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FORM

CHAPTER

Functions

SPM Topical Analysis

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Paper

Number of questions

ONCEPT MAP

Domain

Domain

RELATIONS

HUBUNGAN

Types of Relations

Jenis Hubungan

One-to-one

Many-to-one

One-to-many

Many-to-many

Codomain

Kodomain

FUNCTIONS

FUNGSI

Objects

Objek

Images

Imej

Range

Julat

Fungsi Nilai Mutlak

f : x|g(x)|

Graf Fungsi Nilai Mutlak

The graph of a linear absolute

value function has a V shape

COMPANION WEBSITE

Learning Objectives

Composite Functions

Fungsi Gubahan

The function of f

followed by g is gf.

Inverse Functions

Fungsi Songsang

Given that y = f(x),

then f 1(y) = x.

Functions and Inverse Functions

Masalah melibatkan Fungsi Gubahan

dan Fungsi Songsang

1.1 Relations

1

1.1a Representation of a Relation

1

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

CHAPTER

elements of set A to the elements of set B.

2 A relation between two sets can be represented by

(a) an arrow diagram,

(b) ordered pairs,

(c) a graph.

F

O

R

M

14

A relation from set A = {12, 14, 23, 25, 43} to set B = {3, 5, 7} is defined by

sum of digits of. Represent the relation by

(a) an arrow diagram,

(b) ordered pairs,

(c) a graph.

Solution

(a) Arrow diagram

A

sum of digits of

B

12

14

23

25

43

{(12, 3), (14, 5), (23, 5), (25, 7), (43, 7)}

(c) Graph

7

Set B 5

3

12 14 23 25 43

Set A

Try: Question 1, Self Assess 1.1.

In a relation between set (A) and another set (B),

the first set (A) is known as domain,

the second set (B) is known as codomain,

the elements in the domain are known as objects,

the elements in the codomain that are linked to the objects are known

as images,

the set of images is known as range.

Functions

Facts

A set is a well-defined collection

of objects.

For example:

Universal set, = {x : 10 x 30,

x is an integer}

Set A = {Factors of 36}

Set B = {Prime numbers}

Set C = {Numbers where the sum

of the digits is 3}

The list of elements of each of the

sets , A, B and C is as follows:

= {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30}

A = {12, 18}

B = {11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29}

C = {12, 21, 30}

3

2

A relation from set P = {16, 36, 49, 64} to set

Q = {4, 6, 7, 8, 11} is defined by factor(s) of.

(a) Represent this relation using an arrow diagram.

(b) State

(i) the domain,

(ii) the codomain,

(iii) the images of 36,

(iv) the images of 64,

(v) the object of 7,

(vi) the objects of 4,

(vii) the range

of this relation.

Solution

(a) The arrow diagram that represents the given

relation is as shown in the next column.

factor(s) of

16

36

49

64

Range

11

Domain

Non-image

Codomain

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F 8, 11}.

(ii) The codomain is {4, 6, 7,

O

(iii) The images of 36 are 4 and 6.

R

(iv) The images of 64 are 4 and

8.

M

(v) The object of 7 is 49.

(vi) The objects of 4 are 16, 436 and 64.

(vii) The range is {4, 6, 7, 8}.

3

State the type of relation shown by each of the

following arrow diagrams.

(a)

(b)

Types of Relations

1 One-to-one relation

Each object in the

domain has only one

image in the

codomain.

2

Many-to-one relation

There are more than

one object in the

domain that have the

same image in the

codomain.

One-to-many relation

There is at least one

object in the domain

that has more than

one image in the

codomain.

Many-to-many relation

There is at least one

object in the domain

that has more than

one image in the

codomain and there is

at least one element in

the codomain that is

linked to more than

one object in the

domain.

reciprocal of

1

3

1

4

1

5

3

Domain

Codomain

Domain

factors of

Q

2

10

21

5

7

Solution

(a) One-to-one relation

(b) One-to-many relation

Codomain

Domain

(a) the ordered pairs:

{(4, 8), (4, 10), (4, 12), (6, 10), (7, 12)}

(b) the graph:

Codomain

Set Y

M

P

Solution

Domain

12 15

Set X

Codomain

because it is easier to interpret arrow diagrams

compared to ordered pairs or graphs.

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

(a)

10

12

(b)

many-to-many relation.

Try: Question 4, Self Assess 1.1.

P

M

SPM

Clone

07

F

O

The following ordered

pairs represent a relation

R

from set A = {3, 5,

M 7} to set B = {9, 15, 21}.

SPM

Clone

06

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

many-to-one relation.

1

1

X

5

7

9

12

15

(b) State the range.

(c) Using function notation, write down a relation

between set A and set B.

Solution

15

21

(a) the relation is a one-to-one relation.

(b) the range is {9, 15, 21}.

(c) the function notation is

f(x) = 3x.

Each image is three times

its objects.

the above relation because it is easier to interpret

an arrow diagram compared to ordered pairs.

Try: Question 5, Self Assess 1.1.

1.1

(iv) the objects of 12,

(v) the range

of the relation.

3 State the type of relation shown by each of the

following arrow diagrams.

(a)

M

N

capital of

(a) an arrow diagram,

(b) ordered pairs,

(c) a graph.

(i) The relation remainder when divided

by 5 from set A = {6, 12, 18, 24} to set

B = {1, 2, 3, 4}.

(ii) The relation factors of from set P to

set Q where P = Q = {2, 3, 4, 8}.

