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Wireline: Braided Cable, E-Line and Slickline Operations and Equipment

George E. King April 2014

Contents

Basic Wireline

Surface Equipment & Pressure Control

Best Practices

Wireline Tools and Services

Profiles & Plugs

Pipe Cutting

Slickline, Braided Line and E- Line

Slickline single strand wire. Mild steel. Sizes

0.072” to >0.125”

Braided Line multiple strand wire braided to form a cable. Non Conducting.

Electric Line or E-Line a multiple stand wire

armor cable around a single insulated electrical conductor wire.

Specialty cable many forms of multiple conductor wire in insulated or armored cable.

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Source

3

Wireline Operations

Common workovers with wireline

liquid and fill tags

gauge running and retrieval

gas lift valve replacement

sleeve shifting

plug and packer setting

bailer runs

Critical Lesson

Plugs must be equalized before releasing.

Pressure may be trapped in many tool &

wellbore configuration.

Trapped pressure can propel a tool up the well very rapidly, causing wellhead & pipe damage and bird’s nests of wire that are extremely

difficult and expensive to remove.

Theoretical loads (in lbs) resulting from pressure

differentials in various sizes of plugs.

Pressure

         

Differential

3-1/2"

4-1/2"

5-1/2"

8-5/8"

(psi)

tube

tube

tube

7" tube

tube

100

703

1253

1923

3737

4961

500

3514

6264

9617

18687

24807

1000

7027

12529

19234

37374

49614

5000

35137

62643

96172

186869

248070

The common element on all plugs that must be pulled is that there must be a reliable way to release the pressure below the plug before releasing the locking mechanism on the plug.

Nominal Weight of Wire

Wire Size

Wt per 1000 ft of wire

0.072

14 lb

0.082

18 lb

0.092

22.6 lb

0.108

31 lb

0.125

44 lb

Selecting Wireline

What devices have to be pulled (weights, loads)?

What impact forces are needed?

What are the tubing sizes?

Small tubing smaller wire, easier to work and recover. Easier to compress into a mass for retrieval.

Large tubing larger wire stronger, less likely to birds-nest or kink, easier to fish as a single strand, but harder to compress into a mass when a wireline spear would work.

Corrosion potential?

Local preferences?

Wireline Surface Equipment

Reels and Controls

BOP

Lubricators

Grease (oil) Seals

One view of a slickline unit’s controls -

Typical slickline spool on a small unit.

Slickline and Braided Line Drums

Braided line stronger (2800 to 3500 lb working strength, but

less “feel” when fishing and slower line speed. Watch abrasion of steel by braided wire. Harder to get a seal in stuffing box/grease injector

Slickline Single Strand Wire, No

Conductor

Typical Wireline Rig-up

Wireline

Unit

Upper

Sheave

Lower

Sheave

Wireline Rig-up Wireline Unit Upper Sheave Lower Sheave Springs Stuffing Box Lubricator swab valve master valve

Springs

Rig-up Wireline Unit Upper Sheave Lower Sheave Springs Stuffing Box Lubricator swab valve master valve 11/18/2014

Stuffing Box

Lubricator

swab valve

master valve

Schematic of a Grease Injector for Braided Line

Rubber Elements

Schematic of a Grease Injector for Braided Line Rubber Elements Flow Tubes Grease Injection 11/18/2014 15

Flow Tubes

Grease Injection

Schematic of a Grease Injector for Braided Line Rubber Elements Flow Tubes Grease Injection 11/18/2014 15

SPE 27227

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17

Setting the Pack-Off Elements under

the top sheave,

Top Sheave w/ isolation

Stuffing Box the Main Seal on the

Wire

Braided Line Grease Injector

Slick Line - Rubber elements with and without

oil injection capacity. A hydraulic oil is usually used for sealing and lubrication of the wire.

If a tool is to be hung-off on wireline, tighten the pack-off gland, but do not keep injecting

grease this will damage the well. you hang

off a tool

SPE 27227 11/18/2014 20
SPE 27227
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Wireline BOP

Surface Rigup Considerations

1. Overall Safety

a)

Height & Weight

b)

Pressure Control

i. Top & Bottom

ii. Fit for purpose

c)

Equipment Ratings

d)

Condition

e)

Pressure Test (?!?)

2. Lubricator

a)

Length tools + 3 ft(?)

b)

Material? (H2S)

c)

Seals

What Do Well

Records &

Well Profile

Tell You?

Is it Correct?

