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# CHAPTER 3: TOPOLOGY ON R

## In this chapter we are going to explore an interesting topic on topology. Topology

is a study of open and close sets in a space. In our case the space is R. Our goal
is to find relations between these ideas and examine the properties. These ideas
will be implemented soon in continuity chapter, where some results from calculus
can be extended through the notion of topology.
3.1

TYPE OF POINTS ON R

## Definition 3.1.1: For 0 and x , neighborhood of x is a set denoted

by N ( x, ) and is defined as follows:

N ( x, ) y :| y x | .
Since

y x y x x y x ,

## then it follows that N x ; is an open interval

illustrated in the following figure.

x
Figure 3.1 :

x , x .

This can be

Neighborhood N x ; of x .

Note: On the occasion where the point x itself is excluded from the
neighborhood set, that is x , x \ x , we say that this set is a deleted
neighborhood of x .

## Definition 3.1.2: (Interior Point) [ A ]

Let be a set of . A point x is said to be an interior point of , if there
exist an neighborhood of x such that N x ; .

'

## Definition 3.1.3: (Limit point) [ A ]

Let be a set of . A point x is said to be a limit point of , if for each
0 there exists y N x ; such that y x .

## Definition 3.1.4: (Isolated Point)

Let be a set of . A point x is said to be an isolated point of , if x
and x is not a limit point of . That is, there exists 0 such that
N x ; x .
Definition 3.1.5 : (Boundary Point) [ A ]
Let be a set of . A point x is said to be a boundary point of , if every
neighborhood of x contains at least one point of and also at least one
point that does not belong to .

Examples 3.1.1: For each of the following set find the interior points, limit points,
isolated points and boundary points.
(i)

0 ,1
0 ,1

' 0 ,1
Isolated points of
0 ,1
(ii)

12 , 7 9 ,10

12 , 7

A' [12,7]

## Isolated points of 9 ,10

12 , 7 , 9 ,10

(iii)

: n N
n

;
isolated points of .

' 0 ;

{0}
2

0 ,1 Q

(iv)

' 0 ,1

Isolated points of
0 ,1

3.2

## Definition 3.2.1: Set of is said to be closed if every limit point of

'
belongs to the set . That is .
Definition 3.2.2: Set of is said to be open if every point of is also an
o
interior point of . That is = .
Examples:
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

The empty set is closed since it contains all of its limit points (there
are none). This set is also open.
The open interval a, b is open since every point x of an open
interval a, b is an interior point. So as other open interval like
a , , , a and , , they are all open sets of .
The closed interval a , b is closed since points that are already in

## the set are limit points. That is, a ,b . So as

other closed interval [a , ), (, a] both are closed sets of .
'

'

(iv)

## The set of natural numbers N is closed because it has no limit points.

(v)

The set of real line is closed since it contains all its limit points,
namely every point. is also open since every point of is an
interior point.

(vi)

and are the only examples of sets that are both open and
closed.

(vii)

## No point of the set of rational numbers Q is an interior point and so Q

definitely fails to be open. Every point on the real line, both rational and
irrational, is a limit point of Q , but the set fails to contain any irrational.
Then Q is not closed. Therefore Q is not open and not closed.

## Definition 3.2.3: (Closure)

Let be any set of real numbers and let denote the set of all limit points of
. Then the set
'

'

## is called the closure of the set .

Examples :

(ii)

(a, b) a , b
[a, b] a , b

(iii)
(iv)

NN
Q

(i)

Each of this is an easy observation since we know what the limit points of these
sets.
Theorem 3.2.1 : Let . If x , then for each 0, N x ; consists
infinitely many elements of .
'

## Proof : Assume there exists an 0 for which N x ;

element of . Define r min x y1 , x y2 ,...., x yn
1, 2 , ...., n

## consists finitely many

, where y x , for all
l

y5

y2

y3

y1

## Figure 3.2 : neighbourh

ood of x, N ( x, r )

then r 0 and N x ; r

## x . This contradicts the fact that x . Therefore for each 0 , N x ; must

consists infinitely many elements of . The following corollaries are the
consequences of Theorem 3.2.1
'

## Corollary 3.2.1 : Every finite set of has no limit points.

Corollary 3.2.2 : Every finite set of is closed.
4

C

## Proof: Assume is open and x is a limit point of . Then for each

0 , N x ; consists an element of C that is different from x , that is, x is
C

is closed.
C

## Conversely, assume is closed and x . It follows that x

C
implies that x is not a limit point of .
C

and this

C

C

C

C C

closed.

