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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The expectation of every student and his or her sponsor(s) is that he
or she graduates at the right time within the specified period of the
programme they enrolled for. This expectation will be achieved in line with
the laid down rules (policies) that guide the institution for the vision to be
achieved.
According to Wikipedia (2014), most Colleges of Education and
Universities run, along with other levels, the final year exams at the end of a
particular academic term, typically a semester, or more traditionally at the
end of a complete NCE or Degree course. The purpose of the exam is to
make a final review of the topics covered and assessment of each students
understanding of the course of study which will serve as a base in
achieving the core mission of educational institutions, turning students into
educational graduates.
The Registrar, Boston University (2013), explained that the institution
expects the candidate to sit for examination on the modules they have
enrolled in accordance with the official time-frame. The conduct of the
institutions examinations is governed by strict rules set by the college
which includes rules on absence from examination, conduct during
examination and unfair principles (Boston University Students Handbook,
2013).

Alvan Regular NCE/Degree Handbook (2013) made it clear that


attendance at lectures, seminars, practicals and examinations is mandatory.
It is stated also that no student shall be allowed into a class unless he or
she has been properly registered for the course and has his or her name on
the official class list for that course. It went further to state eligibility and
conditions to be fulfilled by students as follows:
1.

No student shall be eligible for any examination unless he or she


has fulfilled the relevant conditions laid down in the Academic
Regulations.

2.

Students who have not reached 75% class attendance in a course


shall normally not qualify to take examinations in the course.

3.

Lecturers must satisfy themselves that any student appearing for


any end of semester examination in any course has the continuous
assessment record in that course.
It is believed that students that conform with the rules will pass out

within the academic time-frame.

The issue of college and university

students who take too long to graduate or never graduate at all is a problem
which needs to be addressed. In recent times, there is huge percentage of
under-graduates in tertiary institutions who were not graduating in three or
four year programmes even after exhausting their two years of grace.
University of Nigeria,Nsukka Calendar (2007-2009) states that for each
normal degree/diploma/certificate programme, an extension of not more
than 50% (for the nearest whole number) of the normal period shall be
allowed for the completion of the programme. The maximum period allowed
for the various programmes is illustrated below:

Table I: Duration of Academic Programmes


Normal Duration for degree 50% allowable to the nearest Maximum
programme
whole number (in years)
Period (in years)
3
2
5
4
2
6
Source: University of Nigeria Calendar (2007 2009)

In reality, there could be some students who are not college materials
and therefore may not graduate within the time-frame of the programme
enrolled for, whereas on the other hand, the administrative system in the
institutions may be equally contributing towards the delay in the graduation
of good students.
Ekong (2012) opined that students who should have graduated since
2008 are still waiting for their results to be compiled, vetted and their names
pasted for National Youth Service Corps (NYSC).The author stated further
that students who registered in 2003,2004,2005,2006 and 2007 in UNIUYO
who had since finished their academic requirements for graduation are still
lingering around as Ubom and Mma Ekpo refused to compile or send their
results for vetting and approval.
Also, Opadeyi (2013) observed that it is not easy to understand why
a lecturer will not be able to mark examination scripts within two months
and submit the marks even after classes have started in a new semester
and the students want their grades to move on to other programmes. He
went further to state that lecturers are still bent on not keeping the deadline.
Uzoukwu (2014) stated that there is also much corruption in the
Nigerian educational system particularly Universities. For instance,
lecturers are known to collect money from students in exchange for good
grades. Some students say they have to bribe University Administrators in
order to have their exam results compiled and submitted to the National

Youth Service Corps when required. To buttress the above, Adurokiya


(2013) stated that many graduating students have become victims of poor
ethics and lax governance standards in tertiary education.
Furthermore, even when the results are computed and compiled, to
issue statement of result and certificate becomes another problem. As
Awuzie (2014) put it, it is distressing that at a time when knowledge has
become a crucial economic and political resource globally and when
Universities are competitively showcasing their strengths in order to attract
international students; Nigerian Universities still mired in the kind of
dysfunction whereby graduating students have to wait for several years to
receive their certificates.
The minimal obligation that institutions owe their students is the
timely release of their examination results, as well as, their certificates,
which is the legal and authentic evidence that they have successfully
completed their programmes.
In the institutions where there is an effective administration system of
computation and compilation of results, the maximum period of submission
of results for all levels of students to the Registrar/Degree exam unit is four
weeks. University of Nigeria, Nsukka Calendar (2007-2009) stipulates that
examination results on final year courses shall be submitted to the
Registrar/Management Information System unit (MIS) not later than 15
days after the end of the exam and results for non-final year students
shall be submitted not later than four weeks from the date the semester
examination ends.
But, the reverse is the case where people that are charged with the
responsibility of marking answer scripts, computing and compiling of

students results are insensitive to the plight of untimely graduation of


students. The abuse of the process is the epitome of career destruction,
and barrier to educational growth. According to Wordpress.com (2012),
poor human resources are a major factor in this issue. It is unfortunate to
mention that most of the human resources employed are employed on the
basis of sentiments and not qualification; also, they are not rated according
to their certificates and qualifications as well as interest.
Saad (2010) also pointed out that one of the most serious problems
in Nigerian institutions is the enormous student population, served by too
few academic staff. He further explained that the National Universities
Commission (NUC) regulation for staff student ratio is a maximum 1:40,
but most Universities have at least 1:100 staff student ratio.

It is

worthwhile for institutions not to admit more than they can manage, as
overworked and overstretched lecturers are unlikely to meet-up with the
deadline for marking and submission of scores.
The importance of making students results ready within the stipulated
time-frame cannot be over-emphasized. Alvan Ikoku Federal College of
Education, Owerri, an affiliate to University of Nigeria is dedicated to
providing the best of education in a clean and healthy environment. The
College believes in promoting the development of the total person through
teaching, training and research for the positive change in the society. The
institution can achieve its core vision by putting in place the appropriate
mechanism for doing it right as it concerns on-time computation and
compilation of students results, not withstanding the large student
population. This is because the College Council and Management in their
magnanimity had employed so many lecturers to aid in the expected

recommended team teaching which should drastically reduce academic


load.
The challenge therefore is finding ways to create effective result
management system capable of ensuring that good students will all
graduate within the actual academic calendar of their programme.
Statement of the Problem
Amongst the strategic goals of every College and University is to
have the highest total share of students who complete their studies within
the stipulated time and who compare favorably with the best in relation to
the demands of labour market.
This can be achieved by creating and sustaining a culture that
supports teaching excellence in all academic units, and developing ways to
enable management and staff to focus their time on being highly productive
in discharging their duties. Above all, strengthen institutional structures that
promote on-time graduation of all good students as a foundation for
academic and life success.
However, it is a common thing among Nigerian graduates to be
parading awaiting results in the labour market. In most Universities and
Colleges, only about 31% of final year students graduate within the actual
time of the programme they enrolled for. In Alvan Ikoku Federal College of
Education, Owerri, it is a decision that marking should be done for six
weeks, results presented in Academic Board Meeting before they are sent
for moderation. Yet, it seems there is no adherence to the time-frame of
computation and compilation of students results. According to 2010/2011
NCE final year enrollment data and graduation output, a total of 2169

students enrolled for final year programme and only 672 or 30.75% of them
graduated for the programmes they enrolled for. See table II below
Table II. NCE final year enrollment data and graduation output 2010/2011
S/N Schools