(iii) The relation difference of digits of

from set X = {14, 21, 23, 34, 48} to set

Y = {1, 3, 4}.

2 A relation from set P = {26, 34, 45, 62} to set

Q = {12, 20, 24, 48} is defined by product of

digits of.

(a) Represent the relation by an arrow diagram.

(b) State

(i) the domain,

(ii) the codomain,

(iii) the image of 45,

Functions

Sarawak

Kuching

Perak

Ipoh

Kedah

(b)

P

methane

water

carbon

dioxide

Alor Setar

elements of

Q

carbon

hydrogen

oxygen

(a) the ordered pairs:

{(4, 0), (4, 1), (5, 2), (6, 7), (6, 8)}

4

Set B

11

10

8

3 4 6 7 9

(b) State the range.

(c) Using function notation, write down a

relation between set P and set Q.

Set A

from set P = {2, 6, 10} to set Q = {1, 3, 5}.

1.2 Functions

5

Explain whether each of the following relations is a function.

(a) (b) (c)

has

January

28 days

June

30 days

August

31 days

M three times of N

P consists of Q

Bronze

Brass

1

3

5

7

cuprum

stanum

zinc

1

CHAPTER

Facts

3 The main properties for a relation to be considered a function are:

(a) Each and every object must have one and only one image.

[If there are objects that have two or more images, the relation is not a

function.]

(b) Two or more objects are allowed to have the same image.

[Many-to-one relation is considered a function.]

(c) It is not necessary that all elements in the codomain are images.

[Non-image elements are allowed in a function.]

4 If a function links x to x 2 3x + 5, by using function notation, it is

written as f : x x2 3x + 5 or f(x) = x2 3x + 5. It is read as function f

that maps x onto x2 3x + 5.

mapping.

F

O

Facts

R

M known as

Function is also

CHAPTER

the domain has only one image.

2 The types of relations that are considered as functions are:

(a) one-to-one relation

(b) many-to-one relation

3

9

15

Solution

(a) It is a function because

each and every object has only one image,

many-to-one relation is allowed,

non-image element, i.e. 28 days is allowed.

(b) It is not a function because there are objects that have more than one image.

(c) It is not a function because there is an element in the domain that does not

have an image, i.e. 7.

considered as functions are:

(a) one-to-many relation

x

a

b Facts

y

z

element a has more than

one image.]

(b) many-to-many relation

a

element b has more than

one image.]

(c) relation where there are

elements in the domain

that do not have an image

a

b

c

d

x

y

z

element d does not have

an image.]

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

6

(b)

that f(x) = 4.

x 2 4x 1 = 4

x 2 4x 5 = 0

(x +1)(x 5) = 0

x = 1 or 5

Hence, the objects that have the image 4 are

1 or 5.

Object

F

When x = 2, O

R

f(2)=22 4(2)

1

M

= 4 8 1

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

(a) the image of 2,

(b) the objects that have the image 4.

Solution

(a) f : x x 2 4x 1

f(x) = x 2 4x 1

=5

74 of 2 is 5.

Hence, the image

Try: Questions 23, Self Assess 1.2.

7

The arrow diagram below shows the function

15

f : x .

ax + b

x

f(4) =3

15

Substitute x = 4.

=3

4a + b

12a 3b =15

4a b = 5 ........... 2

1 2 : a=2

a=2

From

1 , 3(2) b=3

b=3

(b)

15

ax + b

3

4

5

(b) State the value of x such that the function f is

undefined.

is zero.

Solution

15

(a) f

: x

ax + b

15

f(x)=

ax + b

f(3) =5

15

=5

Substitute x = 3.

3a + b

15a 5b =15

3a b = 3 ........... 1

15

f(x)=

2x + 3

When the denominator 0,

2x + 3 0

x 3

2

x 11

2

Hence, the value of x such that the

function f is undefined is 11 .

2

Functions

Press

0.8

SHIFT

R

M

2 cos x =1.6

10

1.6

cos x =

2

cos x =0.8

x =36.87

CHAPTER

Solution

3x + k ,

(a) For f : x

2x 4

8

Denominator 0

2x 4 0

x2

It is given that x p

p=2

(b)

the image of 30.

(b) Given the function g(x) = 2 cos x, find the

value of x such that the function g has the

image 1.6, for the domain 0 x 90.

Solution

(a) f(x) = 3 sin x tan x

f (30) = 3 sin 30 tan 30

= 3(0.5) 0.5774

F

= 0.9226

O

Hence, the image of 30 is 0.9226.

CHAPTER

3x

+ k for all

A function f is defined by f : x

2x 4

values of x, except x = p and k is a constant.

(a) State the value of p.

(b) Given that the value 5 is mapped onto itself

under f, find

(i) the value of k,

(ii) another value of x that is mapped onto

itself.

cos

object and the image have the same value.

image 1.6 is 36.87.

thus

f(5) = 5

3(5)

+

k =5

2(5) 4

15

+

k =5

6

15 + k=30

k=15

(ii) For self-mapping,

f(x) =x

3x

+

15

=x

2x 4

3x + 15 = 2x 2 4x

2

2x 7x 15 = 0

(2x + 3)(x 5) = 0

x = 3 or 5

2

of a Function

10

The arrow diagram represents the function

f : x 2x 2 5. State

f

x

(a) the domain,

(b) the range,

2

(c) the image of 0,

1

(d) the objects of

0

(i) 3,

1

2

(ii) 3.

