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Lathe Machine
Defination:
A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis
to perform various operations such as facing, turning, taper
turning, chamfering, drilling, threading, knurling, with tools that
are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has
symmetry about an axis of rotation.

History:
The lathe is an ancient tool, dating at least to ancient Egypt and known to be used in Assyria and
ancient Greece. The lathe was very important to the Industrial Revolution.
The origin of turning dates to around 1300 BCE when the Ancient Egyptians first developed a twoperson lathe. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp
tool to cut shapes in the wood. Ancient Rome improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a

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turning bow. In the Middle Ages a pedal replaced hand-operated turning, allowing a single person to
rotate the piece while working with both hands. The pedal was usually connected to a pole, often a
straight-grained sapling. The system today is called the "spring pole" lathe. Spring pole lathes were
in common use into the early 20th century.

Exact drawing made with camera obscura of horizontal boring machine by Jan Verbruggen in Woolwich Royal
Brass Foundry approx 1778 (drawing 47 out of set of 50 drawings)

An important early lathe in the UK was the horizontal boring machine that was installed in 1772 in
the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich. It was horse-powered and allowed for the production of much more
accurate and stronger cannon used with success in the American Revolutionary War in the late 18th
century. One of the key characteristics of this machine was that the workpiece was turning as
opposed to the tool, making it technically a lathe (see attached drawing). Henry Maudslay who later
developed many improvements to the lathe worked at the Royal Arsenal from 1783 being exposed to
this machine in the Verbruggen workshop.[1]
During the Industrial Revolution, mechanized power generated by water wheels or steam
engines was transmitted to the lathe via line shafting, allowing faster and easier work. Metalworking
lathes evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid parts. Between the late 19th and mid20th centuries, individual electric motors at each lathe replaced line shafting as the power source.
Beginning in the 1950s, servomechanisms were applied to the control of lathes and other machine
tools via numerical control, which often was coupled with computers to yield computerized numerical
control (CNC). Today manually controlled and CNC lathes coexist in the manufacturing industries.

Working:
The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping articles of
metal and sometimes wood or other materials by causing the
workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is
advanced into the work causing the cutting action. The basic
lathe that was designed to cut cylinderical metal stock has been
developed further to produce screw threads, tapered work, drilled

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holes, knurled surfaces and cranked shaft.


Construction:
Engine lathes all have the same general functional parts even
through the specific locations are shpe of a certain part may differ
from one manufacturer. The bed is the foundation of working
parts of the lathe to another. The main feature of its construction
are the ways which are formed on its upper surface and run the
full length of the bed.
Ways provide the means for holding the tailstock and carriage,
which slide along the ways, in alignment with the permanenty

attached headstock. The headstock is located on the operators


left and of the lathe bed. It contains the main spindle an oil
reservoir and the gearing mechanism for obtaining various
spindles speed and
for

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transmitting power to the feeeding and threading mechanism.


The spindle has a whole through its entire length to accommodate
long workplaces. The hole in the nose of the spindle usually has a
standard morse taper which varies with the size of the lathe.
Centes, collets, drill chucks, tappered, shank drills and reamers
maybe inserted into the spindle.
Chucks, drive plates and face plates maybe screwd onto the
spindle or clamped onto the spindle nose.
Main Parts:
Head stock
Face plate
Carriage
Tail stock
Lead screw
Bed
APRON
Quick cahnge box
Bench
Tool post
Cross slide
Half-nut lever
Thread dial
Compound rest
Types of Lathe machine:
Engine Lathe

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Turret Lathe
Copy Lathe

Capstan Lathe
Lathe cutting tools:
Single point cutting tool
Compound knurling tool
Parting and threading tool
Both side internal threading and boring tool
threading tool
Single tip Knurling tool
Straight Shank drill
Taper shank drill
Right Handed Turning Tool:
It is designed for machining work close to the tail stock for cutting
from left to right.

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Compond Knurling tool:


The knurling tool consists of two cylindrical wheels called knurls,
which rotate in a specially designed toolholder. The knurls contain
teeth which are rolled against the surface of workpiece to from
depressed patterns on the workpiece.The diamond pattern is
most widely used and is generally supplied pitches.

Thearding tool:

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The thraeding tool with the toolholder is used , where


considerable thread cutting is to be accomplished. It is used in a
specially designed tool holder which in turn mounts to the lathe
tool post. The threading tool has a formed cutter which needs to
be ground on the top surface only for sharpening, the thread
formed being accurately shaped or a large arc of the tool.