Number Enrolled Number of Passes

M
F
1.
Agric & Vocational Studies
59
193
2.
Arts
17
242
3.
Education
5
152
4.
Natural Sciences
104
507
5.
Social Sciences
195
695
Total
380
1789
Source: Academic Planning Unit, A.I.F.C.E., Owerri

M
32
8
2
28
63
133

F
70
82
32
87
263
534

Also in 2011/2012 session, a total of 1391 students enrolled for


N.C.E. final year programmes, and only 436 or 31.33% of them graduated
for the programmes they enrolled for. See table III
Table III. NCE final year enrollment data and graduation output 2011/2012
S/N Schools

Number Enrolled Number of Passes

M
F
1.
Arts
32
169
2.
Agric & Vocational Studies 40
117
3.
Education
6
74
4.
Natural Sciences
54
243
5.
Social Sciences
102
554
Total
234
1157
Source: Academic Planning Unit, A.I.F.C.E., Owerri

M
5
9
2
8
21
45

F
71
55
18
69
178
391

Furthermore, the 2012/2013 enrollment and graduation output


indicated that 994 students enrolled for NCE final year programme and only
13 of them or 1.8% graduated for the programes they enrolled for. See
table IV.
Table IV. NCE final year enrollment data and graduation output 2012/2013

S/N

Schools

Number Enrolled

M
F
1.
Arts
27
121
2.
Agric & Vocational Studies
28
181
3.
Education
6
42
4.
Natural Sciences
21
146
5.
Social Sciences
58
314
Total
140
804
Source: Academic Planning Unit, A.I.F.C.E., Owerri

Number of Passes

M
0
1
0
0
0
1

F
0
12
0
0
0
12

Realistically, there could be some students who are not College


materials and therefore may not graduate within the period of the
programme enrolled for, whereas on the other hand, the administrative
system in the Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri may be
equally contributing towards the delay in the graduation of good students
as a result of delay in computation and compilation of their results.
The problem here is whether the goals of the institutions and the
expectations of students and their sponsors to graduate within the
stipulated academic calendar are being achieved.

Purpose of the Study


The main purpose of this study will be to determine the perceived
causes of delay in computation and compilation of students result in Alvan
Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri.
Objectives of the Study
Specifically, this study will find out;

i.

Whether the examination process is a perceived cause of delay in


the computation and compilation of students results.

ii.

Whether the administrative procedure is a perceived cause of


delay in the computation and compilation of students results.

iii.

Whether the population of students vis--vis the student-teacher


ratio is the perceived cause of delay in the computation and
compilation of students results.

iv.

Whether the attitude of staff is a perceived cause of delay in the


process of computing and compilation of students result in Alvan
Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri.

Research Questions
1.

How does the examination process contribute to the delay in


computation and compilation of students result?

2.

How does the administrative procedure contribute to the untimely


computation and compilation of students result?

3.

How does the population of students vis--vis the student-teacher


ratio contribute to the delay in computation and compilation of
students result?

4.

How does the attitude of staff contribute to the delay in


computation and compilation of students results?

Scope/Delimitation of the Study


The study will focus on the perceived causes of delay in the
computation and compilation of students result with particular reference to
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. The work will look at
whether the examination process, administrative procedure, population of

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students vis--vis student-teacher ratio and attitude of staff are causes of


delay in computation and compilation of students results.
Significance of the Study
Certainly, educational research will help to solve educational
problems. The driving force behind this study is the general feeling
expressed on the delay in graduation of good students as a result of
administrative system issues.
The outcome of this study will be of the following benefits:
1.

The findings of this study will therefore be of benefit to management


of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri and other
educational institutions that are faced with such challenges to
address the problem of delay in computation and compilation of
students results.

2.

It will provide a yardstick for effective and efficient examination


process.

3.

The outcome of the study will as well provide a model of


administrative procedure (system) that will eliminate the bottlenecks
in the computation and compilation process of students results.

4.

The result of the study will equally stimulate management to plan


ahead to meet-up with the challenges of surging population of
students vis--vis staff-students ratio.

5.

Furthermore, the findings will provide information that will positively


re-shape the attitudes of those involved in the process of
computation and compilation of students results.

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6.

Finally, it will serve as a reference to those that want to carry out


research work on related topics.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
A review of related literature was done under the following headings:
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Perception
Concept of Causes (factors)
Concept of computation of students results
Concept of compilation of students results

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The role of Academic Advising in the computation and compilation of


students results
Staff-Student ratio and delay in computation and compilation of
students results
Institutional Administration and the challenges of delay in computation
and compilation of students results
Theoretical Framework
Contingency Leadership Theory
Functionalist Attitude Theory
80/20 rule Workload Theory
Empirical Framework
Summary of Literature Review
Concept of Perception
According to Wikipedia Atom Feed (2014), perception (from the Latin
perception, percipio) is the organization, identification and interpretation of
sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result
from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs. For example,
vision involves light striking the retina of the eye, smell is mediated by odor
molecules, and hearing involves pressure waves. Perception is not passive
receipt of these signals but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation and
attention.
Dictionary.com (2010) defined perception as the act or faculty of
perceiving or apprehending by means of the senses or the mind.
Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of

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sensory information. It can also be explained as how a person feels


towards something.
Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and
involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in
response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we can gain
information about properties and elements of the environment that are
critical to our survival. It not only creates our experience of the world around
us, it allows us to act within our environment (Merriam-Webster Inc. 2014).
Perception includes the following senesces, touch, sight, taste smell
and taste. It also includes what is known as proprioception, a set of senses
involving the ability to detect change in the body positions and movements.
It as well involves the cognitive process required to process information.
Cherry (2013) opines that the perceptual process allows us to
experience the world around us, take a moment to think of all the things we
perceive on a daily basis. At any given moment, we might see familiar
objects in our environment; feel the touch of objects etc. All of these things
help make up our conscious experience and allow us to interact with the
people and objects around us.
According to Alan and Gary (2011), there are three components to
perception:
1. The perceiver, the person who becomes aware about something and
comes to a final understanding. There are three factors that can
influence his or her perception: experience, motivational state and
emotional state. The perceiver will react to or perceive something in
different ways. Also in different situations, he or she might employ a
perceptual defense where they tend to see what they want to see.

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2.

The target. This is the person who is being perceived or judged.


Ambiguity or recall of information about a target leads to a greater
need for interpretation and addition.

3.

The situation also greatly influences perceptions because different


situations may call for additional information about the target.
Bruner (2002) has developed a model of perception. According to
him, people go through the following processes to form opinions:
a. When we encounter an unfamiliar target, we are open to different
informational cues and want to learn more about the target.
b. In the second step, we try to collect more information about some
familiar cues which help us categorize the target.
c. At this stage, the cues became less open and selective. We try
to search for more cues that confirm the categorization of the
target. We also actively ignore and even distort cues that violate
our initial perceptions. Our perception become more selective
and we finally paint a consistent picture of the target.

Causes (Factors)
According to Wikipedia Atom Feed (2014), causes or causality is the
relationship between one event and another.
Dictionary.com explained causes as a person or thing that acts,
happens, or exists in such a way that some specific thing happens as a
result, the producer of an effect, something that brings about an effect or
result, a reason for an action.