Theorem 3.2.3 :
(i)

Then

is open.

a A

(ii)

is open.

k 1

Proof:
(i)

A

## such that x G . Since G

is an open set, then this implies that there exists 0 such that
N x ; G . Since G G , then N x ; G . It follows
A

and therefore

is open.

(ii)

k 1

## there exists k 0 such that N x ; k Gk for each k . Now define

N x ; N x ; k Gk ,

n

k 1

. Therefore

k 1

is open.

k 1

Morgans laws.

Corollary 3.2.4:
(i)

Let

is

a A

closed.
(ii)

## If Fk is closed for k 1, 2 , ..., n , then

is closed.

k 1

n
n
C
C

Recall: G G & Gk Gk .
A
A
k 1
k 1

## (De Morgans Laws)

Both Theorem 3.2.3 (ii) & corollary 3.2.4 (ii) mentioned about finite intersection
and finite unions. To illustrate the importance of a finite collection for each part of
the above theorem & corollary, we have the following example.

Example :
(i)

(ii)

1
1
Let Gk ( ,1 , k Z . Then each Gk is open but
k
k
and this is not an open set.

G
k 1

0 ,1

k

## F 0 ,1 is not a closed set.

k

k 1

Theorem 3.2.4 : Every nonempty open set of real numbers can be expressed as
a countable union of disjoint open interval.
Notes : G is open G Sa with a countable set, S a an open interval for
a A

## The Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem that we have seen earlier in the previous

chapter states that every bounded sequence has a convergent subsequence. A
more general statement of this result is the following :

Theorem 3.2.5 : Every bounded infinite set of real numbers has a limit points.
Proof : Let be bounded infinite set of real numbers. Let a1 be any element in
. Since is infinite, then there exist a2 A \ a1 . Repeating this process, we
then have for n N , there exist an \ a1 , a2 , ..., an 1. Then an : n N is a
sequence contained in with a j a , j .
The sequence an is bounded because is bounded and an A . Then
according to Theorem 2.3.3 (Bolzano-Weierstrass for sequence), an has a
subsequence ank that converge. Now assume that lim ank x .

Next we are going to show that x is the limit point of . For any 0 , lim ank x
k

ank x .

Then ank N x ;

y

ank if ank x

ank 1 if ank x

## Then we have y x and y N x ; .

x is the limit point of .

3.3

COMPACT SETS

Compact sets play an important role in analysis. Although the definition will seem
foreign at first, with time and practice its usefulness should be appreciated.
Before we define a compact set, we need to introduce the concept of an open
cover.
Definition 3.3.1 : Let A and be an index set. collection
G : is an open cover of , if each set in is open and is
contained in the union of all the sets in , that is

G ,

## x , there exist with x G .

The open cover has a finite subcover if is contained in the union of a finite
number of sets in . That is, the open cover has a finite subcover if there exist
n

1

## finite subcover if , the set is finite, and G . It is important to keep

G

the notation straight. The set is a collection of open sets and the set is a
subset of , that is, each of the open set that belongs to also belongs to .
The union of all the elements of is an open set that contains . If it is possible
to find a finite number of sets in whose union contains , then has a finite
subcover. There are many possible open covers for any given set of real
numbers. For the interval 0 ,1 , all of the following collections are open covers.
Examples :
(i)

1
3

1
3

n , n : n N ; each set

n 13 , n 13

is open and

N n 1 ,n 1 .
3
3
n 1

1 13 1 2 3 2

2 13

2 23 3

## Figure 3.2 : An open cover for

(ii)

3 13

3 23 4

4 13

12 , 12, 14 , 34 , 13 , 2 .

## is an open cover for the interval 0 ,1 . Each set in is open and

0 ,1 .

0 ,1 12 , 12 14 , 34 13 , 2.

## Now consider a subset of

, 1 12 , 12, 13 , 2 . Since

0 ,1 12 , 12 13 , 2 and

for 0 ,1 .
For

## 12 , 12, 14 , 34 is also a subset of , but

2

0 ,1 12 , 12 14 , 34 . Then

0 ,1 .

