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PC1431 11/12 Past Year Paper Hints

1. Refer to Tutorial 3 question 1

2. (a) Refer to Tutorial 2 question 3


(b) If T decreases, what happens to the motion in the vertical direction?
Approach:
When T decreases, the limiting static friction increases
But as long as the applied force does not increase, the value of static friction itself will stay the same
Static friction is always equivalent to applied force as long as applied force is lower than limiting static
friction
Answer:
Therefore, nothing will happen.

3. Given:

m = 0.25kg

r = 0.75m

(a) Question: Find M


Approach:
Centripetal force on m = gravitational force due to M
Answer:
M = 21.2kg
(b) Given: r0 = 0.65m
Question: Find change in M
Approach:
Conservation of angular momentum: Obtain v 0 : v 0 = 28.85ms1
Centripetal force on m = gravitational force due to M + M
Answer:
M = 11.4kg

v = 25ms1

4. Given:

(a) Question: Immediately after its release, =?


Approach:
Rotational dynamics: = IP
IP can be found by using parallel axis theorem
Answer:
=

2g
3R

(b) Question: vcm =?


Approach:
Conservation of energy
Note: If you take the axis about point P , you need only consider rotational motion
mgR =

1
IP 2
2

vcm = R
Answer:
r
v=

4gR
3

5. Given: Adiabatic expansion


V1 = V0

p1 = p0

p2 =

p0
8

(a) Question: V2 =?
Approach:
Adiabatic equation: P1 V1 = P2 V2
Answer:
1

V2 = 8 V0
(b) Question: How much work is done?
Approach:
First law of thermodynamics: U = Q W
Adiabatic: Q 0
Change in internal energy: U = nCV T = W
Finding T
Adiabatic equations to express T2 in terms of T1 : T1 V11 = T2 V21
1

T = (8 1 1)

1
P0 V0
nR

Other equations that might be helpful in simplifying the expression: R = CP CV , and


Answer:
W =

h
i
1
1
p0 V0 1 8( 1)
1
2

CP
=
CV

6. Given:
TW = 0 C

m = 1kg

TR = 100 C

Given in the formula list: C = 4190 J kg1 K1


Question: SW + SR =?
Approach:
Equation for entropy: S =

R dQ
T

For heat reservoir:


Q
Temperature is constant integration not necessary: S =
T
Find Q: Q = mC(TR TW )
For water:
Temperature is changing: Integration is necessary
Express dQ in terms of dT : dQ = mCdT
Integrate with appropriate limits
Add up both entropy
Answer:
S = +184 J K1

7. Refer to question paper for details on question


(a) Question: Find v at maximum compression
Approach:
Inelastic collision: Conservation of momentum
Answer:
v=

m1 v1 + m2 v2
m1 + m2

(b) Question: Find maximum compression xmax


Approach:
Conservation of energy1
Substitute in the v obtained from part (a).
Answer:
xmax = (v1 v2 )

m1 m2
k(m1 + m2 )

(c) Question: Find velocity of each glider after m1 loses contact with the spring
Approach:
After m1 loses contact with spring, let:
Velocity of m1 be vf1
Velocity of m2 be vf2
Therefore 2 unknowns need 2 equations
Understand (and maybe explain) that:
When m1 loses contact with the spring, this collision is elastic
The spring gives back all its potential energy to the two gliders as kinetic energy
Therefore the total kinetic energy of the two gliders before they hit the spring and after they
separate from the spring are the same
Total kinetic energy is conserved
1 Inelastic collision merely states that kinetic energy is not conserved.
Some of the kinetic energy will be lost to the interactions between the two colliding masses
However, the energy given to the interaction is taken into account, we can use conservation of energy
In this collision, the two masses and the spring is an isolated system therefore no energy is lost if we take into account potential energy
of spring