Solution

(a) Domain = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}

(b) Range = {5, 3, 3}

(c) The image of 0 is 5.

(d) (i) The objects of 3 are 2 and 2.

(ii) The objects of 3 are 1 and 1.

onto itself, apart from 5, is 11 .

2

2x2 5

3

3

5

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

1.2

(a) the image of 10,

(b) the object that has the image 1 ,

2

(c) the value of x such that the function f is

undefined.

6 Given that f : x

f(3) = 4, find

(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the values of x such that f(x) = 4 x.

3

7 Given that g : x a + bx, g(1) = 3 and

g(2) = 3, find

(a) the value of a and of b,

(b) the values of n if g(n2 + 1) = 5n 6.

function.

(a)

A

type of number

6

14

multiple of 3

15

multiple of 7

24

(b)

consist of letters

i

v

F

O

Consonants

R

Vowels

M

(c)

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

w

u

M product of digits of N

21

32

53

15

(a) the object that has the image 5,

(b) the object that is mapped onto itself.

a . The

9 A function f is defined by f : x

bx

values 3 and 5 are mapped onto themselves under

f.

(a) Find the value of a and of b.

(b) State the value of x such that the function f is

undefined.

64

(d)

has

PERAK

2 vowels

KEDAH

3 vowels

SELANGOR

4 vowels

18

9

2 Given the function f : x , x , find

2x 9

2

(a) the image of (i) 0, (ii) 12,

(b) the object that has the image (i) 2, (ii) 6 .

3 Given that f : x a , f(3) = 5 and

xb

f(5) = 1, find

(a) the value of a and of b,

(b) the value of x such that the function f is

undefined.

f

x

shows the function

1

f : x px + qx 2.

2

Find

(a) the value of p and

of q,

(b) the values of x that

are mapped onto themselves.

px + qx2

5

16

the image of (i) 45, (ii) 60.

(b) Given the function g: x tan x, find the

value of x such that the image is 1.527, if x is

an acute angle.

12 The arrow diagram

f

x2 + 2

x

represents the function

6

f : x x 2 + 2. State

(a) the domain,

3

(b) the range,

2

2

1

(c) the image of 0,

0

(d) the objects of

1

(i) 3,

2

(ii)6.

ax +

x

4 The arrow diagram

x

shows the function

7

f : x ax + b .

x

2

Find

1

(a) the value of a and of b,

5

(b) the value of x such that

the function f is undefined,

(c) the object that has the image 7, apart from

x = 2.

2x

5 The function g is defined by g : x

.

x+m

If g(5) = 3g(2), find the value of m. Hence, find

Functions

1.3

the modulus of x .

2 The definition of _x_ is

Facts

_x_ is the numerical value of x, i.e.

positive numbers are still positive

but negative numbers will be

changed to positive. For example,

_5_ = 5 and _5_ = 5.

x, if x 0

_x_ =

x, if x 0

3 The absolute value function is defined by

f(x), if f(x) 0

_ f(x)_ =

f(x), if f(x) 0

1

CHAPTER

SPM

Clone

The graph of O

a linear absolute

value functionRhas a V shape.

M

CHAPTER

2

2

Facts

F

07

f(x)=3

_4x 5_=3

4x 5 = 3

(a) the image of

(i)1,

(ii)4,

(b) the objects that have the image 3.

Solution

(a) f : x _4x 5_

f(x) = _4x 5_

(i) f(1) = _4(1) 5_ = _9_ = 9

Hence, the image of 1 is 9.

(ii) f(4) = _4(4) 5_ = _11_ = 11

Hence, the image of 4 is 11.

(b)

4x 5 = 3

4x=8

x=2

The second equation is

4x 5 = 3

4x=2

x=1

2

Hence, the objects that have the image 3 are

2 or 1.

2

be formed, i.e. f(x) = k or f(x) = k.

Try: Questions 12, Self Assess 1.3.

SPM

Clone

08

value functions.

(a) f(x) = _x + 3_ for the domain 4 x 1

(b) f(x) = _4x 7_ for the domain 0 x 4

State the corresponding range of values of f(x).

below.

y

4

3

Solution

(a) Prepare a table as shown below.

Range

2

1

4 3 2 1 0 1

4 3 2 1 O

Domain

f (x) 1 0 1 2 3 4

9

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

3

Hence, the graph touches the x-axis at 1 , 0 .

4

Prepare a table as shown below.

the range from the smallest value of y to the largest

value of y, based on the given domain.

0 1 2 3 4

f (x) 7 3 1 5 9

The corresponding range of values of

f(x) is 0 f(x) 4.

(b)

below.

y

8

F

First of all, determine

the point where the graph

O

touches the x-axis.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

10

6

Range

R

M

Thus, _4x 7_ =0

4

4x 7 = 0

4x =7

x =7

=13

4

4

3

1

4

Domain

f(x) is 0 f(x) 9.

Facts

1.3

3 Sketch the graph of each of the following

absolute value functions.

(a) f(x) = _ x + 2_ for the domain 3 x 3

(b) f(x) = _ 2x 5_ for the domain 0 x 7

(c) f(x) = _ 3 2x_ for the domain 3 x 4

(d) f(x) = _ 3x 5_ for the domain 2 x 4

State the corresponding range of values of f(x).

image of

(a) 3,

(b)0,

(c)2.

2 Given the function f(x) = _ 2 5x_ , find

(a) the image of

(i) 2,

(ii) 2,

(b) the objects that have the image 7.