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24
24

Lubricator Layout and Loading

Loading perf gun in lubricator

Lubricator Length

“Consider the tool string length when

sizing the lubricator length. The available

length to swallow a tool string is from the top of the swab valve to the bottom of the

flowtubes. This length should be the

TOTAL tool length, line head to bottom

nose, plus 3 extra feet.”

Wireline Fishing/Jarring Best Practices

Maximum fishing time of 45 minutes to 1 hour

before re-heading wire move the fatigue point

(fatigue caused by continual working over the

sheaves during jarring) usually cut off 100 to

150ft depends on wire length that is working

over the sheaves when jarring.

Don’t be conservative about re-heading the wire this prevents breaks and expensive fishing.

Work to 50% of max load of wire.

Use of 0.125 and braided wire considered?

Some Wire Types

Bright Steel most widely used, not for H 2 S or CO 2

AISI 304 H 2 S service

AISI 316 - H 2 S service

Note: make sure you know what wire is going in the well.

Do a twist test and inspect the break on a

routine basis.

Wire Limits (Bright Steel)

(estimates only)

Wire Size

Minimum Tensile Strength

Max Work Level (normal work level is lower)

0.072”

972 lb.

500 to 600 lb. ?

0.082”

1239 lb.

850 lb. ?

0.092”

1547 lb.

1000 lb. ?

0.108”

2436

1400 lb. ?

0.125”

3200

1800 lb. ?

Minimum tensile is 75% of rated break strength.

Data for “bright plow steel wire”

Wire Limits - AISI 304

(estimates only)

Wire Size

Minimum Tensile Strength

MaximumWork Level

0.082”

1280 lb.

850 lb. ?

0.092”

1582 lb.

1000 lb. ?

0.105”

2070 lb.

1400 lb. ?

Minimum tensile is 75% of rated break strength.

Wireline Weight modeled and actual

Wireline breaks involve fatigue, physical damage to the wire, corrosion and other factors.

Wireline Operations

Advantages - speed, cost, footprint, “feel”

Disadvantages

low wire strength

lack of rotation

lack of circulation

Problems

lack of experienced operator

poorly maintained units

impatience

poor well records

Pulling Weight Into the Well The

Problems

Long lubricators required

Rig up height increased

Added friction in deviated wells from longer

weight stem

Less wireline load capacity

Often with large braided line, the well must be

dead due to the pressure effect on the

wireline.

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Common Problems with Wireline

Wire breaks

Fatigue (work hardening failure)

corrosion (H 2 S, CO 2 , acids)

load failure

Damage to well equipment and coatings from wire abrasion

Slick Line Torsion Tester - Twist testing has eliminated wire breakage

in many areas.

Wire Fatigue Number of turns to

break wire Alaska

Wire Size

New

Min turns to break

0.072

29

0.082

26

0.092

23

0.108

20

0.125

22

18

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Slickline Stretch and Specs - GoM

Wire diameter

Stretch due to

Sheave Diam.

Diam.

Min. Twist

inches

load (in/PT/100 lbs)

inches

Tolerance

Number in 8” length

0.092

0.00682

13

+/- 0.001”

21

min

0.108

0.00495

16

+/- 0.001”

18

min

0.125

0.00369

19

+/- 0.001”

15

min

Approximate stretch in inches due to load = ((stretch factor x

wireline length in hole (ft) x payload in pounds)/100) Example: For a 400 lb BHA at 10,000 ft in a vertical hole using 0.108” wire, the approximate stretch is about 198 inches or 16-1/2 ft.

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Approximate Specifications and Load Limits for

Slickline and Non Conductor Braided Line

Line Size inches diameter

Min. Break Strength

Max. Break Strength

Operating at 65% of min.

0.092

1828 lbs

2020 lbs

1188 lbs

0.108

2455

lbs

2712

lbs

1596

lbs

0.125

3203

lbs

3534

lbs

2082

lbs

3/16 braided

 

6400

lbs

3200

lbs

1/4 braided

 

11400

lbs

5700

lbs

5/16 braided

 

16200

lbs

8100

lbs

Look at the type of break

Smooth no problem

Jagged embrittlement possible, even if the

turn count is within minimum tolerance, put new wire on the unit cheaper than fishing a

well full of wire.

Corrosion by H 2 S and CO 2

Fatigue mixed with embrittlement

Note avoid running wireline in an H2S well if at all

possible.

Wireline Fatigue

Limit the wireline crews to 50 - 60 jar cycles

prior to POOH and cut of +/- 50m wire

Wireline Fatigue • Limit the wireline crews to 50 - 60 jar cycles prior to POOH

Some Very Basic Learnings

About “90%” (maybe 99%) of success is in the operator

selection.

