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IN PIPES

Dr. Norasikin Mat Isa

Room : C16-101-05

Off no : 07- 4537721

sikin@uthm.edu.my

nora_matisa@Hotmail.co.uk

WHY PIPES?

Have many application in engineering system (particularly

in fluid and thermal system).

E.g : not only in water supply system also in human body

(blood vessel system), oil & gas industry, steam power

plant, air-conditioning system, hydraulic system, in car etc

Pipes (circular x-section) = ducts (non-circular), conduits,

tubes (small circular pipes)

Q : Why study this topic?

To understand the flow characteristics in pipes viscous

flow - friction - directly related to pressure drop and

head loss in pipes - the pressure drop is then used to

determine the pumping power requirement.

Assumptions:

not full, it is called open channel and not possible to

maintain pressure difference).

Viscous fluid.

turbulent.

This laminar or turbulent flow can be characterised by

using Reynolds number.

The laminar flow is characterized by smooth

streamlines and occur at low velocities or at Re <

2100.

fluctuations and highly disordered motion (called

eddies) and occur at high velocities or at Re > 4000.

transitional flow

Reynolds Number, Re

a measure of the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces.

but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne Reynolds

(18421912), who popularized its use in 1883.

whether it is laminar or turbulent flow.

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the

geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface

temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.

Reynolds Experiment

Reynolds Demonstration

For low velocities, the dye filament

would pass straight down the tube

As the velocity was increased, a

critical value was achieved and at this

value, the stream of dye began to

waver

Further increase in velocity made the

fluctuations more intense until the

dye was no longer a distinct and

unbroken thread, but quite suddenly

mixed more or less completely with

the water

Reynolds Results

Reynolds Demonstration

Laminar Flow

In the first kind of flow, the particles of fluid are

moving entirely in straight lines even though the

velocity along each line may not be the same. Since

the fluid may be construed to be moving in layers or

laminar, this type of flow is referred to as Laminar

Flow.

Reynolds Demonstration

Turbulent Flow

The second type of flow is called Turbulent Flow and

the paths of fluid particles are no longer orderly but

random in nature. For such flows, average properties

such as mean velocity are used for description. The

characteristics of a turbulent flow depend on its

environment and turbulent motion is considered

irregular on a small scale.

As laminar and turbulent flows are wholly different,

some criterion for distinction is required. Transition

from laminar to turbulent flow depends on:

Flow Velocity, u

uD uD

Re

Fluid Viscosity,

Pipe Diameter, D

Reynolds derived a dimensionless number which

represented the ratio of the magnitude of the

inertial forces in the fluid to the viscous forces.

Reynolds Number, Re

uD

Re

density

length

parameter

and is a fundamental

characteristic of flow in u velocity

which inertial and viscous

viscosity

forces are present.

For flows in which inertia and viscous forces are the most

significant, Reynolds Number is the parameter used to

compare experimental observations.

Low Reynolds Number Viscous Forces dominate

number describes the flow regimes.

called the entrance region.

Consider a flow entering a pipe.

Let us think of the entering flow being uniform, so

inviscid.

As soon as the flow 'hits' the pipe many changes take place.

The most important of these is that viscosity imposes itself

on the flow and the "No Slip" condition at the wall of

the pipe comes into effect.

Consequently the velocity components are each zero on the

wall, ie., u = v = 0.

The flow adjacent to the wall decelerates continuously.

up slowly from zero at wall to a uniform velocity

towards the center of the pipe. This layer is what is

called the Boundary Layer.

Outside of this layer is the inviscid core where viscous

effects are negligible or absent.

The boundary layer is not a static phenomenon; it is

dynamic. it grows meaning that its thickness increases

as we move downstream.

From Fig. 5, it is seen that the boundary layer from the walls

grows to such an extent that they all merge on the

centreline of the pipe.

Once this takes place, inviscid core terminates and the flow

is all viscous. The flow is now called a Fully Developed

Flow.

The velocity profile becomes parabolic.

not vary in the flow direction.

stress in the flow are in balance.

The length of the pipe between the start and the point

where the fully developed flow begins is called the Entrance

Length.

Denoted by ,

the entrance length is a function of the

Reynolds Number of the flow.

In general,

section (2), the flow is simpler to describe because the

velocity is a function of only the distance from the

pipe centerline, r, and independent of x.

This is true until the character of the pipe changes in some

way, such as a change in diameter, or the fluid flows

through a bend, valve, or some other component at

section (3). The flow between (2) and (3) is termed

fully developed.

Beyond the interruption of the fully developed flow [at

section (4)], the flow gradually begins its return to its

fully developed character [section (5)] and continues

with this profile until the next pipe system component

is reached [section (6)].

diameter at 20 l/min. What fraction of this pipe

can be considered at entrance region?