1.4

Composite Functions

1 If f is a function which maps set A onto set B and g is a function which

maps set B onto set C, then gf is a composite function of f followed

by g which maps set A onto set C.

gf

x

A

Functions

f(x)

B

g[f(x)] = gf(x)

C

10

Facts

fg(x) means f[g(x)].

In general, fg gf.

f 2 = ff, f 3 = fff or ff 2 and so on.

11

11

The functions f and g are defined by f : x 2x + 1

and g : x x 2 2 respectively. Find

(a) the value of fg(3) and of gf(2),

(b) the composite functions

(i) fg (iii)

f2

(ii) gf (iv)

g 2,

(c) the values of x if gf(x) = 23.

Solution

(a) fg(3) = f[g(3)] = f(32 2) = f(7) = 2(7) + 1

= 15

gf(2) = g[2(2) + 1] = g(3) = (3)2 2

=7

(b) f:x 2x + 1

g : x x2 2

f(x) = 2x + 1

g(x) = x 2 2

(i) fg(x)

=

f[g(x)]

=

f(x 2 2)

Substitute the x in

(iii)

f 2(x)

=

ff(x)

=

f(2x + 1)

=2(x 2) + 1

=2x 2 3

fg : x 2x 2 3

(ii) gf(x)

=

g[ f(x)]

=

g(2x + 1)

=(x 2) 2

=

x 4 4x 2 + 4 2

=

x 4 4x 2 + 2

g 2 : x x 4 4x 2 + 2

CHAPTER

F

O

R

Substitute the x in

M

g(x) = x2 2

CHAPTER

=2(2x + 1) + 1

=4x + 3

f 2: x 4x + 3

(iv) g2(x)

=

gg(x)

=

g(x 2 2)

f(x) = 2x + 1

2

Substitute the x in

f(x) = 2x + 1

4

with (x2 2).

(c)

gf(x) =23

4x 2 + 4x 1 = 23

4x 2 + 4x 24 = 0

x 2 + x 6 = 0

(x 2)(x + 3) = 0

x =2 or 3

Substitute the x in

g(x) = x2 2

=(2x + 1)2 2

=4x 2 + 4x + 1 2

=4x 2 + 4x 1

gf : x 4x 2 + 4x 1

12

Given the function f : x

x

+

1 +1

=

x 1

=

x + 1

= 1

x 1

x

+

1

+

x

1

x

1

=

x+

1

(x

1)

x 1

2x

=

2

=

x

(a) f 2(b)f 8(c)f 9

Solution

f:x

x

+

1

(a)

x1

x

+

1

f(x)=

x1

f 2(x)=ff (x)

x

+

1

=

f

x 1

11

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

=

f 2f 2f 2(x)

f 8(x) = x

f 2(x) = x

=

f(x)

x

+1 , x 1

=

x 1

=

f 2f 2(x)

=

f 2(x)

=

x

it is not compulsory for

students to write down x 1

in the answer.

1

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

F

O

R

M

1.4b To Find

the Related Function Given the

4

Composite Function and One of the Functions

4

SPM

Clone

06

(b)

Another function g is such that

fg : x 3x 8. Find the function g.

(b) The function f is defined by f : x x 2.

Another function g is such that

gf : x 1 , x 11 .

Find the function g.

11 3x

34

1

gf : x

.

11 3x

g is outside.

1

gf(x) =

11 3x

Change each x to

1

g[f(x)] =

the terms in u.

11 3x

1

g(x 2) =

11 3x

Let x 2 = u, then x = u + 2

g(u)=1

11 3(u + 2)

1

=

11 3u 6

1

=

5 3u

g : x 1 , x 5

5 3x

3

Solution

(a)

Case where the function g that has to

be determined is situated inside.

fg : x 3x 8.

g is inside.

fg(x) = 3x 8

f [g(x)] =3x 8

Substitute the x in

f(x) = 2x + 4

with g(x).

2g(x) + 4 = 3x 8

2g(x) =3x 12

3x

12

g(x) =

2

3x

12

g : x

2

Try: Questions 810, Self Assess 1.4.

Functions

be determined is situated outside.

12

5 on Composite Functions

SPM

Clone

07

g : x (x + 1)2 + 2.

Thus, fg(x)=f[(x + 1)2 + 2]

=

h[(x +1)2 + 2] + k

=

h(x + 1)2 + 2h + k

g : x (x + 1)2 + 2 and fg : x 2(x + 1)2 + 1, find

(a) the value of g2(2),

(b) the value of h and of k.

Solution

(a) g2(2) =gg(2)

=

g[(2 + 1)2 + 2]

=

g(11)

= (11 + 1)2 + 2

=

146

(b)

1

CHAPTER

Hence, by comparison,

O

R

h = 2 and 2h + k=1

M

2(2) + k=1

k=3

CHAPTER

13

making a comparison.

Try: Questions 1112, Self Assess 1.4.

13

Given the functions f(x) = 3x + 7 and fg(x) = 22 3x,

find gf(x).

Solution

Find g(x) first.

fg(x) = 22 3x

f(g(x)) = 22 3x

3g(x) + 7 = 22 3x

3g(x) = 22 3x 7

3g(x) = 15 3x

15

3x

g(x)

=

3

g(x) = 5 x

Hence, gf(x)=g(3x + 7)

= 5 (3x + 7)

Substitute the x in

g(x) = 5 x

with g(x).

