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Chemistry

Sheet 2

"B"(1
the rate of the reaction = *
[conc.]/t
.Conc. = no. of moles / vol
The rate of the reaction = no. of
moles/vol. x t
At constant vol. and time the rate of
the reaction no. of moles
The rate of the reaction of H2 / the
rate of the reaction of NH3 = no. of
moles of H2 / no. of moles of NH3
0.074/X = 3/2
.M/Sec

X = 0.049

"C"(2
The instantaneous rate (conc. /t): is *
the rate at a particular instant of time,,
example " find the instantaneous rate of
" .a reaction when t = 30 sec
But the average rate (conc. /t) is the
.change in rate at t

Mahmoud Mostafa

Remember that: conc. = final conc.


.initial conc
t = t2 t1
The ve sign means that the conc. [A]
of (A) decreased to form the product (B)
"D"(3
"As no. "1*
X = 2/1
Lit.Sec

X = 0.033 mol. / /0.066

"D"(4
In Kp, Solids, liquids & aqueous *
solutions are neglected, only gaseous
states that are calculated
Kp = pco . PH O
2

Remember that: the measuring unit of


".Kp is "atm
"B"(5
Kp =Kc (RT) n

, (RT) 0 = 1, Kp = kc *

"A"(6
Conc. = no. of moles / volume in liter *
[H2] = 2.5/12 = 0.208 M
1.35 x 10-5/12 = 1.125 x 10-6 M = [S2]
2

Mahmoud Mostafa

8.7/12 = 0.725 M = [H2S]


Kc = [H2S] 2/ [H2]2 [S2] = (0.725)2/
(0.208)2 x (1.125 x 10-6) = 1.08 x 107 M-1
Remember that: Kc measures gases (g)
and aqueous solutions (aq.) only "Solids
"(s) and liquids (l) are neglected
The measuring unit of Kc is Molar (M)
if and only if the sum of powers of
nominators and denominators is not
equal it is calculated by raising M to the
result of the following (powers of
products powers of reactants)
:Example
Kc = [PCl3][Cl2]/[PCl5] = .. M
Another example: H2 (g) + Cl2 (g)
Kc = [HCl] 2/ [H2] [Cl2] = .
.measuring unit

2HCl

with no

The same thing is done for Kp measuring


unit (atm.)
"D"(7
Remember that Q (reaction quotient) *
= conc. Of the products / the conc. Of
the reactants
3

Mahmoud Mostafa

aA + bB
value

cC + dD , and kc = any

Q = [C]c [D]d/[A]a[B]b
, if Kc Q : the
equilibrium will shift forward , if Kc Q :
the equilibrium will shift backward and
if Kc = Q : neither forward nor backward
(equilibrium)
"B"(8
Kc = 1.2 and Q = (0.48)2/(0.76)3 (0.6) *
= 0.87
Kc Q the reaction shifts forward,
the conc. of the
Reactants will decrease and the conc. of
the product will increase till reaching
.the equilibrium
The Answer "D" is WRONG because: Q *
1/ [ ] of the reactants and if the conc.
of the reactants this means that Q
Will and equilibrium "1.2" will never
be reached
"B"(9
Note that: removing any of the *
reactants will cause the conc. of the
reactants to dec. and the equilibrium
.will shift backward to restore that dec
4

Mahmoud Mostafa

"A"(10
H = +ve value the reaction is *
endothermic
PCl5 + heat

PCl3 + Cl2

Inc. the temp. means that the conc. of


the reactants inc. and the reaction
shifts forward
Remember that : if H = -ve value the
.reaction is exothermic
PCl5 + heat PCl3 + Cl2 = PCl5
= PCl3 + Cl2 heat
PCl5

PCl3 + Cl2 [H = -ve]

if H = +ve value the reaction is


endothermic
N2 + 3H2 2NH3 + Heat = N2 + 3H2

Heat
2NH3 = N2 + 3H2
2NH3 [H
= +ve]
For pressure (in case of Gases only):
inc. the pressure the equilibrium will
shift in a direction of decreasing
number of moles, dec. the pressure
means the equilibrium will shift in a
.direction of increasing number of moles
5

Mahmoud Mostafa

Example: N2 + 3H2
(2 moles)

2NH3 + Heat

(moles 4)

Increasing the pressure means the


.reaction will shit forward
Decrasing the pressure means the
.reaction will shift bacward

Good Luck

Mahmoud Mostafa