QUESTION

1. What is the difference between uniform velocity

and uniform velocity profile? Where each of

them occurs in pipe flow?

2. Give 3 differences between entrance region and

fully developed region.

It is easy to visualise that the forces acting upon the pipe

flow are inertial, viscous force due to shear and the

pressure forces.

Let us ignore gravity, i.e., let the pipe be horizontal.

When the flow is fully developed the pressure gradient

and shear forces balance each other and the flow

continues with a constant velocity profile. The pressure

gradient remains constant.

In the entrance region the fluid is decelerating. A balance

is achieved with inertia, pressure and shear forces.

The pressure gradient is not constant in this part of the

flow and in fact, it decreases as shown in Fig.6

Fully developed steady flow in a constant diameter pipe

may be driven by gravity and/or pressure

As is indicated in the previous section, the flow in long,

straight, constant diameter sections of a pipe becomes

fully developed. That is, the velocity profile is the same

at any cross section of the pipe. Although this is true

whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, the details of

the velocity profile (and other flow properties) are quite

different for these two types of flow.

The knowledge of the velocity profile can lead directly to

other useful information such as pressure drop,

flowrate, head loss, etc.

3 methods could be used for this purpose :

1. By applying F = ma to a fluid element

2. From Navier-stokes equation

3. From dimensional analysis

By applying F=ma to a fluid element :

refer to derivation

Local velocity:

Average velocity :

Pressure drop :

Flowrate:

-> is called

Poiseuille law

Summary -

Flow Properties

Equation

Entrance Length, le/D = 0.06 Re

le/D

le/D = 4.4 (Re)1/6

Pressure drop

p/l = 2/r

per unit length

Remarks

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

Valid for both laminar

and turbulent flow

Shear stress

= 2wr/D

and turbulent flow

Pressure drop

p = 4lw/D

and turbulent flow

Average velocity V = ( R2 Vc/2)/ R2

V= Vc/2

V = pD2/32l

Flowrate

Q = D4p/128l

Laminar flow

Laminar flow

Laminar flow

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Find velocity ratio u/Umax

For laminar flow in a round pipe of radius, R, at what distance

from the centerline is the actual velocity equal to the average

velocity.

In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the velocity at

R/2 (midway between the wall surface and the centerline) is

measured to be 6 m/s. Determine the velocity at the center of

the pipe.

The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular

pipe of inner radius R = 2 cm, in m/s, is given by u(r) = 4(1r2/R2). Determine the average and maximum velocities in the

pipe and the volume flow rate.

for non-horizontal/inclined pipes, can

be easily included by replacing the

pressure drop, p, by the combined

effect of pressure and gravity, p-l sin

, where is the angle between the

pipe and the horizontal.

Exercise : From F=ma derive V and Q

for inclined pipe.

Oil at 20C ( = 888 kg/m3 and = 0.800

kg/m s) is flowing steadily through a 5cm-diameter 40-m-long pipe (Figure). The

pressure at the pipe inlet and outlet are

measured to be 745 and 97 kPa,

respectively. Determine the flow rate of oil

through the pipe assuming the pipe is (a)

horizontal, (b) inclined 15 upward, (c)

inclined 15 downward. Also verify that the

flow through the pipe is laminar.

An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 N.s/m2 and density = 900 kg/m3

flows in a pipe of diameter D = 0.020 m. (a) What pressure drop, p1 - p2,

is needed to produce a flowrate of Q = 20. x 10-5 m3/s if the pipe is

horizontal with x1 = 0 and x2 = 10m? (b) How steep a hill, , must the

pipe be on if the oil is to flow through the pipe at the same rate as in

part (a), but with p1 = p2

Consider a long section of pipe that is

initially filled with a fluid at rest. As

the valve is opened to start the flow,

the flow velocity and, hence, the

Reynolds number increase from zero

(no flow) to their maximum steadystate flow values. Assume this

transient process is slow enough so

that unsteady effects are negligible.

For an initial time period the Reynolds number is small enough for laminar

flow to occur. At some time the Reynolds number reaches 2100, and the flow

begins its transition to turbulent conditions. Intermittent spots or bursts of

turbulence appear. As the Reynolds number is increased the entire flow field

becomes turbulent. The flow remains turbulent as long as the Reynolds

number exceeds approximately 4000.

Turbulent characteristic : random, chaotic, fluctuations and eddies.

Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent.

However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism and the theory of

turbulent flow remains largely undeveloped.

Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the empirical or semiempirical correlations developed for various situations.