= 5 3x 7

=

3x 2

1.4

(c) f : x x 3

(a) f : x x 2 1

g : x 3x + 1 g : x _ x_

(b) f : x (x + 1)2 (d)

f: x 2 x

g

g :x 1 3x

1

: x

x2 + 2

3 The functions f and g are defined by

f : x 4x 3 and g : x x + 1 respectively.

pooooooo

g : x x 2 , x 2, find the value of

(a) fg(6) (c)

f 2(0)

(b) gf(2) (d)

g2(27)

2 Find the composite functions fg and gf for each

of the following pairs of functions f and g.

13

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

each of the following.

(a) f : x 2x,

fg : x 4x 12,

2x

+

1

hf : x

2

2x

,

1

(b) f :x 2x 2,

gf : x

3

Facts

fh : x 2x 2

(c) f : x x 2 2,

fg :x x 2 + 6x + 7,

hf :x 2x 2 7

g : x 2, x 0, find the expression for

x

each of the following functions.

(a) fg (c)

g6

2

(b) g (d)

g7

f : x 1 x and g : x px 2 + q respectively. If

the composite function gf is given by

gf : x 3x 2 6x + 5, find

(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the value of g 2(0).

Facts

12 The functions f and f 2 are such that

f : x hx + k and f 2 : x 9x + 16.

(a) Find the values of h and the corresponding

values of k.

(b) Considering h 0, find the values of x such

that f(x 2) = 8x.

x1

, x 1, find the

x+1

expression for each of the following functions.

(a) f 2 (c)

f 16

4

(b) f (d)

f 17

8 The function f and the composite function fg are

defined as follows. Find the function g.

(a) f :x x + 2, fg :x 3x 2

(b) f : x 3x + 2,

7 If f is defined by f : x

1.5

fg : x

defined as follows. Find the function g.

(a) f : x x + 1, gf : x 3 , x 2

x2

1

5 , x 1

(b) f : x , gf : x

x

10

10x 1

(c) f: x 3x + 2, gf : x 9x 2 + 9x + 2

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

2x + 5

,x2

x2

(c) f : x x 2 1, fg : x x 2 + 4x + 3

the value of x such that

(a) f = g, (b)

f 2 = g2.

4 The functions f and g are defined by

f : x mx + 2 and g : x kx 3 respectively. If

fg = gf, find the relation between m and k. If

m = 5, find the value of x that satisfies each of the

following equations.

(a) f 2 = f

(b) g2 = g

5 The functions f and g are defined by

f : x (x + 1)2 and g : x x 2 respectively.

F

Find

O

(a) the composite

functions fg and gf,

R

M of x if

(b) the values

(i) fg = 9,

(ii) gf =414,

(c) the value of x if fg = gf.

Inverse Functions

Facts

1

1 If f : x y is a function that maps x onto y, its inverse function is

denoted by f 1. Inverse function is a function that maps y back to x.

Facts

f 1

Let y = f(x), then x = f 1 (y) or Let f 1(x) = y, then f(y) = x.

Functions

= f 1g 1.

(f 2)1 = (f 1)2.

ff 1(x) = f 1f(x) = x.

14

of inverse functions are

(a) the function must be one-toone,

(b) that every element in the

codomain must be linked to

an object.

SPM

Clone

SPM

Clone

SPM

Clone

SPM

Clone

03

05

08

10

F

O

R

M

14

Find the inverse function of f : x

Solution

Method 1

1

f 2x

: x

x+2

2x

1

Let

y =

x + 2

y(x + 2) = 2x 1

yx + 2y =2x 1

yx 2x = 1 2y

x(y 2) = 1 2y

1 2y

x =

y 2

(1 + 2y)

x =

(2 y)

1 + 2y

x =

2 y

2x 1

, x 2.

x+2

1 + 2y

f 1(y)=

2 y

1 + 2x

f 1(x) =

2 x

Solution

Lety =f 1(3)

f(y) =3

CHAPTER

y

+

8 =3

y 6

y + 8 = 3(y 6)

y + 8 = 3y 18

2y =26

y

=13

f 1(3)=13

Given the function f 1 : x

find the value of f 1(3).

CHAPTER

14

\ f 1 :

Method 2

Let f 1(x)=y

Thus, f(y)=x

2y

1 =x

y+2

2y 1 = x(y + 2)

2y 1 = xy + 2x

2y xy =2x + 1

y(2 x)=2x + 1

2x+

1

y =

2 x

2x+

1

f 1(x) =

2 x

Rearrange, making x

the subject.

Cross multiplication.

Expand the left-hand

side.

Group the terms in x

together.

Factorise the

left-hand side.

Making x the subject

it is not compulsory for

students to write x 2.

Rearrange the formula,

making y the subject.

\ f 1 : x

Try: Question 2, Self Assess 1.5.

15

Given the functions f(x) = 6 2x and g(x)=x1 ,

x 0, find f 1g1.

6

x

f 1(x) =

2

g(x)=x1

Let g 1(x) =y

Thus, g(y) = x

y1 = x

y =x1

g1(x) =x1

Solution

First of all, find the inverse functions f 1 and g1.

f(x) = 6 2x

Let f 1(x) =y

Thus, f(y) =x

6 2y =x

6 x =2y

6

x

y =

2

15

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

6 x1

=

2

6x

1 , x 0

=

2x

=

f 1 x1

function of g 1

followed by f 1.