(iii)

A collection

0 ,1 ,

## because each set in is an open set and

0 ,1 13 ,1 14 , 12 ... 1n , 1n2

or

0 ,1

, 1 n 2 . If

n 3

## we dropped any element of , then the union of the remaining open

set in will no longer cover 0 ,1 . Say we dropped the interval

14 , 12 from , then the union of the remaining set in will not cover

## the number 1 . Thus does not have any subset, in particular no

finite sub collections of , for which the union of them cover the set
0 ,1 . Therefore, the open cover for 0 ,1 does not have any finite
sub cover.
Definition 3.3.2 : is a compact set if every open cover for has a finite
subcover.
The example (iii) shows that the open interval (0,1 )is not compact. Any finite set
in is a compact set. Let a1 , a2 , ..., an be a finite set and be an open
cover for . Then for any an , there exists Gk such that ak Gk . Thus
n

k 1

Proof :

## n , n : n N is an open cover for . Since is compact, then,

there is a finite subcover 0 . Assume 0 nk , nk : k 1, 2 , ..., m and

nk , nk M , M
m

k 1

## Theorem 3.3.2 : If is a compact set, then is closed.

Proof : Theorem 3.3.1 implies that . We will now show that is open.
C
Let x , then x but x . For each a , denote Va N x ; ra and
C

a

Wa

Va

Va

and

Wa , a .

## Since is compact and the collection Wa : a is an open cover of , then

there
are
finitely
many
terms
such
that
a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., an
Wa1 Wa2 Wa3 ... Wan .
W Wa1 Wa2 ... Wan
Denote
and
V Va1 Va2 ... Van . Then x V , V is open, W and V W . These

C

closed.

10

## Theorem 3.3.3: (Heine-Borel).

set is compact if and only if it is closed and bounded.

Proof: Since every compact set is closed and bounded, it remains to be shown
that every closed and bounded set of real numbers is compact.
Assume that is closed and bounded. We are going to show that is
compact using contradiction. Now assume that is not compact. Then there
exists an open covering G for that does not have any finite sub
covering. Since is bounded, then there exist an interval a, b such that
a, b .
ab
ab
Now we divide the interval a, b into halves and get a ,
and
,b .

## Then one of them denoted as I 1 with the property I1 cannot be covered by

ba
any finite subcover from . Observe that the length of I 1 is
. Divide I 1 into
2
2 halves, then one of the intervals which is denoted as I 2 with I 2 cannot be
covered by any finite subcover from . By repeating this process, we will obtain a
sequence of closed intervals I n : n that have the following properties :(i)
(ii)

I1 I 2 I 3 ...,
For each n , I n cannot be covered by any finite subcover from
.

(iii)

The length I n is

ba
for each n .
2n

Since I n is closed for each n and from (i), then by the Nested Interval

I
n 1

## . Let x I n . Now we show that x ' .

n 1

ba
For any 0 , there exists N such that
. Then by (iii), this implies
2N
that I N N x ; . By (ii), it implies that I n has infinitely many elements for
each n , particularly I N . It follows that N x ;

11

ba
r . Together
2m
and
Im N x;r

with

property

(iii),

it

follows

that

## Lemma 3.3.1: A set is compact then every sequence in has a

subsequence that converges to a point in .
Proof: Suppose is a compact set. By the Heine Borel Theorem, the set
is closed and bounded. Let a n be a sequence in . Since is bounded, the
sequence a n is bounded. By the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem, this sequence
has a convergent subsequence a nk . Let a be the limit of this subsequence.

## Since a is the limit of a sequence in , either a or a is a limit point of .

Since is closed, it contains all its limit points. It follows that a . Hence,
every sequence in has a subsequence that converges to a point in .
Note: A set with the property that every sequence in has a subsequence
that converges to a point in is sometimes said to be sequentially compact.

Examples :
(i)

(ii)

## For i 1, 2 , ..., n and ai , bi , ai , bi

n

is compact because it is

i 1

(iii)
(iv)

## closed and bounded.

An open interval a, b is not compact, since it is not closed.
The interval a , is not compact because it is not bounded.

## Definition 3.3.3: Let . is said to be disconnected if there exists two

nonempty open sets U,V such that
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

U & V
U & V are disjoints.
U V

12

Note :
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

## A real number set is said to be connected if it does not satisfy the

above conditions.
The set U and V is sometimes called a separation of A .
A set of real numbers is said to be connected if there exists no
separation of the set.

## Theorem 3.3.4 : Let . is said to connected if and only if is an

interval.