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It is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event


(the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical
consequence of the first. The word cause is also used to mean
explanation or answer to a why question.
According to Stanford Encyclopedia (2012), inquiry into nature
consisted in a search for the causes of each thing; why each thing comes
into existence, why it goes out of existence, why it exist. Causes in this
context are those factors or valuables which can increase, motivate or
contribute towards the delay in computation and compilation of students
results in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri.

Computation of students results


According

to

Association

for

Computing

Machinery

(ACM),

computation is finding an answer by using mathematics or logic.


Wikipedia Atom Feed (2014) sees computation as a general term for
any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically.
This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculators to human
thinking. It is a well-defined model that is understood and can be expressed
in an algorithm, protocol, network topology etc.
Dictionary.com defined computation as an act, process or method of
calculation, to determine by using a computer or calculation. You can use a
computer to do computation, but you can also do computation yourself
when you add, subtract, multiply etc.
According to the Free Dictionary, it is the act of calculating to
eliminate errors or to include additional. Computation has the following
senses:

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i.

The

procedure

of

calculating,

determining

something

by

mathematical or logical method, problem solving that involves


numbers or quantities.
ii.

It is a process, a particular course of action intended to achieve a


result. Computation of students results involves any act, process, or
method of calculation, to determine by using a computer or calculator
in preparing students results. In processing the information
generated from students answer scripts, computer can be used to do
computation, but computation can be done using calculator when you
add, subtract, multiply etc. to achieve results.
The process of computation of students result starts with the lecturers

who does the marking of answer scripts as a final review of topics covered
and assessment of each students understanding of the course of study.
Agcas (2014) identified the role of lecturers to include but not limited to
setting and marking examination scripts.
According to Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Academic
Advising Handbook (2014), lecturers shall normally mark all scripts for his
or her courses and determine the grades to be awarded to each student.
Examination attendance list, scripts and results shall be forwarded by the
lecturer to the Head of Department immediately the scripts are marked and
results are produced.
The scripts move from the exam supervisor to HODs office, then to
the lecturer in charge of the course for marking.

After grading, the

scripts/results are submitted to the HOD who prepares the result spreads
sheet for Departmental Courses only. A copy the result spread sheet each
is sent to the Exam Officer and Academic Adviser. The Head of Department

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reconciles result spreadsheet with both Department Exam Officer and


Academic Advisers. Thereafter, Departmental Board Meeting is held to
approve result. Copies of the result spreadsheet are sent to the deans for
vetting at the school level, then back to the Head of Departments, and then
forwarded to the Degree Unit for the Academic Board Meeting.

MOVEMENT OF SCRIPTS/RESULTS
(INTERNAL MODERATION)
Exam Supervisor (Scripts)
Head of Departments Office (Scripts)
Lecturers (Scripts)
Head of Departments Office (Results)

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HODs Office
(Result Spreadsheet, Departmental Courses Only)
Exam Officer

Academic Adviser

HOD reconciles result spreadsheet with both Exam Officer and


Academic Adviser
Departmental Board Meeting

(School Board/Exam,
Result Committee vets
the results).

Deans Office

Degree Unit

Academic Board

Source: Academic Advising Handbook A.I.F.C.E. (2014).

Compilation of students results


Compilation is the act of collecting information from various sources
and arrange it in a book, report, or list; it is a collection of separate things.
Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms, (2008) defined
compilation as selection, assembly, and graphic presentation of all relevant
information required for the preparation of a map or chart. Such information
may be derived from other maps or charts or from other sources.
According to Collins English Dictionary (2003), compilation is heaping
or piling together, an accumulation, a literary work compiled or put together
from various sources.
Wikipedia Atom Feed (2014) stated that compilation may refer to:
a. In computer programming, the translation of source code into object
code by a compiler.

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b. The act of compiling or putting together something such as a set of


data, report or an anthology, that is compiled.
Compilation of students results is the process and act of collecting,
sorting, aggregating, arranging, assembling and presentation of all relevant
information (data) required for the graduation or passing out of the student
for the programe he or she enrolled for. The end product of compilation of
students results in Universities and Colleges is the award of Degree or
NCE Certificates to successful graduates. Compilation of results begins
after the external examiner has concluded moderating the papers.
According to University of Nigeria Calendar (2007), Final Year scripts shall
be submitted after moderation by the external examiner to the
Department/Faculty Board of Examiners for final determination. The
procedure for processing and publication of results for final year students
are as follows:
i.

Final year scripts shall be submitted after moderation by the


external examiner to the Department/Faculty Board of Examiners
for final determination.

ii.

Examination results on final year courses shall be submitted to the


Registrar/Management Information System Unit (MIS) not later than
15 days after the end of the examination.

iii.

For any final year course whose examination results have not been
forwarded within 15 days stipulated (ii) above, the list of such
courses and the name of the lecturers who teach the courses shall
be forwarded to the Vice Chancellor by the Head of Department
through the Dean of faculty.

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iv.

The Vice Chancellor shall be required to discipline the defaulting


lecturer[s] of the courses whose results were not forwarded within
the stipulated time.

v.

Heads of Department/Deans of Faculty shall make adequate


arrangement to ensure that all external examiners are invited on
time for the moderation of final year examinations. Any difficulty
which would vitiate the arrangement shall be reported in good time
to the relevant authority and arrangements shall be made to solve
the problem.

vi.

The examination results of non-final year courses which are taken


by final year students shall be submitted within 15 days as
stipulated in (ii) above.

vii. Any final year student taking a non-final year course which he or
she duly registered shall have to mark boldly on his or her script
final year. This will enable his or her script to be identified, marked
and submitted as stipulated in (ii) above.
viii. Examination attendance list, scripts and results shall be submitted
to the Heads of Departments immediately the scripts are marked
and results produced.
ix.

Final year students shall be notified of the results of his or her final
year semester examination if the Registrar on the advice of the
Bursar/ accredited authority certifies that he or she owes the
university.
The Alvan Anti-corruption and Transparency Monitoring Unit (2014)

further explained that compilation of students results starts from movement


of moderated result from the office of the Dean, School of Education

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through the exam officer, School of Education through Departmental Exam


officers to the Head of Departments office.

The original copies of

moderated result are sent to Degree Unit while the Department retains
photocopies. Meanwhile, the Academic Adviser helps the HOD to collate
results taken by their students in other Departments (e.g. Education,
computer science, General Studies).
Now, the HOD includes moderated results from other Departments in
the spreadsheet. The HOD reconciles all with Departmental Exam Officer,
Academic Advisers, and Result Officers to determine the Cumulative Grade
Point Average (GPA) of students. However, final reconciliation of results will
be done by the Departmental Exam Officer, Academic Advisers and
Departmental Result Officers in conjunction with the Degree Unit
(Worksheet) in the presence of Academic Planning Unit to confirm the
CGPA of students. Copies of the students result spreadsheet are sent to
the Deans Office.

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MOVEMENT OF MODERATED RESULTS


EXTERNAL MODERATION
Dean, School of Education
Exam Officer, School of Education
Departmental Exam Officers
Head of Departments Office (Results)
(Result Spreadsheet, Departmental Courses Only)
Academic Adviser collate
moderated results taken by their
students in other Departments

Degree Unit
(Original copies of result)

Head of Department includes moderated results from other


Departments in the spreadsheet

HOD reconciles all results with Departmental Exam Officers,


Academic Advisers and Result Officers to determine the CGPA

Department Reconciles results with Degree Unit (Worksheet) in


the presence of Academic Planning Unit to confirm the CGPA.