The experimental studies show that the shear stress in turbulent flow is much

larger due to the turbulent fluctuations and the shear stress is not merely

proportional to the gradient of the time-average velocity.

du

dy

parts: the laminar component and the turbulent component, or the total shear

stress in turbulent flow can be expressed as

du

dr

where,

lam

and

u

y

However, in practice it is not easy to use and this eddy viscosity changes from one

turbulent flow condition/point to another cannot be looked up in handbooks.

Several semiempirical theories have been proposed to determine approximate

values of . For example, the turbulent process could be viewed as the random

transport of bundles of fluid particles over a certain distance, the mixing length,

from a region of one velocity to another region of a different velocity. By the use of

some ad hoc assumptions and lm physical reasoning, it was concluded that the eddy

viscosity was given by,

2

du

dy

turbulent

du

dy

- much flatter than laminar profile.

- can be broken into three regions

i. the viscous sublayer

ii. the overlap region

iii. the outer turbulent layer

Unlike laminar flow, the expressions for the velocity

profile in a turbulent flow has been obtained

through the use of dimensional analysis,

experimentation, and semiempirical theoretical

efforts.

An often-used correlation is the empirical power- law

velocity profile

and

The value of n can be obtain from graph below. However the typical

value of n is between 6 to 10.

wall (refer figure).

So, in the viscous sublayer the velocity profile can be

written in dimensionless form

and

For the overlap region, the following expression has been proposed :

(i)

(ii)

Friction factor f for turbulent can be obtain through

Moody chart

(a) For laminar flow, determine at what radial location you would

place a Pitot tube if it is to measure the average velocity in the

pipe. (b) Repeat part (a) for turbulent flow with Re= 10 000

Water at 20C ( = 998 kg/m3 and = 1.004 x 10-6 m2 /s) flows through

a horizontal pipe of 0.1-m diameter with a flowrate of Q = 4 x 10-2 m3

/s and a pressure gradient of 2.59 kP/m. (a) Determine the

approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer. (b) Determine the

approximate centreline velocity, Vc , (c) Determine the ratio of the

turbulent to laminar shear stress, turb / lam , at a point midway

between the centreline and the pipe wall (i.e., at r = 0.025m)

Exercise

Air under standard conditions flows through a 4.0-mm-diameter

drawn tubing with an average velocity of V = 50 m/s For such

conditions the flow would normally be turbulent. However, if

precautions are taken to eliminate disturbances to the flow (the

entrance to the tube is very smooth, the air is dust free, the tube

does not vibrate, etc.), it may be possible to maintain laminar flow.

(a) Determine the pressure drop in a 0.1-m section of the tube if the

flow is laminar. (b) Repeat the calculations if the flow is turbulent.

Water at 5 ( = 1000 kg/m3 and = 1.519 x 10-3 kg/m.s) is

flowing steadily through a 0.3 cm diameter 9 m long horizontal

pipe at an average velocity of 0.9 m/s. Determine :

a) the head loss

b) the pressure drop

c) the pumping power requirement to overcome the pressure

drop.

LOSSES IN PIPES

A quantity of interest in the analysis of pipe flow is the

pressure drop, P since it is directly related to the power

requirements of the pump to maintain flow.

Therefore, the analysis of losses in pipes is very useful in

estimating the pressure drop occurs.

Besides the pipe size and material also the velocity in pipe,

the pipe components such as pipe fittings, valves,

diffusers etc also affect the flow patterns/conditions and

this also contributed to the losses.

When a head loss is considered, the steady-flow energy

equation is expressed as

In practice, it is found convenient to express the pressure loss for all types

of fully developed internal flows (laminar or turbulent flows etc).

The pressure loss and head loss for all types of internal flows (laminar or

turbulent, in circular or noncircular pipes, smooth or rough surfaces) are

expressed as

Where for

chart.

TYPE OF LOSSES

There are 2 type of losses major losses and minor losses.

given by,

components.

When all the loss coefficients are available, the total head loss in a piping

system is determined from

head loss reduces to

MAJOR LOSSES

It depends on Reynolds no, surface roughness, length and

diameter of pipe, and also the velocity in pipe.

Friction factor, f is depends on Reynolds no and surface

roughness.

It can be obtained from the eqns. such as the Karman & Prandtl

and Colebrook & White. But it is more easier from Moody

Chart.

Surface Roughness,

and how it been manufactured.

Different pipe material gives different value of surface

roughness.

Rough pipe wall surface gives high value of surface

roughness and it will contribute larger losses.

While smooth pipe (i.e have lower surface roughness

or = 0) contribute lower losses.

problems.

1. Determine Re where Re = VD/.

for laminar,

f = 64/Re

3. Calculate the losses head due to

friction hf.

Note : f value only influenced by Re.

no. and not by the value of

relative roughness because the

pipe surface is smooth (i.e = 0)

and then relative roughness

/D.