Examples :
For a, b with a b , the intervals a , b , a , b , a , b , a , , , a and the
set a are all connected sets. An example of a set which is disconnected is
5, 0 2 , 9 .
Empty set and sets containing only one point are trivial examples of connected
sets.

3.4

CANTOR SET

Now we present an interesting set which we call cantor set. Construct a nested
sequence n of closed sets as follows. Begin with the closed interval 0 ,1 and
remove the open middle third of this interval. That is, remove the interval 13 , 2 3
from 0 ,1 . This leaves two closed intervals : call the union of these two intervals
1 . Next, remove the open middle third of each of the two intervals in 1 . Let 2
be the union of the four remaining closed intervals. In general, to obtain the set
n 1 from the set n , remove the open middle third from each of the intervals in
n the first three sets in this sequence are :-

1 0 , 13 2 3 ,1
2 0 , 19 2 9 , 3 9 6 9 , 7 9 8 9 ,1
3 0 , 1 27 2 27 , 3 27 6 27 , 7 27 8 27 , 9 27 1827 , 19 27 20 27 , 2127 24 27 , 2527 26 27 ,1

13

The set n is the union of 2n disjoint closed intervals, each with length 3 n . The

## cantor set, which we will denote by is denoted by n . Since n is a

n 1

closed interval for each n N then n is a closed set, then from corollary 3.2.4

n 1

## the Heine Borel Theorem implies that is compact.

Observe that the length of the first subinterval that was dropped from the interval

1
2
. Then the next total subinterval being removed from 1 is 2 and the
3
3
n
2
total length of intervals being removed from the set n is n 1 . Then the total
3
[0,1] is

## length that was being removed is

1 2
2n
... n 1 ...,
3 32
3
n

1 2
that is the series having the sum equal to 1. However this is actually
3 n 0 3
the length of the original interval [0,1] . Then if is assumed to have a length,
then the length would have been 0. That this shows that the Cantor set is an
empty set? The answer is NO. The Cantor set contains all the end points of the
intervals that were removed and also other points. Infact, the Cantor set is
uncountable.

3.5

METRIC SPACE

Earlier, we introduced the metric structure of real line via the concept of
absolute value. For x, y , we called

d x, y x y
the distance between x and y . We identified four properties that the distance
function d possesses :(i)
(ii)
(iii)

## d x , y 0 (All distances are positive or zero)

d x , y 0 if and only if x y .
d x, y d y , x .
14

(iv)

## d x , y d x , z d z , y (the triangle inequality)

All of the work we did connected with the limit concept and convergence rested
ultimately on these four properties of d . The Euclidean distance of Euclidean
spaces n between points x and y is defined as

d x, y x y ,
obeyed the same properties.
With these facts in mind, we shall base our definition of metric space on a metric
that possesses these properties.
Definition 3.5.1: Let be any nonempty set . A function d : is called
a metric if it satisfies the following four properties.
1.
2.
3.
4.

d x , y 0 for all x, y .
d x , y 0 if and only if x y .
d x , y d y , x for all x, y .
d x , y d x , z d z , y for all x , y , z .

Property (1) simply asserts that the distance between two points in , d is
nonnegative, while property (2) guarantees that the distance between distinct
points is positive. Property (3) is a symmetry condition; the distance between
points should not depend on the order points appear. Finally, property (4) is the
triangle inequality. This property, as you may imagine, will be very important in
the discussion of metric spaces.
Example 3.5.1: On the real number , the function d x , y x y is a metric
since it is our model on which we based the definition. For a collection of
interesting examples we can consider any subset . The metric is the same.

Example 3.5.2:

(i)
(ii)

## Q , the set of rational numbers.

, the set of natural numbers.

(iii)

; k 1, 2 , 3 ,
k

(Discrete Space)

## Let be any nonempty set. For points x and y in let

d x , y 1 , if x y , d x , x 0 . Then d is a metric on .

15

Example 3.5.3:

## (The Euclidean Plane)

2 x x1 , x2 : x1 , x2 .

Let

y y1 , y2 define d 2 x , y

For

x x1 , x2

and

x1 y1 2 x2 y2 2 .

You will recognize that this is the usual way in elementary geometry
that distances in the plane are computed and can readily verify that
d 2 is indeed a metric on 2 .

