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Analysis and Discussion.

Experience in the related course.

Chart Title
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Lecturer

MFI Student

Figure 1
Based on figure 1, All of the MFI student have less than 10 years experience about hybrid
concept. They are still new to te related concept. They know hybrid concept from tv advertise
ad auto magazines. All of the lecturer has more than 10 years experience. They have been in
the industry before and hall of them are senior lecturer. Some of them were from Proton and
Sapura Automotive which is familiar with hybrid concept.

Knowledge about hybrid concept.

Chart Title
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

knowledge about hybrid


YES

NO

Figure 2
Based on figure 2, 10 from 14 students are familiar with hybrid concept. They are all from
automotive course. The survey also was conducted to the student from mechanical course and
mechatronic course. Half of them have some knowledge about hybrid concept. We choose
mechatronic course because they also learn about hybrid engine in electric machinery subject.
In the mentioned subject, they learn synchronous AC motor for electric generator that
currently use by hybrid engine to generate electric. Hybrid also occur in conventional car.
Hybrid was introduced in early 20th century to overcome the limited range of existing electric
vehicles and hard to start the early engine which had to be pull by hand. Their opinion was
based on internal combustion engine subject in their second year of degree.
Fuel efficient.

Fuel Efficient of Hybrid

Agree

Disagree

Figure 3
Figure 3 shown only 1 respondent thinks hybrid engine is not fuel efficient. The respondent
have no idea about hybrid concept based on his/her survey. This is unique response. We know
Malaysia is still new to the hybrid technology even hybrid car was sold widely around
country. The research still not fully developed yet in local universities. All of the respondent
remaining agree hybrid engne is fuel efficient. According to Frank (2007), hybrid engine is
one that propels itself using both a conventional engine and an electric motor. It supplies high
power to wheels when required and also, when car needed to be slowed. It transforms the
kinetic energy into electric using generator to charge the battery to be used later. The series
configuration needed so that engine employed only to generate electricity and supply to the
wheels. The excess later will store in battery.

Future engine.

Hybrid As Future Engine.


30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Hybrid As Future Engine


Yes

No

Figure 4
28 out of 30 respondents think hybrid engine is next future generation engine based on figure
4 result. This technology is still in the research lab. In the past couple of years, many of
academic researches start to develop the hybrid engine many automotive and jet engine
manufacturer company started to investigate the possibility of using such engine in future
vehicle. (Bullis,2008, Campbell and colleagues,2011). Proton, a Malaysia carmaker already
apply hybrid concept into its new compact car, Proton Iriz. It was displayed in South Korea
Motor Show 2014 and 2015 International Greentech and Eco Product Exhibition and
Conference Malaysia (IGEM). Proton Iriz use permanent magnet AC synchronous electric
motor to power the car.(Chin,2015).

Result of score rating given by 30 respondents


1:Disagree 5:Agree
TYPE OF HYBRID
FACTORS

Hybrid car

FUEL EFFICIENCT

Hybrid jet

13

11

10

14

14

ENVIRONMENTAL

10

12

FRIENDLY
ENGINE NOISE

12

11

12

11

10

10

CAUSING
HIGH RUNNING
COST
BATTERY

STORAGE
ELECTRIC

EFFEICIENT
Table 1
Based on Table 1 above,

3
4

of respondents agree both hybrid engine meet all 6 factors

stated in the table above. This rating was made based on comparison of hybrid car and hybrid
jet engine. Only a quarter disagree all 6 factors given in the table.

Hybrid Concept Concerness Graph


14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Always

Sometimes

Seldom

Never

Figure 5

Based on figure 5, 11 respondents said they sometime hear about hybrid concept while 1
respondent never heard about hybrid concept. They know hybrid concept in auto magazines,
tv documentary and article in newspaper. 9 people always heard about hybrid concept
because they are from automotive student and lecturer.
12 respondent said sometime hybrid engine experience frequent breakdown compared to the
5 respondent hybrid engine never experience breakdown. This is because hybrid engine use a
single AC synchronous motor coupled with a simple transmission, Frank (2007).

4 of respondent never care about hybrid concept, they are all disagree hybrid engine is future
engine.
Recommendation
Hybrid vehicle should install solar panel for transportation. Solar panel is three to four times
more efficient than plug in. with solar panel, the owner of plug in hybrid car have a reliable
resource of emergency power for his or her home.
The hybrid engine need lighter battery with high storage to produce the needed power and
store the energy required to provide the desired power levelling effect. Plug in hybrids also
need high-power electric motor and controllers
Use parallel hybrid propulsion system in hybrid engine system. This system has the
advantage of being able to run only from battery power for short periods of time. In order to
do this system requires a clutch to disengage the turbine from the shaft.

Conclusion
We conclude that hybrid car and hybrid jet has differences, hybrid car engine use single
electric motor coupled with simple transmission that links bot it in and the cars internal
combustion engine directly to the wheels which is termed a parallel hybrid configuration.
While hybrid jet can be series or parallel hybrid configuration. With both system, a motor
generator can be used to providing a boost during a certain phase of the flight and the use of
excess power in another phase of the flight to recharge the battery.
Hybrid engine does influence transportation in future. Hybrid vehicles are clearly more than
just devices for getting around, we view them as a realistic means by which society can
significantly reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Introduction of plug in hybrid could
diminish the amount of petroleum being used without requiring any delivery systems. The
future technology version allows the use of lightweight DHARMA DC motor for flight up to
6 people. In the near future, it is expected that the initial and running cost of the hybrid
system will go down while that of fossil fuel will go up.

Reference
1. Bullis, K. (2008, September 30). High-Efficiency Generators for Hybrid Vehicles.
Retrieved December 2, 2015, from
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/410914/high-efficiency-generators-forhybrid-vehicles/
2. Campbell, C., Dittman, E., Macrae, J., Ehringer, C., Stone, A., Lake, K., R .R .
Mankbadi, R. (2011). Design of a hybrid electrical propulsion system.Structural
Dynamics and Materials Conference.
3. Fitzgerald, A., Kingsley.jr, C., & D.umans, S. (2003). Introduction to rotating
machines. In Electric machinery (6th ed., p. 174). New york city, New york:
McGraw-Hill Companies.
4. Frank, A. (2007). Plug n hybrid vehicles for a sustainable future. American Scientist,
95(2), 158-158. doi:10.1511/2007.64.158.
5. Stone, R. (1999). Spark ignition engine. In Introduction to internal combustion
engine (3rd ed., p. 144). Oxford, London: Macmillan press.
6. http://www.boeing.com/aboutus/environment/environment_report_14/2.3_future_flig
ht.html