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Dr. Norasikin Mat Isa
Room : C16-101-05
Off no : 07- 4537721

Have many application in engineering system (particularly
in fluid and thermal system).
E.g : not only in water supply system also in human body
(blood vessel system), oil & gas industry, steam power
plant, air-conditioning system, hydraulic system, in car etc
Pipes (circular x-section) = ducts (non-circular), conduits,
tubes (small circular pipes)
Q : Why study this topic?
To understand the flow characteristics in pipes viscous
flow - friction - directly related to pressure drop and
head loss in pipes - the pressure drop is then used to
determine the pumping power requirement.

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow


The pipe is completely filled with fluid (if the pipe is

not full, it is called open channel and not possible to
maintain pressure difference).

The conduit is round.

The fluid is incompressible.

Viscous fluid.

Classification of Fluid Flow in Pipes

The fluid flow in pipes can be classified as laminar or

This laminar or turbulent flow can be characterised by
using Reynolds number.
The laminar flow is characterized by smooth
streamlines and occur at low velocities or at Re <

While turbulent flow is characterized by velocity

fluctuations and highly disordered motion (called
eddies) and occur at high velocities or at Re > 4000.

The flow between 2100 < Re < 4000 is called

transitional flow

Reynolds Number, Re

The Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number that gives

a measure of the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces.

The concept was introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851,

but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne Reynolds
(18421912), who popularized its use in 1883.

Reynolds number is used to characterize different flow regimes

whether it is laminar or turbulent flow.
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the
geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface
temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.

Reynolds Experiment

Reynolds Demonstration
For low velocities, the dye filament
would pass straight down the tube
As the velocity was increased, a
critical value was achieved and at this
value, the stream of dye began to
Further increase in velocity made the
fluctuations more intense until the
dye was no longer a distinct and
unbroken thread, but quite suddenly
mixed more or less completely with
the water

Reynolds Results

Reynolds Demonstration
Laminar Flow
In the first kind of flow, the particles of fluid are
moving entirely in straight lines even though the
velocity along each line may not be the same. Since
the fluid may be construed to be moving in layers or
laminar, this type of flow is referred to as Laminar

Reynolds Demonstration
Turbulent Flow
The second type of flow is called Turbulent Flow and
the paths of fluid particles are no longer orderly but
random in nature. For such flows, average properties
such as mean velocity are used for description. The
characteristics of a turbulent flow depend on its
environment and turbulent motion is considered
irregular on a small scale.

The Reynolds Number

As laminar and turbulent flows are wholly different,
some criterion for distinction is required. Transition
from laminar to turbulent flow depends on:
Flow Velocity, u
uD uD


Fluid Viscosity,

Pipe Diameter, D
Reynolds derived a dimensionless number which
represented the ratio of the magnitude of the
inertial forces in the fluid to the viscous forces.

The Reynolds Number

The ratio is known as the

Reynolds Number, Re



and is a fundamental
characteristic of flow in u velocity
which inertial and viscous

forces are present.

The Reynolds Number

For flows in which inertia and viscous forces are the most
significant, Reynolds Number is the parameter used to
compare experimental observations.

High Reynolds Number Inertia Forces dominate

Low Reynolds Number Viscous Forces dominate

For flows with geometric similarity, the same Reynolds

number describes the flow regimes.

Entrance Region and Fully Developed Region

Flow at the entrance to a pipe

The region near where the flow enters the pipe is

called the entrance region.
Consider a flow entering a pipe.
Let us think of the entering flow being uniform, so

As soon as the flow 'hits' the pipe many changes take place.
The most important of these is that viscosity imposes itself
on the flow and the "No Slip" condition at the wall of
the pipe comes into effect.
Consequently the velocity components are each zero on the
wall, ie., u = v = 0.
The flow adjacent to the wall decelerates continuously.

We have a layer close to the body where the velocity builds

up slowly from zero at wall to a uniform velocity
towards the center of the pipe. This layer is what is
called the Boundary Layer.

Viscous effects are dominant within the boundary layer.

Outside of this layer is the inviscid core where viscous
effects are negligible or absent.
The boundary layer is not a static phenomenon; it is
dynamic. it grows meaning that its thickness increases
as we move downstream.
From Fig. 5, it is seen that the boundary layer from the walls
grows to such an extent that they all merge on the
centreline of the pipe.
Once this takes place, inviscid core terminates and the flow
is all viscous. The flow is now called a Fully Developed
The velocity profile becomes parabolic.

