like that, my friend
advised me. If you must recycle it, you
can take it to the garbage center.
I put that on my long list of things to
do. After all, it was paper, not the kind of
smelly waste I urgently needed to get rid of.
A few days later, walking through the
courtyard of my building, I finally saw how
the paper was done. At first, it seemed out
of place: Everything in Switzerland is so
perfect that I had developed the urge to
make things right when they were not in
order even clearing twigs from the sidewalk. But upon closer inspection, I saw
that these were very nicely tied bundles.
(Somehow attracted by those neat-looking
bundles, I found some treasures among
them: original newspapers from 1945 and
century-old cookbooks.)
Then, a little in the back, I spotted
some brown paper bags, and peeking into
them I saw pieces and shreds of ripped
paper like my own. So there was a way to
dispose of paper shreds with dignity! I
was delighted and went home to generate a nice full paper bag myself, which I

Illustration by Melinda Josie

then triumphantly set out with the others,


saluting it with satisfaction.
One day about a week later, peeking
into my mailbox, I saw a colorful, friendly
looking envelope with a red-and-yellow
bear printed on it. I dont get much mail
anymore, but I still have a few friends
with whom I exchange letters, so I was
excited. A little surprised, too, as I didnt
remember giving my address to anyone
yet I had just moved a few weeks earlier.
I ripped it open, still standing in the
hallway. What I found was anything but
a friendly note! A fine of 1,000 francs
were the first words I read, printed boldly in the center of an otherwise rather
empty page. A thousand francs? Fine? I
stumbled backward to sit down on the
steps and examined the letter in more
detail. You have been identified as the
author of an act of illegal and unorderly
abandonment of personal waste, I read,
and are therefore subject to a fine of
up to 1,000 francs. Me, of all people,
I thought: unorderly abandonment of
personal waste? Truly, I would never do
such a thing.
Later I found out that there is a special task force of garbage detectives
that goes around examining wrongfully
placed or suspicious-looking trash. They
actually go through the stu, looking for
something that will reveal the garbages
rightful owner, and then educate him or
her by way of a hefty fine. I also learned
that those bundles Id found were from
the apartment of a 90-year-old woman
who had died, but its still not clear to
me whether garbage regulations apply
dierently to the deceased.
Once I got over the shock of being so
unfairly fined, I decided to act. I made a
lot of phone calls. Finally one day, after
being put o many times, I got to speak
to the administrator in charge. We know
it was your trash, he said. Your name and
address was on some of the items. After
conceding this, I explained my actions. If
anything, I pleaded, I had been too eager
in my attempts to recycle. In the end, he
let me o with a warning.
It turns out that we have a paper bin at
my workplace. So now I cycle to work with
a load of pieces of paper stued into my
backpack, and although its all perfectly
legal, I make sure there isnt anything with
my name on it. As a Swiss friend said to me,
If you have to commit a garbage crime,
dont leave any personal traces."

When one didnt exist,


Dana-Farber
created a pathway
to treat children with
rare brain cancers.

Researchers at Dana-Farber have been studying some of the rarest and most dangerous childhood brain cancers, hoping
to develop new, more effective approaches to treatment. Our work with cancers like DIPG, a brain stem glioma that affects
only 200 children each year and AT/RT, a lethal brain tumor that affects 100 annually, is creating a better understanding
of how to attack these diseases. Taking on rare childhood cancers has helped us open new pathways in the study of
many adult cancers as well, including ovarian, breast, colon and possibly pancreatic cancer. While the biology of cancer
remains complex, we believe even small steps can lead to giant leaps forward toward a brighter future for our children,
and for everyone.
See videos, whitepapers and more at DiscoverCareBelieve.org/DIPG.

2015 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Woman

Vs.

By Susan Burton
Photographs by Erik Madigan Heck

When Dana Spiotta was working


on her fourth novel, Innocents and
Others, she sat beneath a huge bulletin board pinned with her sticky
notes and research materials: lists
of relevant words (passion, transformation, intimacy) and seeing
devices (zoetrope, stereoscope,
camera obscura), and photographs
of Orson Welles, Jean-Luc Godard
and the Maysles brothers. Its like
walking into the book, Spiotta told
me. You feel it all around you.
We were standing in the room
where she writes at her house in Syracuse. She opened a closet, reaching
for something on a low shelf. This
is awesome, she said, This is a
Swatch phone from the 80s. The
phone was made of translucent red
plastic with orange piping and was
narrow, like a tie from the same era.
Looking at the things that are discarded tells you something about
the present, she said. What part of
us was ignited by this machine, and
why did we move on from it?
Spiotta writes radiant, concentrated books that, as she has put it,
consider the way things external to
us shape us: money, technology, art,
place, history. Her three previous
novels were critically acclaimed; Eat
the Document (2006) was a National Book Award finalist, cited for its
evocation of 30 years of American
life in a miniature panorama at once
nuanced, culturally authoritative and
devastatingly intimate. But her work
isnt as well known as it should be,
and this may have something to do
with its deep and uncategorizable
ambition: Her books are simultaneously vast and local, exploring great
American themes (self-invention,
historical amnesia) within idiosyncratic worlds (phone phreaks, 80s
Los Angeles adolescence). She has
been compared with Don DeLillo
and Joan Didion, but her tone and
mood are distinctly her own: Shes
fascinated, not alienated.
Her gaze is very smart and witty,
George Saunders wrote to me in an
email, but doesnt have any of that
empty, snarky irony you sometimes
see in writing about contemporary
culture, that sense that America is
rotten, past its prime, capable of
nothing good. On the contrary, I
think her main stance is that most
dicult one: She who praises.
Innocents and Others, which will

Machine

Dana Spiottas
quietly subversive
American fictions.

33

be published in March, is in part the


story of two women: a documentary
filmmaker and her subject. Like all of
Spiottas work, it takes up questions
of identity and transformation. In
Eat the Document, a 1970s radical
goes underground and surfaces as a
suburban mother. In Stone Arabia
(2011), an amateur musician documents his fantasy life as a rock star
as if it were real. In Innocents and
Others, a lonely woman in upstate
New York pretends to be someone
else with the powerful Hollywood
men she seduces over the phone. I
could be myself on the phone, she
says. The self I really was or ought
to have been. Spiotta is drawn to the
moment when you realize that the
story youve told yourself about who
you are is false.
Do you want me to show you the
house? she asked on a recent morning when I visited her in Syracuse,
where she teaches writing along
with Saunders and Mary Karr. She
lives near the university, in a bungalow from the 1930s. My spirit
time, aesthetically, she told me. We
walked through the rooms, which
were calm and spare, the heels of our
boots knocking on the wood floors.
Spiotta, who is 50, wears elegant,
heavy-framed eyeglasses without
which she is unfamiliar to herself.
Her voice is rich and low-pitched,
and it is exciting to be around her
when she talks; she has a committed
intelligence and a warm, energetic
demeanor. Her hands are often in
motion. She crashed them together
then spread them apart, like billiard
balls, describing the structure she
wanted for Innocents and Others: The two strands of the story
meet and then separate. The books
inventiveness is characteristic of
Spiottas novels, incorporating
lists, autobiographical essays written by the characters and precise
descriptions of both real and imaginary films. In Spiottas work, connections with movies and music are
profound. She writes not only about
art itself but about the experience of
it; how you really love a song after
youve heard it over and over, how
your body feels almost desperate
for the next part; about the rerun
as well as the family room: The
dusty haze of sun coming in streams
through the drapes in the midst of
my afternoon solitude.
34

2.21.16

In the kitchen, Spiotta poured


us coee from a percolator, which
she likes because it makes enough
for two and keeps the coee really
hot. (Spiotta lives with the novelist
Jonathan Dee and her daughter,
Agnes, 12, from whose father she is
divorced.) The percolator also happens to be evocative of the recent
past, which, broadly speaking, is the
era in which Spiotta likes to write:
Everything is slightly outdated and
o-kilter and somehow more visible.
Innocents and Others takes
place mostly in the 1980s and 90s.
Its a compassionate, unsparing
book, full of provocative ideas
about art, ethics and the formation
of sensibility. Meadow, the documentary filmmaker, trades on the
human compulsion to confess.
Jelly, the mysterious woman who
calls powerful men on the phone,
also understands that we all want
to reveal ourselves. She does not
seduce with sex; she beguiles by
listening. Eventually, she, too,
wants to tell a true story that she
had never told anyone before. The
books two strands meet when
Meadow makes a film about Jelly.
Technology, for Spiotta, both
inhibits and invokes emotion: I
would say it creates a distortion of
some kind, she said. The phone
puts one sense in isolation. Once you
introduce a visual element, everything else falls away. What we see
overrides what we hear. She added:
The primacy of visual information
is what I was interested in exploring
in fiction. Which is sort of perverse, I
guess, using prose to describe film.
Spiotta is acutely attuned to
what happens in our minds and
our bodies when we see or hear.
While writing the new book, she
plugged old phones into wall jacks
and listened to their tones. With
the phone, I really want to talk about
what that feels like when its on your
cheek, Spiotta said. It has a sound
that it makes. It talks to you. We tend
to think of machines as abstractions,
but they are actually things. Spiotta captures a once-familiar auditory
experience those long-belled
rings to say, Answer, rude blasts of
a busy signal to say, No and she
registers the emotion we attached
to those noises, too: The ring of
another persons phone sounded so
hopeful, and then it grew lonelier. It

Spiotta at home in Syracuse, where she teaches writing at the university.

lost possibility, and you could almost


see the sound in an empty house.
Theres a weird aggressivity
to listening, Spiotta said as we sat
with our coee at her dining-room
table. My silence is going to make
you speak, so thats interesting to me.
Im also really hard of hearing; I wear
hearing aids. So I think thats why I
fetishize sound so much. When you
wear hearing aids, your sounds arent
in the same relationship they would
be. Sometimes you hear this sound
Spiotta rubbed her palm on her
pants or a sound over there, and
you have to mentally put them in
their proper place. The hearing aids
were new to Spiotta when she started writing about Jelly and sound.
What she notices, the information
she gets from paying attention. She
added: Thats seductive, being paid
attention to. Thats almost all you
have to do to win someone over, is
just to see them.
Spiotta returned to the idea of
attending in our talks and email
correspondence this winter. What
she called codas, afterthoughts,
parentheticals, digressions, qualifications were often attempts to get at
saying something the exact right way.
Attend comes from attendere, which means to stretch, she
emailed one morning. That is so
interesting, as if attending means
you have to stretch your mind
toward another.

piotta was born in


1966 in New Jersey.
By the time she was
14, she had already
lived in seven suburbs. Her father worked for Mobil
Oil, but he was not a tycoon: The
son of Italian immigrants, he grew
up with little money and worked his
way up. The frequent moves made
Spiotta a perpetual new kid, a tester of experimental selves. She was
close to her older sister and younger brother, and her favorite books,
movies and records sustained her.
These were not just interests but
passions. It was different than
being a fan, she wrote to me. It was
deeper. It was finding something
worthy of your attention James
Mason, the Beach Boys and
then devoting attention to it until it
yielded things that could never be
discovered by casual engagement.
Spiottas parents met in college,
at Hofstra University, playing Stanley and Stella in a production of A
Streetcar Named Desire, directed
by a fellow student, Francis Ford
Coppola. In 1979, when Spiotta was
13, her father left Mobil Oil to run
Coppolas studio, Zoetrope. Spiottas Los Angeles adolescence would
imprint upon her deeply: The city
is a setting in all of her books, and
film reels through her work, as both
formal influence and subject. Just
living in a great city after so many

years of suburbs transformed me


and my sensibility, she wrote to me.
I also felt for the first time the sense
of a secret history waiting to be read
in the architecture and geography.
This is not something you feel in the
suburbs. Suburbs are designed for
the opposite: no history to be read,
no complications.
Spiotta attended the progressive,
arty Crossroads School and went on
to Columbia University. But at the
end of her sophomore year of college, she dropped out. Her parents
were splitting up but that was only
part of the chaos, she wrote to me.
My father, who had left Zoetrope to
form his own production company,
lost everything, including the familys house. It gave me the ability
to understand being privileged as
well as being dead broke. From
age 19, Spiotta supported herself.
She made her way to Seattle, a city
that seemed very friendly to the
lost young person, got a job at a
record store and eventually enrolled
at Evergreen State College, where
she studied labor history and creative writing. Reading The Dead
in a cafe, she began to weep.
One day she and a friend called a
number on the back cover of the literary journal Quarterly. The phone
was answered by the journals editor, Gordon Lish, who invited Spiotta and her friend to come work
for him in New York. They did, as
Photograph by Erik Madigan Heck

managing editors. Whatever youre


trying to hide is what you need to
write from, Spiotta recalls him saying. Whatever youre trying to hide
is what makes you an interesting
writer. Lish introduced Spiotta to
Don DeLillo, who became a mentor
and a friend.
While Spiotta was working on
her first novel, Lightning Field,
she supported herself by waitressing. The book was published in
2001, when she was 35. She wrote
her next novel in secret, while working at a restaurant she owned with
her former husband in upstate New
York. Eat the Document brought
her new attention, and she joined
Saunders and Karr at the highly
regarded creative-writing program
at Syracuse. As a colleague, she
is a dream, Karr told me. Whip
smart and tirelessly generous, but
she doesnt pander to student egos.
She knows how to deliver bad news
to a young writer: ruthlessly but
also with an underpinning of cheer
thats infectious.
Spiottas work has been cited
in discussions about whether the
culture properly values the work of
female novelists, particularly those
whose books are ambitious, political and engaged with the big world
of ideas, as Katha Pollitt wrote of
Spiotta and others in 2010. Don
DeLillo with a vagina, one writer called Spiotta (it was meant as
a compliment); a womans book
wrapped in a mans book, suggested a participant in an online discussion of Stone Arabia. A Booklist
review of Innocents and Others
advises that it is for readers of Jennifer Egan, Siri Hustvedt, Rachel
Kushner and Claire Messud. These
writers are comparable with Spiotta
in ways that have nothing to do with
gender Egan, formally inventive;
Kushner, influenced by film and
the list is meant to contextualize the
novel for librarians. But it hints at
a smart woman algorithm: If you
like this woman who is serious,
youll like Spiotta too. Spiotta flat
out rejects this way of talking about
literature. The notion that there
are gendered subjects or gendered
prose styles, or gendered types of
novels seems reductive to me, a
not-interesting (or even coherent)
way to engage anyones writing,
she emailed one morning.

t was early on a frigid day


in January. Spiotta and I
sat in a diner in Cooperstown, a road atlas open
on the apple-print oilcloth. We were about to embark on
a trip. This map: In all of my books,
except Lightning Field, stu happens right here, Spiotta said. The
Mohawk River, the Erie Canal, and
I-90 hung in a triple strand across
the open pages. The Erie Canals
velocity changed the transmission
of goods and ideas; and it meant
identity could be changed, too,
because you could take o and go
to the next place, Spiotta said, as a
waitress refilled our mugs.
Spiotta had circled our destinations on the map in ballpoint pen.
This region has a multiplicity
o-the-gridders, declining factory
towns, a shrine to the first Native
American saint analogous to
her books. It almost feels as if it
works the way a novel works here,
because there are these disparate
things that seem unconnected, but
because they have the same geography, they are connected, she
said. You wonder, How did they
all come to be here?
Spiotta drove. We were on a road
that cut through rolling farmland,
and even though we were in a valley, it felt as if we were up high.
We were approaching Stone Arabia, the place that gave Spiotta the
title for her third book. She loved
the towns solid and exotic name
and the landscapes austere beauty.
An Amish man rode behind horses
on a wagon. The Amish approach
to technology appeals to Spiotta:
They dont reject; they doubt it.
My phone was in my lap on top
of the atlas. We were using the
paper map as well as GPS, and the
technology was helping us navigate
(sort of). There was something it
was doing to our interaction too.
Im going to try it on Waze, I
said. Its smarter.
Whats going on with this? Spiotta said, looking at her own phone.
Did I turn o data?
It doesnt like that address,
I said, talking to myself. We had
been driving in circles looking for
a Mohawk community crafts store.
Im going to copy and paste.
The Waze app told us: We are
all set. Drive safely.