SPM

Clone

04

F

hx 5

, x 2 and its

Given the function

O f : x

x2

R

2x + k

inverse function M

f 1: x , x 3, find

x3

(a) the value of h4and of k,

(b) the values of t such that f(t) = 4 t.

3

2x

+

k.

But it is given that f 1(x)=

x3

Hence, by comparison, k = 5, h = 3.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

7

7

f(t) =4 t

3

3t

5

4

=

t

t2

3

3(3t 5) = 4t (t 2)

9t 15 = 4t 2 8t

0 =4t 2 17t + 15

0 = (4t 5)(t 3)

t =5 or 3

4

(b)

Solution

(a) Let f 1(x) =y

Thus, f(y)=x

hy 5

=x

y2

hy 5 = x(y 2)

hy 5 = xy 2x

2x 5 = xy hy

2x 5 = y(x h)

2x

5

y =

x h

2x

5

f 1(x) =

x h

Try: Questions 89, Self Assess 1.5.

8

x

SPM

Clone

05

z

g

f

1

Solution

5

(a) f : y py + q

g : y

3y q

5

f(y)=py + q

g(y)=

3y q

f 3 =1 g 3 =10

2

2

5

3

p + q=1

=10

2

3 3 q

2

1

3p

+

2q

=

2

...

5=10

9

q

2

10

mapping of y onto x by the function

f :y py + q and the mapping of y onto z by

q

5

the function g : y , y . Find

3y q

3

(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the function that maps x onto y,

(c) the function that maps x onto z.

Functions

16

5 = 10

9 2q

2

10

= 10

9 2q

1

= 1

9 2q

1 = 9 2q

2q = 8

q = 4

From 1 : When q = 4, 3p + 2(4) = 2

p = 2

onto z is gf 1(x).

f

gf

It has been found that f(y) = 2y + 4.

Let f 1(x) =w

Thus,

f(w)=x

2w + 4 = x

4 x =2w

4

x

w =

2

4x

f 1(x)

=

F

O

R

M

4

CHAPTER

gf (x)

4

x

=

g

2

5

=

4

x 4

3

2

5

=

12

3x

2

=10

4 3x

10

4

gf 1 : x

,x

4 3x

3

CHAPTER

Function

Functions

9 f(x).

us back the original function,

9

Given that g1(x) =

16

The function f is defined by f (x) = 2x + 1 , x 1.

x1

If f 1(k) = 4 k, find the values of k.

3

SPM

Clone

11

2x + 1

1

, x , find g(x).

2x 1

2

Solution

2x

+

1

Let y =

2x 1

y(2x 1) = 2x + 1

2xy y =2x + 1

2xy 2x =y + 1

x(2y 2) = y + 1

y + 1

x =

2y 2

y + 1

g(y) =

2y 2

x+1

g(x) =

,x1

2x 2

Solution

4

f 1(k) = k

3

If f 1 (x) = y,

k =f 4 k

then x = f (y).

3

4k

2 + 1

3

k =

4k 1

3

8k

+

3

3

k =

4k

3

8k

+

3

3

k =

3

4k 3

8k

+

3

k =

4k 3

Rearrange, making x

the subject.

17

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

4k 2 3k =8k + 3

4k 2 11k 3 = 0

(4k + 1)(k 3) = 0

k = 1 or 3

4

18

Given the function f : x 5x 2, find ( f 2)1 in the

same form.

Solution

Find f 2(x) first.

f 2(x)= ff(x)

=

f(5x 2)

=5(5x 2) 2

=25x 10 2

=25x 12

Let ( f 2)1 (x) =y

Thus, f 2(y) =x

If the question requires

25y 12 = x

us to state the answer

25y =x + 12

in the same form, we

x

+12

have to express the

y =

25

answer in the form

(f 2)1 : x

x + 12

x + 12

( f 2)1(x) =

25

25

and not

x

+12

(f 2)1 (x) = .

x + 12

( f 2)1 : x

25

25

F

O

R

17

M

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

Given that g1 4 2 kx

(x)

17= and f(x) = 3x, find

4

(a) g(x) in terms of k,

(b) the values of k such that fg(1) = 3 k.

2

Solution

kx

(a) g1(x) =

4

2

kx

Let y =

4

4y = 2 kx

kx = 2 4y

2 4y

x =

k

2 4y

g(y) =

k

2

4x

g(x) =

Rearrange, making x

the subject.

19

1

Given that f 1(x) = x + m , x m and

g(x) = 3 x, find

1

3x

(a) the value of m if f(x)=

x ,

(b) the values of k if ff 1(k 2 7) = g[(k + 2)2].

Solution

(a) Letf 1(x)=y

f(y) =x

1

3y

=x

y

1 3y =xy

1 =xy + 3y

1 =y(x + 3)

1

y =

x + 3

1

f 1(x) =

x + 3

1 .

But it is given that f 1(x)=

x+m

Hence, by comparison, m = 3.

fg(1) = 3 k

2

2

4(1)

f = 3 k

k

2

2

f

= 3 k

k

2

2

3

= 3 k

k

2

6

3k

=

k

2

3k 2 =12

k 2 =4

k = 2

(b)

Functions

18

k 2 7 = 3 (k + 2)2

k 2 7 = 3 (k 2 + 4k + 4)

k 2 7 = 3 k 2 4k 4

2k 2 + 4k 6 = 0

k 2 + 2k 3 = 0

(k + 3)(k 1) = 0

k =3 or 1

to be memorised.

