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Introduction to System Architecture

DS Agile Customer Training

Summary

1) BAY LEVEL- COMMUNICATION INTERFACE

Page 3

2) Communication Overview

Page 9

3) Architecture of LAN

Page 13

4) Process Level

Page 17

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

1.1) BAY LEVEL- COMMUNICATION INTERFACE


Protocol :- A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and
rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in
telecommunications

Physical Layer :- The mode of communication


Architecture is the design of a communications network. It is a framework for the
specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and
configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used
in its operation.

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

1.2) OSI LAYERS


OSI Stack Model
(Open Systems Interconnection)

X What is a system ?

APPLICATION

PRESENTATION

SESSION

X How exchanging information ?

TRANSPORT

Following OSI stack model


Using data

NETWORK

LINK LAYER

PHYSICAL

A set of devices
z

with specific functions

that exchange information

with defined rules

with specific format (protocols)

with specific physical support

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

1.3) Physical connector -RS232

Basic specifications

Allows for full duplex communications between 2


Connection type: DB9
Max distance of transmission: 15m

Data rate : 20Kbits/s

Transmitter voltage: 5V to 15V

devices

max
Mode of operation: DC coupling (risk of ground noise)

2 : Tx
3 : Rx
5 : Gnd
ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

1.4) Physical connector -IEEE 802.3 RJ45


Basic specifications
Connection type: shielded twisted pair
Max distance of transmission: 200m
Data rate : 100Mbits/s max

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

1.5) Physical connector -Fiber optics


Basic specifications

Characteristics

Technique

Light wave spreading from the reflection produced on the surface of the working medium
Centre from 5 to 150 microns
Connectors with extremely good mechanical accuracy

Maintenance

Fast information flow


Large pass band
Noise immunity
Good mechanical results

Easy to locate fibre cuts

Properties

Multimode :
2000m
Data rate : 100Mbits/s max
Monomode :
Max distance of transmission: 15000m
Data rate : 100Mbits/s max
Introduction to System Architecture

Max distance of transmission:

ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Summary

1) BAY LEVEL- COMMUNICATION INTERFACE

Page 3

2) Communication Overview

Page 9

3) Architecture of LAN

Page 13

4) Process Level

Page 17

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

2.1) Communication overview


X Pear-to-pear connection

Half Duplex communication (unidirectional)


C264

C264

Collision

Full Duplex communication (bi-directional)


C264

C264

Full duplex communication prevents data collision


Introduction to System Architecture
ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

2.2) Communication overview

X Ethernet network principle

Direct communication between 3 system devices


C264

C264

C264
Collision

Switch utilisation prevents data collision


(an Ethernet switch is able to route information to the correct
destination)

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

2.3) Communication overview


X Ethernet network principle

Ethernet switch utilisation


C264

C264

C264

4
2
Data frame

Ethernet switch
Introduction to System Architecture

Buffer

ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Summary

1) BAY LEVEL- COMMUNICATION INTERFACE

Page 3

2) Communication Overview

Page 9

3) Architecture of LAN

Page 13

4) Process Level

Page 17

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

3.1) Bus architecture


SCADA/EMS

SCADA
OI
GATEWAYS

Substation Level
Ethernet
switch

Ethernet
switch

MiCOM M

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

3.2) Star architecture


SCADA/EMS

OI

GATEWAY

Substation level

Ethenet switch

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Bay level

3.3) Redundant ring architecture


SCADA/EMS

SCADA
OI
GATEWAYS

Substation Level
Ethernet switch

Ethernet switch

C264

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Summary

1) BAY LEVEL- COMMUNICATION INTERFACE

Page 3

2) Communication Overview

Page 9

3) Architecture of LAN

Page 13

4) Process Level

Page 17

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

4.1) Communication overview


X Master/Slave principle

The Master is requesting


the data from its slave(s),
and can also send orders
(control) to the slave.

The slave replies to the Master only


upon request, the Master can
address him with specific address or
by broadcasting.
Introduction to System Architecture
ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

4.2) Communication overview


X Master/Slave principle
Slave
Read @

Memory reading
z

Low efficiency (read all time events even if


nothing has changed)

One master as data receiver

Master

return @Value

Slave

Master

Event driven reading


z

DNP3, T101, T103, Modbus

Medium efficiency (Only changes are red)

One master as data receiver

Do you have any


changes ?

Yes (5% of the time)


Send data!

One slave at a time


Introduction to System Architecture
ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Data change coming

4.3) Communication overview


X Client/Server principle
SERVER

Several client at a time


These are all my
data

I subscribe to
these data
I report the change of state of this
data you subscribed

OPTIMIZED TRAFFIC
Introduction to System Architecture
ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

CLIENT

AI/MV
DI
DO/AO

ELECTRIC/SYSTEM

datapoints

Remote HMI

Local HMI

X
6-20 KV
Circuit breaker

6-20 KV
X

Relays

Secondary
network

Introduction to System Architecture


ALSTOM 2007. We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly forbidden.

Relays