Wire line breaks can be almost totally eliminated by torsion testing of wire, limiting jarring times, only using a great operator and not pushing the limits with wire,

cycles or time.

When wire breaks, always expect a little wire above the rope socket.

Whenever possible, run a fishing tool that has a

release.

H 2 S wells can be wireline nightmares

Whenever possible, run a fishing tool that has a release. • H 2 S wells can

Wireline Equipment Checks

1. Measure and record data for all equipment

that goes in the hole.

diameters of every component

tool body lengths

thread patterns of each component

Tapers, shoulders, unusual equipment

compressed and extended jar lengths

Examine the catch shoulders of necks and grabs.

Wireline Equipment Checks

2. Wire history & checks

size, material

use history

corrosion treatment

torsion testing (turns before breaking)

jarring time in one spot (working continuously over the shieve or pulley thins and fatigues wire)

Wireline Equipment Checks

3. Equipment

working condition

support for loads

lubricator pressure limit

seal equipment capability and backup

seal equipment sizing

Set screws (type, material, tightening, range of

shear)

Examine Everything Coming Out of the Well

SPE 141023
SPE 141023

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Wireline Basic Equipment

Rope Socket

Jars

Tools

Wireline torsion testers

Rope Socket

Many types of rope sockets

With selection often by operator preference.

Small wires are the most

common and the standard

wrap method is by far the most common.

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There are many different types of rope rockets. The number of turns in the wire influences breaking strength.

If wire breaks prematurely during rope sock makeup , do a torsion test.

Junk in the bottom of a

well

Jars

Mechanical or spang jars old design, but

very effective

Mostly for near vertical wells, but have been used in deviated sections (loses impact effectiveness as

deviation increases) Roller stem is possible but

not always practical.

Hydraulic jars

Much slower acting

Less (?) affected by deviation still requires a tight wire above the jar.

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Fishing neck must be in good shape with sharp

shoulders. Also, look for

any damage to threads.

Hydraulic Jars

Hydraulic Jars initial problems.

- Problematic operation in gas & hot wells.

- Minimal impact forces due to short stroke length.

Spring Jars were developed with longer stroke leading to greater impact forces.

- Fixed spring value - jar had to be disassembled to change.

- Typically only 3 different values of spring available.

Adjustable Upstroke Jar (PAJ) (Petroline- Weatherford)

- Longer stroke leading to greater impact forces.

- Jar setting can be changed across a wide range and without disassembly.

- Disc spring stack design a highly efficient stored energy medium.

Stem

Knuckles

Various Tools

Tools

Wireline Weight Stem

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Gauge ring cutters

Gauge ring cutters Problems in highly deviated wells - sticking 11/18/2014 66

Problems in highly

deviated wells - sticking

Dimension should closely follow id of tube - this allows check for partial collapse and

prevents material from getting on top of tool

string.

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Camco

67

CT Fishing Survey Tools

Tools and devices which help determine fish type and orientation

Lead impression blocks:

Provide information on profile and orientation of the fish

Experience required to interpret recovered impression

Downhole cameras transmit images/video to surface:

Clean wellbore fluid required

Temperature/time limitations

High cost of service? - often very valuable.

Set down once and retrieve. Multiple set

downs only confuse the imprint. Also known as a “confusion block” - generally for good reason.

11/18/2014 70

Lead Impression Block Interpretation

Lead Impression Block Interpretation Offset and incomplete impression Fish lying on side of wellbore 11/18/2014 71

Offset and incomplete

impression

Fish lying on side

of wellbore

Pop Quiz

Pop Quiz 11/18/2014 72

Some lead impression blocks may be made in various shapes

for assistance in describing shapes or locations of fish.

Flat and tapered impression blocks

Impression Block Best Practices

Run a near drift block

Set down one time and POOH

Keep a file of paper cut-outs of pipe body diameters, connection diameters, tool connections, etc., that might look up. Helps to match the cut-out to the shape of the impression.

Anytime an unusual fish is recovered, get a photo and a tracing of the ends tools often break in the same area of the body.

Other Specialty Tools

Slickline tools mostly for plug setting and

other manipulation needs, plus running

memory gauges.

Braded line is generally for running or retrieving heavy equipment.

E-Line is most often used for data gathering

operations.

E-Line Tools

E-Line Tools 11/18/2014 76
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E-Line Tools 11/18/2014 76

76

Safety Switch for Explosive Devices.

