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Third Generation (3G) Mobile Communications Systems

Dr. Vijay K. Garg

Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL., USA e-mail: vgarg@lucent.com

Contents

Introduction

North American UWC IS-136 HS

European 3G Systems

North American cdma2000

Research Needs

Wireless Network Evolution

IS-95B/ IS-95A cdma2000 AMPS ANSI 95 Fourth Generation
IS-95B/
IS-95A
cdma2000
AMPS
ANSI 95
Fourth Generation
IS-95B/ IS-95A cdma2000 AMPS ANSI 95 Fourth Generation TelePresencing Distance Learning IN Capabilities

TelePresencing

Distance Learning IN Capabilities (Intelligent Agents)

Knowledge-Based Network Operations

Unified Service Networks

Year 2010

Third Generation

Integrated High Quality Voice, High Speed Data

Location Services Global Roaming

Advanced Multimedia Services

Broader Bandwidth Radio Channels

Higher Frequency Spectrum Utilization

Advanced Speech, Data Visual Compression & Radio Transmission

Year 2001

Second Generation

Advanced Wireless Voice Services

Advanced Wireless Data Services

Digital Cellular Technology

Microcellular & Picocellular Technologies

Intelligent Base Station Technology

Now

First Generation

Mobile Telephone

Service

Analog Cellular Technology

Macrocellular

Technology

Past

Subscribers -- In Millions

Global Wireline/ Wireless Market 1995-2010

1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 Global Wireline Global Wireless 200 Global Wireless (Revised)
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
Global Wireline
Global Wireless
200
Global Wireless
(Revised)
0
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010

(Millions)

Subscribers

Wireless Subscriber Trends

 

Total Wireless Subscribers

  Total Wireless Subscribers Wireless Data Subscribers
Wireless Data Subscribers

Wireless Data Subscribers

1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 2000 2005 2010
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
1995 2000
2005
2010
IMT-2000 Influences / Family of Standards Europe North America Asia / Pacific ARIB-CDMA UMTS cdma2000
IMT-2000 Influences / Family of Standards
Europe
North America
Asia / Pacific
ARIB-CDMA
UMTS
cdma2000
IMT-2000
Likely Results:

A “family of standards” for IMT-2000 services, assuring air-interface and network standards interoperability

A spread spectrum future

Regional Third-Generation Air Interfaces

North America Wideband-cdmaOne

IS-136++

GSM 384/ EDGE UMTS/ DoCoMo- WCDMA Hughes Overlay B-CDMA GBT

June 13-14, 1999

Europe UMTS/ DoCoMo-WCDMA

(F2)

Hybrid TDMA/ CDMA (F1) GSM 384/ EDGE Wideband-cdmaOne OFDM

W-TDMA (TDMA without spreading)

ODMA

NSF Talk

Asia/ Pacific DoCoMo/ UMTS-WCDMA Wideband-cdmaOne GSM 384/ EDGE ETRI-CDMA China-specific S-CDMA? Japan-Korea-China CDMA Taiwanese WCDMA?

7

IMT- 2000 Goals

Global system for wireless communications

Multi-environment operation

Vehicular

Pedestrian and Outdoor-to-Indoor

Indoor Office

Satellite

Support for packet data and circuit-switched services

Multimedia services support

Expected data rates:

144 kbps in vehicular

384 kbps in pedestrian

2 Mbps in indoor office environment

IMT- 2000 spectrum allocated at WRC 1992 in the 2 GHz band

Year 2000+ services (subject to market considerations)

IMT-2000 End User Terminal Requirements

Low cost

Light weight

Low power drain / long talk time

Toll-quality voice

High security

Use multiple devices with the same User ID

Services, routing and charging by personal ID/subscription

International roaming

Broad range of services

Fixed and mobile

Voice, data, multimedia

IMT- 2000 Key Architectural Requirements

Broadband Radio Access

Data Rates: 144, 384, 2000 kbps

Evolution from 2G (CDMA, TDMA, GSM, PHS, etc.)