Once the flow is fully developed the velocity profile does

not vary in the flow direction.

In fact in this region the pressure gradient and the shear

stress in the flow are in balance.
The length of the pipe between the start and the point
where the fully developed flow begins is called the Entrance
Denoted by ,
the entrance length is a function of the
Reynolds Number of the flow.
In general,

Entrance Region and Fully Developed Region

Once the fluid reaches the end of the entrance region,

section (2), the flow is simpler to describe because the
velocity is a function of only the distance from the
pipe centerline, r, and independent of x.
This is true until the character of the pipe changes in some
way, such as a change in diameter, or the fluid flows
through a bend, valve, or some other component at
section (3). The flow between (2) and (3) is termed
fully developed.
Beyond the interruption of the fully developed flow [at
section (4)], the flow gradually begins its return to its
fully developed character [section (5)] and continues
with this profile until the next pipe system component
is reached [section (6)].

Example : Entrance Length

Water flows through a 15m pipe with 1.3cm

diameter at 20 l/min. What fraction of this pipe
can be considered at entrance region?

1. What is the difference between uniform velocity
and uniform velocity profile? Where each of
them occurs in pipe flow?
2. Give 3 differences between entrance region and
fully developed region.

Pressure Along The Pipe

It is easy to visualise that the forces acting upon the pipe
flow are inertial, viscous force due to shear and the
pressure forces.
Let us ignore gravity, i.e., let the pipe be horizontal.
When the flow is fully developed the pressure gradient
and shear forces balance each other and the flow
continues with a constant velocity profile. The pressure
gradient remains constant.
In the entrance region the fluid is decelerating. A balance
is achieved with inertia, pressure and shear forces.
The pressure gradient is not constant in this part of the
flow and in fact, it decreases as shown in Fig.6

Pressure along the pipe

Fig. 6: Flow at the entrance to a pipe

Pressure and Shear Stress

Fully developed steady flow in a constant diameter pipe
may be driven by gravity and/or pressure

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

As is indicated in the previous section, the flow in long,
straight, constant diameter sections of a pipe becomes
fully developed. That is, the velocity profile is the same
at any cross section of the pipe. Although this is true
whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, the details of
the velocity profile (and other flow properties) are quite
different for these two types of flow.
The knowledge of the velocity profile can lead directly to
other useful information such as pressure drop,
flowrate, head loss, etc.
3 methods could be used for this purpose :
1. By applying F = ma to a fluid element
2. From Navier-stokes equation
3. From dimensional analysis

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

By applying F=ma to a fluid element :

refer to derivation

Local velocity:

Velocity at centerline (Umax) :

Average velocity :

Pressure drop :


-> is called
Poiseuille law

Summary -

Flow properties for horizontal pipe

Flow Properties
Entrance Length, le/D = 0.06 Re
le/D = 4.4 (Re)1/6
Pressure drop
p/l = 2/r
per unit length

Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
Valid for both laminar
and turbulent flow

Shear stress

= 2wr/D

Valid for both laminar

and turbulent flow

Pressure drop

p = 4lw/D

Valid for both laminar

and turbulent flow

Velocity profile ur = Vc 1 (2r/D) 2

Average velocity V = ( R2 Vc/2)/ R2
V= Vc/2
V = pD2/32l
Q = D4p/128l

Laminar flow
Laminar flow

Laminar flow

Exercise : Laminar Flow





Using F=ma derive and proof that u = Vc [1 r2/R2]

Find velocity ratio u/Umax
For laminar flow in a round pipe of radius, R, at what distance
from the centerline is the actual velocity equal to the average
In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the velocity at
R/2 (midway between the wall surface and the centerline) is
measured to be 6 m/s. Determine the velocity at the center of
the pipe.
The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular
pipe of inner radius R = 2 cm, in m/s, is given by u(r) = 4(1r2/R2). Determine the average and maximum velocities in the
pipe and the volume flow rate.

For non-horizontal/inclined pipe :

The adjustment necessary to account

for non-horizontal/inclined pipes, can
be easily included by replacing the
pressure drop, p, by the combined
effect of pressure and gravity, p-l sin
, where is the angle between the
pipe and the horizontal.
Exercise : From F=ma derive V and Q
for inclined pipe.