Safety Switch for Explosive Devices. 11/18/2014 77

Stuck Pipe Free Point Indicator

Stuck Pipe – Free Point Indicator 11/18/2014 78
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79

Multi-Arm Caliper

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Damage Visualization

Damage Visualization 11/18/2014 81

Cameras down-looking and side looking. Mainly for problem identification and research.

Downhole video often much

better than impression blocks for real information if

the fluid is clean & clear.

Uh? How?

Cover the well when

working above the wellbore!

Uh? How? Cover the well when working above the wellbore! 11/18/2014 83

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83

Vertical Fractures in open hole wells Early research into fracture height and orientation

Fracture Growth Naturally Limited Natural formation barriers.

Tectonic stresses in the rock

Leakoff into the reservoir. Natural fractures that form complex or network fractures.

Typical frac height about 200 to 300 ft.

fractures. • Typical frac height about 200 to 300 ft. Two inch by 1.5” view from

Two inch by 1.5” view from a downhole TV camera run in clear water. Amoco - Circa 1971.

Real Fractures to scale

Average Frac Width <1/16” to 1/8”.

Real Fractures – to scale Average Frac Width <1/16” to 1/8”. 11/18/2014 85

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Slickline Tools

Basic BHA (bottom hole assembly)

Rope Socket

Weight bars (weight stem)

Jars

Tools

Running

Retrieving

Wire grabs

Fluid tag blind box

Cutters, scrapers, rasps, swedges, etc.

One type of running tool

JD Pulling Tools note sharp

JD Pulling Tools – note sharp shoulders and clean tool bodies 11/18/2014 89

shoulders and clean tool bodies

JD Pulling tool commonly run

just below the jar in the BHA.

JD type tools are used for external fishing necks.

The tops of fishing

necks are usually tapered to assist the fishing tool in locating

and attaching.

Note sharp shoulders Note the extended body of the neck this

allows some extension

above the top of debris that may settle on top of the plug.

of the neck – this allows some extension above the top of debris that may settle
of the neck – this allows some extension above the top of debris that may settle
of the neck – this allows some extension above the top of debris that may settle

Outside fishing neck with flow through capacity.

Outside fishing neck with flow through capacity. 11/18/2014 92

One problem with inside fishing necks is that debris may prevent the prong from entering and latching.

Inside fishing neck for a GS running tool 11/18/2014 94

Inside fishing neck for a GS running tool

Fish Type and Dimensions

Many fishing tools only catch on limited size range (OD or ID) When dimensions of fish are known:

Prepare accurate fishing diagram

Prepare wellbore or completion diagram

Factors influencing selection of tools/techniques:

Fish stuck/free

Fill or junk on top of fish

Fish material properties

e.g. small ferrous objects retrieved by magnetic devices

Fishing Diagram - Fishing Neck Detail

3.750 in. 2.313 in. 2.000 in. 1.813 in.
3.750
in.
2.313
in.
2.000
in.
1.813
in.

Depth to top of fish 3455.50 ft

2.000 in. 1.500 in.

3.500 in. 4.250 in.

Fish OD and length information are presented in a general fishing diagram

Wellbore tubular

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97

The top of a gas

lift valve, bent over in the wellbore.

DHV Inc.

Wellbore and Completion Geometry

Minimum tubular or restriction size

Determines maximum OD of CT/toolstring which can be used

When assessing drift clearances

Consider removal of fill

Pressure differential may exist across the fish

Can force toolstring up or down wellbore

When determining overpull available at fish

Consider wellbore geometry

Bailer Bottom

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11/18/2014

Flapper in the bottom of the bailer tube.

Bailer Bottom 11/18/2014 Flapper in the bottom of the bailer tube. 101

101

Tools for running and retrieving gas lift valves note: maximum length of tools and valve or dummy must fit into the tool body. Latching

too long a valve can stick assembly.

the tool body. Latching too long a valve can stick assembly. Detent finger on tool body
the tool body. Latching too long a valve can stick assembly. Detent finger on tool body

Detent finger on tool body indexes tool and orients for running and retrieval.

End of Tubing Locator. Arm

is spring loaded and tucked

into the tubing with end pointing upward. At end of tubing, the arm is deployed

by the spring. It cannot

swing into the slot in the body until it shears the pin.

It is normal to pin with a

small pin, perhaps even steel

but watch the profiles and unusual diameter changes.

High Angle Wells

Rollers

Used for getting wireline assemblies into deviated

wells. Most needed for heavy tool strings

Can increase application of wireline into wells to

over 80 degrees.

Friction Reduction

Chemical additives reduce friction by 30%

Roller stem used in higher deviation wells.