Internal threading and boring tool:


Enlarging or smoothing an existing hole created by drilling,
moulding etc. The machining of internal cylindrical forms by
mounting work piece to the spindle via a chuck or face plate by
mounting work piece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool
into the chuck. This work is suitable for castings that are awkward
to mount in the face plate.

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Single Knurling Tool:


Its side from knurling is done is attached to the specimen
carefully.

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Measuring Tools:
Vernier Caliper
Screw Guage
Vernier Caliper:
Vernier caliper is a precision instrument that can be used to
measure internal and external distance accurately.It is used to
measure the length of rod or any object, diameter of sphere,
internal and external diameter of hollow cylinder and depth of
small beaker.

Screw Guage:
Screw guage is a device which can measure very small length or
thickness upto 100th part of a millimeter. It is used to measure the
thickness of thin metal sheet, widely used for precise
measurement of components in mechanical engineering and
machining as well as most mechanical traits along with
metrological instruments and the diameter of wires.

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Lathe

Operations:
Facing
Turning
Taper Turning
Chamfering
Drilling
Threading
Knurling
Parting off
Facing:
The term facing is used to describe removal of material from flat
end of a cylindrical part. Facing is often used to improe the finish
of surface that have been parted. In this process, we reduce the
length from 61 mm to 60 mm.

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Turning:
It is
to reduce
diameter
the

required
the
of rod. In
turning

operation the piece of metal to be machined is rotated and the


cutting tool is advanced against it. In this process we reduce the
diameter from 14 mm to 10 mm.

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Taper Turning:
Taper turning operation is required to introduce a tapered surface.
We have done this process for 5 mm.

Chamfering:

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It is required to introduce a chamfer. We have introduced a


chamfer
of 45
degree for
2 mm.

Drilling:
Drilling
is
to
a hole

operation
required
introduce
of 4 mm.

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Threading:
Threading operation is required to introduce external threads.

Knurling:
Knurling is an operation used to produce a texture on a turned
machine part. Handles are often knurled in order to provide a
gripping surface.

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Parting Off:
After parting off, we have the finished product.

Types

Machines Used in Machine Workshop:


Milling Machine
Grinding machine
Drilling Machine
Milling Machine:

of

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Milling machines are tools designed to machine metal, wood and


other solid materials. Often automated, milling machine can be
positioned in either vertical or horizontal orientation to carve out
materials based on a pre-existing design. These designs are often
CAD directed, and many machines are CNC operator, although
manually and traditionally automated milling devices are also
common.
Milling machines are capable of dynamic movement, both of the
tool and the work piece and many milling machines can perform
multi-axis machining.

Grinding Machine:
Grinding is the process of removing metal by the application of
abrasive which are bonded to form a rotating wheel. When the
moving abrasive particles contact the work piece, they act as tiny
cutting tools, each particle cutting a tiny chip from the work
piece. It is a common error to believe that grinding abrasive
wheels remove material by a rubbing action, actually, the

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process is as much a cutting action as drilling milling and lathe


turning.

Drilling Machine:
It may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. Portable models with a magnetic
base grip the steel workpieces they drill. A drill press consists of a base, column (or pillar),
table, spindle (or quill), and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head has a set of
handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move the spindle and chuck
vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The till press is typically measured in terms of swing.
Swing is defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the spindle to
the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch (410 mm) drill press has an 8-inch (200 mm)
throat distance.
A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:

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Less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of the chuck and
spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the operator
considerable mechanical advantage

The table allows a vise or clamp to be used to position and restrain the work, making the
operation much more secure

The angle of the spindle is fixed relative to the table, allowing holes to be drilled accurately
and consistently

Drill presses are almost


powerful motors compared

to hand-held drills. This

enables larger drill bits to

be used and also speeds up

drilling with smaller bits.

always equipped with more

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Precautions:
1. Safety glasses, cover goggles, or shields are required when a
shop area, either working or not.
2. Shoes must be worn in any shop area. The minimum foot
wear must coer the entire foot.
3. Don`t operate any item of equipment unless you are familiar
with its operation and have been authorized to operate it.
4. Don`t wear loose jewelry, gloves and ties around moving or
rotating machinery. Long hair must be tied back.
5. In case of injury, no matter how slight, report it to shop
supervisor.

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