Example #1 : Laminar Flow

Oil at 20C ( = 888 kg/m3 and = 0.800
kg/m s) is flowing steadily through a 5cm-diameter 40-m-long pipe (Figure). The
pressure at the pipe inlet and outlet are
measured to be 745 and 97 kPa,
respectively. Determine the flow rate of oil
through the pipe assuming the pipe is (a)
horizontal, (b) inclined 15 upward, (c)
inclined 15 downward. Also verify that the
flow through the pipe is laminar.

Example #2 : Laminar Flow

An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 N.s/m2 and density = 900 kg/m3
flows in a pipe of diameter D = 0.020 m. (a) What pressure drop, p1 - p2,
is needed to produce a flowrate of Q = 20. x 10-5 m3/s if the pipe is
horizontal with x1 = 0 and x2 = 10m? (b) How steep a hill, , must the
pipe be on if the oil is to flow through the pipe at the same rate as in
part (a), but with p1 = p2

Transition form Laminar to Turbulent Flow

Consider a long section of pipe that is
initially filled with a fluid at rest. As
the valve is opened to start the flow,
the flow velocity and, hence, the
Reynolds number increase from zero
(no flow) to their maximum steadystate flow values. Assume this
transient process is slow enough so
that unsteady effects are negligible.

For an initial time period the Reynolds number is small enough for laminar
flow to occur. At some time the Reynolds number reaches 2100, and the flow
begins its transition to turbulent conditions. Intermittent spots or bursts of
turbulence appear. As the Reynolds number is increased the entire flow field
becomes turbulent. The flow remains turbulent as long as the Reynolds
number exceeds approximately 4000.

Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

Turbulent characteristic : random, chaotic, fluctuations and eddies.
Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent.
However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism and the theory of
turbulent flow remains largely undeveloped.
Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the empirical or semiempirical correlations developed for various situations.

Turbulent Shear Stress

The experimental studies show that the shear stress in turbulent flow is much
larger due to the turbulent fluctuations and the shear stress is not merely
proportional to the gradient of the time-average velocity.


Therefore, it is convenient to think of the turbulent shear stress as consisting of two

parts: the laminar component and the turbulent component, or the total shear
stress in turbulent flow can be expressed as

total lam turbulent





turbulent u ' v'


where is the eddy or turbulent viscosity

However, in practice it is not easy to use and this eddy viscosity changes from one
turbulent flow condition/point to another cannot be looked up in handbooks.
Several semiempirical theories have been proposed to determine approximate
values of . For example, the turbulent process could be viewed as the random
transport of bundles of fluid particles over a certain distance, the mixing length,
from a region of one velocity to another region of a different velocity. By the use of
some ad hoc assumptions and lm physical reasoning, it was concluded that the eddy
viscosity was given by,


Thus, the turbulent shear stress is



total lam turbulent

Turbulent Velocity Profile

- much flatter than laminar profile.
- can be broken into three regions
i. the viscous sublayer
ii. the overlap region
iii. the outer turbulent layer
Unlike laminar flow, the expressions for the velocity
profile in a turbulent flow has been obtained
through the use of dimensional analysis,
experimentation, and semiempirical theoretical
An often-used correlation is the empirical power- law
velocity profile


The value of n can be obtain from graph below. However the typical
value of n is between 6 to 10.

However, this power law cannot be valid near the

wall (refer figure).
So, in the viscous sublayer the velocity profile can be
written in dimensionless form

For the overlap region, the following expression has been proposed :

..Formula from Cengel


Darcy friction factor for turbulent flow

Friction factor f for turbulent can be obtain through

1. Colebrook equation (explicitly): **

2. Colebrook equation (implicitly):

3. Moody chart (also generated by Colebrook equation).

Moody chart

Example #1 : Turbulent Flow

(a) For laminar flow, determine at what radial location you would
place a Pitot tube if it is to measure the average velocity in the
pipe. (b) Repeat part (a) for turbulent flow with Re= 10 000

Example #2 : Turbulent Flow

Water at 20C ( = 998 kg/m3 and = 1.004 x 10-6 m2 /s) flows through
a horizontal pipe of 0.1-m diameter with a flowrate of Q = 4 x 10-2 m3
/s and a pressure gradient of 2.59 kP/m. (a) Determine the
approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer. (b) Determine the
approximate centreline velocity, Vc , (c) Determine the ratio of the
turbulent to laminar shear stress, turb / lam , at a point midway
between the centreline and the pipe wall (i.e., at r = 0.025m)