Mobility vs. Fixed Wireless Access

Harmonized Spectrum Allocations

Broadband Backbone Infrastructure

Integrated Voice, Data, Image

Network Architecture

Functional Distribution

WIN, GSM MAP, INAP

Third-Generation Systems Design Goals

Meet IMT-2000 requirements

Offer additional capacity and service enhancements as an evolution of 2G systems (TDMA based GSM and IS-95 / ANSI-41 based CDMA)

Integrated voice and data system

Optimized for voice and packet services

Support higher rate circuit services

Smooth, backwards-compatible evolution from existing 2G systems

Evolve network infrastructure and software from 2G systems

New dual-mode terminals allow gradual build-up of high data rate services in 2G service areas

Coexistence of 2G voice and data terminals with new wideband terminals

3G Open Systems Technology Platform

Other Cellular & PCS Systems and Networks STP MSC Base Station Interfaces
Other Cellular & PCS
Systems and Networks
STP
MSC
Base Station Interfaces

PSTN

Standard Air Interfaces
Standard Air
Interfaces

Intelligent

Network

Standard Network Interfaces
Standard Network Interfaces
Standard Data Interfaces Data IWF
Standard Data Interfaces
Data
IWF

Data

Networks

Customer

Service

Open Systems Innovations
Open Systems Innovations

OTA

Voice

Serv.

Activated

Prov.

Dialing

Message

Center

Data/Fax

Store &

Forward

Voice

Fraud

Billing

Mail

Mgmt

System

Support Systems

Local, Regional & National Operations Centers

North American TDMA-Based Schemes

UWC-136 Proposal

30 kHz channel -- enhancement to modulation - IS-136+ (64 kb/s rate)

Wider-band TDMA carriers with channel width 0f 200 kHz (IS-136 HS {Vehicular/Outdoor} ) same as EDGE, provides medium bit rates 144 kb/s, 384 kb/s

1.6 MHz carrier (IS-136 HS {indoor}), provides bit rates up to 2 Mb/s (same as FMA1 without spreading)

North American TDMA-Based Schemes

Two new modulation methods

Quaternary Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QOQAM)

higher data rate (2 bits/symbol, symbol is shifted by ππππ/2)

good spectral efficiency

smaller amplitude variation than 16QAM

Binary Offset QAM (BOQAM)

symbol rate 361.1 Ksymbols/s (same as QOQAM)

1 bit/symbol, symbol is shifted by ππππ/2

subset of QOQAM

North American TDMA-Based Schemes

Radio Resource Management includes

link adaptation

frequency hopping

power control

dynamic channel allocation

2G System(GSM/DAMPS) Evolution

EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution)

Existing Frequency Bands 800, 900, 1800 MHz

High Level Modulation Capabilities in 200 kHz TDMA Systems

UMTS/W-CDMA

New 2 GHz Frequency Band and Existing Frequency Bands

New Technology Optimized for New Services and Minimum Costs

Evolution of GSM and DAMP to WCDMA

.

GSM I MT-2000 Capable System GSM+ GSM++ DAMP (IS-136) Existing DAMP++ Spectrum DAMP+ PDC New
GSM
I MT-2000 Capable System
GSM+
GSM++
DAMP (IS-136)
Existing
DAMP++
Spectrum
DAMP+
PDC
New Modified
Spectrum
WCDMA

GSM Evolution

Functionality

GSM++ WCDMA EDGE GPRS 124-171 GSM+ kbps HSCSD < 115 kbps GSM IN CSD <
GSM++
WCDMA
EDGE
GPRS
124-171
GSM+
kbps
HSCSD
< 115 kbps
GSM
IN
CSD
< 14.4 kbps
SMS
Speech