Go to hell, Spiotta said to the


app, and we both started laughing.
There was an ease in talking
about, and to, our phones: a way of
communicating that was automatic, known, shared. A digital-audio
recorder resting atop the atlas was
taping the trip, and the GPS liberated us from the roles we were
playing for it. We didnt have to try.
Technology can mediate intimacy
in indirect ways; here we werent
using it as a tool to reach each other,
but it connected us nonetheless.
Spiotta had arranged for us to
visit an old Art Deco movie theater in Gloversville. The theaters
sprightly 77-year-old director
unlocked the doors. When Meadow discovers this theater in Innocents and Others its former
grandness still evident, the gold
wallpaper peeling, the velvet seats
in attendant rows, though ripped
and ruined she starts crying:
Not because it was a wreck, but
because I felt the history. I knew
that cinema had touched every
small town in America.
Inside the theater, it was dim and
cold. The velvet seats were gone and
there were rows of metal chairs.
When preservationists began working to save the theater, our host told
us, there were mushrooms growing on the seats. Water had filled
the orchestra pit. A piano and dead
animals were floating in there.
This is how it was when I came
in, Spiotta whispered to me, standing next to a wall with torn damask
wallpaper. A beautiful wreck.
From the back of theater, I
looked at the enormous red curtains that had once spread open to
reveal a lit screen. I found myself
imagining the day on which Spiotta had discovered the theater
she had tried the door, and it was
open, she said. Spiotta often talks
about noticing it was part of
why we were on this trip. What
you notice is who you are, maybe,
she had emailed me a couple weeks
earlier. I was intensely interested in
what Spiotta noticed in these places, and here in this theater, I was
also moved by what she had raised
from them. That was the mysterious part, what went on early in the
morning with coee in her room in
the dark. She had made something
human happen here."

The New York Times Magazine

35

DOUBLE DEAL

A documentary reveals the tangled role of paid informants in F.B.I. terrorism investigations.
By Mattathias Schwartz
Photograph by Martin Schoeller

The New York Times Magazine

37

W
W
hen she was 15, growing up in suburban Maryland,
Lyric Cabral decided on two things: She wanted
to be a photojournalist, and she wanted to live in
Harlem. Five years later, in 2002, she found her first
apartment in the neighborhood. One afternoon,
after stopping to say hello to a friend at a vegan
juice bar on 125th Street, she found herself talking
to a man at the counter.
His name was Saeed Torres. He was 50 or so,
a home-brewed Renaissance man with his own
dance company and a collection of African drums.
He liked to eat well, bake his own desserts and
smoke weed. Torres appointed himself Cabrals
ambassador to the neighborhood. He took her to
weekend drum circles at Mount Morris Park. A
few months later, he found her a new apartment,
on the top floor of a three-story brownstone on
121st Street between Lenox and Seventh Avenues.
He lived on the ground floor, where his wide
circle of artist friends would visit for late-night
jam sessions and meandering conversations.
His life story, as he told it to Cabral, was intertwined with the militant wing of the AfricanAmerican counterculture. Many years ago, he
said, he had robbed subway-token booths and
drug dealers and given the money back to the
community. I grew up in the old school, Torres would often tell Cabral. I got morals and
principles. He had an odd reformulation of
the Golden Rule: I have always believed there
is honor among thieves. You respect the next
thief. He said he had been a member of the Black
Panther Party. He said he had been drafted into
service during the Vietnam War. Cabral used his
stories for a course in oral history she was taking
at Columbia University. I thought he was cool,
Cabral told me. Torres said, She reminded me
of my niece.
Among the friends that Torres brought to the
brownstone was Tarik Shah, a jazz musician who
gave Torres upright-bass lessons. Shah was reticent around strangers like Cabral, but alone with
Torres, he would open up. He lamented the fall
of the Taliban and bragged about his martial-arts
prowess. The jihad is ongoing, he said at one
point. It doesnt stop. Torres gently encouraged
Shahs rants with monosyllabic armations. Yeah.
. . . Right. . . . O.K.
Torres was something of a chameleon. Some
days, Cabral would see him leave the brownstone
in a suit, with a briefcase; other days it would be
colorful African robes and sandals. He usually
had a lot of cash on hand, though Cabral once lent
him $2,000 when he was short, which he soon
repaid. He had two cellphones and would often
38

excuse himself before answering. He said he


worked for the Legal Aid Society, which sometimes required him to travel abroad. In 2005,
Torres suddenly moved out of his apartment. He
called Cabral a few hours later. If anybody asks
you anything about me, he said, dont give them
any information. He had something important
to tell her, he said, but she would need to hear
it in person.
She didnt take him seriously at first, but he
persisted, and she finally agreed to go meet him
two years later. By this time, Cabrals career as
a photojournalist had taken o, and Torres was
living in South Carolina and had a young son. He
sat her down at his kitchen table and gave her a
folder of documents a lease for a Bronx apartment, a fax in Arabic from a charity in Jordan,
a flowchart about just war theory. There were
also several newspaper clippings about Tarik
Shah, who around the time Torres left Harlem
had been arrested and charged with conspiring
to provide material support to Al Qaeda. Bronx
Qaeda Arrest L.I. Terror-Camp Plot, blared
The New York Post. Cabral remembered the
news, but she never made the link between the
Tarik Shah in the papers and the Tarik she met
in Torress garden apartment.
Torres explained that he had been investigating Tarik and that the F.B.I. was paying the rent
on his brownstone apartment. He did not use the
word informant, preferring to call himself a
civilian operative. Torres spoke of his work as
though it were a service to the community a
making of amends for his past misdeeds. He saw
himself as a guardian, the first line of defense in
the war against terrorism.
Cabral was familiar with the thorny moral
problems that sometimes arose in her profession
the awkward dance, she now calls it, between
reporter and subject and their conflicting expectations of how the story would be told. The story
that Cabral chose to tell about Torres is very
dierent from the one he tells about himself. On
Feb. 22, PBSs Independent Lens will broadcast
(T)error, the documentary that Cabral and a
colleague, David Felix Sutclie, would come to film
about her old neighbor. Last year, (T)error had its
premiere at Sundance, where it won the Special
Jury Award for Break Out First Feature.
By some counts, nearly half of the 500-plus
terrorism-related convictions in federal court
since the Sept. 11 attacks have involved informants. Before (T)error, most of what was known
of their work came from indictments and snippets
of wiretapped dialogue, served up by prosecutors
and neatly presented for the courtroom. Filmed
without the F.B.I.s cooperation and apparently
without its knowledge, (T)error shows how
an informant puts a case together from its raw
ingredients. (The F.B.I. is not in the business of
disclosing details of those we work with, said
Stephanie Shark, a spokeswoman from the

bureaus New York oce, when asked about


Torres. We aim to protect the identity and lives
of the people we work with, even if they so choose
to discuss their business publicly.)
When Cabral and Sutclie screened (T)error
for Torres, he gave it four and a half out of five
stars, complaining that he came across as too
depressed. Cabral pointed out to him that the film
is bookended by two moments of happiness. At
the beginning, hes in the kitchen frosting a cake
with his son. At the end, the F.B.I. has oered him
a new assignment, though it would eventually fall
through. In that conversation, Cabral was trying
to show Torres that it was his work with the F.B.I.
that was making him unhappy. Informants dont
get to reflect, she told me later. The F.B.I. would
never encourage informants to think about these
moral and ethical ramifications of their work. In
her eyes, the deepest treachery Torres committed
may have been against himself.
For the F.B.I., domestic counterterrorism some-

times entails stings finding people who might


commit violent acts in the future and testing how
far theyre willing to go. This task often falls to
paid informants like Torres, who can spend
months grooming their targets and steering the
conversation toward jihad. In cases in Miami
and Newburgh, N.Y., informants have oered
their targets tens or hundreds of thousands
of dollars to commit an act of mass violence.
Some Al Qaeda cases were so aggressive,
it was approaching entrapment-light, said
Karen Greenberg, the director of the Center
on National Security at Fordham Law School.
The bureau has been more moderate with recent
cases against people suspected of supporting the
Islamic State, especially young ones, she added.
The courts have generally upheld informantdriven stings, as long as the target is given an
opportunity to back out. Talking the talk alone
is not what gets people prosecuted, said Marc
Raimondi, the national-security spokesman for
the Department of Justice. Its the willingness
to walk the walk.
The F.B.I. has used informants against targets
Communists, Mafiosi, Black Panthers, dirty
politicians, Weathermen, drug dealers, whitecollar fraudsters for most of its history. But
Muslim extremists have posed a unique challenge.
In 2006, five years after the Sept. 11 attacks, fewer
than 40 of the bureaus 12,000 agents had even
a limited proficiency in Arabic; reportedly fewer
than 20 were Muslim. Informants have filled the
gap. By 2008, the F.B.I. was using thousands of
them. None are considered employees, and they
are often paid in cash.
In his book The Terror Factory, the journalist Trevor Aaronson argues that the F.B.I.
targets punks and losers underemployed
Previous page: Saeed Torres.

SEND THEM TO PRISON.


IT TAKES A DAMAGED
PERSON TO BETRAY
SOMEONE LIKE THAT.

men on the fringes of society who would not


have the means to become terrorists on their
own. The book suggests that mosque-crawling
informants are a bit like police ocers who are
filling their towns treasury through speed traps.
Laws designed to keep the public safe from the
most flagrant oenders wind up often catching
borderline cases, men like Mohamed Osman
Mohamud, a Somali-American who pressed a
keyboard button that he believed would detonate a truck bomb at a Christmas-tree-lighting
ceremony in Portland, Ore. He was 19 at the time
and in the company of undercover F.B.I. agents,
who provided him with the fake bomb.
Responding to the criticism that these sting
operations turn incompetent jihadist sympathizers into would-be terrorists, Ali Soufan a
former F.B.I. agent who went undercover to
investigate Shah pointed out in a 2013 Wall
Street Journal review of The Terror Factory
that being literally idiots did not stop people like the Shoe Bomber (2001) and the Times
Square Car Bomber (2010) from nearly carrying
out successful terror attacks without any interaction with the F.B.I.
What are we supposed to do turn our heads
to this? asked Peter Ahearn, a former head of the
F.B.I.s Bualo oce. No. Were going to go and
see how serious these guys are. And for every
one that gets prosecuted, there are one or two
or more that dont go anywhere.
Torres told me that he has contributed to eight
investigations. In court, Torres has testified that
he first agreed to work with the bureau while
in prison for armed robbery. Before the case
against Shah, Torres worked on a sting operation
targeting Mohammed Ali al-Moayad, who claimed
to know Osama bin Laden and was convicted in
2005 of conspiring to provide financial support
to Al Qaeda and Hamas.
Aaronsons book catalogs the cases of more
than 500 federal terrorism defendants and finds
that fewer than 10 dealt with would-be terrorists
who independently planned to carry out attacks
on American soil. Far more were cultivated by
the company of men like Torres. Shah, for example, collected jihadist books and mused about
opening a training facility. But he hadnt come
very close to joining Al Qaeda at the point he
met Soufan, who Torres led him to believe was a
recruiter for the group.
Its like bait, Torres says in the film, reflecting
on the Shah case. Threw the hook out there.
He bit into it. Shah pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.

veggie burger, a chicken sandwich, a decaf cafe


latte and a glass of warm water.
He took a phone call from his auto mechanic;
he seemed preoccupied by a coming trip and
complained about the cost of a much-needed
repair. Avoiding the word informant, I asked
him about his government work.
I know how they think, he said of his targets.
How they feel. Because everybody has larceny.
In their heart, I asked. Yes, he said. Its just
what point of larceny would they go to and to
whom would they manifest that larceny to? If
you can reach their weakest point, you can bring
that about.
(T)error begins in October 2011, with Torres
moving to Pittsburgh to try to befriend an F.B.I.
target, Khalifah Ali al-Akili, a convert to Islam
and convicted drug felon. Torres brings along a
new identity a search-and-rescue dog-handler
employed by the Red Cross and rents an apartment a short walk away from his targets home.
I aint playing no character, he tells the camera.
Im playing who I am: a Muslim brother.
Akilis apartment contains what F.B.I. agents
would later describe as jihadist literature and
books on U.S. military tactics. The F.B.I. had
been aware of him since at least 2005, when a
prison source told them that Akili had talked
about going to fight overseas and given him
anti-American articles about supporting the
mujahedeen. Six years later, Akili does not seem
to be pursuing any plans to join the insurgency.
He works at the local food co-op and lives with
his wife, a Somali-born British citizen, and their
young daughter. But his insurgent dreams persist
online, where he praises Osama bin Laden, posts
pictures of himself in military fatigues and at a

The films emotional climax comes when Torres

THEYRE PAID
TO DEVELOP INTIMATE
RELATIONSHIPS WITH
STRANGERS AND
ULTIMATELY USE THOSE
RELATIONSHIPS TO
SEND THEM TO PRISON.
IT TAKES A DAMAGED
PERSON TO BETRAY
SOMEONE LIKE THAT.

I met Torres at a small-town coee shop in

upstate New York on a cold Saturday in January.


He arrived half an hour late, looking grandfatherly in corduroys, a dark woolen overcoat and
a herringbone cap. His brown eyes were frank
and inquisitive. I eat big, he said. He ordered a

gun range and describes the United States as


the belly of the beast.
At a local mosque, Torres courts Akili and
engages him in friendly conversation. Soon, the
two begin riding together to prayers. The good
will is all for show. In a voice-over, Torres declares
that he and Akili have nothing in common at all
music-wise, politics, culture, none of it.
Torres agreed to give Cabral and Sutclie
access to his phone, and the film includes Torress
text messages to his handlers and Akili. In one
text, Torres encourages Akili to watch a Taliban
warrior episode of Homeland. The F.B.I. wants
updates on Torress progress and the target. Torres
obliges but complains about the hard work and
low pay. At one point, he claims that his monthly
envelope of F.B.I. cash is $600 light.
Sutclie and Cabral consulted lawyers who
told them that what they were doing was legal,
as long as they didnt interfere with the investigation. Trying to film Torres while he met
with the F.B.I. or Akili, they decided, would be
too risky. So their early filming hews closely
to Torres and his cagey narrative of the cases
progress. Standing before a map of Pittsburgh,
he tacks up laminated photos of bearded men.
They are all targets thats in suspected areas,
he says with a gravely ocial air. I dont have
no feelings for them. Youre making Islam look
bad. You gotta go. Sutclie, who was filming the
scene, wondered whether this was going to be a
higher-level operation than he expected. Then
Sutclie noticed that one photo was of Adam
Gadahn, an American-born Qaeda spokesman
who had not been inside the United States for
several years. He was totally trying to hustle
us, Sutclie told me.