Watch problems with deposits such as

scale, paraffins, and asphaltenes.

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Wireline Checklist a few pointers

1.

Check pipe connection and pressure rating of lubricator and BOP

2.

Lubricator long enough for all the BHA with jars fully extended, plus maximum length of fish, plus a few extra feet?

3.

Check mandrel profiles and other tools to be run for correct OD, profile type and function.

4.

Check pressure equalization features on all pulling and retrieving tools

5.

Check that running, pulling and fishing tools have the correct latch mechanism for the tool being run or retrieved.

6.

Check wireline unit for proper function (engine, clutch and line)

7.

Can you check the wire history? Especially important if the truck has been working in H2S areas.

8.

Check wire with twist test for fatigue.

9.

HPHT, especially sour wells, are wireline nightmares find another way to do the job?

10.

Have emergency plan for handling breaks and leaks.

11.

Have the name of a wireline expert in your pocket.

Tractor Profile Cleaning

Tractor – Profile Cleaning 11/18/2014 109

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Profiles or Nipples - problems

Profiles or Nipples - problems • Latch areas may be filled with cement, scale, corrosion products

Latch areas may be filled with cement, scale, corrosion products or other debris.

Scrapes in the polish bore and a seal cannot

be made.

Wireline cuts may be common in deviated

areas of the well, especially in kickouts.

Example Tool String

SPE 141023
SPE 141023

Record

Each component

Each thread type & diam.

Fishing neck info of each neck.

Notable wear or other damage

Length & diam. of each component Total length & max diam.

Debris in old wells……

112
112

SPE 141023

11/18/2014

Corrosion in areas of the well prevent

seal of most types of plugs

Corrosion in areas of the well prevent seal of most types of plugs 11/18/2014 113

Nippleless Plug Assembly

Nippleless Plug Assembly 11/18/2014 114

11/18/2014

114

Bottom Anchor tool Before & After

Setting

Bottom Anchor tool – Before & After Setting 11/18/2014 115

Frac Sleeve & Removal of a Stuck Frac

Frac Sleeve & Removal of a Stuck Frac Sleeve 11/18/2014 116

Sleeve

Frac Sleeve & Removal of a Stuck Frac Sleeve 11/18/2014 116
SPE 141023 11/18/2014 117

SPE 141023

Plugs and Profiles

Types

Running

Pulling

Problems

Profiles • Types • Running • Pulling • Problems Plugs are set for many reasons –

Plugs are set for many reasons but mostly for isolation of pressures.

Not all plugs are a permanent seal. Sand plugs, cement plugs and inflatables have special requirements.

Profiles (Nipples)

Landing Profiles provide a hones bore and locking

recesses locking mandrels (plugs) to locate and lock in

place. The specific mandrels can control flow or have other functions.

Selective Profiles allow several profiles of the same size

to be run in a well. The mandrels can be run through the

profile or set in the profile, depending on the design.

No-Go Profiles a profile with a restricted area at the bottom that stops larger tools from passing through the profile.

Pinned couplings a coupling with a pin across the diameter to prevent tool passage.

Type S

Profiles

pre-selected landing location for subsurface flow

equipment.

Only locates (sets) in profiles with matching key position.

Designed to withstand pressure from above or below.

Floating keys to hold against fluctuating pressure.

Type N No-Go

Single nipple installation at bottom of tbg (selective nipples above).

Full opening packing bore, locking recess at top, slightly restricted No-Go at bottom

Mandrels

Type B, C, D and W mandrels

Pressure rating of 1,500 psi

Packoff without a landing profile.

Hold pressure from the bottom only, usually set at 1000 ft for tree repairs.

Slip pack-off element is mechanically expanded with a

running tool and packs off against the tubing ID.

B mandrel uses choke cups

C mandrel is set by upward jarring shears a pin, allowing

mandrel to move upward and expand the packing

W mandrel compresses a sealing element against tubing ID.

D is a collar stop run with a running tool, designed to lock in API tubing collars in first upward

Other Wireline set tools

Downhole Regulators - Designed to reduce

surface flow-line pressure to keep surface

controls from freezing (hydrate formation).

Pack-offs and anchors a device that can be set

anywhere in the tubing to straddle and pack-off

holes. A type D collar stop is used at the bottom

of the tool.

A typical plug showing seals, equalization ports and locking keys

Collar Stop

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X and XN Profiles

Tbg

Size

in.

mm.