Time

Data Evolution in GSM

Bits per Second

1 M

100 k

10 k

Data Evolution in GSM Bits per Second 1 M 100 k 10 k UMTS EDGE GPRS
UMTS EDGE GPRS GSM (Today)
UMTS
EDGE
GPRS
GSM
(Today)

No. of Data Users

in GSM Bits per Second 1 M 100 k 10 k UMTS EDGE GPRS GSM (Today)

2.5 G System (EDGE)

384 kbps data capability to satisfy the IMT-2000 requirements for pedestrian(microcell) and low speed vehicular (macrocell) environments

144 kbps data capability for high speed vehicular environment

2 Mbps requirement for indoor office is met by using wide band EDGE (1.6 MHz) carrier

May be combined with GPRS and HSCSD to create

EGPRS with collective gross data rate of 65.2 kb/s

ECSD (with channel coding to improve BER) with 38.4 kb/s/timeslot; time slots may be aggregated

ECSD: Enhanced Circuit switched Data; EGPRS: Enhanced General Packet Radio Service, GPRS: General Packet Radio Service; HSCSD: High Speed CSD

Details of EDGE System

200 kHz carrier spacing

8 TDMA time-slot

Modulation Formats

Quaternary-offset-QAM (16-QAM)

Binary-offset-QAM (QPSK)

GMSK

Set of convolution codes for channel coding to improve BER

EDGE versus UMTS

EDGE

 

UMTS

HLM TDMA 200 (1.6 MHz)

kHz

WCDMA

5 MHz

144 kbps

384 kbps

384 kbps

2 Mbps

(2 Mbps)

Wide Area

Local Area Coverage

Wide Area

Local Area Coverage

Coverage

Coverage

Dual Mode Terminals: UMTS & GSM

Parameters of UMTS are selected to enable efficient implementation of dual-mode terminals UMTS-GSM

Handoff between UMTS and GSM in all environments

Dual-mode capability gives flexible solutions for GSM operators with new spectrum

GSM for voice and low-speed data

UMTS for high-speed data

FRAMES Relation to Standardization

.

ETSI

SMG2

ITU-R

ARIB
ARIB

GSM 200 kHz evolution

. ETSI SMG2 ITU-R ARIB GSM 200 kHz evolution Harmonization FMA1 Harmonization FMA2 FRAMES June

Harmonization

SMG2 ITU-R ARIB GSM 200 kHz evolution Harmonization FMA1 Harmonization FMA2 FRAMES June 13-14, 1999
SMG2 ITU-R ARIB GSM 200 kHz evolution Harmonization FMA1 Harmonization FMA2 FRAMES June 13-14, 1999
SMG2 ITU-R ARIB GSM 200 kHz evolution Harmonization FMA1 Harmonization FMA2 FRAMES June 13-14, 1999

FMA1

FMA1 Harmonization FMA2 FRAMES

Harmonization

FMA2

FMA2

FRAMES

European 3G Systems

In January 1998 consensus agreement on UMTS radio interface achieved in ETSI SMG to use:

WCDMA (FDD) operation in paired frequency bands TD/CDMA (TDD) operation in unpaired frequency band

Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service

For wide-area Service: WCDMA (FMA 2)

1920 to 1980 MHz (uplink) 2110 to 2170 MHz (downlink)

For private, indoor services in unpaired frequency band (i.e., TDD) : TD/CDMA

(FMA 1) - 2010 to 2025 MHz

FRAMES Multiple Access Mode 1 - FMA1

FMA1 is based on wideband TDMA with and without spreading Users are separated orthogonal into time slots, and within each time slot an additional separation by spreading codes can be used.

