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ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, vol. 61, nr.

1, ianuarie-martie 2013

31

Utilization of Solar Systems


Jozef BALOGH, Jaroslav PETR, Pavol HOCKO
Abstract
This paper describes the utilization and exploitation of solar energy and its transformation thermal energy. It
describes its utilization for warm utility water preparation, building heating, pool water heating and for industrial
heat generation.
Keywords: solar system, renewable energy, solar energy

1. Introduction
Together
with
geothermal
energy
[9],[10],[12], the utilization of the solar
energy, as one of renewable energy source
type and as one of the environmentally
clean energy sources, has dynamically
increased in EU countries during last years
[3],[4],[7],[8]. Among frequently used
methods of solar energy, the utilization
belongs to solar collectors which convert
solar energy to heat [5], [6].
The correct utilization of the solar
radiation may save up to 60 % of costs for
water heating per year (Figure 1).

effectively
and
ecologically
utilized
according to the effectiveness of method
used for the energy collection and
conversion or transport [14].
There are some studies of real world
utilization of the solar energy in housing
estates [11],[15] or other buildings.
Sun supplies its energy in long time
terms, so from our point of view this energy
source is exhaustless.
Direct and indirect utilization of the solar
radiation has almost no negative ecological
aspects. The word used it more or less
intentionally, because some technologies of
the active solar radiation conversion to other
energy forms use dangerous manufacturing
methods. It applies especially to the silicon
based photovoltaic panel manufacturing.
Also
during
the
solar
collector
manufacturing process, some amount of
energy is consumed. According to some
references, the collector regenerates this
consumed energy in time period of some
months.
2. Solar collectors

Figure 1. Solar heating of water

Thanks to the excellent parameters of


some commercial solar panels [13], this
freely available source of energy can be

Jozef BALOGH, Ing. PhD., TU Koice, FEI, Department of


Electric Power Engineering, Msiarska 74, 040 01 Koice,
Slovak
Republic,
jozef.balogh@tuke.sk
Jaroslav PETR, Ing. PhD., TU Koice, FEI, Department
of Electric Power Engineering, Msiarska 74, 040 01
Koice,
Slovak
Republic,
jaroslav.petras@tuke.sk
Pavol HOCKO, Ing., TU Koice, FEI, Department of
Electric Power Engineering, Msiarska 74, 040 01 Koice,
Slovak Republic, pavol.hocko@tuke.sk

The principle of thermal energy


acquisition by solar panels is very simple.
Collectors capture the solar radiation by
their sensitive surface, named absorber,
which is placed under a glass surface or in
vacuum tubes, and thus they absorb
maximal amount of the solar energy. A
liquid running through is very effectively
heated. Gained heat is consequently used
for water heating.
There are various collector types
commercially available that can be divided
in two types: plain collectors and vacuum
collectors.

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, vol. 61, Nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

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The plain collectors give better


effectiveness with maximum in warmer
days. They are widely used for water
heating.
The vacuum tube collectors are better for
diffusion radiation capturing and have higher
solar gain in colder days in comparison to
plain collectors. They are mainly used for
water heating and building heating support,
all-year inside pool water heating and for
solar cooling.
3. Installation of solar collectors
We mention some considerations during
the solar collector installation on rooftop,
building wall or in free terrain.
Their construction has to be sufficiently
solid, strong and resistant against climatic
conditions (wind, hailstorm, snow).
A solar collector should be installed as
near as possible to the place of energy
consumption, so that the thermal losses are
minimalized in distribution pipelines.
The distribution of pipelines have to be
coated with effective thermal isolation that is
resistant against high temperatures.
The most advantageous placement of
collectors is to set them facing to south and
elevate them according to maximal solar
energy utilization (Figure 2).

92

65

Hot utility water generation


The solar heating for utility hot water
generation can be used in cases of high hot
water consumption e.g. in tourist buildings,
laundries, etc. (Figure 4).

73

72

91

The main elements of a solar system are:


solar collectors, water heater with heat
exchanger, circulation pump, expansion
tank, pipelines and regulation. It is often
used with other heat source types e.g. gas,
wood or thermal pumps. Especially with
these combined systems, a compatibility of
elements is very important for effective
usage and operation.
The solar systems are mainly used for:
utility hot water generation,
building heating support,
pool water heating,
industrial heat generation.
Non-continuous
energy
supply,
especially in winter time, is compensated by
heat exchanger that is connected to central
heating.

4
7

96

100

Figure 3. Block diagram of solar system [1], [2]

J
Figure 2. Solar collector placement

Even with up to 45 offset from south to


east or west, we loose only 5 % of solar
energy. The altitude of sun changes during
the year in summer the altitude is higher
than in winter. Therefore, the advisable
elevation of collector is about 30 to 35
from horizontal direction.
4. Solar systems
The effective utilization of the solar
energy ensures an integrated solar system
(Figure 3).