Deans Office (Copies of students result spreadsheet)


Source: Academic Advising Handbook for Degree Programme (A.I.F.C.E)

23

Efficient and effective processing, storage of and retrieval of students


results require a modem Database System/Management Information
System (MIS). According to Rob and Coronel (2007), a database is a
shared, integrated computer structure that stores a collection of end-user
data (raw facts of interest to the user) and data about data (metadata)
through which the end-user data are integrated and managed.
Hoffer and Prescott (2009) opined that the world has become a very
complex place. The advantage goes to people and organizations/
institutions that collect, manage, and integrate information effectively. In
this information and knowledge age, production of accurate and timely
information is the key to decision making and bedrock of knowledge. The
body of information and facts about a specific task implies familiarity,
awareness, and understanding of information as it applies to an
environment.
Modern computation and compilation system provides timely and
useful information that produces accurate students results. Such data must
be generated properly and it must be stored in a format that is easy to
access and process. Like any basic resource, the data environment must
be managed carefully.
Rob and Coronel (2007), went further to explain that given the role
that data plays --- data management is a core activity for any business,
educational

institutions,

government

agencies,

and

other

service

organizations. Therefore, generation of information from marking of answer


scripts, computation and compilation of scores, storage and retrieval of
students results is a core activity for academic and non-academic staff of
Universities and Colleges of Education.

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In the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, final compilation of students


results takes place at the Management Information System. Moderated
examination results on final year courses shall be submitted to the
Registrar/Management Information System Unit (MIS) (University of Nigeria
Calendar 2007-2009).
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, needs to introduce
Management

Information

System

to

reduce

the

difficulties

being

encountered in data collection, processing, storage and retrieval of


students results. Development of a viable compilation system will help to
maximize effective use of resources, assist management and indeed
operating personnel to produce timely and accurate information, not only to
plan and control present and future operations, but also pinpoint potential
problems that need to be rectified.
According to National Universities Commission (NUC), Management
Information System (MIS) will help institutions to achieve the following:
i.

Collecting and storing of data on students, staff and financial


matters.

ii.

Processing such data and producing reports and statistical


information for use by various Units/Departments and other agencies.

iii.

Working in collaboration with the University/College Academic


Planning Departments, the Registry, the Bursary and faculties for
accurate and timely production of the above.

iv.

Training relevant staff on the operation of the management


information system whenever the need arises.
Effective database system is meant to cover a student entire life in

the campus from entry up to and including graduation.

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Role of Academic Advising in the Computation and Compilation of


Students Results
As institutions today focus on programs that support and enhance the
academic success and persistence to graduation of their students, it
becomes even more imperative that we evaluate and assess our academic
advising programs in order to ensure that students are receiving the highest
quality academic advising learning experiences possible.
Academic advising is all about academic staff directing students
assigned to them on the nitty-gritty of academic regulations and activities
from their first year until they graduate from the University/College. The idea
is to help direct he students to do the right things according to the
stipulations of the institutions regulations so that they can graduate at the
target time without having any hitches.
Nwoke (2014) sees Academic Advising as the comprehensive
tutoring and mentoring of students from entrance to graduation from the
institution. A Class or Course Adviser takes charge of the students
academic records from year one to final year. Academic advising is shown
to be more successful when advisors hold face-to-face appointments with
their advisees, particularly with topics like future classes, and careers. Face
to face make advising more meaningful for the students.
According to the National Academic Advising Association, (2013)
academic advising is a series of intentional interactions with a curriculum,
pedagogy and a set of student learning outcomes. Academic advising
synthesizes and contextualizes students educational experiences within
the frameworks of their aspirations, abilities and lives to extend learning
beyond campus boundaries and time frames.

26

The history of academic advising has been traced by Harrison


(2004), back to 1841 at Kenyon College. At that time, the college required
students to choose a faculty member to be their advisor.

The faculty

member would then help the student determine what courses they needed
to take in order to graduate.
Of significance to the profession of academic advising are the
standards and guidelines for academic advising that have been developed
by the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education
(CAS) and endorsed by the National Advising Association (NACADA).
These standards respond to real-time students needs, the requirements of
sound pedagogy and effective management of visions and missions. It also
has a major impact and growth potentials as institutional effectiveness,
student

learning,

outcome

assessment,

accountability,

and

quality

assurance continues to increase in the higher education community.


The standards and guidelines according to CAS (2009) include:
i.

Assess relevant and desirable student learning and development.

ii.

Provide evidence of impact on outcomes.

iii.

Articulate contributions to or support of student learning and


development in the domains not specifically assessed.

iv.

Use evidence gathered through this process to create strategies for


improvement of programs and services.
Academic Advising Programs (2012) outlined the following as

functions of academic advisors:


i. That advisors must assist students to understand the educational
context within which they are enrolled.

27

ii. Advisors must evaluate and monitor student academic progress and
the impact on achievement of goals.
iii. Privacy and freedom from visual and auditory distractions must be
considered in designing appropriates. The design of the facilities
must guarantee the security and privacy of records and ensure the
confidentiality of sensitive information. Staff members must have
workspace that is well-equipped, adequate in size, and designed to
support the work and responsibilities. For conversations requiring
privacy, staff members must have access to a private space.
Academic Advising Program guidelines provide the general standard
which includes:
-

The ultimate responsibility for making decisions about


educational plans and the goals should rest with the individual
student.

Academic Advising Program should provide information about


student experiences and concerns regarding their academic program
to appropriate decision makers.

Academic Advising Program should make available to


academic advisors all pertinent research (e.g. about students, the
academic advising program, and perceptions of the institution).
These standards are used for designing of new programs and
services, for determining the efficacy of programs for staff
development or for programmatic assessment as a part of an
institutional self-study.

28

Academic Advising contributes immensely to the timely computation


and compilation of students results and graduation of students within the
academic time-frame of the program enrolled for. According to Wikipedia
(2014), participation in academic advising has been shown to increase
student satisfaction and mitigate students feeling of isolation or
disconnection from the institution.
Astin (1993) determined that the persistence or retention rate of
students is greatly affected by the level and quality of their interactions with
peers as well as faculty and staff. Tinto (1987) indicates that the factors in
students dropping or stopping out include academic difficulty, adjustment
problems, lack of clear academic and career goals, uncertainty, lack of
commitment, poor integration with the college community, incongruence,
and isolation.
Noel, Levitz and Saluri (1985) stated that it is the people who come
face-to-face with students on a regular basis who provide the positive
growth experiences for students that enable them to identify their goals and
talents and learn how to put them to use. The caring attitude of college
personnel is viewed as the most potent retention force on a campus.
A class or course adviser takes charge of the students academic
records from year one to final year. The stages of advice according to
Nwoke (2014) are as follows:
i.

The admitted students of a particular session are assigned a course


adviser who clears them for registration, give them the list of courses
for the semester and guides them through the institutions rules and
regulations.

29

ii.

The adviser has a duty of talking to the students on regular basis,


advising them on how to follow their studies and giving them the
required confidence to face their examinations.

iii.

The course adviser receives and collates the students results,


records them in spreadsheet format, makes the results available to
the students in good time and advises each of them on how to
improve or consolidate on the results.

iv.