THEYRE PAID
TO DEVELOP INTIMATE
RELATIONSHIPS WITH
STRANGERS AND
ULTIMATELY USE THOSE
RELATIONSHIPS TO
SEND THEM TO PRISON.
IT TAKES A DAMAGED
PERSON TO BETRAY

is browsing Facebook while he awaits a reply


on his friend request to Akili. Cabral takes the
opportunity to confront him about Shah.
Have you ever had a target who was a friend
or a family member? she asks.
Yeah, yeah, Shah! Torres replies. Shah was
my friend.
Was he your friend before you
He was my friend, Torres repeats, cutting
her o. Yes, he was my friend.
Cabral tries again. He was your friend
before you
Yes, he was my friend! Torres says, almost
yelling. You asked the question three times.
I done told you.
Cabral felt that she, too, had been betrayed
by Torres. She worried that some of her conversations with him from their Harlem days might
have been taped. But soon, in the middle of
filming, Cabral would have to choose whether
to deceive him in turn.
In March 2012, Akili sent a mass email to civilliberties activists, accusing
(Continued on Page 66)
39

The 18 marine police officers of the island nation Palau are fighting poachers in an area of open water the size of France. How they
do it may help the rest of the world save all of the oceans. By Ian Urbina Photographs By Benjamin Lowy

41

L
ate on a January 2015 evening in Shepherdstown, W.Va., a data
analyst named Bjorn Bergman, surrounded by whiteboards
scribbled with computer code, was orchestrating a high-stakes
marine police chase halfway around the world. Staring at his
laptop in a cramped ground-floor oce, he drank from his
sixth cup of coee and typed another in a long series of emails:
Try and cut them o rather than making for the last known
position. Nearly 9,000 miles away, the Remeliik, a police patrol
ship from the tiny island nation Palau, was pursuing a 10-man
Taiwanese pirate ship, the Shin Jyi Chyuu 33, through Palauan
waters. Bergman, working for a nonprofit research organization
called SkyTruth, had mastered the use of satellite data to chart a
ships most likely course. Instead of pointing the police to where
the pirate ship was, he would tell them where it was about to
be. He took another sip of coee, studied his screen, then typed
again: It may be advisable for the Remeliik to turn southeast.
Caught fishing in a marine sanctuary, the Shin Jyi Chyuu 33
was fleeing to Indonesian waters, beyond Palaus jurisdiction.
Once across the boundary, the crew could easily unload its
catch at a local wharf and disappear among the thousands of
small Filipino or Indonesian islands of the western Pacific.
Determined not to let that happen, the Remeliiks skipper,
running on Bergmans coordinates, was pushing 15 knots a
pace that worried its engineer. But the police were desperate
to keep up. In the previous six months, they had spotted but
failed to capture nearly a dozen other pirate fishing ships. If
the Remeliiks ocers miscalculated their heading by even a
small fraction of a degree, they would miss their target.
Bergman had been tracking the Shin Jyi Chyuu 33 for
weeks, and emailed an alert about possible illegal fishing
two days earlier. Before moving to West Virginia to work for
SkyTruth, he spent three years working as a marine observer
on Alaskan fishing boats, logging the details of the daily
catch, as required by federal and state fishery authorities.
At SkyTruth, Bergman did his surveillance work from a far
greater remove, monitoring ships by satellite. For months, he
had been studying a satellite feed from above Palau. He knew
its squiggles and slashes by memory. A passenger boat out
of Pitcairn Island appeared every few weeks; a United States
Navy ship from Diego Garcia conducted regular maneuvers; a
Chinese research vessel was doing a survey of some sort in a
grid pattern; a Taiwanese ship that never seemed to fish made
repeated trips out to meet other long-line fishing vessels.
The Shin Jyi Chyuu 33 stood out, however. Switching among
42

2.21.16

registries of fishing permits, regional tuna


licenses and blacklisted vessels, he could tell
it had no license to fish in Palaus waters,
even though its zigzag trajectory indicated
it was doing just that.
In response to Bergmans alert, an international team gathered into the cramped, second-floor police command center on Koror,
Palaus most populous island. There were
three local police ocers, an adviser from
the Pew Charitable Trusts and two Australian
Navy ocers, on loan to Palau to advise on
everything from running the Remeliik (which
the Australians had also donated) to using
satellite-data analysis software. Working
through the night and the following day, the
team radioed the information they received
from West Virginia to Allison Baiei, a Palauan
marine police ocer, aboard the Remeliik.
Police eorts like these, coordinated and
international in scope, are a rarity when it
comes to enforcing the law at sea, but the
alternative is usually no enforcement at
all. More than two-thirds of the planet is
covered by water, and much of that liquid
expanse is ungoverned and potentially
ungovernable. Criminal enterprise has
flourished in the breach. The global black
market for seafood is worth more than $20
billion, and one in every five fish on American plates is caught illegally.
After a 51-hour push, much of it through
heavy seas, the Remeliiks unrelenting pace
finally paid o: It caught up with the Taiwanese ship just a few miles before the boundary
with Indonesian waters. The ocers escorted
the ship back to port in Palau, and when they
inspected the hold, Baiei told me, they found
an especially grim haul. Inside, among the
stacks of tuna, were hundreds of severed
shark fins. The ocers piled the contraband
onto the Shin Jyi Chyuu 33s deck and, when
they ran out of room there, piled the rest
into a bloody heap on the dock. They counted, measured and photographed the fins to
use for the eventual prosecution, then dumped them into the
sea. Disgusting, was all Baiei would say about the scene.

the planet are as isolated as Palau, or as sprawling. Its 21,000 residents are scattered across a handful of its 250
islands, which take up just 177 square miles combined. Relatively
poor, and with no military of its own, Palau employs a marine
police division with just 18 members and one patrol ship. Yet it
has authority over roughly 230,000 square miles of ocean. Under
international law, a countrys exclusive economic zone, the
waters where it maintains fishing and mineral rights, extends
200 nautical miles from its coasts. That means that a country
roughly the size of Philadelphia is responsible for patrolling a
swath of ocean about the size of France, in a region teeming
with supertrawlers, state-subsidized poacher fleets, mile-long
drift nets and the floating fish attracters known as FADs.
FEW PLACES ON

In the face of this challenge, Palau has mounted an aggressive response. In 2006, it was among the first nations to
ban bottom trawling a practice not unlike strip mining
in which fishing boats drag large weighted nets across the
ocean floor to catch the fish in the waters just above, killing
virtually everything else in their path. In 2009, it prohibited
commercial shark fishing in its waters, creating the worlds
first shark sanctuary. In 2015, it announced plans to require
observers aboard all its tuna longliners. (Elsewhere in the
region, observers are aboard just one in 50 tuna longliners.)
Palau has also teamed up with Greenpeace, which helped
patrol its territorial waters, and it started a campaign on
Indiegogo, a crowdfunding platform, raising more than
$50,000 to support its conservation work. Palaus most
radical move, though, was creating a no take reserve in
2015. Within this zone, which encompasses 193,000 square
Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage, for The New York Times

Above: Members of
Palaus marine police
search the Sheng Chi
Huei 12, a Taiwanese
fishing vessel, for
illegal catch.
Previous pages: the
Sheng Chi Huei 12.

miles, all export fishing (along with any drilling or mining)


will be strictly prohibited.
From one perspective, Palaus work suggests a hopeful
future. It oers a model for successful ad hoc collaboration
among countries, companies and nongovernmental organizations. Palau has also emerged as a testing ground for some of
the technology including drones, satellite monitoring and
military-grade radar that might finally empower countries
to spot and arrest the pirates, poachers, polluters, trackers
and other scolaws who prowl the seas with impunity.
But Palaus conservation eorts are really motivated by a
more immediate sense of self-preservation. In September, I
sat down with Palaus president, Tommy Remengesau Jr., in
his cluttered, wood-paneled oce in Koror. A sturdy man with
an intense stare, Remengesau explained to me that more than
half of Palaus gross domestic product comes from tourism,
The New York Times Magazine

43

mostly people visiting to dive on Palaus reefs, which house


more fish, coral and other invertebrates per square mile than
virtually anywhere else on Earth. Remengesau boiled the problem down to simple economics, noting that sharks were an
especially big draw for undersea sightseers. Alive, an individual shark is worth more than $170,000 annually in tourism
dollars, he said, or nearly $2 million over its lifetime. Dead,
each can go for a hundred dollars and usually, he added,
that money winds up in the pockets of a foreign poacher.
The poachers calculate dierently, of course. More than a
dozen countries, including Palau and Taiwan, have banned
shark-finning. But demand for the fins, especially in Asia, remains
high. Shark-fin soup, which can cost more than $100 a bowl, has
for centuries signified wealth and status, and it became especially
popular in the late 1980s as a status item for Chinas rapidly

Fishermen set fish


aggregating devices,
or FADs, like this one in
hopes that their prey
will huddle around
them. But the floats
in Palaus waters are
drawing fewer fish.

expanding middle and upper classes. Ship captains often allow


their crew members to supplement their income by keeping
the fins for themselves to sell at port. Shark carcasses take up
valuable hold space in smaller ships, and as they decompose,
they produce ammonia that contaminates the other catch. Deckhands usually cut o the fins, which can sell for 100 times the cost
of the rest of the meat. They then throw the rest of the shark back
into the water. Its a slow death: The sharks sink to the sea floor,
where they starve, drown or are eaten by other fish.
In a given year, Palau faces 50 to 100 incursions by pirate
vessels. Fish ignore borders and, it turns out, so do many
of the people pursuing them. While port inspections, wheelroom cameras, locational transponders and onboard observers
are essential to better monitoring the oceans, policing is the
only thing that will make Palaus new reserve, and others like it

elsewhere in the world, more than just lines drawn on the water.
Poachers are by no means Palaus only threat. Ocean acidification, warming marine temperatures, mega-cyclones and a
Texas-size gyre of floating trash imperil the regions marine
life. The islands themselves are threatened as well: As global
warming raises sea levels, Palaus land, and the territory it
protects, will diminish. One atoll on Palaus southernmost tip
is sinking fast, and when it finally submerges completely, it will
take roughly 54,000 square miles of territorial authority with it.
The oceans belong to everyone and no one, and the general
perception is that they are too big to need protection. We
also tend to think of fish as an ever-regenerating crop, there
forever for our taking. But roughly 90 percent of the worlds
ocean stocks are depleted or overexploited; one study predicts
that by 2050, the sea could contain more plastic waste than
fish. Though most governments have neither
the inclination nor the resources to patrol the
oceans, Palau is trying a dierent approach,
and whether it succeeds or fails may have
consequences for the entire planet.
arly one calm morning shortly
after I arrived in Palau, I met
E
Baiei and several other police
ocers at their headquarters in
Koror, where they had invited me to join them
for some routine patrols. Though Koror is the
nations commercial center, it feels more like
a remote resort everywhere lushly green,
its roads narrow and winding. The headquarters and dock sit in a more ramshackle part
of town, tucked alongside a sewage-treatment
plant and down the road from a brewery. Like
a Humvee parked in front of a thatched hut,
the 103-foot Remeliik stands out. Tall and steelhulled, it is young in ship years, built in 1996.
The plan was to patrol the waters near
Kayangel, an atoll in the countrys far north, an
area popular for sea-cucumber and coral-fish
poachers. A tiny, rugged fleck of land, roughly
half a square mile, Kayangel has perhaps 60
year-round residents; there is no airstrip, and
power and cell service are erratic. Local fishermen had spotted poachers near the atoll,
and our patrol was meant to show a police
presence in the area.
For any given patrol, the chief of the marine
police weighs a list of variables credible
threat, distance to target, available crew, sucient fuel, weather and decides if its worth
dispatching the Remeliik. Today, we would
head out instead on one of the departments
two much smaller fiberglass boats, which they
use in shallow waters closer to shore. When
we pulled out of port, the sea was glass-flat,
but as the land behind us fell beneath the horizon, we began rolling in 10-foot swells it
was clear why this smaller boat was ill-suited
to chasing poachers into deeper water.
Policing the area around Kayangel has
become more dicult as its population has

dwindled. In December 2012, Typhoon Bopha leveled Kayangel,


ravaging its nearby coral reefs. Eleven months later, Typhoon
Haiyan did it again. With winds of more than 170 miles an hour,
these were among the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded
on Earth. Many scientists agree that climate change is the reason
for these increasingly intense storms. A 2014 study, which modeled the economic consequences of climate change on fisheries
in the territorial waters of 62 countries, predicted that Palau
would be hit harder than any other nation. I guess we cant
arrest the climate, Baiei later told me. We can just arrest people
who come here to take our fish. After a long silence, another
ocer muttered a retort something in Palauan, which was
later translated for me as easier said than done.
Baiei said the turning point for Palau, the moment when
the nation realized that it needed help, was March 29, 2012.
The other ocers shook their heads at the mere mention of
the date. The agonizing story began earlier that month, when
two Chinese poacher boats were spotted near the atoll for
several days in a row. They kept escaping: Each was equipped
with three 60-horsepower outboard motors, while the local
wildlife rangers had only a Zodiac with one outboard motor.
Around 7 a.m. on March 29, the Palauan rangers saw one of
the Chinese boats again. This time they got close enough to try
to shoot out its engines, Baiei said. They hit an engine, but they
also hit a Chinese deckhand, Lu Yong. (Palauan rangers say they
were not aiming for him; the bullets ricocheted o the engines.)
The rangers called for help to rush Lu, 35, to a nearby island
where a nurse lived, but he bled to death before they got there.
He had a 9-year-old son and a 3-year-old daughter in mainland
China. But the day would only get more tragic from there.
Boarding the Chinese boat and interrogating the rest of the
crew, the Palauan rangers soon learned that there was a larger
mother ship farther at sea, orchestrating the poaching raids.
This was too far for the small Zodiac to travel, so two Palauan
policemen, Willie Mays Towai and Earlee Decherong, along with
an American pilot, Frank Ohlinger, were dispatched in a rented
single-engine Cessna to find the ship and call in its coordinates.
As night fell, the pilot got lost, and the plane vanished.
Meanwhile, about 35 miles from shore, another team, aboard
the Remeliik, finally discovered the 80-foot mother ship, which
immediately bolted, ignoring several warning shots fired
across its bow. After several hours of running, though, the
mother ship drifted to a halt. It was soon engulfed in flames,
most likely from an intentional fire set to hide any evidence
of poaching. The pirate crew scrambled into a lifeboat just
before the ship sank, and they were arrested shortly thereafter.
The Cessna pilot and the two policemen were still lost,
wandering somewhere above the Pacific. The authorities on
land came up with an idea: If they could illuminate the islands
brightly enough, the pilot might see them and find his way
back home. The public safety director ordered all emergency
vehicles to drive to the highest points in Koror and turn on
their flashing lights. Aim spotlights upward, yachters were
instructed. The stadium lights at Palaus Asahi baseball field
were switched on. Residents were asked to turn on all household lights. Some stood in the streets waving flashlights. Paul
Allen, the billionaire co-founder of Microsoft, who happened
to be vacationing in Palau, provided the two helicopters on
his 414-foot mega-yacht, the Octopus, for search and rescue.
Allens crew was instructed to fire 49 flares, one per minute,
into the air. An ocial in Angaur, an island on the nations

Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage, for The New York Times

45

southern tip, suggested setting some of the outer-atoll wooded


areas on fire a plan that was quickly dismissed.
Back at the command center on Koror, several police ocers were trying in vain to contact the plane. Its radio was
malfunctioning. They could hear Ohlinger, but he could not
hear them. For nearly five hours, culminating in a mayday call
at 8:16 p.m., they listened to his growing panic, his rage at
the planes broken GPS unit and compass and, ultimately, his
request that someone alert his next of kin. On a good glide
slope, heading north, Ohlinger said, as he explained that he
and his two passengers planned to crash-land into the sea.
We are at 6,000 feet, doing 65 knots, out of fuel, were his
last words. The wreckage was never found.
The debacle was the subject of newspaper headlines internationally for weeks. The Chinese government sent a diplomatic
envoy to Palau to discuss the shooting. Palaus president and
attorney general opened an investigation. Palauans are a very
proud people, Baiei said. The whole thing was a tragedy and
a really embarrassing one. A little over a year later, Palau began
working with SkyTruth and Pew to monitor its waters.

n the span of one human lifetime, humankind has


become brutally adept at plundering the seas.
I
In the late 1940s, the annual global catch was
roughly 16.5 million tons; now, after decades of
innovation, this number is about 94 million tons. Thats equivalent in weight of the entire human population at the turn of the
20th century, removed from the sea each and every year, Paul
Greenberg, an author of books about fish and seafood, told me.
The major innovation, the one that in the 1930s helped transform fishing from hunting to something more akin to industrial
mining, was the giant-scale purse seiner a ship that surrounds
an entire school of fish with a curtain of netting, sometimes
nearly a mile around, then cinches it like a laundry bag. But
more innovations followed. World War II gave incentive to the
creation of lighter, faster, more durable ships that could travel
farther on less fuel. Submarine combat drove improvements
in sonar, which turned the ocean top into a glass table, making
visible the unseen fathoms below. Subzero onboard freezers
freed fishermen from their race against melting refrigerator
ice. Innovations in plastics and monofilaments lengthened fishing lines from feet to miles. Lightweight polymer-based nets
enabled supertrawlers to rake the ocean even more brutally.
But, as the Palauans and their allies are discovering, technology can also be deployed for conservation. Just as authorities can
use tracking devices and satellite data to monitor the activities
of people on land, they are increasingly able to do so at sea.
Since the 1990s, ships have deployed the Automatic Identification System, or A.I.S., a once-voluntary collision-avoidance
system whereby onboard VHF transmitters convey their position, identity and speed continuously to other ships and to
satellites. In 2002, the United Nations maritime organization
mandated A.I.S. for nearly all passenger ships regardless of
size, and commercial ships, fishing vessels included, with a
gross tonnage of more than 300 (typically, thats a 130-foot long
vessel) in international waters.
A.I.S. has its shortcomings. Captains are allowed to turn
the transponders o when they perceive a credible danger of
being tracked by pirates a gaping loophole for poachers.
The system can be hacked to give false locations. Many of the
ships involved in the worst crimes, like the Shin Jyi Chyuu
46

2.21.16

33, are smaller than 300 tons and thus exempt from the system entirely. Partly as a response to the deficiencies of A.I.S.,
many countries now also require fishing vessels to carry an
additional device called a vessel-monitoring system, or V.M.S.
Typically, this takes the form of a cone-shaped antenna on the
roof of the wheelhouse, wired to a locked transceiver and the
ships control panel, that transmits their location and other
data to local fishery authorities at all times.
More sea-trac data may become available soon as countries consider deploying devices in the water sonar and
camera buoys, as well as low-cost floating hydrophones to
catch ships approaching restricted areas. Even storm clouds,
which long concealed many crimes at sea, no longer pose as
much of an obstacle. Satellites armed with synthetic-aperture
radar can detect a vessels position regardless of weather conditions. All this data becomes especially useful when coupled with sophisticated software
whose algorithms can trigger alerts if, for
instance, a vessel goes dark by turning o its
transponder, if it zigzags in certain formations
that indicate that its fishing or if it enters a forbidden area. Now, instead of blindly patrolling
broad swaths of ocean, the police can target
their eorts.
Still, the most reliable form of ocean law
enforcement continues to be real-time direct
surveillance, which is neither easy nor cheap.
Generating close-in imagery from the sky
depends predominantly on military-grade
drones. Ordering up high-resolution photographs from space is still extremely costly,
sometimes more than $3,500 per picture, and
the company or government that operates
the satellite often requires the request for the
image to be made days in advance, so operators can aim the lens at the right location on
its next trip hurtling around the Earth. Palau
experimented with smaller, commercially
available drones in 2013, in a project funded
by an Australian mining magnate, Andrew Forrest. But the drones proved to be too expensive
and hard to fly, and the cameras mounted on
the drones gave too tightly circumscribed a
view of the waters below.
The eventual dream is to create systems that
pull all the antipoaching intelligence together
in real time, giving the police and their helpers
a Gods-eye view of their adversaries. In 2014,
SkyTruth joined with Google and the nonprofit
group Oceana to build Global Fishing Watch,
a website that will allow an army of would-be
Bjorn Bergmans to track A.I.S. data on roughly 80,000 vessels worldwide. Last year, Pew
teamed up with a British company called Satellite Applications Catapult to create a virtual
watch room program that, drawing on live
satellite tracking data, displays a map of the
world traversed by lighted dots, each one a fishing vessel. Even as the vastness of the oceans
makes it easy for poachers to escape, technology is also making it harder for them to hide.

Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage, for The New York Times

paid to hidden illegal fishing, the


bigger problem is legal overfishing, which takes place in plain
sight. Most of the fish that are consumed around the world
about four of every five served in the United States is caught
in full compliance with the law. In the Western Pacific Ocean,
near Palau, much of that fishing occurs with help from specially designed buoys called fish aggregating devices, or FADs.
In Palau, local fishermen can still use simple FADs. Often the
devices consist of little more than plastic and bamboo flotsam
strung together with old nets. But elsewhere they can also be
impressively sophisticated.
Many valuable fish species including tuna, blue marlin
and mahi-mahi huddle near floating objects for protection
and mating. FADs take advantage of this instinct, attracting
fish in spectacularly dense schools that fishermen quickly
F O R A L L T H E AT T E N T I O N

The crew quarters


on the Remeliik, the
single patrol ship of the
Palau Marine Police.

scoop up. Drifting FADs are unanchored: Fishermen track


them by following the currents. Moored FADs are tethered
to the ocean floor, typically with concrete blocks. Increasingly,
fishing companies are deploying smart FADs equipped with
sonar and GPS, enabling operators to sit back and wait for an
alert when its time to retrieve their haul.
The global popularity of FADs is, at least in part, an unintended consequence of the movement to save dolphins. Commercial fishing fleets once found tuna by looking for dolphins,
which follow tuna schools and swim near the surface above
them. In the 1980s and 1990s, the push for dolphin free
tuna drove many of these fishermen from the Eastern Tropical
Pacific, near Baja, to the Central and Western Pacific Ocean,
near Palau, where the dolphins typically dont follow tuna. In
making this move, many of these ships turned to FADs as their

new tactic even though the devices are widely criticized for
further industrializing the harvest of fast-disappearing species
like sharks, sea turtles and tuna.
On one patrol with Baiei, we stopped at a FAD so that I could
dive in for a closer look. Bathwater-warm, the ocean was translucent turquoise, the current as strong as a river. The FAD was
low-tech and anchored, just a plastic buoy attached to a thick,
mollusk-coated rope tethered to the ocean floor more than 500
feet below. Large bamboo leaves ran down the first 50 feet of
the rope, flapping like fuzzy moth wings. Hundreds of tiny silver
fish darted under the shade of the leaves. Not one fish was more
than a foot long.
We visited three more FADs during the patrol that day, traversing more than 100 miles. All were barren. The fish, Baiei
explained, were all being taken before they could even come
to the reserve. Tuna, like many large ocean fish, are migratory.
48

2.21.16

A reef shark officially


protected from
commercial fishing in
Palaus 230,000 square
miles of ocean territory
and its neighbors.

Even if their natural path might take them to the safety of Palaus
asylum, they can be picked o beforehand in any number of
ways including by being netted at one of the more than 50,000
floating FADs in the Western and Central Pacific, most of which
are perfectly legal.
In recent years, a handful of countries have tried to slow the
ocean plunder. They have limited trawling, put caps on FAD
numbers and imposed rules to limit bycatch, the unwanted
species caught in the hunt for prized fish. Perhaps the most
promising tactic has been to create more no-take reserves
like Palaus. In 2014, the Obama administration added 400,000
square miles of similarly protected territory to United States
waters. In 2015, the British government announced its intent to
establish the worlds largest continuous marine reserve (322,000
square miles) around the Pitcairn Islands. But these reserves
work only if they are well policed. Otherwise, they become
Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage, for The New York Times

magnets for poachers who see them as robust


and competition-free zones. And, as we saw
at our own little FAD, even a well-policed
reserve is not enough to protect the fish who
freely swim outside their safe zones. Presently
such reserves cover around 2 percent of the
worlds seas, but many oceanographers say
we need to cover at least 10 percent to make
a substantial dierence.
As the sun set, one marine ocer said he
wanted to check a final FAD near an islet called
Orak, this time in hopes of landing a few fish
for dinner. After dragging their longline in
circles around it for an hour, they gave up,
empty-handed. Docking instead at a nearby
island, the ocers bought some chicken stew
from the local market.

The Outlaw Ocean


In the last 18 months, Ian
Urbina traveled across
14 countries and four oceans,
investigating crime on
the high seas. The resulting
series of articles includes
reports on the killing of
stowaways, the stranding
of crews, oil dumping, ship
thievery, gunrunning and sea
slavery and can be found
at www.nytimes.com/oceans.

n another patrol, this time


aboard the Remeliik, about 80
O
miles from shore, we spotted
a weather-beaten fishing ship,
the Sheng Chi Huei 12. A tuna longliner from
Taiwan, rusty and stacked with tackle, it could
have been just passing through or it could
have been poaching. After radioing its captain,
the Palauan police pulled up alongside for an
inspection. Several ocers boarded and quickly corralled the six-man Indonesian crew into
the front of the ship.
I wanted a better view, but as I started to
climb onto an upper deck, one of the Indonesian crewmen lunged forward and grabbed my
wrist. My hand was inches away from touching
an electrified steel cable that the fishermen use
to stun catch that flop wildly when first pulled
on deck. The crewman pointed to a six-inch
black burn mark on a shipmates arm, warning
me of what the cable could do.
I watched the Palauan ocers struggle
to get basic answers, relying on one of the
Indonesian crew who spoke a tiny bit of Chinese and English to translate: How old are
the men in your crew? Spell their names. (The
captain was illiterate.) Tell me the date when
you entered our waters. The paperwork checked out, and the
ocers could find no illegal fish.
As the ocers questioned the ships captain, I wandered to
the back of the ship. A ladder down a hatch led to a four-foot high
tunnel, where crawling on hands and knees was the only option.
Running the length of the vessel, the tunnel was lined with a
dozen six-foot-long cubbies, each with wadded-up clothing at
one end serving as pillows. The trip from Taiwan to these waters
(about 1,400 miles) takes a little over a week. In high seas and
heavy weather, staying on deck is out of the question. The farther
I crawled, the darker and muggier it got and the heavier the flow
of fumes, heat and noise. A rat scurried ahead. A rancid-smelling
liquid dripped from above. The captain later told me that this
was runo from the upper-deck cutting tables.
At the deepest end of the tunnel, I came to the ships huge
diesel engine, churning furiously. I sat in that tight space for a

couple of minutes to take in the scene. It dawned on me that the


passageway I had just descended was not just the mens sleeping
quarters. It was also the engines main exhaust pipe.
Back on the Remeliik, I passed the time reading a confidential
investigation report about the 2012 Cessna incident, which had
been leaked to me by a Palauan ocial. It included transcripts
of interviews with the 25 fishermen from the illegal Chinese
boats, who had been arrested and held in the Koror jail for 17
days. Most of the men had never been to sea before, nor did they
know the name of their ship, the fishing company or even their
captain. Most had handed their identity cards over to the fishing
company, which had hired them only several months earlier.
Many claimed that they fled that day because they thought the
Palauans, who were not in uniform, were planning to rob them.
He claims that he does not know about any fishing permits,
a police investigator said of one deckhand. They only follow
what the captain tells them.
The crew members pleaded guilty and were fined $1,000
each. Their small fast boat was destroyed, their gear confiscated.
They were then flown home, with their slain colleague, Yong Lu,
in a con, on a charter flight sent by the Chinese government.
One line in the investigation report struck me. It said that in
several days of poaching, the Chinese crew caught fewer than
a dozen fish, primarily lapu lapu, and several large clams, most
of which they later threw overboard as they fled the authorities.
It seemed a tragically small yield.
In the wheel room of the Remeliik that night, the ocers did
a post mortem about the days boarding, and the discussion
turned to the crews that work on these poacher ships. Arent
they the enemy? I asked. Several ocers shook their heads to
say no. Once the authorities take the foreign crews to shore,
there is no guarantee that Palau will have the translators to
communicate with them, jail space to hold them or even the
laws to eectively prosecute them. Many of the poachers they
arrest are from family-owned businesses and are unable to pay
the $500,000 fine Palau has the option to levy. The government
can seize the ship, but the cost to feed, house and repatriate the
crew is often more than its resale value.
Near the end of our patrol, Baiei asked me if I had ever seen
a diver with the bends. I said I hadnt. He explained that many
of the poachers they chase are Vietnamese, young divers who
target sea cucumbers, which live on the ocean floor and look
like giant, leather-skinned slugs. The Vietnamese crewmen
hold rubber hoses in their mouths attached to an onboard
air compressor, strap lead weights around their waists, then
dive, often deeper than a hundred feet. During an arrest last
year, Baiei said, one of these divers shot to the surface too
quickly, causing excruciating bubbles to form in his joints
and elsewhere. They took him to a hospital to recover. He
just kept moaning for days, Baiei said.
One of the other ocers, who had been listening to the conversation quietly, looked up from his inspection logs. Theyre
the real bycatch, he said. For Palaus police, the catch the
far more elusive target was the fishing companies who send
these desperate men to sea to flout the law. But in a sense, even
those bosses are bycatch, too, in a worldwide fishing economy
where sanctioned corporations, far more than poachers, are
stripping the oceans of life. To save Palaus fish, and the worlds,
the law and its enforcers need to bring an entire industrial
system to heel: a mission that requires a level of international
cooperation and political will that has yet to materialize.#
The New York Times Magazine

49

HE

THOUGHT
HE
COULD
CHANGE
THE
NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
FROM
THE
INSIDE. HE WOUND
UP
THE LEAD
PLAINTIFF
IN A LAWSUIT BROUGHT
BY 12 MINORITY OFFICERS.

THE
E D U C AT I O N
OF
E D W I N R AY M O N D
BY
SAKI KNAFO

PHOTOGRAPHS
BY
CHRISTOPHER ANDERSON

50

51

AT T H E S TA R T

E V E R Y M O R N I N G B E F O R E his shift,
Edwin Raymond, a 30-year-old ocer in the New
York Police Department, ties up his long dreadlocks so they wont brush against his collar, as
the job requires. On Dec. 7, he carefully pinned
them up in a nautilus pattern, buttoned the brass
buttons of his regulation dress coat and pulled
on a pair of white cotton gloves. He used a lint
roller to make sure his uniform was spotless. In
a few hours, he would appear before three of
the departments highest-ranking ocials at a
hearing that would determine whether he would
be promoted to sergeant. He had often stayed
up late worrying about how this conversation
would play out, but now that the moment was
here, he felt surprisingly calm. The department
had recently announced a push to recruit more
men and women like him minority cops who
could help the police build trust among black and
Hispanic New Yorkers. But before he could move
up in rank, Raymond would have to disprove
some of the things people had said about him.
Over the past year, Raymond had received a
series of increasingly damning evaluations from
his supervisors. He had been summoned to the
hearing to tell his side of the story. His commanders had been punishing him, he believed,
for refusing to comply with what Raymond considered a hidden and inherently racist policy.
Raymond checked in to the departments
employee-management oce in downtown
Manhattan. Three other ocers waited there
with him, all dressed as though for a funeral or
parade, all hoping they would be judged worthy
of a promotion and a raise. One ocer had gotten
in trouble for pulling a gun on his ex-girlfriends
partner. Everyone was nervous, Raymond says.
I was the only one who was confident, because
I knew Id done nothing wrong.
Hours crawled by. Finally, a sergeant announced
that the ocials executives, as theyre known
in the department were ready to see them.
One by one, the ocers entered a conference
room. Raymond saluted the executives and stated his name. Then the executives began to speak.
Beneath the sti woolen shell of Raymonds dress
coat, tucked away in his right breast pocket, his
iPhone was recording their muled voices.

O V E R T H E L A S T two years, Raymond has


recorded almost a dozen ocials up and down the
chain of command in what he says is an attempt to
change the daily practices of the New York Police
Department. He claims these tactics contradict
the departments rhetoric about the arrival of a
new era of fairer, smarter policing. In August 2015,
Raymond joined 11 other police ocers in filing
a class-action suit on behalf of minority ocers
throughout the force. The suit centers on what
they claim is one of the fundamental policies of the
52

2.21.16

New York Police Department: requiring ocers to


meet fixed numerical goals for arrests and court
summonses each month. In Raymonds mind,
quota-based policing lies at the root of almost
everything racially discriminatory about policing
in New York. Yet the department has repeatedly
told the public that quotas dont exist.
Since January 2014, the start of the two-year
period during which Raymond made most of
his recordings, the department has been led by
Police Commissioner William Bratton, who has
presided over a decline in summonses and arrests
even as crime levels have remained historically
low. He has revamped the departments training
strategy and has introduced a new program that
encourages ocers to spend more time getting
to know the people who live and work in the
neighborhoods they patrol.
Chief of Department James ONeill told me
that the expectations of ocers have changed.
Whatever arrests we make, whatever summonses we write, I want them connected to the

people responsible for the violence and crime,


he said. The department is now focused on the
quality of arrests and summonses rather than
the quantity, he said.
Raymond and his fellow plaintis will try to
prove otherwise. The suit accuses the department
of violating multiple laws and statutes, including a 2010 state ban against quotas, and the 14th
Amendment, which outlaws racial discrimination. It asks for damages and an injunction against
the practice. Although plaintis in other cases
have provided courts with evidence suggesting
the department uses quotas, this is the first time
anyone has sued the department for violating the
2010 state ban against the practice.
Black and Latino ocers have long contributed rare voices of dissent within a department
that remains predominantly white at its highest
levels. Raymond has cultivated a friendship with
Eric Adams, a former police captain and the current Brooklyn borough president, who founded,
during his time on the force, 100 Blacks in Law

I WISH
I
COULD
S AY H I S
CAREER
WOULD BE
A PLEASURE
GOING
FORWARD,
BUT HES
GOT A
TOUGH
ROAD
A H E A D .

Edwin Raymond in East Flatbush, Brooklyn.

