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36. Explain briefly the principle of operation for a radar system.
The word radar is an acronym formed from the words radio detection and ranging. Radar
is a means of employing radio waves to detect and locate objects such as aircrafts, ships and land
masses. Location of an object is accomplished by determining the distance and direction from
the radar equipment to the object. The process of locating objects requires, in general, the
measurement of three coordinates: range, angle of azimuth and angle of elevation.
There are two fundamentals of a radar set, the transmitter and receiver. When the
transmitted signal strikes an object (target), some of the energy is sent back as a reflected signal.
The small beam width transmit/receive antenna collects a portion of the returning energy called
echo signal and sends it to the receiver. The receiver detects and amplifies the echo signal which
is used to determine location.
37. Why are the waveguides used in preference to coaxial lines for the transmission of
microwave energy in radar installation?
The high powers and high frequencies involved in these systems are much more
efficiently carried by waveguides than by a transmission lines.
38. With respect to a radar system, explain the following terms:
a. Target the transmitted signal strikes an object
b. Echo the small beamwidth transmit/receive antenna collects a portion of the returning
c. Pulse repetition rate is the number of pulses transmitted per second
d. Pulse repetition time is the time from the beginning of one pulse to the beginning of the
next pulse. Also PRT is the reciprocal of PRR
e. Pulse width is the duration of the pulse (the time the transmitter is radiating frequency)
f. Rest time time between pulses
g. Range is the distance to the target determined by the time required for pulse to travel to
the target and return
39. Calculate the range in miles and meters for a target when t is found to be 167us. (13.5 mi,
Range =

=13.5113 miles
12.36 us 12.36 us

40. What is the distance in nautical miles to a target if it takes 123us for a radar pulse to travel
from the radar antenna to the target, back to the antenna, and be displayed on the PPI scope? (10
Range =

=9.9514 miles
12.36 us 12.36 us

41. Explain how multiple targets lead to the term maximum range and what is meant by the term.
Calculate the maximum unambiguous range for a radar system with PRT equal to 400us.
The range beyond which target appears as a second return echoes is called the maximum
unambiguous range.
Range =

= 32.7868 miles
12.2 us 12.2us

42. What are the double range echoes? Describe a means of detecting this problem.
Double range echoes are frequently detected when there is a large target close by. Such
echoes are produced when the reflected beam is strong enough to make a second trip. Double
range echoes are weaker than the main echo and appear at twice the range.
43. Why does a radar system have a minimum range? Calculate the minimum range for a system
with a pulse width of 0.5 s.
A radar system should have a minimum range because typical pulse widths range from
fractions of a microsecond for short-range radars to several microseconds for high-power longrange radars.
Minimum Range = 150*Pulse Width
= 150*0.5 s
Minimum Range = 75 meters
44. In detail, discuss the various implications of duty cycle for a radar system.
High peak power is desirable in order to produce a strong echo over the maximum range
of the equipment. Conversely, low average power enables the transmitter output circuit
components to be made smaller and more compact. Thus, it is advantageous to have a low duty
cycle. A short pulse width is also advantageous with respect to being able to see closely spaced
45. What is the peak power of a radar pulse with 1 s, the pulse repetition rate is 900,

and the average power is 18 W? What is the duty cycle?

PRT = 1/900 = 1.111x10-3
Duty Cycle = 1 s/1ms = 0.9x10-3x100 = 0.09%
PP = 18/0.09 = 20 KW
46. For the Radar block diagram in Fig. 14-26, explain the function of each section

The pulse repetition frequency is controlled by the timer (triggered generator or

synchronizer) in the modulation block. Pulse-forming circuits in the modulation are triggered by
the timer and generate high-voltage pulse s of rectangular shape and short duration. These pulses
are used as the supply voltage for the transmitter and, in effect, turn it on and off. The modulator,
therefore, determines the pulse width of the system. The transmitter generate the high-frequency,
high-power RF carrier and determine the carrier frequency. The duplexer is an electronic switch
which allows the use of a common antenna for both transmitting and receiving. It prevents the
strong transmitted signal from being received by the sensitive receiver. In older radar no RF
amplifier is found, due to noise problems with the RF amplifiers of that era.
47. A police radar speed trap function at a frequency of 1.024 GHz in direct line with your car.
The reflected energy from your car is shifted 275 Hz in frequency. Calculate your speed in
miles per hour. Are you going to get a ticket?
Given: f = 1.024 GHz
fd = 275 Hz
Required: V = ?
Equation: fd =

Solution: 275 =

2 V cos

2V cos ( 0)
3 x 10 8
x 2.23694 mph
1.024 GHz

V = 90 mph
48. What is the Doppler Effect? What are some other possible uses for it other than police speed
A phenomenon whereby the frequency of a reflected signal is shifted if there is relative
motion between the source and reflecting object. Other uses for Moving-Target Indicator system.