2-3/8

50.3

2-7/8

73.0

3-1/2

88.9

4-1/2

114.3

 

Tbg Weight

lb/ft

kg/m

4.6

5.85

4.7

5.99

5.4 9.52

5.5 9.67

 

9.3

13.84

10.2

15.18

12.7

18.97

   

Tbg Drift

 

Packing

 

Tbg ID

Bore

in.

mm.

in.

mm.

in.

mm

1.995

50.57

1.901

48.29

1.875

47.53

2.441

62.0

2.347

59.61

2.313

58.75

2.992

76

2.857

72.82

2.813

71.45

2.922

74.22

2.750

69.85

2.750

69.85

3.958

100.5

3.833

97.36

3.813

96.85

XN NoGo

 

ID

in.

mm

1.791

45.49

2.205

56.01

2.666

67.72

2.635

65.93

2.62

66.55

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R and RN Nipples

Size

Wt

ID

Drift

Packing Bore

NoGo

Lock ID

in.

mm.

lb/ft

kg/m

in.

mm.

in.

mm.

in.

mm.

in.

mm.

in.

mm.

1.9"

48.26

3.64

5.42

1.5

38.10

1.405

35.69

1.375

34.93

1.250

31.75

0.620

15.75

2-3/8"

50.93

5.3

7.89

1.939

49.25

1.645

41.78

1.781

45.24

1.640

41.66

0.880

22.35

2-3/8"

50.93

5.95

8.85

1.957

49.71

1.773

45.03

1.710

43.43

1.560

39.62

0.750

19.05

2-3/8"

50.93

6.2

9.23

1.853

47.07

1.759

44.68

1.710

43.43

1.560

39.62

0.750

19.05

2-3/8"

50.93

7.7

11.46

1.703

43.26

1.609

40.87

1.500

38.10

1.345

34.16

0.620

15.75

2-7/8"

60.33

7.9

11.76

2.323

59.00

2.229

56.62

2.168

55.07

2.010

51.05

1.120

28.45

2-7/8"

60.33

8.7

12.95

2.259

57.38

2.165

54.99

2.125

53.98

1.937

49.20

0.880

22.35

2-7/8"

60.33

8.9

13.24

2.243

56.97

2.149

54.58

2.125

53.98

1.937

49.20

0.880

22.35

2-7/8"

60.33

9.5

14.14

2.195

55.75

2.101

53.37

2.000

50.80

1.881

47.78

0.880

22.35

2-7/8"

60.33

10.4

15.48

2.151

54.64

2.057

52.25

2.000

50.80

1.881

47.78

0.880

22.35

2-7/8"

60.33

11

16.37

2.065

52.45

1.971

50.06

1.875

47.63

1.715

43.56

0.880

22.35

2-7/8"

60.33

11.65

17.34

1.995

50.67

1.901

48.29

1.875

47.63

1.715

43.56

0.880

22.35

3-1/2"

88.9

12.95

19.27

2.75

69.85

2.355

59.82

2.562

65.07

2.329

59.16

1.380

35.05

3-1/2"

88.9

15.8

23.51

2.548

64.72

2.423

61.54

2.313

58.75

2.131

54.13

1.120

28.45

3-1/2"

88.9

16.7

24.85

2.45

62.23

2.355

59.82

2.313

58.75

2.131

54.13

1.120

28.45

3-1/2"

88.9

17.05

25.37

2.44

61.98

2.315

58.80

2.188

55.58

2.010

51.05

1.120

28.45

4-1/2"

114.3

12.8

18.97

3.958

100.5

3.833

97.36

3.813

96.85

3.725

94.62

2.120

53.85

4-1/2"

114.3

13.5

20.09

3.92

99.57

3.795

96.39

3.688

93.68

3.456

87.78

2.380

60.45

4-1/2"

114.3

15.5

23.07

3.825

97.16

3.701

94.01

3.688

93.68

3.456

87.78

2.380

60.45

4-1/2"

114.3

16.9

25.5

3.754

95.35

3.629

92.18

3.437

87.30

3.260

82.80

1.940

49.28

4-1/2"

114.3

19.2

28.57

3.64

92.46

3.515

89.28

3.437

87.30

3.260

82.80

1.940

49.28

Non-Selective Nipples

11/18/2014

Non-Selective Nipples 11/18/2014 Lock recess Seal bore No-go A single non selective nipple is usually all

Lock recess

Seal bore

No-go

Non-Selective Nipples 11/18/2014 Lock recess Seal bore No-go A single non selective nipple is usually all

A single non selective nipple is usually all that is run in a well and it is usually at the bottom.