Figure 4. Block diagram of solar system for utility water


preparation and heating support [1], [2]

With economical usage of solar collector,


50 % to 70 % of energy for utility hot water
can be saved.
The ratio of solar energy can be raised,
but, in this case, the investment costs raise
exponentially (Figure 5).

ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, vol. 61, nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

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5. Conclusions

Figure 5. Solar heating of utility water heating and


heating support

Building heating support


By solar system it is not possible to
ensure 100% of energy need of family
house
with
reasonable
economical
conditions for heating purpose.
But solar energy can support heating
form other sources with 15% to 30% of
yearly energy needs of a good isolated
house that is equipped with low temperature
heating system.
Pool water heating
We encounter a paradox during solar
energy usage: the lowest solar radiation
intensity takes time exactly in time, when
energy needs are highest, namely in winter.
Vice-versa applies in summer. During this
time, the water heating is used mainly for
pool water heating.

Figure 6. Solar pool water heating and heating support


[1], [2]

Industrial heat
In industry, the solar energy is used
mainly for heat up to 100 C (e.g. brewhouses, cannery and other manufactures).
Next years, it is expectable that the
importance of solar energy arises in the
area of solar cooling and sea water
desalination.

A contribution of solar energy for


environment is considerable and lies
especially in silent and clean operation
without side effects and side products such
as malodour, waste and smoke.
It has also no greenhouse effect
contribution.
With solar energy an average family can
save about 748 kg of CO2 emission per
year.
With
respect
to
environmental
advantages we can say that the payback of
solar systems is immediate.
6. Acknowledgment
We support research
activities in Slovakia /
Project is co-financed
from EU funds.
This paper was developed within the Project
"Centrum excelentnosti integrovanho vskumu
a
vyuitia
progresvnych
materilov
a
technolgi v oblasti automobilovej elektroniky",
ITMS 26220120055

7. References
[1] http://www.kolektory.sk/solarne_systemy.html
[2] http://www.wolf-solar.sk/
[3] PAVLICA O., HOLNKOV L., Efektivn
vyuit solrnho systmu pro pedehev tepl
vody v rmci systmu CZT, lnek na
konferenci Juniorstav 2009, CERM s.r.o.,
ISBN: 978-80-214-3810-1, Brno 2009
[4] RYBR, R., TAU, P., KUDELAS, D.:
Vyuitie solrnych zariaden pre ohrev TV v
mestskej zstavbe, AT&P Journal, ronk XII,
3/2005, Bratislava.
[5] LADENER, H., SPATE, F., Solrn zazen,
Grada., Praha, esk republika, 2003, ISBN
80-247-0362-9
[6] REMMERS, K., H. a kolektiv, Velk solrn
zazen, Era group s.r.o., Brno, esk
republika, 2007, ISBN 978-80-7366-110-6
[7] HORBAJ, P., LUK, P., MIKOLAJ, D.:
Zsobovanie teplom. TU SjF Koice, 2005,
ISBN 80-8073-304-X
[8] RYBR, R., TAU, P., KUDELAS, D.:
Vyuvanie solrnych zariaden na ohrev
TV v mestskej zstavbe Koc., AT&P
Journal, Bratislava 3/2005
[9] WITTENBERGER, G., Pinka, J.: Vyuitie
geotermlnej energie na Slovensku, Acta
Montanistica Slovaca, Ronk 10 ( 2005 ),
slo 4, 387-391, ISSN 1335-1788
[10]WITTENBERGER, G., PINKA, J.: Sasn
stav geotermlnych vrtov GTD 1,2,3 v
urkove, 3. mezinrodn konference :

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ELECTROTEHNIC, ELECTRONIC, AUTOMATIC, vol. 61, Nr. 1, ianuarie-martie 2013

Netradin metdy vyuit loisek, Ostrava,


oktber 2005, Sbornk vdeckch prac
Vysok koly bsk Technick univerzity
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[11]HORBAJ, P.: Monosti vyuitia solrnych
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[12] SHULZ, H.: Teplo ze slunce a zeme.
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[13]Thermo/solar: Slnen kolektory Heliostar
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[14]LULKOVIOV O.: Hodnotenie energetickej
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Czech Republic, ISBN 978-80-7204-629-4

8. Biography
Jozef BALOGH graduated TU
Koice, FEI in 1991.
He received the PhD degree in
2001.
His research interests concern:
partial discharge measurement methods,
overvoltage protection and renewable energy
exploitation.
Jaroslav PETR graduated TU
Koice, FEI in 1997.
He received the PhD degree in
2008.
His research interests concern:
partial discharge measurement by acoustic
methods and renewable energy exploitation.
Pavol HOCKO graduated TU
Koice.
He is PhD student at Technical
university of Koice.
His research interests concern:
power system dynamics, control and stability.