FMA1 Schemes

Two schemes for multiple access

FMA1 without spreading FMA1 with spreading

FMA1 Operation Modes

FMA1 can be operated in

Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode Time Division Duplex (TDD) Mode Channel spacing is 1.6 MHz in both modes

Layers of FMA1 and FMA2

FMA1 FMA2 Layer 3 Radio Bearer Control Radio Resource control Radio Resource control Radio Network
FMA1
FMA2
Layer 3
Radio Bearer Control
Radio Resource control Radio Resource control
Radio Network Layer
Logical Link Control (LLC)
Layer 2
FMA1 RLC/MAC
Common functionality
FMA2 RLC/MAC
FMA1 L1
FMA2 L1
Layer 1
Common
L1 Features

RLC: Radio Link Control; MAC: Media Access Control

FMA 2 - WCDMA Technical Characteristics of Radio Interface

Basic chip rate 4.096 Mcps with carrier spacing from 4.4 MHz to 5 MHz depending on scenario

carrier spacing multiple of 200 kHz for 2nd generation capability

Higher chip rates with 8.192 and 16.384 Mcps

Variable rate spreading for both directions

low/medium bit rates with single code

high bit rates with multicode solution

Coherent detection on both uplink and downlink

FMA 2 - WCDMA Technical Characteristics of Radio Interface

Frame length 10 ms

Asynchronous operation

Short spreading/scrambling codes with optional long- code scrambling on uplink

Hybrid spreading (variable spreading factor + multicode) to support multirate transmission

Rate matching with unequal repetition coding or puncturing

FMA 2 - WCDMA Technical Characteristics of Radio Interface

Flexible support of variable rate services

Separation of data and layer 1 control on different physical channels

Explicit rate information

Fast power control for both uplink and downlink

cdma2000 Channels (Forward - Downlink)

Forward CDMA

Channels

Pilot Sync Paging Channels Channel Channels Auxiliary Pilot F-BCCH F-QPPH Pilot
Pilot
Sync
Paging
Channels
Channel
Channels
Auxiliary
Pilot
F-BCCH
F-QPPH
Pilot
F-PCH F-CCCH
F-PCH
F-CCCH
Traffic Channel RS1,RS2 Traffic Channel RS3 to RS6
Traffic
Channel
RS1,RS2
Traffic
Channel
RS3 to RS6

Fundamental

Code Channel

Traffic Channel RS3 to RS6 Fundamental Code Channel Fundamental Code Channel Supplemental Code Channel June

Fundamental

Code Channel

to RS6 Fundamental Code Channel Fundamental Code Channel Supplemental Code Channel June 13-14, 1999 NSF Talk
Supplemental Code Channel
Supplemental
Code Channel

cdma2000 Channels (Reverse - Uplink)

Reverse CDMA Channels Access Traffic R-CCCH Channel RS1,RS2
Reverse CDMA
Channels
Access
Traffic
R-CCCH
Channel
RS1,RS2
CDMA Channels Access Traffic R-CCCH Channel RS1,RS2 Fundamental Code Channel Traffic Channel RS3 to RS6

Fundamental

Code Channel

Traffic Channel RS3 to RS6
Traffic
Channel
RS3 to RS6

Pilot

Fundamental

Code Channel

Supplemental Code Channel
Supplemental
Code Channel

Improvements of Technology - cdma2000

Addition of MAC Sublayer

QPSK - double number of Walsh functions

Coherent transmission (uplink) - pilot

Addition of Supplementary Channel (SCH) - high speed data

Turbo codes - SCH

5-msec Frame Option

Transmit Diversity (downlink)

Fast Power Control (uplink)

Auxiliary Pilot Channel (downlink) -beam-forming applications

Continuous transmission

TIA/EIA-95-B & cdma2000 layer structure

Packet Voice Circuit data data applic. Services application Signaling OSI services TCP UDP Layers High-speed
Packet
Voice
Circuit data
data applic.
Services
application
Signaling
OSI
services
TCP
UDP
Layers
High-speed
3-7
circuit network
layer services
IP
PPP
OSI
LAC
LAC Protocol
Null LAC
Layer
Mac
2
control
RLP
MAC
states
Multiplexing
QoS control