Enforcement Who Care, an organization that


advocates for law-enforcement professionals of
color. Adams has had a hand in several recent
policing reforms. As a state senator, he sponsored the bill that led, in 2010, to the New York
ban against quotas for stops, summonses and
arrests. Then, in 2013, he joined several current
and former minority ocers in testifying against
the department in the landmark stop-and-frisk
case Floyd v. City of New York, which culminated
with a federal judges ruling that the department
had stopped and searched hundreds of thousands
of minority New Yorkers in ways that violated
their civil rights.
Between 2011 and 2013, the publicity surrounding the case prompted the department to
all but abandon the tactic the number of annual
stops fell by more than two-thirds over two years
but, according to Raymond and others, the
pressure to arrest people for minor oenses has
not let up. Every time I read the paper, I thought,
Why do they think the problem is stop-andfrisk? Raymond says. Although stop-and-frisk
is unlawful, and its annoying, youre not going
to not get a job because youve been stopped and
frisked, he says. Youre going to get denied a
job because you have a record.
The lawsuit claims that commanders now use
euphemisms to sidestep the quota ban, pressuring ocers to be more proactive or to get
more activity instead of explicitly ordering them
to bring in, say, one arrest and 10 tickets by the
end of the month. Its as if the ban doesnt exist,
Raymond says. Other cops agree. At a Dunkin
Donuts in Ozone Park, Queens, a black ocer
who is not involved in the lawsuit (and who,
fearing retribution, requested anonymity) spoke
at length about the inconsistency between the
departments words and actions, her anger building as she spoke, the tea cooling in her cup, until
she concluded, bluntly, Its like theyre talking
out of their ass and their mouth at the same time.
I recently spoke to Daniel Modell, a retired lieutenant who in 2014 testified to the grand jury in
the case of Eric Garner, the Staten Island man who
was killed during an encounter with the police.
Modell, who is white, said the frustration is departmentwide. Its not only black and Hispanic ocers, he said. The rank and file generally, theyre
utterly demoralized and critical of the department.
But they dont have a voice, he added. If they
speak out, they get crushed.
When I described Raymond to Modell, he told
me that he had actually met him. In September
2015, Modell spoke on a panel at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. The topic was bridging
the gap between minorities and the police. Raymond, who attended the seminar, made an impression. Hes a good guy, Modell said. I could tell
by the way he spoke, and the sincerity in his eyes.
I wish I could say his career would be a pleasure

Photograph by Christopher Anderson/Magnum, for The New York Times

going forward, but hes got a tough road ahead.


Raymond is not the first police ocer to record
his commanders. Adrian Schoolcraft, who became
the primary stop-and-frisk whistle-blower, was
forcibly admitted into a psychiatric ward for six
days after objecting to police practices in 2009. He
recorded the whole incident. One of Raymonds
fellow plaintis in the lawsuit, Adhyl Polanco,
taped his superiors while complaining about
stop-and-frisk and was banished to a desk deep
in Brooklyn, two hours from his home. Look up
their names on Thee Rant, an anonymous message
board for police ocers, and the epithets come
pouring forth: crybaby, rat, zero. Even some
of Raymonds closest friends and confidants, people who admire his boldness and vouch for his
integrity, have told him, quite frankly, that what
hes doing is nuts. Raymond says he has lost sleep
worrying about what might happen, but he can
sound contemptuous of those who advise caution.
Everyone else, theyre just so scared, he says.
My thing is, never be afraid to do whats right.

R A Y M O N D G R E W U P in East Flatbush,
a West Indian neighborhood of wood-frame
houses and brick apartment buildings in
Brooklyn. A few blocks from his building was
a corner that residents nicknamed the front
page because of the many murders that ended
up in the papers. Raymond remembers stepping
over a dead body, blood pooling on the floor of
the building lobby, to get to school. His father,
a Haitian immigrant who barely finished grade
school, managed to keep the kids well fed for a
while, but then, when Raymond was 3 and his
brother was 4, their mother died of cancer, and
then their father lost his job at a paper factory.
He fell into a depression and never worked
again. Raymond and his brother often went to
bed hungry, a feeling Raymond remembers as
sadness mixed with a headache. Sometimes a
neighbor, Florise, a single mother of two from
Haiti, gave them something for dinner; Raymond
came to see her as an aunt, and Billy Joissin and
Melissa Baptiste, her children, as his cousins.
Other mothers in the neighborhood occasionally
helped care for Raymond. In a very real sense,
the neighborhood raised him.
Starting at 14, he spent 45 hours a week bagging groceries and stocking shelves after school
and on the weekends. Raymond saw what the
crack trade had done to the neighborhood and
wanted no part of it. His friends say he had a
powerful, even rigid sense of morality, lecturing them about the dangers of drugs and gangs,
refusing to try even a pu of weed. We always
tell him hes dierent, Baptiste says. Joissin
noted wryly that Raymond was not afraid to
not be popular and to not be liked. His unwavering rectitude kept the gangs from bothering
The New York Times Magazine

53

him. The police, however, were a dierent story.


As soon as I had a little hair on my chin, I was
getting stopped almost once a week, he says.
One day at a Haitian street fair when he was
16, Raymond ran into a family friend who had
become a police ocer. To Raymonds surprise,
his friend raved about the job about the benefits and the pension and the possibility of being
promoted. Raymond decided to enter the police
academy as soon as he was old enough. Even
then, he says, he had vague ambitions of becoming a dierent kind of ocer one who would
go after actual criminals. But he mainly saw the
job as a way to pay the bills. And thats how he
might still see it if, about three years before he
joined the force, a friend hadnt lent him a copy
of The Destruction of Black Civilization.
The book, a work of Afrocentric history by
Chancellor Williams, is a classic of its genre.
Raymond still recalls the pride that rushed
through your veins as he realized, he says, that
the history of black people didnt begin with
slavery. In high school, his work schedule got
in the way of his studies, and he had never liked
reading. Now he couldnt get enough of it. He
read Malcolm X and Marcus Garvey. He says
he started an email correspondence with Tim
Wise, an activist and writer known for his books
on critical race theory. As he read that the slave
patrols of two centuries ago had evolved into
the police departments of today, it occurred to
him that the cops who stopped him in his youth
werent intentionally racist; they were merely
complying with the demands of a system that
was historically rooted in keeping you down.
Then, in 2008, he joined the system himself.
At first, and for most of his career, Raymond
worked out of Transit District 32, the division
of the Transit Bureau responsible for policing
the Brooklyn sections of the 2 and 3 lines and
several other stretches of the subway system.
Many of his colleagues spent their time writing
tickets or arresting people for theft of service
a minor violation better known as turnstile
hopping. (From 2008 to 2013, fare-beating arrests
shot up to 24,747 from 14,681, according to a 2014
Daily News analysis of public data.)
Legally, individual ocers have the power to
decide how to deal with certain minor oenses. Some ocers, trying to increase their totals
of summonses and arrests for the month, hide
in bathrooms and closets meant for subway
employees, peeking out through vents so they
can jump out at anyone foolish or desperate
enough to vault the turnstiles. If the oender,
typically a teenager, lacks an ID or has a criminal
record, the ocer can make an arrest. According
to a recent analysis by the advocacy group the
Police Reform Organization Project, 92 percent
of those arrested for theft of service in 2015 were
black, Hispanic or Asian. Those oenders who
54

2.21.16

Edwin Raymond, second from right, during his police-academy


graduation, receiving an award alongside attendees including Police
Commissioner Raymond Kelly and Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

arent arrested are generally summoned to court


to pay a $100 fine. If they fail to pay it or forget the
court date or miss an appearance for any reason,
the judge signs an arrest warrant.
Raymond didnt hide on the job. At the academy, he says, future ocers were trained to
remain present and visible while working in
uniform, partly so passengers could find a police
ocer when they needed one. On Oct. 8, 2015,
for example, a group of teenage girls approached
Raymond at the Pennsylvania Avenue stop in
Brooklyn and pointed out a man who had been
following them. Had Raymond been hiding, he
says, they might never have found him. Raymond
stopped the man, asked him some questions and
ultimately arrested him for stalking.
He does these honorable things, said Willie Lucas, one of the other black ocers who
worked in Raymonds district. The first time
I worked with him, we were doing patrol out
in the East New York area. There was a mother,
she may have been a teenager, and she was in
some kind of distress, crying and really upset.
Her baby may have been around 3 or 4 months
old. I remember him going to talk to her and
help her out. He was willing to ride with her to
the Bronx, all the way out of his jurisdiction.
Raymond didnt shy away from confrontation
when it was necessary. While he was still at the
academy, the department awarded him a badge
of honor for breaking up a street fight during
one of his lunch breaks, grabbing a metal pipe
from one of the brawlers and pinning him to the
ground. When its time to get busy, I get busy,
he says. He says he typically stopped about three
people a day, mostly for little things like holding

the doors at a station. But usually he let them go


with a warning. He worried about how an arrest
could follow a kid through life.
Raymond realized that his supervisors didnt
approve of his approach. Some of them came
right out and told him he was dragging down
the districts overall arrest rate, and said they
had been taking heat from their own bosses as
a result. In the summer of 2010, a commander stuck him with the weekend shift at Coney
Island, the sort of unwanted job that cops call
a punitive post. Other undesirable assignments followed: sitting around with psychotic prisoners in psychiatric emergency rooms,
standing at fixed posts on specific parts of
subway platforms with orders not to move,
staring at video feeds of the tunnels from the
confines of an airless booth called the box.
As the pressures intensified over the next few
years, Raymond decided he needed to do something to protect himself even though it could
also put him at greater risk. Convinced that his
supervisors were punishing him unlawfully, and
fearing for his reputation, he started to record
his conversations.

T H E P R A C T I C E S T H A T Raymond
opposes began as solutions to the problems
of another era. In 1994, when William Bratton
started his first tour as the head of the department,
the department was reeling from corruption
scandals, and officers were discouraged
from spending too much time in high-crime
neighborhoods, lest they succumb to bribery.
In the absence of a strong police presence, drug

dealers operated in the open, and residents who


complained risked incurring their wrath. Crack
vials littered schoolyards, and police ocers were
still giving freedom of the streets to the drug
dealers, the gangs, the prostitutes, the drinkers
and the radio blasters, Bratton later wrote with
one of his advisers in the conservative quarterly
City Journal. The crack trade in East Flatbush was
so rampant that Raymond and his brother would
fall asleep counting gunshots.
Brattons solutions to these problems would
make him famous. A self-described innovator, he
embraced the broken windows theory of policing the idea that the police could cut down
on serious crimes by making it clear that even
the trivial ones wouldnt go unpunished. To hold
ocers accountable to this philosophy, especially in neighborhoods they had once neglected,
Bratton tasked a transit lieutenant, Jack Maple,
with developing a management system that
kept careful track of arrest and crime statistics
throughout the city. The system, called CompStat,
short for compare statistics, was often credited
for the drop in crime that followed. By the time
Bratton left New York in 1997, New Yorks murder
rate had fallen by half. Cities from Chicago to
Sydney hired Bratton and his protgs as police
chiefs and consultants. Today, most large American cities use some form of CompStat.
Eli Silverman, a police-studies professor at
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, was an
early apostle. Silverman lauded CompStat in his
1999 book N.Y.P.D. Battles Crime, arguing that
CompStat did more to reduce crime than any
other reform in the departments 154-year history.
The book opens with an anecdote from the transit system: In 1996, a plainclothes ocer named
Anthony Downing was working in a station on the
Lexington Avenue subway line when he arrested
a fare beater whose prints were later found at a
murder scene. Before the CompStat era, when no
one was keeping track of minor oenses, Downing would have had little incentive to stop someone for jumping a turnstile, and the fare beater,
it follows, might have gotten away with murder.
Silverman still calls himself a CompStat supporter, but by 2001, when he published a second
edition of the book, a number of police ocers
had written to him to say that the revolution in
blue, as Silverman styled it, wasnt all it seemed.
Intrigued by their claims, Silverman and a fellow criminologist and retired New York Police
Department captain, John Eterno, set out to see if
they could arrive at a more detailed understanding of how the system worked. In 2008 and again
in 2012, they sent out questionnaires to retired
members of the department. More than 2,000
wrote back. The results were clear: Ocers who
had worked during the CompStat era were twice
as likely as their predecessors to say that they had
been under intense pressure to increase arrests,
New York Police Department

and three times as likely to say the same about


the pressure to increase summonses.
In the 2000s, as violent crime hit historic lows,
Mayor Michael Bloomberg, Police Commissioner
Raymond Kelly and other city ocials kept pressuring the department to drive the crime rate even
lower, an expectation that became harder and
harder to meet. In districtwide CompStat meetings, executives interrogated commanders about
their violent-crime statistics. Some commanders
tried to protect themselves by underreporting or
reclassifying major crimes. Others tried to show
they were being proactive; invariably this meant
more stops, more summonses, more arrests.
Most of this activity took place in minority
neighborhoods. In predominantly black Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, for example, ocers issued more than 2,000 summonses a year
between 2008 and 2011 to people riding their
bicycles on the sidewalk, according to the Marijuana Arrest Research Project, a nonprofit that
studies police policy. During the same period,
ocers gave out an average of eight bike tickets a year in predominantly white and notably
bike-friendly Park Slope. All told, between 2001
and 2013, black and Hispanic people were more
than four times as likely as whites to receive
summonses for minor violations, according to
an analysis by the New York Civil Liberties Union.
Raymond and other critics of the program
dont deny that CompStat is useful, or even that
it may have helped the department save lives.
The question, for them, is how to use it. In theory, high-ranking ocials could use CompStat
or a similar system to track and solve problems
in ways that dont always involve fines or handcus. But after more than three decades, the
system is deeply entrenched. A captain who
requested anonymity for fear of retaliation
told me about a program he had heard of that
reduced shoplifting. But instead of praising the
ocer who developed it for the drop in arrests,
the chief told him to get more numbers. That
kind of thing happens all the time, he said. You
dont get recognized and rewarded for helping
a homeless person get permanent housing, but
you get recognized for arresting them again and
again and again.

T H E F I R S T O F R A Y M O N D S tapes
begins with a warning. In January 2014, Lt. Wei
Long, then in his first month at District 32,
confronted Raymond about his relatively low
activity. Like other supervisors featured in the
early recordings, he expressed sympathy for
Raymond, admitting that the department is all
about numbers and even acknowledging that
this sucks. Raymond challenged Long, as he did
many of his superiors. This is peoples lives, he
tells a captain on one of the tapes. Its not a game.

As Raymonds posts and prospects grew worse,


he became only more certain that he was in the
right. Even as he handed out fewer summonses
and made fewer arrests, few serious crimes were
reported in the areas he patrolled, he says. He
believed that if he could get out from under the
lower-level supervisors, at least some ocials at the
highest levels of the department would recognize
that he was the right kind of ocer for New York.
He decided to try for a promotion. In December
2012, he began studying for the exam given to
aspiring sergeants. The results of the test, which
he took in September 2013, could hardly have been
more promising. Out of about 6,000 test takers, just
932 passed, and Raymond placed eighth.
Changes within the department itself also
bolstered his hopes. On Dec. 5, 2013, Mayor Bill
de Blasio, then newly elected, announced that
he would be bringing Bratton back for a second
tour as commissioner, saying, He is going to
bring police and community back together.
Critics questioned whether the architect of
CompStat was right for the job. But de Blasio, an
unabashed progressive, had run on a platform
that included reforming stop-and-frisk, and
Bratton had espoused his commitment to that
goal, saying he would unite the police and the
public in a collaboration of mutual respect and
mutual trust. In a video shown to the ocers
at their roll call, Bratton promised to focus on
the quality of police actions, with less emphasis
on their numbers and more emphasis on our
actual impact.
A month into his term, Bratton began enlisting teams of thinkers from on and o the force
to brainstorm ideas for improving the department. Oliver Pu-Folkes, a black captain who had
met Raymond through a mutual friend and had
been impressed, appointed Raymond to a team
focused on building relationships in black and
Hispanic communities. Raymond was the lone
rank-and-file ocer asked to participate. That fall,
inspired by the work, he and a friend formed
an organization of their own, PLOT (Preparing
Leaders of Tomorrow), oering mentorship services to black teenagers in Brooklyn.
That summer, two unarmed black men,
Michael Brown and Garner, died in high-profile incidents involving white police ocers. A
wave of protests spread through the country,
and President Obama, responding to the public
outcry, lamented the simmering distrust that
exists between too many police departments
and too many communities of color. A Justice
Department ocial who had heard about PLOT
invited Raymond and his partner to attend a
conference on race and policing in Washington. After so many years of being ignored or,
as he saw it, punished for his ideas, Raymond
was suddenly at the center of a conversation of
(Continued on Page 67)
national importance. He
The New York Times Magazine

55

A S P E C I A L A D V E R T I S I N G S U P P L E M E N T T O T H E N E W YO R K T I M E S M A G A Z I N E , F E B R U A R Y 2 1 , 2 0 1 6

Hot Properties, Hot Destinations:

South
Florida

Some of the nations most forward-thinking


residential real estate developments can
be found in south Florida, where spareno-expenses designs with quality amenity
packages continue to astound.
Oceana Bal Harbour

itting on the last prime oceanfront site in


the one-square-mile village of Bal Harbour,
Oceana is Argentine developer, art collector and museum founder Eduardo Costantinis
classically proportioned, 28-story luxury tower
the only condominium in the elite enclave that is
situated parallel to the ocean. The 240-unit tower
is built on 5.53 acres of land overlooking 400 lin-

ear feet of beach to the east, with the Bal Harbour


marina, Biscayne Bay and the Miami skyline to the
west. All of the residences above the 14th floor are
full-floor three-, four- and five-bedroom apartments, with views on both sides. The lower floors
offer one- and two-bedroom residences.
The Oceana team includes architect Bernardo
Fort-Brescia of Arquitectonica, with modern
interiors by Italian designer Piero Lissoni and
landscaping by Enzo Enea, all highly respected

leaders in their fields. The property will also display several important works from Costantinis
collection, along with two larger-than-life artworks created by Jeff Koons, one of which will
appear as the centerpiece of the oversized
breezeway of the building.
Besides the 24-hour concierge service and
a poolside restaurant, amenities include a spa, valet parking, private cabanas designed by Lissoni,
a relaxation pool and Olympic-style lap pool, two
championship clay tennis courts, a grand salon
with chefs kitchen and bar, a kids activity room,
pet salon, a cinema and underground parking. Each
of Oceana Bal Harbours four upper penthouses
features a wraparound terrace and rooftop space,
some 9,950 square feet of outdoor living space in
all, along with an elevated pool deck, heated infinity pool, summer kitchen, dining area and a sunset
deck with an Enea-designed vertical garden.
Although residents receive the benefits of a
five-star hotel, we do not have a hotel component,
and, according to our buyers, the privacy here is

ABOVE: Parallel to the ocean, Oceana Bal Harbour will afford


residents breathtaking beach, marina, bay and skyline views.
This special advertising feature is sponsored by participating advertisers.
The material was written by Jason Forsythe, and did not involve the reporting
or editing staff of The New York Times. 2016 The New York Times

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

one of our biggest differentiators, said Ernesto


Cohan, Oceanas director of sales. Our building
is located farther than most properties from busy
Collins Avenue, and is landscaped like a private
European park. Plus, our units are considerably
larger than other units in the area. Our average
two-bedroom is 2,400 square feet, where the average in the area is about 1,800 square feet. Our
average three bedroom is 3,600 square feet, while
the average in the area is considerably less.
Plans are underway for a 350,000-squarefoot expansion of the nearby Bal Harbour Shops,
which is consistently ranked high among the
worlds most exclusive shopping destinations.

Prices start at around $2 million, and rise to


the $30 million range for the penthouses. Closings
will begin in November. For more information, call
786-414-2929 or visit oceanabalharbour.com.

The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Miami Beach

et on the shores of Surprise Lake, The


Ritz-Carlton Residences, Miami Beach is
a one-of-a-kind luxury development of 111
lakefront residences and 15 stand-alone villas.
Developer Lionheart Capital recently announced
that the seven-acre development, in a quiet midMiami Beach community of single-family homes,
had passed the 65 percent sold milestone.

Since the area is zoned for low-rise singlefamily homes, the 10-story structure, in line
for LEED certification, will offer 360-degree
protected views of both the ocean and Miami
skyline. The two- to fi ve-bedroom homes range
from 1,700 to more than 11,000 square feet,
each with its own unique fl oor plan designed
by Italian architect and designer Piero Lissoni.
Many homes will include private elevator foyers, sprawling terraces, summer kitchens and
private plunge pools.
Ours is a unique building in Miami Beach,
with more than 66 different fl oor plans, explained Carolyn Ellert, broker and co-founder
of Premier Sales Group, the exclusive sales
agent, along with ONE Sothebys International
Realty, for the property. There is something
for everyone here, from single levels to duplexes, many with expansive terraces, summer
kitchens and some even with a front yard that
sits on the lake. We are a lakefront midrise, not
a skyscraper and designed with a sleek and
modern European sensibility in a secluded location where you wouldnt expect to have a luxury
condominium like the Ritz-Carlton. It is a surprise on Surprise Lake.
Among the unique elements are the music
rooms and the Lissoni-designed art studio, ideal
for art classes and set up for painting, sketch-

ing and jewelry making. They also offer virtual


golf, a groom room for pets and access to a Van
Dutch day yacht, which can be scheduled by the
concierge for excursions to private beach club
facilities. There is also a marina, a difficult-tofind asset in the busier sections of Miami Beach,
with boat slips that are for sale to residents.
In the end, it is the Ritz-Carlton brand, and level
of staff training, which will make residents feel like
they are coming home and not living in a hotel, that
is resonating most with our buyers, she concluded.
There is a lot of primary and secondary ownership with both local buyers and buyers from
the Northeast and from around the world who are
especially looking for Ritz-Carlton service. They
know that for Ritz-Carlton, service is paramount.

The Residences, located at 4701 North Meridian


Avenue in Miami Beach, are priced from $2 million to
$40 million. For more information, call 305-953-9500
or visit theresidencesmiamibeach.com.

One River Point

n October, KAR Properties founder and


C.E.O. Shahab Karmely unveiled plans for
a pair of skyline-altering, 60-story residential towers linked by a sky bridge 780 feet
above the shore of the Miami River. Designed by
Rafael Violy, the architect behind the Western
Hemispheres tallest residential building (at 432
Park Avenue in Manhattan), the 1.8-acre riverside
site is only the first stage of a 5.5-acre development by KAR, near the billion dollar Brickell City
Centre, in what is being called the new Miami.
One River Point will feature some 350 smarthome residences with private elevator landings
and floor-to-ceiling glass walls, ceiling heights
from 10- to 12-feet and 12-foot deep outdoor living terraces. Amenities will include a waterfront
restaurant and lounge, fitness center, childrens
activity area and access to 25 deluxe club suites
that come with services comparable to a fivestar boutique hotel. In addition, hotelier Adrian
Zecha will be introducing a private membersonly, three-level, 35,000-square-foot Sky Club.
An 85-foot waterfall through a four-story podium
will be the signature design element, along with
an infinity-edge oasis pool and regulationsize lap pool, poolside cafe and restaurant
with butler service, private cabanas, spa and
a 6,000-square-foot fitness center managed
by The Wright Fit. The complex will include 516
automated parking spaces and valet service for
residents and guests.

LEFT: The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Miami Beach, a lakefront

midrise, offers more than 66 different floor plans. Rendering: DBOX

THE PRIVATE SIDE of MIAMI BEACH


Residences from $2 to $40 Million

CONDOMINIUM HOMES & SINGLE-FAMILY VILLAS


PROJECTED COMPLETION DECEMBER 2016 60% SOLD
ON-SITE SALES
GALLERY OPEN DAILY

4701 N. MERIDIAN AVENUE, MIAMI BEACH


THERESIDENCESMIAMIBEACH.COM | 786.574.6669

DESIGNED BY
PIERO LISSONI

Exclusive Sales Agents: Premier Sales Group, Inc. and ONE Sothebys International Realty. The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Miami Beach are not owned, developed or sold by The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company,
L.L.C. or its affiliates (Ritz-Carlton). 4701 North Meridian, L.L.C. uses The Ritz-Carlton marks under a license from Ritz-Carlton, which has not confirmed the accuracy of any of the statements or
representations made herein. This graphic is an artists rendering and is for conceptual purposes only. THIS OFFERING IS MADE ONLY BY THE OFFERING DOCUMENTS FOR THE CONDOMINIUM AND
NO STATEMENT SHOULD BE RELIED UPON IF NOT MADE IN THE OFFERING DOCUMENTS. THIS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL, OR SOLICITATION OF OFFERS TO BUY, THE CONDOMINIUM UNITS
IN STATES WHERE SUCH OFFER OR SOLICITATION CANNOT BE MADE. PRICES, PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.
ORAL REPRESENTATIONS CANNOT BE RELIED UPON AS CORRECTLY STATING THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE DEVELOPER. FOR CORRECT REPRESENTATIONS, REFERENCE SHOULD
BE MADE TO THE DOCUMENTS REQUIRED BY SECTION 718.503, FLORIDA STATUTES, TO BE FURNISHED BY A DEVELOPER TO A BUYER OR LESSEE.
LIONHEART CAPITAL

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

We see the Miami River setting in the same


context as Londons River Thames, Pariss
Seine or Tokyos Sumida River, where residents
enjoy the best of cosmopolitan waterfront living
and spectacular panoramas both day and night,
said Karmely. Violys design and the level of
sophistication offered here make a very bold
and dramatic statement about the emergence
of downtown Miami.
The site is on downtown Miami's only gated
private park. In my view, the only way you can
combine the texture of an urban environment
with the beauty of nature is on a riverfront, he
concluded. We need to build something that is
world class, and Miami, now a true world leader, is ready to receive it. Luxury does not have
to be built on sand and downtown is ready for
a tower that could thrive equally in New York,
Shanghai or Dubai. Buyers already love the design, the club and the amenities as well as the
location and they cant believe they can buy
into a Violy-designed building for this price.

Groundbreaking is scheduled for early next


year, with first occupancy scheduled for 2019.
Residences will range from 1,000 to 12,000 square
feet, with prices starting at $750,000. For additional information about One River Point, call
305-809-7566 or visit oneriverpoint.com.

The Bristol Palm Beach

ocated on one of the most desirable pieces of waterfront property in West Palm
Beach, the 25-story Bristol, with unobstructed views of the Atlantic Ocean, Intracoastal
Waterway and Palm Beach Island, is destined to

ABOVE: One River Points sky bridge will link its two towers and

house the private members-only 35,000-square-foot Sky Club.

BELOW: Unobstructed water and beach views from the Bristol

Palm Beach's fully equipped gym will make workouts a pleasure.

become the most coveted condominium address


in the area. Even without the benefit of a sales
office, sales at the tower have approached $100
million in contracts, mostly by word of mouth.
Each of the 69 apartments is a flow-through
residence, and all have water views, front to back.
Every master bedroom faces the water, as do all
the living rooms, with views of Palm Beach Island,
the Intracostal Waterway, and the ocean beyond.
The three- to five-bedroom residences range
from 3,700 to 14,000 square feet, with the option to
combine units to create even more space. Master
suites feature separate his-and-hers closets and
bathrooms, with guest suites for purchase on separate floors. Two- and three-car private, cooled
parking garages are also available to residents.
Amenities include his-and-hers spas with
steam, sauna and Jacuzzi in each locker room, as
well as inside and outside massage rooms, indoor
and outdoor spin bike rooms, and a fully equipped
gym overlooking the water and Palm Beach. There
is also an industrial-size laundry room and an automated ironing press machine for fresh sheets.
We are the only building of its kind in Palm
Beach County, and the first new-construction
project on this scale in more than a decade,
said Chris Leavitt, director of luxury sales for
Douglas Elliman Real Estate. It will be the most
exclusive and luxurious trophy building ever built
here, on the level of the best in New York, Miami
and London. We asked buyers what they wanted
before we built it, and they all talked about higher
ceilings, floor-to-ceiling glass windows, his-

THE SKYLINE-DEFINING STATEMENT


OF MIAMIS RIVERSIDE RENAISSANCE
A selection of extraordinary homes for the discerning few by Rafael Vinoly

One River Point brings Violys concept of architecture as performance dramatically to life. Twin waterfront towers
will transform the skyline of Miami as much as they will redefine the luxury lifestyle.
Exclusivity reaches a spectacular new summit in the private members club, where unprecedented privileges grace
unsurpassed views. Urban sophistication set in a private park enclosed by the rivers edge, complete resort living in
the heart of Miami.

For inquiries, please call 305-290-4663 or visit oneriverpoint.com


Exclusive Sales & Marketing by Douglas Elliman Development Marketing
This is not intended to be an offer to sell, or solicitation to buy, condominium units to residents of any jurisdiction where such offer or solicitation cannot be made
or are otherwise prohibited by law, and your eligibility for purchase will depend uponyour state of residency. This offering is made only by the prespectus for
the condominium and no statement should be relied upon if not made in the prospectus. The information provided, including pricing, is solely for informational
purposes, and is subject to change without notice. Oral representations cannot be relied upon as correctly stating the representations of the developer. For correct
representations, make reference to this brochure and to the documents required by section 718.503, Florida statutes, to be furnished by a developer to a buyer or lessee.
For NY residents: This advertisement is not an offering. It is a solicitation of interest in the advertised property. No offering of the advertised units can be made and
no deposits can be accepted, or reservations, binding or non-binding, can be made until an offering plan is filed with the New York State Department of Law. This
advertisement is made pursuant Cooperative Policy Statement No. 1, issued by the New York State Department of Law. Image is artist rendering. Sponsor: KAR Miami
MRP LLC, 2525 Ponce de Leon Blvd, Suite 700, Coral Gables, FL 33134. One River Point: 24 SW 4th Street, Miami, FL 33130.

Fully finished Residences


from the $750,000s

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

and-hers bathrooms and closets, master bedrooms and living rooms


facing the water and we made all this a priority with careful thought.
Now we have buyers selling $20 and $30 million homes to live here.

Sales and marketing for The Bristol are being handled exclusively
by Douglas Elliman Development Marketing. Prices start at $5 million
and range up to $30 million. For more information, call 917-664-0720
or visit thebristolpalmbeach.com.

The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Sunny Isles Beach

cquired by Chteau Group and Fortune International Group in


2013, the 2.2-acre site at 15701 Collins Avenue is the home of
the first Ritz-Carlton Residences in Sunny Isles Beach. The
52-story tower, with 212 residences on 250 linear feet of beachfront, is
scheduled for first occupancy in 2018.
Not far from Bal Harbour Shops, the Aventura Mall, and near both
Miami and Fort Lauderdale International airports, the property represents the next step in the area's real estate development as it moves
inexorably north from South Beach. Designed by architectural firm
Arquitectonica, with interiors by Italian designer Michele Bnan, the
two- to four-bedroom residences range from 1,605 square feet to 3,640
square feet. The private club level, on the 33rd floor, is surrounded by
views in every direction, and includes indoor/outdoor dining and entertainment areas with a terrace, eight guest suites, media room and bar/
lounge, business center, library and a private dining area with a prep
kitchen. Services reserved for residents include access to a personal
chef and at-home fuel delivery service for vehicles.
There are six penthouses in all, all with their own private swimming
pools, huge terraces and city and ocean views. All of the units have
a minimum of 10-foot ceilings, and the penthouses have ceilings up
to 17 feet so they really feel like true luxury homes, said Edgardo
Defortuna, Fortunes founder. All units have private elevators, and
we do not have any hallways at all. All of the units are oceanfront, and
there is no unit that doesnt have at least a living room and a master
bedroom overlooking the ocean.
Last year, The Residences sold its first penthouse for $21 million, setting a record for Sunny Isles. The full-floor residence combination unit,
located on the 51st floor, totals 7,735 square feet, and features fi ve
bedrooms, 14-foot ceilings and a 3,560-square-foot outdoor terrace that
includes a summer kitchen, private garden and an infinity pool.

For more information, call the sales gallery at 305-503-5811 or visit


theresidencessunnyislesbeach.com.

Iris on the Bay

ituated in the gated bayside community of Normandy Isle in


the North Beach section of Miami Beach, Iris on the Bay is a
collection of 43 waterfront town homes just finishing its first
phase of construction. The four-fl oor townhomes overlook a sea
walk along Biscayne Bay on two sides, as well as a swimming pool
running across the entire property and a dozen boat slips for vessels
up to 35 feet.
The fee-simple townhomes come in three- and four-bedroom configurations, ranging from 2,152 to 2,513 square feet, and include a
two-car garage, private elevator, balconies and rooftop terraces with
optional summer kitchens. Local and nonlocal buyers alike are seeking alternatives to condos, especially as condo prices continue to soar,
and they are opting to go for modern, well-designed townhome properties like these, suggested Jeff Spear, president of The Spear Group,

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

ABOVE: At The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Sunny Isles Beach, which is situated on 250 linear
feet of beachfront, all of the units are oceanfront.
BELOW: Iris on the Bay, a collection of 43 waterfront town homes, is located in Miami Beach's

gated bayside community of Normandy Isle.