127

Selective Nipples

Lock recess

Seal area

Landing recess

Selective Nipples Lock recess Seal area Landing recess Essentially full opening (about 0.1” less ID than

Essentially full opening (about 0.1” less ID than pipe)

Allows running multiple profiles, each with same ID. Set is determined by running tool.

S Profile with plug installed. Showing locking section.

S profile, seal assembly in the polish bore section

S Profile locking section

XN (left) and X profile (right). X profiles allow several to be run in series in the string (same size plug passes through each). Only one XN can be run (on the bottom).

run in series in the string (same size plug passes through each). Only one XN can
run in series in the string (same size plug passes through each). Only one XN can

XN (left) and XN w/ X-pin insert (right)

11/18/2014

135
135

A ported profile and plug.

Other Profiles

Flow Couplings

heavy wall tube, 1 to 6 ft long (0.3 to 2m), made

of high allow steel.

same ID as tubing but similar OD to coupling

protection from internal erosion and corrosion

Used where excessive turbulence is expected

above and below some profiles

above crossovers

above bottom hole chokes

Other Profiles

Blast Joints

Similar to flow couplings but designed to resist

exterior erosion and abrasion

3 to 20+ ft long (1 to 6+m)

Used opposite perforations

Used opposite annular proppant entry point

Used in straddled intervals in dual completions

Other Equipment

Downhole Chokes

a set diameter restriction in the tubing that takes

some pressure drop downhole.

Used for up-hole hydrate prevention by taking some

expansion of gas (cooling) in the downhole area where

insitu temperatures are higher.

Used for production or injection limiting.

Stabilize bottom hole pressures

Downhole Choke

Sliding Sleeves

Sliding Sleeves open closed 11/18/2014 142

open

Sliding Sleeves open closed 11/18/2014 142

closed

Other Equipment

Downhole Regulators

a variable diameter restriction in the tubing that

takes some pressure drop downhole according to the rate of flow.

Used for up-hole hydrate prevention by taking some

expansion of gas (cooling) in the downhole area where insitu temperatures are higher.

Used for production or injection limiting.

Stabilize bottom hole pressures at variable rates

11/18/2014 144
Indexing Groove Latch recess “Pocket” Port to annulus Access to tubular Flow Path Side pocket

Indexing Groove

Indexing Groove Latch recess “Pocket” Port to annulus Access to tubular Flow Path Side pocket Mandrel

Latch recess

“Pocket”
“Pocket”

Port to annulus

Indexing Groove Latch recess “Pocket” Port to annulus Access to tubular Flow Path Side pocket Mandrel

Access to tubular Flow Path

Side pocket Mandrel

for gas lift or chemical injection

Seal Swelling Problems

Gas permeation

Solvent swelling of seals

Swollen seals on a plug retrieved from 10,000 ft

Left one minute after pulling from the well, Right after sixty minutes

Seal swell happens mostly on the trip up the hole as pressure is released and gas tries to leak out of the seal. It is not usually a cause of sticking.

11/18/2014

147

Avoiding Profile Debris Problems

Cementing - protect the nipple profile with a

sleeve similar to an insert sleeve used in a

downhole safety valve

When Sand Fill is Present

“There was some sand present in the well,

which gave us difficulties to run in hole at 63

deg dev. The problem was overcome by flowing the well slightly while running in, thus

creating turbulences around the tool to flush

away "sand dunes" building up in front of the

tool.” – Charlie Michel, BP

up in front of the tool .” – Charlie Michel, BP North Sea operations comments –

North Sea operations comments However, watch the potential for sticking with the sand washed above the tool.

The extension on the bottom of the plug (left side of picture) allows debris to fall through and away from the internal fishing neck.

Equalizing Prong with marks to differential contact on steel or sand.

Specialty plugs are available that will set in almost any type of tubular, regardless of the presence or absence of a profile, but a seal always depends on the integrity of the

tubing in which the plug is set.

11/18/2014

152

Schlumberger

Slickplug - The Retrievable Bridge Plug

Available from 2 3/8” to 7” nominal sizes

Pressure ratings in excess of 5,000 psi working

Temperature ratings up to 350°F

Barrier for Tree change - outs

Contingency tubing plugging

Zonal isolation tool

Location of flow control devices

11/18/2014

Weatherford

Upper Slips

Pack-off

Element

Lower Slips

Bow Spring

Equalising

Assembly

Pumpopen

Plug

153

Retrievable Bridge Plugs

WRP Wireline Set Retrievable Bridge Plug

Used for isolating zones during fracturing, acidizing

or cementing operations or during wellhead

removal

Features:

Run and retrieved under pressure

Straight pull to release

Can be retrieved on coiled tubing

Pressure differential is equalized with washover

retrieving tool

Electric wireline setting with industry standard setting tools

Weatherford

Composite Plug Data Drillable

     

Csg wt

         

Plug

range

Max Csg

Min Csg

Max Rec

Max Pressure

Plug Mkr

Type

Plug Size

lb/ft

ID

ID

Length

Temp

from above

4.09"

3.92"

28.62"

50-250F

5,000 psi

Halliburton

Std

4-1/2"

9.5-13.5

103.9

mm

99.6

mm

726.9mm

10-121C

34,474 kpa

4.95"

4.67"

29.09"

50-250F

5,000 psi

Halliburton

Std

5-1/2"

15.5

- 23.0

123.7

mm

118.6

mm

713.9

mm

10-121C

34,474 kpa

 

4.09"

3.92"

27.92"

50-350F

10,000 psi

Halliburton

HTHP

4-1/2"

9.5-13.5

103.9

mm

99.6

mm

709.2mm

10-177C

68,947 kpa

4.95"

4.67"

29.87"

50-350F

10,000 psi

Halliburton

HTHP

5-1/2"

15.5

- 23.0

123.7

mm

118.6

mm

758.7

mm

10-177C

68,947 kpa

Note the temperature limits. These have proved optimistic in a few HT wells. Milling time to

remove these plugs with CT milling tools will be about 1 hour or less with the right mills, equipment and operator.

Example of the force generated by pulling a plug without equalizing pressures below and above the plug

5-1/2” Csg

4.95” ID

500 psi

Effective area of plug = p id 2 /4 = 19.24 in 2

Do a net force balance:

upward: 2500 psi x 19.24 = 48,100 lb

downward: 500 psi x 19.24 = 9,620 lb
downward: 500 psi x 19.24 = 9,620 lb
downward: 500 psi x 19.24 = 9,620 lb

downward: 500 psi x 19.24 = 9,620 lb

 

Net force (upward) = 38,480 lb

Now, what happens if plug anchors are released before pressure is equalized? With wireline as pulling tool?

= 38,480 lb Now, what happens if plug anchors are released before pressure is equalized? With
= 38,480 lb Now, what happens if plug anchors are released before pressure is equalized? With
= 38,480 lb Now, what happens if plug anchors are released before pressure is equalized? With
= 38,480 lb Now, what happens if plug anchors are released before pressure is equalized? With

2500 psi

Swab/Surge Forces

“Plunger force” - tremendous force exerted

event in small movements because of large

area affected.

Close clearances and high tool movement

speeds increase the swab/surge force

Circulation while pulling lessens swab/surge loads

Laying Sand Plugs

Shut-in well for several hours to prevent

crossflow disruption of plug.

Don’t bury the BHA with dumped sand

Tag frequently to avoid over-fill

Use a gell spacer in front of sand to prevent sand roping or falling down the hole. Rapid sand fall out can cause bridge off inside the

CT.

Sand fall rates in various fluids

 

10/20 mesh sand

20/40 mesh sand

Fluid

ft/min

m/min

ft/min

m/min

WF220

7.5

2.3

2.2

0.67

WF240

2.05

0.62

0.49

0.15

WF260

0.49

0.15

0.11

0.03

Diesel

21.9

6.7

10.2

3.1

Water

21.9

6.7

12.6

3.8

 

10/20 mesh Bauxite

20/40 mesh Bauxite

Fluid

ft/min

m/min

ft/min

m/min

WF220

14.4

4.4

4.1

1.2

WF240

4.1

1.2

1

0.3

WF260

1

0.3

0.24

0.07

Diesel

33.7

10.3

16.9

5.2

Water

33.7

10.3

20

6.1

11/18/2014

159

Source D/S Field Book

Setting a cement plug

Position

Setting in mud

Effect of fluid loss and cross flow

Setting Cement Plugs

A near 100% reliable system if cross flow can

be stopped.

Most cement plugs fail because of cross flow, density and viscosity mismatch, or failure to

“break” the fluid momentum.

Full plug method described and field tested in SPE 11415 (published in SPE JPT Nov 1984, pp

1897-1904) and SPE 7589.

Cement Plug Failure

Many cement plugs fail for the same 4 reasons:

1. Cross flow cuts channels into the plug.

2. Cement is higher density that the mud.

3. The mud is much lower viscosity than the cement slurry.

4. The open ended tubing produces a high momentum energy condition that the mud cannot stop.

Ideal

Reality

The result of the last three is that the cement is

spread out along the hole and a plug is never

formed.