The course adviser is a counselor, a confidant, a role model and a


father to the students and be ready to give listening ears to their
problems. An open door policy should be maintained and equal
treatment should be meted to all. A course adviser should have a
telephone or e-mail directory through which students can be
contacted when necessary.
For Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri to tackle the

challenges of delay in computation and compilation of students results,


management should look inwards to set up effective and competent
structure of academic advisers to help direct the students to do the right
things according to the stipulations of the institutions regulations so that
they can graduate at the target time without having any hitches.
The Issue of Missing Scripts and its Effect on Computation and
Compilation of Students Results
The issue of missing exam scripts is one out of many vices that are
ravaging the education sector in Nigeria today. It is a growing cankerworm
which has left in its trail, untold frustration and shattered many destinies
because of the delay in computing and compiling students results.

30

According to Samaila (2014), missing of examination scripts is one out of


many vices affecting the moral of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
It is a growing phenomenon thaot is causing untold hardship and frustration
to many students and indeed shattering their destinies.
Attah (2014) observed that missing scripts happen sometimes as a
result of inadequate attention by lecturers, especially those handling a large
class. Attah went further to reveal that some times, lecturers use it as a
punitive measure against those who did not write class assignments before
exams or those who did not buy the lecturers personal textbooks. Such
lecturers openly tell the students plainly that anyone that does not buy their
textbooks or submit their assignments should not expect to see any result
at the end of the exams.
Other reasons according to Attah (2014) that can lead to missing
scripts are:
i.

Scripts can get missing as a result of inordinate quest of the teacher.


Some lecturers who get involved in sorting also use missing scripts
to punish those who refused to comply.

ii.

Missing scripts has also been attributed to the problem of sexual


harassment especially ladies. Some lecturers had sworn that no lady
in their department would resist their advances and go scot-free.

iii.

There are also instances that are not intentional but rather caused by
inattentiveness of lecturers concerned. The effect of this kind of
carelessness has been missing scripts as a result of omission during
scoring of marks on the result sheet.

iv.

There could be accidental folding of two scripts in one leading to the


loss of the hidden one. Computation and compilation of students

31

results begin with marks generated from marked answers scripts.


When scripts are missing, students results will not only be delayed
but will prolong the chances of such student from graduating from the
institution. It is necessary for institution of higher learning to put up a
mechanism to monitor the activities of lecturers to reduce the
incidences of missing scripts and delay of graduation of students.
Staff Student Ratio and Delay in Computation and Compilation of
Students Results
An institutions student-staff ratio is the student-to-staff ratio (SSR)
and a measure of the staffing levels at the institution in relations to how
many students it has. The ratio is calculated, broadly, by dividing the
number of students by the number of staff, but in a way designed to take
account of different patterns of staff employment in various departments
and subject mix.
According to The British Higher Education Statistics Agency (2014),
the student-staff ratio (SSR) is designed to show the total number of
students per member of academic teaching staff. It is calculated using the
student and staff full time equivalent figures. Staff-student ratio is one of
the key indicators of the quantity of the student learning experience, as
well as a significant measure for accreditation of courses in the universities
and college.
Wikipedia (2014) explained that student-staff ratio is the number of
students who attend a school or university divided by the number of
teachers in the institution. For example, a student teacher ratio of 10:1
indicates that there are 10 students for every one teacher. Smaller classes
are widely believed to benefit all students because of individual attention

32

from teachers, and low-attending students are seen to benefit more where
the content level is more challenging.
Students in large classes drift off task because of too much
instruction from the teacher to the whole class instead of individual
attention, and low-attaining students are most affected. Furthermore,
classes with too many students are often disrupting to education. Also, too
many students in a class results in a diverse field of students, with varying
degrees of learning ability.
According to University and College Union (2012), as the student
numbers increases, institutions must continue to invest in staff to maintain
the quality of the student learning experience by ensuring that their staffstudent ratio genuinely reflects the level of access to teachers.
Hunt (2012) opined that staff-student ratio is an influential measure of
how much access students will have to academic staff.

It affects the

decisions of students to choose courses, and as well influence the


decisions of government and accrediting bodies.
Saad (2010), stated that the National Universities Commission
provided for a maximum of staff-student ratio of 1:40, but most institutions
in Nigeria have at least 1:100 faculty-student ratio. In humanities and
social sciences courses, classes with at least 400 students are common
place and this contributes in the delay of computation and compilation of
student results.
Alechenu (2012) revealed that there is great disparity between
teaching staff to student ratio in Nigerian Universities and their
counterparts elsewhere in the world.

According to him, the ratio of

teaching staff to students in some selected institutions is as follows:


1. National Open University of Nigeria

1:363

33

2. University of Abuja

1:144

3. Lagos State University

1:144

i. Harvard University

1:4

ii. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1:9

iii. Cambridge University

1:3

In contrast:

Yakubu (2012) noted that teaching staff distribution in the country


both by qualification and by rank indicates that Nigerias University system
is in crises of manpower. Over 1000 students now get packed in lecture
halls that were meant for less than 150 students in a number of
universities in the country while over 400 students barge themselves into a
laboratory originally designed for 75 students (Committee on Needs
Assessment of Nigerian Public Universities, 2012).
It is already established that the lesser the number of students a
teachers handles, the lesser the workload for the teacher.

On-time

computation and compilation of students is greatly hampered by the


number of student a teacher can teach or mange at a time. Overworked
and over stressed lecturer can not put in his or her best both in the
teaching process and assessment of the students understanding of
courses covered.
For Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri and other
tertiary institutions to tackle the challenges of delay in computation and
compilation of students results, there is need to revisit staff-student ratio to
be in line with the National Universities Commission and National
Commission for College of Education.

34

Institutional

Administration

and

the

Challenges

of

Delay

in

Computation and Compilation of Students Results


Every organization has a sense of purpose of what it intend to
achieve. Plans or actions need to be developed to put the purpose into
practice. Effective management and control is paramount to achieving the
set goals and objectives of the institution.
The primary focus of every educational institution is to provide quality
education for the students success and relevance to the society. For this to
be achieved, the work of the lecturers and non-academic staff must be
harmonized. According to Mwanse (2003), the tasks of co-coordinating and
harmonizing

them

are

the

responsibility

of

the

registrar

(school

administrator). The tasks require varied skills, if he or she is to do the job


well. A successful institution requires two things:
(a)

Good Administration and

(b)

Effective Management.
Whatever the kind of organization one considers, administration

involves certain common processes and principles. When these principles


and processes are effectively applied, the task of coordinating the various
human and materials resources becomes easy.
An administrator is one who manages or directs an institution,
especially government, school or college etc. (Free Dictionary.com 2000). It
comes into play when two or more people are involved in collective activity.
Institute of Administrative Management (2014) explained that
administration is the management of an office, business, or organization. It
involves the efficient organization of people, information, and other
resources to achieve organizational objectives. Administration tries to drive

35

the behavior of people towards set objectives. It refers to the interpretation


and implementation of the policy that governs an institution.
Mwanse (2003) further explained that administration is the everyday
job of the manager which include holding together the institution, making
progress towards set objectives and getting things done. The administrator
is a planner and organizer who seek to carry out plans to operate within a
framework

of rules, policies

and procedures

established

for the

organizational leadership. It involves the styles in which managers manage


and how best the people in the organization can be led and directed.
In educational administration, the emphasis is on the mobilization of
the efforts of a number of people (lecturers and non-academic staff)
towards the achievement of a common goal. According to Agcas (2014)
education administrators organize and manage the administration, support
systems and activities that enable the effective running of an educational
institution.
Dictionary.com (2014) sums up this by asserting that educational
administration refers to the group of individuals who are in charge of
creating and those in leadership positions who complete important tasks.
An example is the act of the registrar in the University or College managing
the faculty and staff and employing the rules of the school system. The
administration of an institution represents its interest and it is invested with
the necessary rights to fulfill the duties it is charged with.
For the interest, goals and objectives of educational interest to be
achieved, it requires good effective management and administrative
system, and excellent decision making process.

36

According to Mackenzie (1969) management process begins with


three basic elements with which a registrar of an institution deals: ideas,
things and people. Management of these three elements in directly related
to conceptual thinking (ideas), administration and leadership. Mackenzie
further stated that problem analysis, decision making, and communication
are key function of a manager and are important at all times and in all
aspect of administrative job. Other function include planning, organizing,
staffing, directing and control.
Planning: Management planning is the process of assessing an
institutions goals and creating a realistic, detailed plan of action for meeting
those goals.
McQuerrey (2012) stated that the basic steps in the administrative
planning process involves creating a road map that outlines each task the
institution must accomplish to meet its overall objectives. Administrative
planning process should include a strategy for evaluating the progress
towards goal completion throughout an established time period. One way
to do this is through requesting a periodic report from departmental heads.
Management should consider the abilities of staff members and the time
necessary to realistically complete assignments.
Organizing: Organizing entails establishing formal functions that are
required to carry out the duties as planned. According to Mwanse (2003)
the registrar need to identify different roles and ensure that he or she
assigns the right amount of employees to carry out the plan.

The

administrator also need to delegate authority, assign work, and provide


direction for employees to work towards achieving targets.

37

Staffing: This involves recruiting and training the staff that will perform the
duties, to ensure that the result actually measures up to the established
standards.
Leading: This goes beyond simply managing tasks; rather, it involves
communicating, motivating, inspiring, and encouraging employees (both
academic and non-academic staff) towards a higher level of productivity
and achievement of set objectives.
Hartzell (2012) observed that employees will follow the direction of an
administrator because they have to, but an employee will voluntarily follow
the directions of a leader because they believe in who he or she is as a
person, what he or she stands for, and for the manner in which they are
inspired by the leader.
Controlling: Once a plan has been carried out, the registrar evaluates the
results against the goals. If a goal is not being met, the administrator must
also take other necessary corrective actions to continue to work towards
that goal.
It is therefore necessary for the management of the College to carry
out proper planning, organizing, staffing, leading and control to make sure
that students results are made available within the time frame of the
programs they enrolled for.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
The following theories were used to back-up the literature reviewed
as they elated to the topic.
1.

Contingency leadership theory

2.

Functionalist theory of attitude formation and changes.

3.

80/20 rule workload theory.

38

Contingency Leadership Theory


Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that believes that
there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead an institution, or to
make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent
(dependent) upon the internal or external situation. A contingent leader
effectively applies their style of leadership to the right situation. It is the
result of two factors- leadership style and situational favorableness or
situational control.
Identifying leadership style is the first step in using the model. Fiedler
(1997) believed that leadership style in fixed, and it can be measured using
a scale he developed called Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale.
Leaders

prioritize

between

task-focus

and

people

focus.

Relationships, power and task structure are the three key factors that drive
effective style. The scale are used for leaders by asking them first to think
of a person with which they worked that they would like least to work with
again, and then to score the person on a range of scales between positive
factor (friendly, helpful, cheerful etc) and negative factors (unfriendly,
unhelpful, gloomy etc). A high LPC leader generally scores the other person
as positive and a low LPC leader scores them as negative.
High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships and
act in a supportive way, even prioritizing the relationship before the task.
Low LPC leaders put the task first and will turn to relationships only when
they are satisfied with how the work is going.
Three factors are then identified about the leader member and the
task as follows:

39

1.

Leader-Member Relations: The extent to which the leader has the


support and loyalties of follows and relations with them are friendly
and co-operative.

2.

Task structure: The extent, to which tasks are standardized,


documented and controlled. Tasks where the team and leader have
little knowledge of how to achieve them are unfavorable.

3.

Leaders Position-Power: The extent to which the leader has


authority to assess followers performance and give reward or
punishment. The more power you have, the more favorable your
situation.
The best LPC approach depends on a combination of these three.

Generally, a high LPC approach is best when leadermember relations are


poor, except when the task is unstructured and the leader is weak in which
a low LPC style is better.
Table v. Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale
S/N

Leader-Member
Relations

Task
Structure

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Good
Good
Good
Good
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor

Structured
Structured
unstructured
unstructured
Structured
Structured
unstructured
unstructured

Leaders
positionpower
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak

Most effective
Leader
Low LPC
Low LPC
Low LPC
High LPC
High LPC
High LPC
High LPC
Low LPC

Source: Changingminds.org>disciplines> leadership theories


Applying the Fieldler contingency model in Alvan Ikoku Federal
College of Education to solve the problem of delay in computation and
compilation of students results, the following steps should be considered:

40

i.

Identify your leadership style. Think about the person who you
have least enjoyed working with, either now or in the past. Rate
your experience with this person in table v

ii.

Identify your situation by answering these questions.

Are leadermember relations good or poor?

Is the task you are doing structured or is it more


unstructured, or do you have little experience of solving similar
problems?

iii.

Do you have strong or weak power over your team?

Determine the most effective leadership style.

Functionalist Attitude Theory


Mcleod (2014) looked into Katz proposed functionalist theory of
attitudes. He believed that attitudes are determined by the functions they
serve. People hold certain attitudes because these attitudes help them
achieve their basic goals. Katz distinguishes four types of psychological
functions that attitudes meet.
(a)

Instrumental: Favorable attitudes are developed towards things


that aid or reward us. Human beings want to maximum rewards
and minimize punishment for breaking the law or rule. According
to Katz, we develop attitudes that help us meet this goal. Man is
likely to change his attitude if doing so will allows him to fulfill his
goals or avoid undesirable consequences.

(b)

Knowledge:

Attitudes

provide

meaningful,

structured

environment. Human beings seek some of order, clarity, and


stability in our personal frame of relevance. Attitudes help supply

41

us with standards of evaluation, through such attitudes as


stereotypes, we can bring order and clarity to the complexities of
human life.
(c)

Value-expressive: It expresses basic values, reinforce selfimage. For example, if you worked under a leader that believes in
doing it right, you can reinforce that image by adopting your boss
beliefs and values.

(d)

Ego-defense:

Some

attitudes

serve

to

protect

us

from

acknowledging basic truths about ourselves or the harsh realities


of life. They serve as defense mechanisms. For example, those
with feelings of inferiority may develop attitude of superiority.
An attitude changes when it no longer serves its functions and the
individual feels blocked or frustrated. Attitude change can be achieved by
changing the persons underlying motivational and personality needs.
80/20 Rule Workload Theory
Undertaking workload theory can help both employers and
employees make best use of their limited time and resources. Managers,
time management consultants always use statements like work smarter, not
harder, manage your time wisely, keep to a to do list etc.
According to Chinn (2013), Juran 80/20 Rule states that 20 percent
of work requires 80 percent of time, which he called the vital few and the
trivial many. The tasks in the 20 percent, or vital few, make up 80 percent
of the results.

When applied to workload and time management, this

means that workers must list and prioritize their work, then focus their time
and efforts on the vital 20 percent of this work.