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

developer for Iris on the Bay. Our formula is to


provide buyers with more space, privacy and the
benefits of owning a single-family home, and our
target market includes buyers living in condos
looking to upgrade from a small space in a big
building to a big space in a small building.
Custom furniture packages by Tui Lifestyle
can outfi t the entire townhouse, including the
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A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Informant
(Continued from Page 39)

the F.B.I. of harassment. Apparently, some of


Torress approaches had been clumsily overt.
Torres, he says, was constantly asking him about
his views on jihad; at one point, he asked him to
obtain a gun. Torres, he says, almost forced him
to get acquainted with another man, who tried
to talk him into traveling abroad and left him
with his phone number. Akili says that he typed
the number into a search engine and learned
that it belonged to an F.B.I. informant.
The email found its way to Cabrals inbox.
She was on the road, driving behind Torres.
She did not tell Torres about Akilis suspicions.
That night, she and Sutclie debated what to
do. Akili was most likely under surveillance,
and approaching him could tip o the F.B.I. to
their presence in Pittsburgh. At the same time,
Akilis voice had the potential to improve the
film immeasurably. They decided it was worth
the risk. The hardest part would be feigning
ignorance with Akili, whose comings and
goings they had been indirectly documenting
for months. We had to strip away everything
we knew about this person and reacquaint
ourselves with his public self, Cabral said.
On camera, in the living room of his publichousing apartment, Akili comes across as an
eccentric autodidact, barefoot, turbaned,
plump and pale. As he speaks solemnly about
the greatest jihad being the overcoming of a
persons lower, bestial desires through Islam,
the camera makes note of his video games and
a glittering medallion on his wall. For someone who believes that he is being unjustly
hunted by the F.B.I., he is serene and oddly
self-possessed. But three days after Cabral and
Sutclie interview Akili at his apartment, the
F.B.I. hauls him away in handcus. Akili pleads
with Sutclie, who was filming the scene, to get
help for his wife.
At a detention hearing the next day, an F.B.I.
agent made Akili out to be a serious threat. He
referred to, but never quoted, a taped conversation
66

2.21.16

about developing somebody to possibly strap a


bomb on themselves. He armed that the source
indicated that the defendant wanted to hook up
with the Taliban.
But these accusations were left out of the
indictment. Instead of charging Akili with
terrorism, the government indicted him over
an image and a seven-second video from July
2010, more than a year before he met Torres. The
video shows Akili shooting a friends .22-caliber
rifle at a gun range, which was illegal because
of his previous convictions. Akili pleaded guilty
to criminal possession of a firearm. He was sentenced to nearly eight years in prison, and his
wife and their daughter returned to Britain.
Khalifah al-Akili possessed and fired a rifle after
accruing multiple convictions for violent felonies and drug-tracking oenses, said David
Hickton, a United States attorney whose oce
prosecuted the case. His 94-month prison sentence is appropriate to his actions.
Torress mission, to find Akilis inner terrorist,
ends in failure. In the film, he turns on the F.B.I.
and all but proclaims Akilis innocence. Theyre
trying to make me force this dude into saying
something to support terrorism, he says. Hes
not even a pseudoterrorist. . . . I said: What yall
been doing for the last three years? Yall seen
nothing? If yall seen nothing, then what you
expect me to see?

Answers to puzzles of 2.14.16


ALL YOU NEED
LOVE M E D O

B A R I C
U N A P T
G E T S A R
V A
A B A S E D
N O M A S
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KENKEN

PUNS AND ANAGRAMS

Informants are damaged people, Aaronson,

the Terror Factory author, told me. Theyre


paid to develop intimate relationships with
strangers and ultimately use those relationships
to send them to prison. It takes a damaged person
to betray someone like that.
Near the end of (T)error, the camera finds
Torres in a state of stoned melancholy, angrily
soliloquizing on the purposelessness of his work
and the stupidity of his superiors. In exchange
for their money, he has traded away his identity. Sitting in his bathrobe, he lights a joint,
emits a long, jagged cough and pities what he
has become. Im trying to be a good [expletive]
citizen. Look what happened.
When Torres and I met upstate, he complained
that Cabral and Sutclie should have warned
him before they reached out to Akili. They
double-sworded me now, do you know what I
mean? He shifted to a discourse on the just
lie and the unjust lie, how a lie is morally
defensible if it prevents harm to innocents.
So was the lie of Cabral and Sutclie a just lie
or an unjust lie?
Im not going to say it was just or unjust, he
said. They didnt look at it the way I look at it.
He wasnt happy with the filmmakers decision,
but neither was he ready to call them out on it.
Cabral may have captured more of Torress double
life than he had ever intended to show her. He
didnt seem to fault her for it. It may simply have
been a case of his respecting the next thief.#

S
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WINDING DOWN

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2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

Answers to puzzle on Page 74


SPELLING BEE
Continuity (3 points). Also: Coconut, cocoon, concoct,
concoction, conic, cotton, cottony, count, county, cutout,
iconic, intuition, ionic, nonunion, notion, onion, oniony,
tonic, tuition, tycoon, unction, union. If you found other
legitimate dictionary words in the beehive, feel free to
include them in your score.

1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
3

N.Y.P.D.
(Continued from Page 55)

allowed himself to imagine that his problems


at work would soon be over.
Three days after Raymond returned from
the capital, his immediate supervisor, Martin
Campbell, said he wanted to see him in his oce.
Raymond felt that something wasnt right. Raymond had previously gotten the impression that
Campbell, a black sergeant from Trinidad, privately deplored the constant push for numbers, but
he also believed that Campbell, who had been in
his position for only a year, was under the same
pressure to deliver the numbers as everyone else.
Fearing another punitive assignment, Raymond
waited for Campbell to step into the oce. He took
out his phone and turned on an audio-recording
app, then slid the phone back into his pocket.
In his oce, Campbell gestured toward his
computer screen. Raymond saw that the sergeant
had given him something called an interim evaluation. Ocers typically receive four quarterly
evaluations a year plus an annual every January,
but in exceptional circumstances, supervisors will
sometimes write an additional report, usually as a
way of signaling to the command that the ocer
was caught doing something egregious, even committing a crime. Just getting one of these reports
was bad enough. Now Raymond saw that out of a
maximum score of five, he had received only a 2.5,

an abysmal grade. A score that low could block his


promotion or lead to his being fired.
On the recording, Campbell sounds as
unhappy about the evaluation as Raymond. He
insists that his direct superior told him what
to write, and suggests that she, in turn, did so
under orders from her own supervisor, Natalie
Maldonado, the district commander. Although
Raymond hadnt yet heard of the lawsuit, he
knew about other ocers who had sued the
department or had testified against it in court,
among them Adrian Schoolcraft, whose secret
recordings of his commanders were detailed in
a five-part series in The Village Voice in 2010.
Raymond knew his recordings wouldnt carry
much weight unless he got his supervisors to
call the banned practice by name.
What is the issue with me? he asked Campbell. Just the activity, the quota?
Campbell laughed. What do you think, bro?
Man, Raymond said.
Honestly, what do you think?
But it has to be more, Raymond said,
because technically, when it comes to numbers
No, no, no, Campbell said. Theres not
more. Thats it.
And yet that wasnt it at least, Raymond
didnt think so. There were other ocers in the
district, not many, but some, whose numbers
were even lower than his.

You really want me to tell you what I think it


is? Campbell asked.
Of course, because I need to understand this.
Youre a young black man with dreads. Very
smart, very intelligent, have a loud say, meaning
your words is loud. You understand what Im
saying by that?
Yeah.
I never seen anything like this, bro, Campbell said.
Raymond filed an appeal of his evaluation right
away, but before it could make its way to Maldonados desk, she was transferred out of the Transit
Bureau to a more coveted post. It was around this
time, in the summer of 2015, that Raymond heard
about the lawsuit, which had just been filed. Until
then, Raymond had felt alone. Now that he knew
there were other ocers on his side ocers
who were willing to take a stand he felt obligated to contribute his voice, and his tapes. He
still wanted to believe he could rise within the
department, so he signed on quietly. Other than a
few friends and his fellow plaintis, no one knew
he had joined the suit, and no one, other than the
lawyer, knew about his recordings.
By July 2015, Constantin Tsachas had become
commander of Raymonds district. According
to Raymond, Tsachas hadnt even moved all his
boxes into the oce when he began occupying
(Continued on Page 72)
himself with the problem

A S P E C I A L A D V E R T I S I N G S U P P L E M E N T T O T H E N E W YO R K T I M E S M A G A Z I N E , F E B R U A R Y 2 1 , 2 0 1 6

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A DV E R T I S E M E N T

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(Continued from Page 67)

of what do about the uncooperative


ocer in his command. On Aug. 3,
Campbell told Raymond he had
gotten a call from Tsachas at home.
I was already convinced that
they didnt want you to get promoted, Campbell says on the recording. Well, its clearer to me now.
Campbell says Tsachas told him
to write yet another brutal interim
evaluation, this time dropping Raymonds grade from a 2.5 to a two.
Tsachas also told him to rewrite
Raymonds annual evaluation for
2014. Tsachas would later tell Raymond that the original version,
which Campbell gave Raymond at
the start of 2015, was never finalized.
While the original evaluation, as
Raymond remembers it, criticized
him for his supposedly low activity, the new one appeared to have
been scrubbed of any language that
could be recognized as code for
failing to meet a quota. It was also
harsher. Raymond was portrayed
as lazy and dimwitted, incapable
of carrying out even the most basic
duties of an ocer. It claimed he
does not demonstrate any ability
to make sound conclusions, does
not take any initiative and needs
constant supervision. (The New
York Police Department declined to
comment on the specifics related to
Raymonds case.)
Raymond filed another appeal. In
October, he sat down with Tsachas
in his oce, accompanied by Campbell, a third supervisor and a union
delegate, Gentry Smith. Once again,
Raymonds phone was recording.
The meeting lasted an hour. Raymond spoke about his work on Brattons brainstorming group and his
visit to Washington, and he argued
that the evaluation misrepresented him. In several ways, Raymond
asked Tsachas to explain what he
had done wrong; in several ways,
Tsachas avoided saying anything
explicit about Raymonds numbers.
More than once, Tsachas told Raymond he needed to be proactive.
So whats the definition of proactive? Raymond asked.
You know what proactive is,
Tsachas said.
About halfway through the meeting, Tsachas began losing patience.

Im here for, like, half an hour, and


youre playing with words. Raymond kept pressing him. Finally, Tsachas said something more pointed.
Im not saying lock up anybody, Tsachas said. If you come in with some
stu lets say, female, Asian, 42, no
ID, locked up for T.O.S. theft of
service thats not gonna fly.
As Raymond interpreted it, Tsachas was suggesting that he focus
on arresting blacks and Latinos, as
opposed to Asians or whites. The
14th Amendment says we have to be
impartial, he said.
Tsachas began trying to clarify
his statement. It didnt come out
the way its supposed to, he said. He
went on to talk about no IDs and
low-level arrests. According to Raymond, Smith, who is black, screwed
up his face in disgust.
The room fell quiet. I have to say
I forgive you guys, Raymond said.
This is bigger than even you guys.
This is coming from up there.
Im not gonna lie, man, Raymond
told me one fall afternoon in his
apartment shortly after that meeting.
I know Im doing whats right, and
whats right and whats smart have
always been the same to me, but
when I got that 2.5 I was no longer
sure that what Im doing is smart. I
was months away from being promoted. Once youre promoted, you
will never be asked to meet a quota
again. He paused for a moment, then
said: They expect you to pass on that
pressure instead.
Raymond lives in a one-bedroom apartment in a new building
in East Flatbush, near where he
grew up. On the walls were paintings and photographs of Malcolm
X and Haile Selassie; on the shelves
were books by Marcus Garvey and
Ta-Nehisi Coates. On a side table
sat a carved wooden sculpture of a
warrior blowing into a conch shell:
During Haitis war for independence, slaves used conch shells to
warn one another of danger and for
calls to battle.
Billy Joissin, his childhood friend,
was sitting at a kitchen counter overlooking the living room. We grew
from not having nothing, he said
to Raymond, clearly worried about
him. Dont slide back into poverty.
Raymond said he didnt see
what he was doing as a choice. His

insistence on always doing what he


believed to be right had allowed him
to survive a precarious childhood.
If Id done what was popular in
those surroundings, I would have
never been a police ocer, he told
me. I was surrounded by guns and
drugs and I was surrounded by
guns and drugs while I didnt eat
for two days.
Despite everything, Raymond
still wanted to believe he might
somehow have a future in the force.
He found it hard to imagine that the
departments leaders would reject
him just because of his lower numbers. Everything I do points to a
job well done, he said. Any week
now, he expected the administration to begin promoting ocers
from his class.
Through October and November, he waited for the call. Finally,
in early December, the promotions
were announced. Among those promoted was Kenneth Boss, one of the
four ocers who fired 41 shots at
Amadou Diallo, an unarmed Guinean immigrant, in 1999, hitting
him 19 times and killing him. But
Raymonds name wasnt on the

list. Instead, he was summoned to


the hearing with the executives to
explain his situation. He brought
along a sheaf of documents, including a form letter from Bratton from
July 28, 2015, thanking him for his
participation in the brainstorming
sessions and eight letters of recommendation from people inside
and outside the department. Avram
Bornstein, co-director of the Police
Leadership Program at John Jay,
where Raymond had taken courses,
called him an outstanding example
of leadership, noting his strong
moral character and his intellectual
acumen. Oliver Pu-Folkes, the captain who asked him to join Brattons
brainstorming sessions, compared
him to Galileo, who was sent to
the Inquisition for arming that
the earth was a sphere.
Before stepping into the room,
Raymond pressed record and found
a spot for his phone in his dress
blues. The ocials sat at the other
end of the table: James Secreto,
chief of housing; Thomas Galati,
chief of intelligence; and Michael
Julian, deputy commissioner of
personnel. Julian, the first to speak,

began in a way Raymond didnt


quite expect. I want to hire a thousand of you, he said. He hadnt conjured that exact number out of thin
air. Julian, who is white, had recently been assigned the task of coordinating the recruitment of 1,000
black ocers. That summer, the
57 black men and 25 black women
who graduated from the academy
represented less than 10 percent
of the graduating class the lowest percentage of black graduates
in 20 years. In an interview with
The Guardian, Bratton blamed the
scarcity of black recruits on the
prevalence of criminal records in
black neighborhoods. Too many
of the citys black men had spent
time in jail and, as such, we cant
hire them, The Guardian quoted
him as saying. (Bratton later said
the newspaper took the quote out
of context.)
Along with the other executives
at the hearing, Julian had already
reviewed Raymonds documents.
He noted that Raymond had called
in sick only once in seven years.
You dont get sick, he said, his
voice rising with enthusiasm.

Theres a lot of good about you.


Then the conversation shifted.
Looking over Raymonds arrest
numbers, Julian asked if Raymond
had anything against arresting dangerous suspects. Raymond assured
him he didnt. Coming from a
very tough community, high crime,
being born and raised in the crack
era, I unfortunately witnessed horrible acts, he said. These people
need to be locked up, and we need
to use whatever resources we have
to do so.
He continued in this vein for
another two minutes before Chief
Galati cut him o. Can we back up
for one second? Galati asked. Tell
me why your evaluations are continually poor.
Raymond mentioned his direct
supervisor, Sergeant Campbell. He
wasnt comfortable with those evaluations, Raymond said.
Galati: Is it a personal thing
between you and him?
Raymond: I have a great relationship with Sergeant Campbell.
Secreto: So its his boss?
Julian: You dont have the
numbers?
(Continued on Page 75)

Puzzles

SPELLING BEE

FREEWHEELING

TENTS

By Frank Longo

By Patrick Berry

By Wei-Hwa Huang

How many common words of 5 or more letters can


you spell using the letters in the hive? Every answer
must use the center letter at least once. Letters may
be reused in a word. At least one word will use all 7
letters. Proper names and hyphenated words are not
allowed. Score 1 point for each answer, and 3 points
for a word that uses all 7 letters.

Wheel answers are 6 letters long and circle their


correspondingly numbered hexagons, starting in one
of the 6 adjoining spaces and reading clockwise or
counterclockwise. Rim answers read clockwise around
the grids shaded perimeter, one after the other,
starting in the circled space.

Place a tent next to each tree in the grid. Each tree


has one tent connected to it. A tent must be adjacent
horizontally or vertically to the tree. No two tents can
touch horizontally, vertically or diagonally. The
numbers beside the grid specify how many tents
appear in their respective rows and columns.
Ex.