Air under standard conditions flows through a 4.0-mm-diameter
drawn tubing with an average velocity of V = 50 m/s For such
conditions the flow would normally be turbulent. However, if
precautions are taken to eliminate disturbances to the flow (the
entrance to the tube is very smooth, the air is dust free, the tube
does not vibrate, etc.), it may be possible to maintain laminar flow.
(a) Determine the pressure drop in a 0.1-m section of the tube if the
flow is laminar. (b) Repeat the calculations if the flow is turbulent.

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

Exercise : Pressure Drop and Head Loss in Pipes

Water at 5 ( = 1000 kg/m3 and = 1.519 x 10-3 kg/m.s) is
flowing steadily through a 0.3 cm diameter 9 m long horizontal
pipe at an average velocity of 0.9 m/s. Determine :
a) the head loss
b) the pressure drop
c) the pumping power requirement to overcome the pressure


Always describe as pressure drop or head loss.

A quantity of interest in the analysis of pipe flow is the
pressure drop, P since it is directly related to the power
requirements of the pump to maintain flow.
Therefore, the analysis of losses in pipes is very useful in
estimating the pressure drop occurs.
Besides the pipe size and material also the velocity in pipe,
the pipe components such as pipe fittings, valves,
diffusers etc also affect the flow patterns/conditions and
this also contributed to the losses.
When a head loss is considered, the steady-flow energy
equation is expressed as

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

In practice, it is found convenient to express the pressure loss for all types
of fully developed internal flows (laminar or turbulent flows etc).
The pressure loss and head loss for all types of internal flows (laminar or
turbulent, in circular or noncircular pipes, smooth or rough surfaces) are
expressed as

Where for

And f for turbulent can be obtain from Colebrook equation or Moody


There are 2 type of losses major losses and minor losses.

Major losses caused by fluid friction.

given by,

Minor losses - due to changes in the pipe cross section/ pipe


When all the loss coefficients are available, the total head loss in a piping
system is determined from

If the entire piping system has a constant diameter, the total

head loss reduces to


Major losses occur due to friction in pipe.

It depends on Reynolds no, surface roughness, length and
diameter of pipe, and also the velocity in pipe.
Friction factor, f is depends on Reynolds no and surface
It can be obtained from the eqns. such as the Karman & Prandtl
and Colebrook & White. But it is more easier from Moody

Surface Roughness,

Surface roughness of pipe is depends on pipe material

and how it been manufactured.
Different pipe material gives different value of surface
Rough pipe wall surface gives high value of surface
roughness and it will contribute larger losses.
While smooth pipe (i.e have lower surface roughness
or = 0) contribute lower losses.

Surface roughness on rough and smooth wall

General steps in solving Major Losses

1. Determine Re where Re = VD/.

If Re<2100 (laminar flow)

If Re>4000 (turbulent flow)

2. Calculate friction factor f where f

for laminar,
f = 64/Re
3. Calculate the losses head due to
friction hf.
Note : f value only influenced by Re.
no. and not by the value of
relative roughness because the
pipe surface is smooth (i.e = 0)

2. Determine surface roughness,

and then relative roughness
3. Obtain the value of friction
factor f from Moody chart
(base on Re dan /D obtained
4. Calculate the losses head due to
friction hf.

Moody Chart


Minor losses is due to changes in the pipe cross section.

It is depends on the velocity in pipe and the geometry of pipe
components and this can be describe by the value of loss
coefficient KL.
Different shape and geometry of pipe component gives
different value of KL.
Sometimes minor losses can be a major losses for example in
short pipes where there are a suction pipe of a pump with
strainer and foot valves.

KL for pipe entrance

KL for pipe entrance (graph)

KL for pipe exit

KL for sudden contraction

KL for sudden expansion

Other method to calculate KL for sudden

expansion (by using the equation obtained
from simple energy analysis)

KL for typical diffuser

KL for 90 bend

KL for pipe components


When a piping system involves a pump, the steady-flow

energy equation is expressed as

Common Types of Problems

In the design and analysis of piping systems that
involve the use of the Moody chart (or the
Colebrook equation), we usually encounter three
types of problems :
1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss) when
the pipe length and diameter are given for a
specified flow rate (or velocity).
2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length and
diameter are given for a specified pressure drop (or
head loss).
3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe length
and flow rate are given for a specified pressure drop
(or head loss).