42

This theory will help the staff of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of
Education, Owerri, to prioritize their work schedule and manage their work
schedule and time effectively to avoid the delay in computation and
compilation of students results.
Review of Empirical Study
In the empirical study, Ewurum, Emeka and Echerue (2003) carried
out a research on obstruction of academic program as part of examination
process that contributes to the delay in computation and compilation of
students results. The purpose of the study was to find out the relevant
issues concerning the causes of strike actions by lecturers and its impact
on students in tertiary institutions. The survey design was used in carrying
out the study. The area of study was Alvan Ikoku Federal College of
Education, Owerri. Data was collected through the use of questionnaire.
The researchers used a sample of 350 respondents which was a
representation of students and staff of various schools that made up the
academic discipline in the institution. The simple random sampling
technique was used to select the sample. Simple percentage was also used
for analysis of the data. The study found out among others that lecturers
demand for improvement in their condition of service, payment of salary
arrears are the causes of strike actions in tertiary institutions. Course
content not covered and delay in computing and compiling students results
are some of the effect of strike actions on students. Based on the findings,
the following recommendations among others were made: government
should immediately pay lecturers and other staff their salary arrears.
Lecturers should embrace dialogue in resolving dispute with government.

43

Also Ibe and Nnorom (2008) carried a survey on the effectiveness of


management and administrative practices in tertiary institutions in Imo
state. It was aimed at finding out how education is managed and
administered in Imo state tertiary institutions. The area of study was tertiary
institutions in Imo state where 300 students were selected from 5 tertiary
institution through random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics of
frequency and percentage was used for data analysis. From the study, it
was found out that most college administrators does not apply the rules and
policies that guides tertiary institutions, and that there were no sanctions on
those who do not adhere to rules and policies of institutions of higher
learning. The study recommends that educational management and
administration should be introduced in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Government and educational boards should organize seminars and
symposiums for workers in tertiary institutions from time to time. That
Nigerian institutions should be provided with adequate funds to be able to
carry out administrative work effectively.
Schwartz, Schmitt and Lose (2012) as well carried out a study on the
effects of teacher-student ratio. This study used a randomized experimental
design to examine the relationship between teacher-student ratio and
literacy learning outcomes. Eighty-five teachers working with 170 students,
each taught in a 1:1 and a small group instructional format with teacherstudent ratios of 1:2, 1:3 or 1:5. The at-risk students were assessed at
pretest and posttest with the six subtests of an observation survey of early
literacy achievement, the Slossan Oral Reading Test Revised (Sort-R)
and two spelling measures. It was found out that the 1:1 instruction yielded
significantly higher outcomes than the combined small group conditions on

44

eight of the nine measures. The small group conditions did not differ
significantly from one another, but a trend analysis indicated a reduction of
literacy performance as group size increased.
The attitude at work place can make or break ones career. When bad
attitude is copped at work, it can infect co-workers either positively or
negatively. Negative attitudes, just like positive ones have a direct effect on
workers productivity and a companys bottom line. Gallup (1997) conducted
surveys polling more than 3 million workers about engagement. In its
results, three types of workers have been identified; engaged, not engaged
and activity disengaged. The engaged employees the ones with positive
mindsets are the builders. The not-engaged workers are neutral, neither
positive nor negative, while the activity disengaged workers are considered
by Gallup as the cave dwellers. These cave dwellers with their negative
attitudes thrive on being past of the problem instead of helping find
solutions, which ultimately lead to productivity.
Summary of Literature Review
Knowledge is never a waste provided the knowledge can be kept
where it can be utilized by interested individuals, organizations and
scholars to study the past history so as to determine tomorrow.
In this chapter, the researcher was able to locate, identify, read and
evaluate previous studies that are related to the Perceived causes of delay
in computation and compilation of students results. This was geared
towards gathering information that was related, relevant and useful to the
research topic being undertaking.

45

Various literatures were reviewed to ascertain the concept of


perception, concept of causes (factors), and concept of computation and
compilation of students results. The role of academic advising in the
process of computation and compilation of students results was reviewed.
Furthermore, staff- student ratio and institutional administrative system in
relation to the delay in computation and compilation of students results
were analyzed.
Factors perceived to be causes of delay in computation and
compilation of students result include:
i.

Examination process

ii.

Administrative procedure

iii.

Population of students vis--vis the student-staff ratio

iv.

Attitude of staff
The review of staff student ration in line with National Universities

Commission and National Commission for Colleges of Education will


remedy the challenges of delay in computation and compilation of students
results.
Also, comprehensive academic advising, minimization of missing
scripts and effective administrative system should be encouraged to
checkmate the delay in computation and compilation of students results in
tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Theoretical framework of the study was on contingency leadership
theory, functionalist theory of attitude formation and change, and 80/20 rule
workload theory.
In the empirical study, Ewurum, Emeka and Echerue (2003)
obstruction of academic program, and Ibe and Nnorom (2008) study on

46

effectiveness of management and administrative practices in tertiary


institutions in Imo state were reviewed. Also, Schwartz, Schmitt and Lose
(2012) work on the relationship between teacher-student ratio and literacy
learning outcomes, and Gallup (1997) attitude at work place were looked
into.

47

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the method and procedures used in the study.
It covered the research design, description of the study area, population of
the study, sample and sampling techniques. It also covered the instrument
for data collection, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument,
method of data collection and data analysis.
Research Design
The research design adopted for this study was descriptive survey
research design. Ekwe and Obimba (2006), described descriptive survey as
the type of research design that explains conditions as they occur in their
natural settings. According to Nworgu (2001), descriptive survey design is
useful because it is aimed at collecting data and explaining in a systematic
manner, the characteristic of features and facts. Descriptive educational
studies tend to discover cause and effect relationships and testing new
educational methods and programs.
Area of Study
The area of study is Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education,
Owerri. It is a foremost College of Education located in Owerri, the capital
of Imo State, Nigeria. It was established in April, 1963 as the Advanced
Teachers Training College by the then Government of Eastern Nigeria. The
College took off in the old Shell Camp on September 16, 1963 with an initial
intake of 150 students and 14 academic staff. But it has expanded across
the Orlu Road and now bestrides the Nworie River.

48

The College was established with technical assistance from


UNESCO. It was charged with the responsibility of producing teachers of
intermediate manpower in line with the Ashby report on Higher Education in
Nigeria. In 1973, via Edict No 11 promulgated by the Administrator of East
Central State of Nigeria, Ukpabi Asika, the Teachers College became a
College of Education and was named Alvan Ikoku in honour of Mr. Alvan
Ikoku, a teacher and educationist, founder of the first indigenous (African
owned) Secondary School in Eastern Nigeria (Aggrey Memorial College,
Arochukwu which was established in 1931), and president of the Nigerian
Union of Teachers (NUT) for many years.
The College has continued to grow from strength to strength since its
inception. With an initial intake of 150 students, the population of students
grew up to 459 in 1973 and 2900 in 1980. By 2013, the student population
had grown to about 17,997 students and about 784 academic staff and
1242

senior

administrative

staff.

The

students

include

Regular

undergraduates, Sandwich students, Evening and Weekend students and


Post-graduates studying the Professional Diploma in Education.
In 1981, the College became affiliated with the University of Nigeria,
Nsukka, to award the Bachelors Degree in various subject areas in
combination with Education. The College has 6 schools which include the:
1. School of Agriculture and Vocational Studies.
2. School of Arts.
3. School of Education.
4. School of Natural Sciences.
5. School of Social Sciences.
6. School of General Studies.
Presently, the Provost is Dr. (Mrs.) B.C. Ijioma.