WHEELS 1. Cal Poly city 2. Seize suddenly


3. Appetizing tidbit 4. Annoyed a bedmate, say
5. Ought to 6. Modifies 7. Micromanagers concern

Rating: 7 = good; 14 = excellent; 21 = genius

RIM Scented oil associated with bohemian types


Rand McNally publication Tickle Me ___ (toy)

C
Y

1 0 1 1

4
6

5
7

3 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 3

ACROSTIC
By Emily Cox & Henry Rathvon
Guess the words defined below and
write them over their numbered
dashes. Then transfer each letter to
the correspondingly numbered square
in the pattern. Black squares indicate
where words end. The filled pattern will
contain a quotation reading from left
to right. The first letters of the guessed
words will form an acrostic giving the
authors name and the title of the work.

A. Contents of some books

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


22 154 97 136

B. Dime, to a basketball player

J 3

W 4

P 5

A 7

23 W 24 M 25 D 26 G 27 R 28 X 29 P
44 F

45 O 46 U 47 X

67 H 68 W 69 F 70 E
88 R 89 D 90 V
111

V 72

I 73 N

156 V 157 P

74

60 170 26 133

81

17

53 141

I. Place for a partner in disfavor

122 M 123 H 124 P

72 106 54

19

174

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

12

163 91

43 131

18

61

79

K. Turn radio sets to asteroids, e.g.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

10

142

158 108 49 175 93

L. Destination of a Christian pilgrim

41

P 42 C

15

J 62 U 63 X 64 Q 65 O 66 S
83 X 84 F 85 O 86 W 87

109 C 110 F

149 W 150 R 151 X 152 Q

153 B 154 A 155 F

172 P 173 C 174 I 175 K 176 A 177 O

33 117

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


56

Q. People closest to Craters of

the Moon
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
137 152 78 103

R. Milky Ways matter, in part

66

96

a few times (2 wds.)


____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

145

85 45 148 65 177 20 162 134 105

T. One whos been around the block

98 115 32

157 41 172 124 80 29

43 J

in one day
____ ____ ____ ____ ____

P. Plot driver in The Wrath of Khan

38 H 39 T 40 E

T 22 A

S. First American to see four sunsets

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

64 118 35

I 20 O 21

170 G 171 M

O. Mercurys near lack

19

125 U 126 I 127 T 128 V 129 L 130 R 131 J 132 D 133 G

Captain Kirk
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
57

100 L 101 X 102 H 103 Q 104 U 105 O 106 I 107 E 108 K

58 24 122 75 138 171

160 146 73

H 18

17

80 P 81 H 82 L

N. Command to Scotty from

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

F. Celebrity

77 U 78 Q 79

96 S 97 A 98 N 99 M

99

H. Feature of a bowling ball

11

74 G 75 M 76 T

58 M 59 R 60 G 61

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

J. Taken for a meal by an amoeba, say

92

I 55 C 56 P 57 N

M. End of a countdown

37 126 87

121 139 40 107 70

35 Q 36 L 37

164 X 165 D 166 H 167 F 168 W 169 B

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

E. Part of a beetle or a Beetle

L 15 N 16

161 L 162 O 163 J

173 109 55 143 31

89 165 132 48 25 147

33 S 34 V

X 14

158 K 159 U 160 N

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


D. Spectral

D 13

142 K 143 C 144 V 145 T 146 N 147 D 148 O

38 123 166 102 67

42

K 12

139 E 140 L 141 H

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

95 153

E 11

137 Q 138 M

50 169 135

T 10

116 A 117 S 118 Q 119 X 120 W 121 E

G. Prescribe, or proscribe
94

C 32 N

J 92 E 93 K 94 G 95 B

112 V 113 R 114 L 115 N

134 O 135 B 136 A

48 D 49 K 50 B 51 W 52 V 53 H 54
71

91

Q 8

30 U 31

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


C. Where a vaquero does his work

74

2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3

Next week Introducing Battleships

Our list of words, worth 25 points, appears with last weeks answers.

1 0 1 1

2
0
1

I
O

176 116

2
0
1

76

39

21

127 111

U. Revolvers with teeth

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


159 77

30 62

46

16 104 125

V. Aids in getting launched

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


112 34 128 156

71

90 144 52

W. Suggestion in a smear campaign

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


120 149 86 68 23

51 168

X. Aids in gaining propulsion

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

69 155 167 44 84 110

36 100 114

59 130 113

63 28 119

14 129 82 161 140

27 150 88

13

151 83

47 101 164

N.Y.P.D.
(Continued from Page 73)

Raymond: The numbers?


Julian: You dont have the
numbers?
After years in the department,
Julian could most likely imagine
what a commander might say to
a lower-ranking supervisor who
wasnt getting high-enough numbers from one of his ocers. The
commander says, You gotta do it
like this, he mused. You gotta
put him down for low initiative,
low drive, passive. He acknowledged that Raymond didnt fit that
description. You dont seem like a
passive person, he said. You look
like a guy Id want walking through
the train when Im on the train.
Raymond thanked him. Im at
service to the public at all times,
he said. We are oathbound to
serve them, and this is what I do
every day. Raymond saluted, left
the building and drove to Queens
to meet a friend. I didnt want
to be alone, he told me. At some
point that day, the executives would
decide whether his service was
good enough to warrant a promotion. Bratton himself would review
their recommendation and sign o
by the end of the week.

On Dec. 10, a sergeant from the


employee-management division
called Raymond: He hadnt been
promoted. According to the sergeant, the executives would revisit
the decision in six months. In the
meantime, he would be transferred
out of the subway system to the
77th Precinct in Crown Heights,
Brooklyn. He didnt look forward
to this change of scenery. He knew
two other ocers in the 77th. They
were fellow plaintis.
When Raymond called me with
the news, he was furious. He spoke
of being disappointed in Bratton,
who had talked so compellingly
about changing the department.
I was foolish enough to believe
him, he said. He also mentioned
Sergeant Campbell, who he said
had refused to provide him with a
letter of recommendation to show
the executives.
When I reached Campbell at
home, he said he had in fact written a letter of recommendation for

Raymond but decided not to send


it. I have to protect myself and my
job and my family, he said. Campbell described Raymond as a good
person and added that he thought
he could be a valuable member of
the department. But he disagreed
with his methods of trying to bring
about reform. Theres a lot of
guys in the department, even I and
supervisors and other guys, who
would like to see things change,
he said. But it doesnt change like
that. It doesnt change overnight.
Last month, Bratton wrote in a
Daily News op-ed that the police
department has managed to keep
crime down even as it has cut back
hugely on enforcement encounters
with citizens. This would seem to
suggest that the approach to policing long practiced by Raymond
is both eective and, in Brattons
eyes, admirable.
In January, the citys legal department filed a motion asking a judge
to dismiss the plaintis charge
that the department is violating the
quota ban, along with several other
claims. A judge is expected to rule
on this in the next two months. If the
case, Raymond v. City of New York,
proceeds, his recordings will most
likely be entered into evidence. The
whole proceeding could take years.
But Raymond says that he will not
stop pressing, even if it means trying to take the case all the way to the
Supreme Court. He claims he will
never settle unless the department
changes its practices. Theres no
amount they could pay me to make
me stop fighting, he said.
On the day he received the bad
news about his promotion, we met
at a health-food place in Crown
Heights. Over a tempeh B.L.T.,
he talked about his hopes for the
lawsuit; it was clear he had lost
faith in his ability to change things
from inside the department. After
a while, his thoughts turned to
his neighbors in East Flatbush
how they had protected him as a
child, how he had tried to protect
and serve them in turn. He looked
away and gave a short, exasperated
laugh. An ocer who hides in a
room, peeking through a hole in
a vent, is more supervisor material than me. He shook his head.
This is the system, he said, and
it needs to change.#

Puzzles Edited by Will Shortz


4

Puzzles Online: Todays puzzle and more


than 9,000 past puzzles, nytimes.com/crosswords
($39.95 a year). For the daily puzzle commentary:
nytimes.com/wordplay.
Mobile crosswords: nytimes.com/mxword

89 Cooler unit
90 Kicks o
91 Sustains
92 Writing implement

from Planters?
97 ____-repeated
98 Lover of Radames,
in opera
99 Feature of the
Tokyo Imperial
Palace
100 Greenland natives
103 Carol Brady
on The Brady
Bunch, e.g.
106 Supporting actors
in a Bea Arthur
sitcom?
112 Up on deck
113 Legendary lover of
Abelard
114 Blake who
composed Im
Just Wild About
Harry
115 Crossed the sill
116 Border disputer
with Ethiopia
117 Works as a trader
DOWN

1 Regression
2 Wallachian prince

who inspired
Dracula
3 The Bridges of
Madison County
setting
4 Her fans are called
Little Monsters
5 Smart
6 Drubbing

KENKEN

KenKen is a registered trademark of Nextoy, LLC. 2016 www.KENKEN.com. All rights reserved.

10

11

12

13

27
30

38

31

39

32

33

43

49

50

53

34

35

51

64

68

56

65

81
85

86

76

95

78

87

88
91
97

99
105

100
106

107

108

109

101

111

113

114

115

116

117

employer of Helen
Thomas, in brief
8 Rangers org.
9 Was in charge
10 Fight of the
Century loser
11 Egocentric tyrant
12 Fired up

13 Ones helping

people up?
14 ____ vobiscum
(Mass salutation)
15 Toy dogs bark
16 Like iceberg
lettuce
17 Visibly amazed
18 Word with parking
or postage
19 What the Olympic
sport of skeleton
involves
24 Highly successful
28 Like the
Mesopotamian
people
31 Writing
assignment
32 Ethylene ____
33 Tailors supply
34 Community
leader?
35 Bernina, for one
36 One of the
so-called Public
Ivies
37 Nonstop
38 Shower accessory
39 Trick questions,
e.g.
40 Do data entry
43 Roughly removed
44 Common pay
period

102

110

112

7 Longtime

72

83

96

104

71

58

77

90

98
103

57

82

89
94

48

70
75

80

93

47

66

74

92

46

62

69

84

19

52

55

63

79

18

36

45

61

73

17

29

44

60

67

16

41

54

59

28

40

42

15

25

26

37

14

22

24

Fill the grid with digits so as not to repeat a digit in any row or column, and so that the digits within each
heavily outlined box will produce the target number shown, by using addition, subtraction, multiplication
or division, as indicated in the box. A 5x5 grid will use the digits 15. A 7x7 grid will use 17.

76

6
21

23

52 Political opponent

of Ike
53 Guy Fawkes Day
mo.
54 Brother, in
equipment
Brittany
20 Balloon
55 Like many food21 Shakespeare
drive oerings
character who
says, Good night, 58 Showing signs of
age
ladies; good night,
sweet ladies; good 59 Utilized
night, good night 61 Sealant used by
22 Wet look
NASA?
product
63 Viscounts inferior
23 Burlesque theater? 65 Quit talking!
25 Make amends for
66 Centurion weapon
26 Bathed in the sun
67 B-roll from
27 Toothy turner
Splendor in the
Grass?
29 Exceeded a limit
70 Formal
30 Group
engagement
73 Its divided into
nine circles
31 Moviegoers
who cant aord
74 Shutterbugs
concession-stand
settings
snacks?
75 2014 Cooperstown
37 Killers at sea
inductee Joe
40 Prepared for
78 Certain H&R
takeo
Block worker
41 Class with
79 DuPont creation of
derivatives, briefly
1941
42 Bad kids
81 Creator of plot
Christmas tree?
holes?
44 Loses
82 Ardent lover
49 Old Testament
83 Can of worms?
prophet
84 Broke up
50 Page views?
87 Owners of large
51 Eldorado poet
enthusiastic dogs?
1 Harmful aspects
6 Go long
13 Surveillance

20

By Patrick Berry
ACROSS

45 Program with

plugs
46 Heavenly painting?
47 Viscounts
superior
48 Deteriorate
51 Comma, to an
orator
54 Food sticker
55 Finishes all at
once, in a way
56 Some people
movers
57 One on the web at
daybreak?
60 Strong punch
61 Figure
62 Geological sample
64 Inclusions in safer
passwords: Abbr.
65 Rose
67 Like Derby
entrants
68 Garr of Tootsie
69 Game with a
64-square board
71 Tanker mishap
72 Eastwoods role on
Rawhide
75 Specifically
76 Augural
observations
77 Johnny Benchs
team

2/21/16

AWESOME!

80 Guitar part
82 Classico

competitor

83 Posh shop
85 Flag thrower
86 Hung out with the

rira

87 Gift that may be

gold-plated

88 Gave o
90 Rub the wrong way
92 Social stratum
93 Make advances

toward

94 No slouch
95 Instance of

forgetfulness

96 Pool-cue-makers

tool

97 Vowels value in

Scrabble

100 Impression
101 Bass instrument
102 Set ____ (embark)
104 I.S.S. forerunner
105 Pindaric

composition

107 New Haven

student

108 Vocabulaire entry


109 Intangible quality
110 Expend
111 ____ Peres (St. Louis

suburb)

70%

off
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Jon Taffer Sees


Shakespeare
In Reality TV
Interview by Ana Marie Cox

On your reality show Bar Rescue, you


do speedy overhauls of failing bars. Do
you ever worry that moving so quickly
sort of undermines the owners? Theres
an independent website called Bar Rescue
Updates that we have nothing to do with,
and they track us. According to them, we
have a 70 percent success rate the highest in all of transformation television.
I did not know there was a name for this
genre: transformation television. I love
a good transformation television show.
Well, its so Shakespearean, if you really
think about it. You know: person in trouble;
resists change; goes through a transformation. And then, a happy ending.
You tend to reference a lot of popular
psychology on the show. Do you have
an interest in science? When I went to
college, I really became interested in
cultural anthropology. Our behavior isnt
that dierent from other primate species.
Seventy percent of people who walk into
a shopping mall make a right turn. That
stu bothers me if I can get them to
turn left, I can make millions.
You also studied political science in college, and you hoped to go into politics
yourself. Were you planning on running
for oce? I really was going to run for
Congress. I look at it today, and Im sort
of glad I didnt.
Would you rather skip Congress and
just be president? Honestly, if I could be
anything, Id love to be a small-business
authority type of person. In fact, I gave a
speech at the Americans for Prosperity
conference last year to promote a paper
Id written on rescuing small businesses.

78

2.21.16

Age: 61
Occupation:
TV personality

Taffer is the host of


Bar Rescue on Spike.

Hometown:
Great Neck, N.Y.

Photograph by Pej Behdarvand

His Five
Favorite Bars:
1. Craigs, Los Angeles
2. The Pony Bar,
New York
(Hells Kitchen)
3. The Violet
Hour, Chicago
4. Smugglers Cove,
San Francisco
5. Lagniappe, Miami

You gave a speech at an Americans for


Prosperity event? Theyre very influential in the Tea Party movement. And I
was the only nonpresidential candidate
who spoke that day.
Ive read that you dont really drink anymore. Your show, on the other hand, has
featured a few real problem drinkers.
Its the one negative of the business that
were in. Sometimes people go into my
business because they like to drink.
Which thats insane. Its like, if you
were into drugs, becoming a pharmacist. I never drink when Im working, not
even wine.
Before you were on TV, you were a
bar owner in Philadelphia. Is it true
that, back then, you gave away breast
enlargements to female customers? Not
exactly. It was a promotion called Thanks
for the Mammaries. We ran a contest for
10 weeks, and girls competed for a breast
augmentation. The girl who won received
the contract with the doctor and had to
give us before-and-after brassieres. We
bronzed the bras and hung them over the
urinals in the mens room.
The feminist in me is aiming a square
kick at you. Thats pretty disgusting. But
you gotta realize: This is the bar business,
and these were 21-year-old girls.
That makes it worse. No! It was also
you gotta realize, this was in 1982; it was
a very dierent political time. I mean, I
did midget-tossing in Long Beach, Calif.
We would throw midgets. So this was a different time. I would never suggest doing
anything like that today.
A story about you in Vice magazine
mentions a time at one of your bars
when a robot descended from the ceiling and danced with female customers.
It apparently moved you to tears. It was
a nightclub called Pulsations that opened
in 1983. It had a spaceship that flew into
the room and deposited a robot on the
dance floor. It was the greatest nightclub
ever built, and it was quite an experience
to see this robot come out. It was the closest to a religious experience that Ive seen
without it being religious.
You said that it was one of two times
youve ever cried in a bar. What was the
other time? The other time I cried at a bar
was at the Troubadour in West Hollywood.
A band performed a song, and it was just
so remarkable that it brought tears to my
eyes. The band was the Knack. And the
song was My Sharona."

Interview has been condensed and edited.

Talk

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