Example 1 :
Water flows from basement (point 1) to the second floor of building
through the copper pipe with diameter of 1.9 cm at flow rate 0.000756
m3/s and flows out from the faucet with diameter of 1.27 cm (point 2)
as shown in Figure. With the viscosity of water, = 1.12 x 10-3 Ns/m2,
calculate the head losses of the pipe system.

Exercise : Final Exam Semester I Session

b) A 80 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C (
= 998.2
kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2)
from one reservoir to another at 6 m higher. The
piping system consists of 15 m of galvanized- iron 5cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant
entrance (KL = 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius
elbows (KL = 0.41 each), and a screwed-open gate
valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input
required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion
(KL = 0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02
(15 marks)

Noncircular Conduits
Most of the pipes used for engineering purposes are circular.
However some of them are not circular in their cross section.
For noncircular pipes, the diameter in the previous relations can be
replaced by the hydraulic radius which defined as RH = A/P, where A is
the cross-sectional area of the pipe (m2) and P is its wetted perimeter

For circular pipe,

Replace hydraulic radius in Re, relative roughness and head loss given

Reynolds no

Relative roughness :
Head loss

Example : Non-circular pipes

Air with density, = 1.221 kg/m3 and = 1.46 x 10-5
m2/s is forced through a 30.48 m long horizontal square
duct of 0.23 x 0.23 m at 0.708 m3/s. Find the pressure
drop if =0.0000914 m.


Exercise : Laminar Flow in Horizontal and

Inclined Pipes
Consider the fully developed flow of glycerin at 40C
through a 70 m long, 4 cm diameter, horizontal, circular
pipe. If the flow velocity at the centerline is measured to
be 6 m/s, determine the velocity profile and the pressure
difference across this 70 m long section of the pipe, and
the useful pumping power required to maintain this flow.
For the same useful pumping power input, determine the
percent increase of the flow rate if the pipe is inclined 15
downward and the percent decrease if it is inclined 15
upward. The pump is located outside of this pipe section.

Test 1 Semester I Session 2011/12

(a) Using appropriate sketches, discuss the differences of velocity profiles
between laminar and turbulent flow in pipe. Provide explainations of
these patterns.
(6 marks)
(b) For fully developed laminar pipe flow in a circular pipe, the velocity profile is
given by ,

where R is the inner radius of the pipe.

The 4 cm diameter pipe
carries oil, with = 890 kg/m3 and = 0.07
kg/ms. The
measured pressure drop per unit length is 72 kPa/m;
maximum velocity;
volume flowrate; and
shear stress at the point 1 cm from pipe wall.
(9 marks)

Test 1 Semester I Session 2011/12


A commercial steel pipe (equivalent roughness, = 0.045 mm) of

80 mm diameter and 1000 metre long (horizontal pipe) is carrying
water at the flowrate, Q = 0.008 m3/s. Calculate loss of head, hf
@ hL , if water flow in :
a rough pipe, or
a smooth pipe (assumption)

Determine the maximum diameter of pipe and loss of head if the flow
is considered fully developed turbulent flow.
Assume , = 1000 kg/m3 and = 0.00015 kg/ms.
(15 marks)

Final Exam Semester I Session 2011/2012


In a pipe flow, what are the differences between uniform
velocity and uniform velocity profile?
Using appropriate sketches show where each of them
Provide physical explanations on both phenomena above.
(10 marks)


A 80 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C ( = 998.2 kg/m3 and

= 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another at 6 m higher. The
piping system consists of 15 m of galvanized- iron 5-cm diameter pipe ( =
0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL = 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius
elbows (KL = 0.41 each),
and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16).
What is the input power required in with a 6 well-designed conical
expansion (KL =
0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.
(15 marks)

Viscous Sublayer

Outer Turbulence Sublayer

Viscous shear stress is dominant

Both viscous and turbulence shear

are important (although turbulent
shear is expected to be significantly

Random, fluctuating/eddying of
the flow is essentially absent

Considerably mixing and

randomness to the flow

is an important parameter

is not important

is not important

is important