Try: Question 22, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 2.

1.5

(a) f 1

(b) g1

(c) g1f 1

Is ( fg)1=g1f 1?

1

CHAPTER

O

R

M

(d) fg

F 1

(e) ( fg)

CHAPTER

functions.

(a) f : x 5 4x

5

(b) f : x 6 ,

x x0

(c) f : x 3x + 2 , x 3

2x + 3

2

2 Find the inverse function of each of the

following functions.

(a) f : x 7x 4

3x

4

(b) g :x

2

3 x0

(c) h : x 9 ,

x

(d) m : x 2x + 2 , x 3

5x 3

5

pooooooo

(e) n : x 2 x x, x 2

(a) Find the expressions for f 2 dan f 1.

(b) Show that ( f 1)2 = ( f 2)1.

8 Given the function f : x 4x + h and its inverse

kx

+,

5 find

function f 1 : x

4

(a) the value of h and of k,

(b) the expression for f 1 f.

x+p

, x 5 and

9 Given the function f : x

x5

qx + 6

its inverse function f 1 : x ,

x1

x 1, find

(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the values of x for which f 1(x) = 8x.

4

3 Given the functions f : x , x 0 and

x

g : x 2x + 3, find each of the following

functions.

(a) fg

(d) g2

(g) f 1g1

1

(b) gf

(e) f

(h) g1f 1

2

1

(c) f

(f) g

10

3x

,

1

4 The function f is defined by f :x

x2

x k, find

(a) the value of k,

(b) f 2,

(c) f 1.

1

2

mapping of y onto x by the function

f :y my + n and the mapping of y onto z by

n

m

the function g : y y . Find

n 2y

2

(a) the value of m and of n,

(b) the function that maps x onto y,

(c) the function that maps x onto z.

g : x 3 , x 1, find

x1

1

(a) f

(c) f 1g1

(e) (gf )1

1

(b) g

(d) gf

Is (gf )1=f 1g1?

6 Given the functions f : x 1 2x and

3x

10

11 (a) Given that f 1(x) = +

, find f(x).

4

x

+

2 x 2, find

g : x

,

x2

2x

+,

3 find g(x).

(b) Given that g1(x) =

x+4

19

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

1

Paper 1 Short Questions

Multiple-choice

Questions

1.1

P

15

24

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

the relation from P to Q is defined

by the ordered pairs {(2, 1), (2, 3),

(6, 5), (6, 7)}. State

(a) the images of 2,

(b) the object of 7.

[2 marks]

Relations

35

45

F

O

R

M

6

7

8

relation between set P and set Q.

Based on the arrow diagram, state

(a) the domain,

(b) the range,

(c) the codomain.

2 The arrow diagram shows the

relation between set A and set B.

A

03

Functions

20

y

z

Set P

30

40

Set Q

State

the cant

rangeFigure

of the relation,

1.1 (a)

Signifi

[2 marks]

the images of the elements of set P.

06

3

2

16

SPM

Clone represents a linear function f.

07

Set X

State

(a) the relation in the form of

ordered pairs,

(b) the type of the relation,

(c) the domain of the relation.

[3 marks]

1.2

Functions

1.3

Set Q

between set P and set Q.

(b) Using function notation,

write down a relation between

set P and set Q.

[2 marks]

Set P

81

Set P

P = {2, 6, 8}

Q = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

Set Y

10

relation from set P = {2, 6, 8} to set

Q = {5, 7, 9, 11}. State

(a) the images of 6,

(b) the objects of 7,

(c) the range.

10

Set Q

11

9

7

5

2 6 8

SPM

Clone

SPM

Clone

04

SPM

Clone

using ordered pairs.

(b) State the type of the given

relation.

3

relation between set P and set Q.

SPM

Clone

between set X and set Y in the form

09 of a graph.

SPM

Clone

(b) Using the function notation,

express f (x) in terms of x.

[2 marks]

f(x)

2

5

7

k

1

4

6

8

20

a

bx 2

10

4

1

a

, x k,

the function f : x

bx 2

where a, b and k are constants.

Find

(a) the value of a and of b,

(b) the value of k.

1.1

Sig

1.1

Sig

and fg : x x 2 + 1, find the

function g.

20 The function f is defined by

f : x x 2. Another function g is

such that gf : x x2 + 1. Find the

function g.

21 Given the functions f(x) = 2x 4

and fg(x) = 8x + 2, find gf(x).

xh

h

7

13 Given the function f : x _x 4_,

SPM

Clone find the values of x such that

07 f (x) = 9.

[2 marks]

14 The given diagram shows the graph

SPM

Clone of the function f(x) = |2x 3| for the

08 domain 0 x 4.

y

and the composite function

04 hg(x) = 35x + 13, find

(a) g(x),

(b) the value of x when

gh(x) = 4.

[4 marks]

SPM

Clone

and its composite function

07 g2: x 49x 32, find the value of p

and of q such that p > 0.

[3 marks]

x 4, find g1.

2

,

x 3

x 3 and g(x) = 4x 1, find

1

f 1g .

2

28 Given the functions f(x) =

and its inverse Ffunction

2O

f 1: x kx R, find the value of h

3

and of k.

M

4

f 2 : x px + 6, find the value of m

and of p.

4x + 1

,

x+4

CHAPTER

xh

06 m : x h , where h is

a constant.

SPM

Clone

find f 2.

find the possible values of

x if g(x) = 4.

and h : x 2x 4, find gh.