Conservation of momentum
Conservation of kinetic energy2
Answer:

v1f =

2m1
m1 + m2


v1 +

m2 m1
m1 + m2


v2

v2 f =

m1 m2
m1 + m2


v1 +

2m2
m1 + m2


v2

(d) Question: Find the condition for exchanging velocities


Approach:
Just equate v1f = v2 and v2f = v1 and do the math
Answer:
Condition: When m1 = m2

8. Refer to question paper for details on the question


(a) Question: If I = cM R2 , find c
Approach:
Add up moment of inertia of all the different parts
Answer:
c=

5
12

(b) Wheel rolls without slipping down an incline of = 30


Question: a =?,
f =?
Approach:
Rolling without slipping: static friction
Draw free body diagram3

2 unknown: 2 equations
Linear equation of motion
M g sin fs = M a
Rotational equation of motion
fs R = I
Rolling without slipping: a = R
Solve for fs and a
Answer:
a = 3.46m s1

fs = 34.62N

(c) Rope is pulled to the right with T = 150N. It rolls without slipping
Question: a =?
Approach:
2 Or

approach speed = separation speed


3 If youre not sure of the direction of static friction, you can assume a direction if your direction is wrong, your answer will be negative.
In this question however, it should be pretty obvious that it points up the slope

Similar to the above

Still 2 unknown (fs and a): 2 equations


Linear equation of motion
T fs = M a
Rotation equation of motion
fs R T (0.2R) = I
Rolling without slipping: a = R
Solve for a
Answer:
a = 3.53m s1
(d) Given:

Question: Will the wheel move along the plane?


Approach:
Problem I: Should we consider fs or fk ?
As our job is to determine if the wheel will move, we will be looking at fs .
We only look at fk if the wheel is already moving
Problem II: Direction4 of fs
As before, can be assumed if you assumed the wrong direction, youd get a negative sign
Problem III: 3 unknowns: T , fs and a
T and fs change according to the situation
fs will only be equal to the limiting static friction if the wheel moves
Therefore, we shall let a = 0, and check what fs is.
The fs calculated here will the friction necessary to keep the wheel from moving
If fs < s N (limiting static friction), we know that it will not move
If the needed fs > s N , then it will move
When a = 0, 2 unknowns (T , fs ): 2 equations
Linear equation of motion
M g sin T + fs = 0
Rotational equation of motion
T (0.2R) fs R = 0
4 We chose this direction because only T and f provide torque. Therefore, if we assume a = 0, as explained in the point below, f must
s
s
oppose T

Solve to find fs
You will find fs < s N
Answer:
No it will not move down because calculated static friction is lower than the limiting static friction.

9. Given: Heat engine cycle

(a) Question: W in one cycle


Answer:
W = (p2 p1 )(V2 V1 )
(b) Question: QH flowing in for one cycle
Approach:
Know that heat enters the gas at a b and b c (Alternatively, know that QH is positive Q)
Q = nCV T for isochoric and Q = nCP T for isobaric
Use ideal gas law to express n and T in terms of P , V and R
Answer:
QH =

CP
CV
(p2 p1 )V1 +
(V2 V1 )p2
R
R

(c) Question: QC flowing out for one cycle


Approach:
Same as above
Answer:
|QC | =

CP
CV
(V2 V1 )p1 +
(p2 p1 )V2
R
R

(d) Question: QH + QC W in one cycle


Answer:
0 as QH + QC W = U , and this is a cyclic process, therefore U = 0
(e) Given: p2 = p1 and V2 = V1 ,
Question e =?
Approach:
For engine, equation for e =

where > 1

W
|QC |
=1
QH
QH

Use equations and values obtained/given above to determine final answer


Know: CP = CV + R
Answer:
e=

( + 1)( 1)
1 +

(f) Given: Cycle is reversed and made into a refrigerator


Question: Find the coefficient of performance K
Approach:
6

Similar to the above


QC
Know: K =
W
Answer:
K=

+
( 1)( 1)