3. Obtain the value of friction

factor f from Moody chart

(base on Re dan /D obtained

before)

4. Calculate the losses head due to

friction hf.

Moody Chart

MINOR LOSSES

It is depends on the velocity in pipe and the geometry of pipe

components and this can be describe by the value of loss

coefficient KL.

Different shape and geometry of pipe component gives

different value of KL.

Sometimes minor losses can be a major losses for example in

short pipes where there are a suction pipe of a pump with

strainer and foot valves.

expansion (by using the equation obtained

from simple energy analysis)

KL for 90 bend

energy equation is expressed as

In the design and analysis of piping systems that

involve the use of the Moody chart (or the

Colebrook equation), we usually encounter three

types of problems :

1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss) when

the pipe length and diameter are given for a

specified flow rate (or velocity).

2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length and

diameter are given for a specified pressure drop (or

head loss).

3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe length

and flow rate are given for a specified pressure drop

(or head loss).

Example 1 :

Water flows from basement (point 1) to the second floor of building

through the copper pipe with diameter of 1.9 cm at flow rate 0.000756

m3/s and flows out from the faucet with diameter of 1.27 cm (point 2)

as shown in Figure. With the viscosity of water, = 1.12 x 10-3 Ns/m2,

calculate the head losses of the pipe system.

2011/2012

b) A 80 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C (

= 998.2

kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2)

from one reservoir to another at 6 m higher. The

piping system consists of 15 m of galvanized- iron 5cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant

entrance (KL = 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius

elbows (KL = 0.41 each), and a screwed-open gate

valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input

power

required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion

(KL = 0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02

m3/s.

(15 marks)

Noncircular Conduits

Most of the pipes used for engineering purposes are circular.

However some of them are not circular in their cross section.

For noncircular pipes, the diameter in the previous relations can be

replaced by the hydraulic radius which defined as RH = A/P, where A is

the cross-sectional area of the pipe (m2) and P is its wetted perimeter

(m).

Replace hydraulic radius in Re, relative roughness and head loss given

Reynolds no

Relative roughness :

Head loss

Air with density, = 1.221 kg/m3 and = 1.46 x 10-5

m2/s is forced through a 30.48 m long horizontal square

duct of 0.23 x 0.23 m at 0.708 m3/s. Find the pressure

drop if =0.0000914 m.

EXERCISES

Inclined Pipes

Consider the fully developed flow of glycerin at 40C

through a 70 m long, 4 cm diameter, horizontal, circular

pipe. If the flow velocity at the centerline is measured to

be 6 m/s, determine the velocity profile and the pressure

difference across this 70 m long section of the pipe, and

the useful pumping power required to maintain this flow.

For the same useful pumping power input, determine the

percent increase of the flow rate if the pipe is inclined 15

downward and the percent decrease if it is inclined 15

upward. The pump is located outside of this pipe section.

QUESTION 1

(a) Using appropriate sketches, discuss the differences of velocity profiles

between laminar and turbulent flow in pipe. Provide explainations of

these patterns.

(6 marks)

(b) For fully developed laminar pipe flow in a circular pipe, the velocity profile is

given by ,

The 4 cm diameter pipe

carries oil, with = 890 kg/m3 and = 0.07

kg/ms. The

measured pressure drop per unit length is 72 kPa/m;

determine:

i.

maximum velocity;

ii.

volume flowrate; and

iii.

shear stress at the point 1 cm from pipe wall.

(9 marks)

QUESTION 2

(a)

80 mm diameter and 1000 metre long (horizontal pipe) is carrying

water at the flowrate, Q = 0.008 m3/s. Calculate loss of head, hf

@ hL , if water flow in :

i.

a rough pipe, or

ii.

a smooth pipe (assumption)

(b)

Determine the maximum diameter of pipe and loss of head if the flow

is considered fully developed turbulent flow.

Assume , = 1000 kg/m3 and = 0.00015 kg/ms.

(15 marks)

a)

(i)

In a pipe flow, what are the differences between uniform

velocity and uniform velocity profile?

(ii)

Using appropriate sketches show where each of them

occur.

(iii)

Provide physical explanations on both phenomena above.

(10 marks)

b)

= 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another at 6 m higher. The

piping system consists of 15 m of galvanized- iron 5-cm diameter pipe ( =

0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL = 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius

elbows (KL = 0.41 each),

and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16).

What is the input power required in with a 6 well-designed conical

expansion (KL =

0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.

(15 marks)

Viscous Sublayer

are important (although turbulent

shear is expected to be significantly

larger)

Random, fluctuating/eddying of

the flow is essentially absent

randomness to the flow

is an important parameter

is not important

is not important

is important

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