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Paul Jones

American Pageant Chapter 34

1. Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. He is best-known as
the longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years in the administration of
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during much of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace
Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt
as the Father of the United Nations.
2. Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's
death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union.
3. Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, KSMOM GCTE was an Italian politician who led the
National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. He
became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. After 1936,
his official title was "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and
Founder of the Empire". Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of
the Empire along with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, which gave him and the King joint supreme
control over the military of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943; for a
short period after this until his death, he was the leader of the Italian Social Republic.
4. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist
German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP),
commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was the dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as
chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and as head of state (Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945.
5. Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco Bahamonde, commonly known as Francisco Franco, or simply Franco, was a
military general, and head of state of Spain from October 1936 (whole country from 1939 on), and de
facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November 1975.
As head of state, Franco used the title Caudillo de España, por la gracia de Dios, meaning; Leader of
Spain, by the grace of God. During his almost forty year reign, Franco's governance went through
various different phases, although the most common ideological features present throughout included a
strong sense of Spanish nationalism and protection of the country's territorial integrity, Catholicism,
anti-communism, anti-masonry and traditional values.
6. Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership
of the United Kingdom during World War II. He served as Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and again
from 1951 to 1955. A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, an
historian, writer and artist. To date, he is the only British Prime Minister to have received the Nobel
Prize in Literature, and the first person to be recognised as an Honorary Citizen of the United States.
7. Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state, usually under the
control of a single political organization, faction, or class domination, recognizes no limits to its
authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.[2]
Totalitarianism is generally characterised by the coincidence of authoritarianism (i.e., where ordinary
citizens have no significant share in state decision-making) and ideology (i.e., a pervasive scheme of
values promulgated by institutional means to direct the most significant aspects of public and private
life.
8. Appeasement
Appeasement is "the policy of settling international quarrels by admitting and satisfying
grievances through rational negotiation and compromise, thereby avoiding the resort to an armed
conflict which would be expensive, bloody, and possibly dangerous."[1] The term is most often applied
to the foreign policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany between
1937 and 1939. His policies of avoiding war with Germany have been the subject of intense debate for
seventy years among academics, politicians and diplomats.
9. Japanese Invasion of Machuria
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan, beginning
on September 19, 1931, immediately followed the Mukden Incident. The Japanese occupation of
Manchuria lasted until the end of World War II.
10. Good Neighbor Policy
The Good Neighbor policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States
President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. The United States wished to have
good relations with its neighbors, especially at a time when conflicts were beginning to rise once again,
and this policy was more or less intended to garner Latin American support.
11. Nazi Party
The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known in English as the Nazi Party,
was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. It was known as the German Workers' Party
before the name was changed in 1920.
12. Rome-Berlin Axis
The Axis powers, also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis,
comprised the countries that were opposed to the Allies during World War II. The three major Axis
powers—Germany, Japan, and Italy—were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite
Pact in September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers.
13. Neutrality Acts
The Neutrality Acts were laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in
response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were
spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly
involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in
foreign conflicts.
14. Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict that devastated Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April
1939. It began after an attempted coup d'état by a group of Spanish Army generals against the
government of the Second Spanish Republic, then under the leadership of president Manuel Azaña.
15. “Quarintine Speech”
The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on October 5,
1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to
the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time.
16. Hitler-Stalin Nonagression Pact
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, colloquially named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav
Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled
the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[1] and
signed in Moscow in the early hours of 24 August 1939 (but dated 23 August).[2] It was a non-
aggression pact between the two countries and pledged neutrality by either party if the other were
attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941 when Germany implemented
Operation Barbarossa, invading the Soviet Union.
17. “Cash-and-carry”
At a special session of the United States Congress on 21 September 1939, as war was spreading
throughout Europe, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt requested the policy of cash and carry replace
the Neutrality Acts of 1936.
18. “Phony War”
The Phoney War was a phase in early World War II – in the months following the German
invasion of Poland in September 1939 and preceding the Battle of France in May 1940 – that was
marked by a lack of major military operations in Continental Europe.
19. Destroyer-for-bases deal
The Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2,
1940, transferred fifty destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British
possessions. The destroyers became the Town class.
20. Lend-lease
Lend-Lease was the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied
the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of
war materiel between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in
Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies.