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PAMM Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. 8, 10713 10714 (2008) / DOI 10.1002/pamm.

200810713

Vertical Vibrations of a Vehicle Excited by Real Road Profiles.


Marek Borowiec1, , Grzegorz Litak1, , Jacek Hunicz2, , Grzegorz Koszaka2, , and Andrzej Niewczas2,
1
2

Department of Applied Mechanics, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin, Poland
Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin,
Poland

We analyze experimental acceleration data obtained from the delivery car vibration test in working conditions. The vertical
components of unsprung and sprung mass accelerations have been analyzed by using the Fourier analysis. In particular we
examine the response of the sprung mass on various road excitations and conclude the efficiency of the car suspension.
c 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


(a)

2
1
0

for 80 km/h

2
1
0

for 60 km/h

2
1
0

for 40 km/h

2
1
0

for 20 km/h
0

20

Amplification

Amplification

The effect of vehicle vibrations and their influence on the driver have been the subject of intensive research for many
years [15]. For better understanding the behaviour of different types of vehicle suspensions, there are many tests carried out
under real road conditions. These tests are performed in order to identify and optimize the suspension parameters [6] and to
minimize tire wear [7].

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

(b)

2
1
0

for 80 km/h

2
1
0

for 60 km/h

2
1
0

for 40 km/h

2
1
0

for 20 km/h
0

20

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

Fig. 1 Amplifications of a suspension system for two types of a road profile (asphalt (a), sett (b)) and various car velocities: 20, 40, 60, and
80 km/h.

In this paper we analyze the Fourier spectrum looking for an amplification effect

P Sspr (f )
A(f ) =
P Suns (f )

(1)

where P Sspr (f ) and P Suns (f ) are the power spectra of sprung and unsprung masses accelerations while f defines the
frequency. To avoid strong fluctuations of this parameter, in numerical calculations, A(f ) has been averaged in a certain
neighbour frequency interval.
The corresponding amplification curves for different road surfaces Fig. 1ab (asphalt (a) and sett (b)) and various car
velocities. The measurements have been performed for the right front wheel. In Fig. 2a-d we plotted the power spectra of
all considered cases of unsprung and sprung masses. Here we are using these names (unsprung and sprung) in analogy to a
quarter car [2]. Note that in most cases the amplification is negative what expected for a good suspension. Besides, in Fig.
1a the positive amplifications appearing for few Hz are the results of resonances in the car suspension. On the other hand, in
the region of 10Hz the suspension damping is the most effective. Starting from that point one can see that larger excitation
frequency leads to larger A(f ). In the region of about 40Hz and slightly larger frequencies it reaches about A(f ) 1.
Surprisingly, it that region f 40Hz the sprung mass vibration amplitudes remain, in the most cases, on the same level while
the unsprung mass amplitude is slightly decreasing (Fig. 2a-b). This effect may be connected to the resonances of car-body
parts and their extra excitations.

Corresponding author
g.litak@pollub.pl
j.hunicz@pollub.pl
g.koszalka@pollub.pl
a.niewczas@pollub.pl

E-mail: m.borowiec@pollub.pl, Phone: +48 815 384 199, Fax: +48 815 384 205

c 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim




10714

Sessions of Short Communications 13: Applied Analysis

In the region of higher excitations the amplification is generally decreasing. Here the level of unsprung mass vibration
stabilizes (Fig. 2b). Fairly large peaks visible in the region higher frequencies in A(f ) can be explained by appearance of
the second harmonics of the rotating crankshaft which is not balanced in such types of engines. The corresponding peaks in
the power spectra of the sprung mass (Fig. 2a) are clearly developed. Simultaneously, they are absent in the unsprung mass
spectra (Fig. 2b). The high value of A(f ) (Fig. 1a) in this region of frequency must be the consequence of relatively small
road excitations. The small peak of the frequency about 50Hz, present in A(f ), for the car velocity 20 and 40km/h could
correspond to the first harmonic of engine rotational work. This effect is of a similar level for higher car velocities. However
due to an increasing vibration level caused by higher velocity road excitations (60 and 80km/h) it is not visible in the other
cases of A(f ) curves (Fig. 1a).
In the case of the road excitation caused from sett Fig. 1b, peaks associated with the rotational frequency of engine are also
present but not so clearly visible as for asphalt road. The reason which is causing that effect is obvious. The sett road provides
much higher level of road excitations comparing to the much smoother asphalt surface (compare Fig. 2a-b and Fig. 2c-d).
0

-4

-4

-4

0
-4

(a)

20

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

(b)

2
1
0

20

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

20

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

0
-4

-4

log(PS)

log(PS)

-4

-8

0
-4

-4

0
-4

-4
(c)

-4
1

-4

-8

-4

-4
-8

0
log(PS)

log(PS)

-4

1
0

20

40
60
f [Hz]

80

100

-8
(d)

1
0

Fig. 2 Power spectra of the system responses measured for sprung (a,c) and unsprung (b,d) masses and two different road corrugations
corresponding to the asphalt (a,b) and sett (c,d) surfaces. Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 denote velocities 20, 40, 60, and 80 km/h, respectively.

In summary we report that our analysis show that the efficiency of the suspension could be analyzed in frequency domain.
By using different car-velocities and different road surfaces in our investigation, we indicated that the increase of amplification
factor A(f ) could mean that the source of vibration is located in the vehicle-body instead of the road profile. This effect should
be taken into account in more advanced virtual tests [8] which are going reproduce the real working conditions.
Acknowledgements
N502 048 32/3680.

This research has been partially supported by The Polish Ministry of Science and High Education by the grant No.

References
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[7]
[8]

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c 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim




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