Example 3.5.4:

## (Euclidean n-dimensional space)

Let x x x x
n

x1 , x2 ,, xn : xi , i 1, 2 ,, n

For x x1 , x2 ,, xn and y y1 , y2 ,, yn
Define d n x , y

y1

x
2

y2

xn y n

## Once again d n is a metric on n .

Definition 3.5.2: A metric space is an ordered pair , d , where X is a non
empty set and d is a metric on X.
The function d , which gives the distance between two points in , is known as a
metric.

Exercises : Which of the following functions defined for pairs of numbers x and
y are metric on ?
(i)

(iii)

## d x , y x y . (not a metric, for x 1, y 10, z 2 , d does not

satisfy the TI)
d x , y min 1, x y . (Yes)

(iv)

d x, y

(ii)

x y
. (Yes)
1 x y

There are many familiar examples of metric spaces. To list some of these, we will
adopt the following notation for some specific sets. (The sequences mentioned
below are assumed to be sequences of real numbers.)

16

## C a , b is the set of all continuous functions defined on a, b .

c 0 is the set of all sequences that converge to 0.

c 00 is the set of all sequences that have a finite number of nonzero terms.
1 is the set of all sequences ai for which

a
i 1

converges.

## is the set of all bounded sequences.

All of the following sets, along with the given distance function, are metric
spaces. The verification of the four properties of a metric space will be left to the
reader. It should be noted that properties (1), (2) and (3) are trivial in every case.
In proving the triangle inequality for the metric space p ,d 2 , we might need to
use the Minkowski Inequality.

2.

Q ,d1 where d1 x , y
,d1 where d1 x , y

3.

1.

x y .
x y .
p

,d1 where d1 x , y xi yi .
i 1

5.

6.

C a, b , d ,

4.

7.
8.
9.

,d 2

, d

2
2
p
where d 2 x , y xi yi .
i 1

where d x , y max x y

where d x, y sup

: 1 i p .

x(t ) y(t ) : t a , b .

## C a, b , d1 , where d1 x, y a x(t ) y(t ) dt .

c0 , d , where d x, y sup xi yi : 1 i .
c00, d , where d x, y sup xi yi : 1 i .
b

i 1

## 11. , d , where d x , y sup

x y
i

: 1 i .

0 , if x y;
12. ,d0 , where is any set and d 0 x, y
1, if x y.

## If , d is a metric space and , then , d is also a metric space, Unless

stated otherwise, the symbol , d will represent a fixed but arbitrary metric
space. In order for a theorem concerning metric space to be valid, it must be true
for every metric space. In this regard, the reader should keep Example (12),
which is known as the discrete metric space, in mind, as it can be a source of
counterexamples.

17

## Definition 3.5.3: Let , d be a metric space.

a) Let and let r 0 . The open ball centered at with radius r is
defined by d , r x : d x , r .
b) Let . The set is bounded in , d if there exist x and 0
such that d x , .
Definition 3.5.4: Let

a) The sequence

xn

0 there exists a

## positive integer such that d xn , x for all n .

b) The sequence xn converges or is convergent if there exists a point
x such that xn converges to x .
c) The sequence xn is a Cauchy sequence if for each 0 there exists
a positive integer such that d xn , xm for all m, n .

d) Let

pn

sequence

## be a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers. The

x is a subsequence of x .
n

pn

xn

## converges, then the set

sequence.
Theorem 3.5.2: If

xn

: n

is bounded and

xn

, d .

If

xn

is a Cauchy

, d ,

## the set xn : n is bounded. Furthermore, if a subsequence of

converges, then xn converges.

then

xn

## Definition 3.5.5: A metric space , d is complete if every Cauchy sequence

in , d converges to a point in .
Definition 3.5.6: Let , d be a metric space, let , and let x .
a) The point x is an isolated point of if there exists r 0 such that
d x , r x .
b) The point x is an interior point of if there exists r 0 such that
d x , r .
c) The point x is a limit point of if for each r 0 , the set d x , r
contains a point of other than x .
d) The point x is a boundary point of if for each r 0 , the ball d x , r
contains at least one point of and one point of \ .
e) The set is open in , d if each point of is an interior point of .
18

## f) The set is closed in , d if contains all of its limit points.

g) The closure of , E E E .
h) A set E X is dense in X if E X .
'