OSI

Layer

1

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Mac 2 control RLP MAC states Multiplexing QoS control OSI Layer 1 Physical Layer June 13-14,

cdma2000 MAC Layer

Release Timeo Timeout Timeout ut Dormant Active Control Hold State Suspended Hold State State State
Release
Timeo
Timeout
Timeout
ut
Dormant
Active
Control Hold
State
Suspended Hold
State
State
State
Traffic
Traffic
Traffic

Traffic

Forward Link Spreading Options

Multi- Carrier (MC): demultiplexes modulated symbols into N separate 1.25 MHz carriers resulting in a chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps per carrier

Direct Spread (DS): spreads the modulation symbols to N x 1.2288 Mcps resulting in one N X 1.25 MHz carrier

Both methods offer comparable link performance and capacity

cdma2000 Downlink

1.25 MHz channel Base F 1 Station F 2 F S 3 1 S 2
1.25 MHz channel
Base
F
1
Station
F
2
F
S
3
1
S
2
S
3
Transmission Diversity
with N=3
2 F S 3 1 S 2 S 3 Transmission Diversity with N=3 cdmaOne (IS-95) •

cdmaOne (IS-95)

Orthogonal signaling

Same pilot channel

Capacity sharing

signaling • Same pilot channel • Capacity sharing cdma2000 F1, F2 & F3 carry the fundamental

cdma2000

F1, F2 & F3 carry the fundamental channel spread using a single Walsh code over all three 1.25 MHz channels (transmitted separately)

S1, S2 & S3 carry the supplemental channel spread using a single Walsh code over all three 1.25 MHz channels (transmitted separately); Variable user data rate: 9.6 - 1036.8 kbps with 3.6864 Mcps

cdma2000 Uplink

Base Station
Base
Station

1.25 MHz channel

F S
F
S

Diversity Receive

cdmaOne (IS-95)Uplink Base Station 1.25 MHz channel F S Diversity Receive Coherent reverse link Continuous pilot channel

Coherent reverse link Continuous pilot channel Continuous transmission

cdma2000link Continuous pilot channel Continuous transmission F: 5Mhz fundamental channel with pilot and control S: 5Mhz

F: 5Mhz fundamental channel with pilot and control S: 5Mhz supplemental channel dynamically assigned; Variable user data rate: 9.6 - 1036.8 kbps with 3.6864 Mcps Multiple supplemental channels can be used for multiple services

Turbo Codes - Overview

Objective: reduce the required E b /N 0 for desired level of QoS at the expense of additional processing

Approach: utilize turbo coding for only supplemental channel

Provides additional robustness for high speed data services

Iterative process Soft decisions until last iteration Hard decision on last iteration

cdma2000 and UMTS/ARIB W-CDMA Key Technical Differences

cdma2000

W-CDMA

Core Network

ANSI-41

GSM MAP

Chip Rate

3.6864

4.096

3.84*

 

(DoCoMo)

(UMTS)

Synchronized BS

Yes

No

Frame Length

20ms

10ms

Voice Coder

EVRC

New

Harmonization solutions have been identified to address all but the chip rate issue

*Currently stands at 4.096. Compromise to 3.84 proposed to meet ETSI’s desire to fit in U.S. 5MHz spectrum blocks.

Conclusions

In most parts cdma2000 and W-CDMA are similar, but there are differences in their implementations.

Development of cdma2000 will be based on the experience gained by operators and equipment manufacturers with 2G cdmaOne systems.

cdma2000 will be backward compatible with IS-95B systems

GSM and DAMP will evolve to W-CDMA via EDGE and DAMP++

Research Needs for 3G Wireless Systems

Performance of Turbo codes in different operating environments with high speed packet data services

Performance of media Access Control Sublayer under different QoS

Improvements in TCP/IP for high speed packet data services

Diversity (Space Time Processing : STP) Smart Antenna Applications

Application of Software radio to handle different air interfaces

Efficient and user friendly Network Management