49

Population of the Study


The target population for this research work consists of all the 784
academic staff and all the 1242 senior administrative staff, making of a total
of 2020 staff of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. 5% of
this population will be used through judgmental sampling for the purpose of
this study.
Table V. Academic and Senior Administrative staff of Alvan Ikoku Federal
College of Education Owerri.
Academic Staff Senior Admin Staff

Total

M
F
M
F
M
F
Source: Academic Planning Unit, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education
Owerri.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
The sample size for this study was 101 staff representing 5% of the
total population of academic and senior administrative staff of the college.
The sampling method used was purposive sampling, also known as
judgmental sampling. This is because the method allows the investigator to
actively select the sample units from the research population based on his
knowledge of the population, its elements and the objectives of the
research.
According to Explorable.com (2009) judgmental sampling design is
usually used when a limited number of individuals possess the trait of
interest. It is the only viable sampling technique in obtaining information
from a very specific group of people and also used when the researcher
knows a reliable professional or authority that he thinks is capable of
assembling a representative sample.

50

Instrument for Data Collection


Data collections were in two categories, and they are primary and
secondary data.

Primary data includes questionnaire, interviews and

personal observation.
The questionnaire was structured into four (4) sections (A-E).
Section A contains three questions on background information of the
respondents such as School/Department/Unit, Position (Rank), Duration in
the College. Section B contains five (5) questions based on the examination
process that leads to delay in computation and compilation of students
results. Section C contains five (5) questions based on administrative
procedures that cause delay in the computation and compilation of
students results. Section D contains five (5) questions on population of
students vis--vis the student-teacher ration that causes delay in
computation and compilation of students results. While section E contains
five (5) questions on the attitude of staff that leads to the delay in
computation and compilation of students results. The entire questions were
close ended and patterned into four-point scale of Strongly Agree, Agree,
Disagree, and Strongly Disagree (See Appendix B).
Validity of the Instrument
The structured questionnaire was submitted to the project supervisor
for approval. After the necessary corrections, three other Chief Lectures in
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education were consulted for validation.
The validators checked the clarity by content, language and the ability of
the questions to elicit required responses for the purpose of the study.

51

Changes were made following the remarks by the validators. Lastly, the
questionnaire was sent back to the project supervisor for final approval.
Reliability of the Instrument
Reliability can be thought of as consistency of the instrument to
measure what it is intended to measure. The reliability of an instrument is
concerned with the extent to which the instrument yields the same results
on repeated trials.
In this study, the test re-test method was used to prove the reliability
of the instrument. Ten (10) academic and ten (10) senior administrative staff
of Imo State University who were not part of the population of this study
were administered with the questionnaire. The respondents filled the
questionnaire without much difficulty. Fifteen days later, the same subject
were revisited and re-administered with fresh copies of the same
questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was examined by the
consistency of the response between the two tests.
Method of Data Collection
Data collections were in two categories, and they are primary and
secondary data. Primary data includes structured questionnaire, interviews
and personal observation.
The instrument was administered to the respondents on face-to face
basis. The distribution and collection of the questionnaire lasted for ten
days. Oral interview was conducted with some management staff of the
institution. The interview actually added the advantage of being able to hear
the true concerns that would not have been reflected in the questionnaire.

52

Also, personal observations were made having been frequenting the


offices of some the staff of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education,
Owerri.
Secondary data are already published data collected for purposes
other than the specific need at hand. Textbooks with relevant areas to this
study as well as journals and other publications were consulted.
Method of Data Analysis
The methods or techniques adopted in analyzing data extracted from
respondents are descriptive statistical percentage techniques.

In the

analysis, data to support issues raised were made available based on


empirical evidence collected in the field by the investigator and obtained in
the literature.

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57

APPENDIX A
Academic Planning Unit,
Alvan Ikoku Fed. College of Education,
P.M.B. 1033, Owerri,
Imo State.
November 2, 2014.
Dear Respondent,
I am a Professional Diploma student of the above mentioned
institution and I am currently writing an essay on Perceived Causes of
Delay in Computation and Compilation of Students Results in Alvan Ikoku
Federal College of Education, Owerri.
The questionnaire is designed to elicit information from you in respect
of this essay which I am currently conducting in partial fulfillment for the

58

award of Professional Diploma in Education (Post Graduate Certificate) to


me.
All the information obtained for the purpose of this study will be
treated confidentially. I therefore solicit for your co-operation in responding
to the questionnaire.
I appreciate your kind co-operation

Yours faithfully,

Oriaku, Jonathan Chuks

59

APPENDIX B
SECTION A
To Management and Staff of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education,
Owerri
Personal Data
Please, tick () for the option(s) that best suit your response(s) in the
bracket provided.
School/Department/Unit:
Designation/Rank: .....................................................................................
1. Sex:

Male ( )

Female

2. Age:

Below 25 years
26 35 years
36 45 years
46 65 years
3. Educational qualification
Ph.D
M.Sc, MBA, MED
B.Sc, BA, BED
HND
OND, NCE

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)

4.

How long have you been employed by the institution?


Less than 5 years
( )
5 14 years
( )
15 24 years
( )
25 years and above
( )

5.

What is your job status?


Top Management Staff
Dean of School
Director of Unit
Head of Department/Unit
Lecturer
Senior Administrative Staff

(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)

60

SECTION B
Please, tick () to indicate your chosen option
Note:
SA: Strongly Agreed
A:

Agreed

D:

Disagreed

SD:

Strongly Disagreed

Examination process that contribute to the delay in computation and


compilation of students results.
S/N
ITEM
SA A D SD
1
Jam-packed examination time-table
2
Obstruction of academic program
Farming out answer scripts to unauthorized persons.
3
4
Group marking of answers scripts.
5
Delay in movement of scripts between lecturers and
Heads of Departments before and after marking.
Administrative procedure that contributes to the delay in computation and
compilation of students results.
S/N
ITEM
SA A D SD
1
Lack of proper academic advising.
2
Inability of lecturers to adhere to the time-frame
for marking examination scripts and submission
3

of scores for computation and compilation.


Lack of sanctions on lecturers that failed to
submit students scores within the stipulated time

frame.
Inadequate arrangement for external moderators

and untimely moderation of exam scripts.


Lack of database result processing system
(Management Information System)

Population of students- vis--vis the student-teacher ratio


S/N
ITEM
SA
1
Too-high student teacher ratio leads to issue of
missing scripts thereby contributes to the delay in

SD

61

computation and compilation of students results


Too high student teacher ratio leads to
omission of results thereby causes delay in

computation and compilation of students results


Too high student teacher ratio leads to delay in
marking

of

answer

scripts

thereby

delays

computation and compilation of students results.


Too high student teacher ratio creates excess
work load for faculty officers and other
administrative staff thereby making computation
and compilation of students results too difficult to

handle.
Too high student teacher ratio creates
academic stress thereby causes delay in the
computation and compilation of students results.

Attitude of staff that contributes to the delay in computation and


compilation of students results
S/N
1
2
3
4
5

ITEM
Laziness to work
Insubordination
Resistance to new ideas (change)
Tantrums, pouting when not getting their own way
Engage in other personal work outside the
employees primary assignment or duty

SA A

SD