## Theorem 3.5.3: Let , d be a metric space, let , and let x . The

point x is a limit point of the set if and only if there exists a sequence of points
in \ x that converges to x .
Theorem 3.5.4: Let , d be a metric space and let .
a) The set is open in , d if and only if \ is closed in , d .
b) The set is closed in , d if and only if \ is open in , d .
Theorem 3.5.5: Let , d be a metric space.
a) The union of any collection of open sets in , d is open in , d and
the intersection of any finite collection of open sets in , d is open in
, d .
b) The intersection of any collection of closed sets in , d is closed in
, d and the union of any finite collection of closed sets in , d is
closed in , d .
Definition 3.5.7: Let , d be a metric space and let .
a)
b)
c)
d)

## The interior of , denoted , is the set of all interior points of .

The set denoted as ' , is the set of all limit points of .
The closure of , denoted , is the set ' .
The boundary of , denoted , is the set of all boundary points of .

## Theorem 3.5.6: If is a subset of a metric space , d , then the sets ' , ,

and are closed in , d , and the set is open in , d .
Definition 3.5.8: Let , d be a metric space and let .
a) A collection G of subsets of is an open cover of if each set in G is
open in , d and is contained in the union of all the sets in G . An
open cover G of has a finite subcover if is contained in the union
of a finite number of the sets in G .
19

## b) The set is compact in , d if every open cover of has a finite

subcover.
c) The metric space , d is compact if is compact in , d .
Theorem 3.5.7: Let , d be a metric space.
a) If is compact in , d , then is closed in , d and bounded in
, d .
b) If is compact in , d and is closed in , d , then is
compact in , d .
c) An arbitrary intersection of sets that are compact in , d is compact in
, d .
d) A finite union of sets that are compact in , d is compact in , d .
Theorem 3.5.8: Let , d be a metric space. If n is a nested sequence of
nonempty compact sets in , d , then the set

is nonempty.

n 1

## Definition 3.5.10: Let , d be a metric space and let . The set is

sequentially compact in , d if each sequence in has a subsequence that
converges to a point in .
Definition 3.5.11: Let , d be a metric space and let . The set is
totally bounded in , d if for each 0 there is a finite subset xi : 1 i n
n

of such that d xi , .
i 1

## Theorem 3.5.8: Let be a set in a metric space , d . The set is compact

in , d if and only if it is sequentially compact in , d .
Theorem 3.5.9: Let be a set in a metric space , d . The set is compact
in , d if and only if , d is complete and is totally bounded in , d .

## Theorem 3.5.10: Heine-Borel Theorem A set is compact in p ,d 2

if it is closed in p ,d 2 and bounded in p ,d 2 .

if and only

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## Definition 3.5.12: Let , d be a metric space.

a) A separation of is a pair of nonempty, disjoint open sets U and V
such that U V .
b) The metric space , d is connected if there exists no separation of .
c) A set is connected in , d if the metric space , d is
connected.
Theorem 3.5.11: Let , d be a metric space and suppose that the sets U and
V are a separation of . If is connected in , d , then either U or
V .
Theorem 3.5.12: Let

, d . If

,d

## Theorem 3.5.13: Let , d be a metric space and let F be a collection of sets

that are connected in , d . If

F , Then F

f F

is connected , d .

f F

## Theorem 3.5.14: Let , d and , p be metric spaces.

a) A function f : is continuous at xo if for each 0 there exists
0 such that f ( x) p f ( x0 ), for all x d x0 , .
b) A function f : is continuous on if it is continuous at each point of
.
c) A function f : is uniformly continuous on if for each 0
there exists 0 such that p f ( x1 ), f ( x2 ) for all x1 , x2 that satisfy
d x1 , x2 .
Theorem 3.5.15: Let , d and , p be metric spaces, let f : , and let
x0 . The function f is continuous at x0 if and only if the sequence f ( xn )
converges to f ( x0 ) for each sequence xn in that converges to x0 .
Theorem 3.5.16: Let , d and , p be metric spaces and let f : .
The following statements are equivalent :
1. The function f is continuous on .

## 2. For each set , f f .

3. For each set closed in , p , x : f ( x) is closed in , d .
4. For each set G open in , p , x : f ( x) G is open in , d .
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## Theorem 3.5.17: Let , d and , p be metric spaces and let f : be

continuous. If is compact in , d , then f ( ) is compact in , p .
Theorem 3.5.18: Let , d be a compact metric space, let , p be a metric
space, and let f : . If f is continuous on , then f is uniformly
continuous on .
Theorem 3.5.19: Let , d and , p be metric spaces and let f : be
continuous. If is connected in , d , then f () is connected in , p .

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