CHAPTER

absolute value function

f (x) = 3 x for the domain

0 x 4.

(b) Hence, state the corresponding

range of values of f(x).

24

30 Given the function f(x) =

,

px + q

f(1) = 8, find

(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the values of k if f 1 (k) = k.

31 Given the inverse function

f 1(x) = 2x 5, find

(a) f(x),

(b) the values of k if

f 1 f (k) = k 2 12.

SPM

Clone

32

x

f 1

4x + p

g(x) = tx 6, find

08 (a) f (6),

SPM

Clone (b) the value of t such that

10

gf (6) = 24.

[3 marks]

SPM

Clone

State

(a) the value of k,

(b) the range of values of f (x)

corresponding to the given

domain.[3 marks]

1.4

and h: x 8x, find

09 (a) hg (x),

(b) the value of x if hg(x) = 2g(x).

[4 marks]

SPM

Clone

1.5

Composite Functions

f : x 3x 2 and g : x x + 2

respectively. Calculate fg(5).

f 1(x) = 4x + p, where

p is a constant. Find

(a) the value of p,

(b) f(x).

2

,

3x + 1

Inverse Functions

4x + 3 ,

x+5

x 5, calculate the value of

f 1(2).

21

(a) g1 f(x),

(b) the values of x which are

mapped onto themselves

under the function f.

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

h : x x 2 3x + 5, find

03 (a) g 1(7),

SPM

Clone (b) hg(x).

08 [4 marks]

1

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

SPM

Clone

m

35 Given the functions h : x

3,

x

SPM

Clone

10

04 x 0 and h 1 : x

, x k,

x+k

where m and k are

constants, find

F

the value of m and

O of k.

[3 marks]

R

M

function f maps x4onto y and the

05 function g maps y onto z.

SPM

Clone

(a) h1(6),

(b) w1(x). [4 marks]

3 , x 0, find nm1.

05 and n: x

x

[3 marks]

SPM

Clone

(a) g 1(4),

(b) gf(1).

[2 marks]

37 The functions h and w are defined

2

by h(x) = 3x + 5 and w(x) =

,

05

1 4x

SPM

Clone

find

09 (a) g(4),

(b) the value of p such that

g1(p) = 8.

[3 marks]

SPM

Clone

and h : x 5x 8, find

10 (a) g 1(x),

(b) hg1(11).

[3 marks]

SPM

Clone

1.4

Composite Functions

functions f and g that are defined

10

by f : x ax + b and g : x

,

cx

x c respectively.

17

f

g

m

2

g

f

Find

(a) the value of a, of b and of c,

(b) the value of m,

(c) the expression for gf.

defined by f : x hx 5 and

g : x x 2 + 3x + 5 respectively.

If the composite function fg is

defined by fg : x 2x 2 + kx + 5,

find the value of h and of k.

Functions

ax

by f : x , x 1 and

1x

g : x bx 1 respectively. If

f(4) = 4 and g(2) = 3, find

(a) the value of a and of b,

(b) the value of x for which

fg = gf.

1

and g : x , x 1, find the

1x

expression for each of the

following.

(a) fg

(b) f 2

(c) f 13

g2

1.1 (d)

Signifi

cant Figure

(e) g3

19

(f) g

f : x 2x + 3. Another function g is

such that gf : x 4x2 + 12x + 15.

Find

(a) the function g,

(b) the values of c if g(c) = 7c,

(c) the values of x if fg = gf.

22

y

8

z

g

f

5

the representation of the mapping

of x onto y by the function f : x

4x a and the mapping of y onto z

b

by the function g : y ,

12 y

y 12. Find

(a) the value of a and of b,

(b) the expression for the function

that maps x onto z,

(c) the element x that does not

change when it is mapped

onto z.

defined by f : x 2x + 3 and

g : x x 2 + bx + c respectively.

If the composite function fg is

given by fg :x 2x 2 + 4x 3,

find

(a) the value of b and of c,

(b) the value of g2(1).

g : x x + 2. Another function f

is such that fg :x x 2 + 5x + 7.

Find

(a) the function f(x),

(b) the values of c if f(2c) = 7c.

1.5

Inverse Functions

f : x mx + k, where m and k

are constants. The function g is

12

defined by g : x , x 1.

x+1

(a) Find the expression for g1.

(b) Find the expression for fg in

terms of m and k.

(c) If f(3) = g1(3) and

fg(2) = 2, find the value of m

and of k.

x+1

,

x2

kx + 3

x 2 and g : x

, x 0,

x

find the value of k if gf 1(0) = 3.

g1

3

and its inverse function

2

f 1 : x kx + , find

5

(a) the value of h and of k,

(b) (i) f(3),

(ii)

f 1f(3).

mx n

16 Given the function f : x

,

x2

x 2 and its inverse function

5 2x

f 1 : x , x 2, find

2x

(a) the value of m and of n,

(b) the value of k for which

f(k) = k + 2.

the mapping of y onto x by the

function f : y hy + k and

the mapping of y onto z by the

6

k

function g : y

,y

2y

k

2

.

x

1.1

(a) f 1(x) in terms of p and q,

(b) the value Fof p and of q if

O and f(1) = 2.

f 1(8) = 1

R

M

4

the functions f and g1, such that

f : x 2x + a and

g :x bx + c. Given that g maps 1

onto itself, find

(a) the value of a,

(b) the value of b and of c.

3x

and g(x) = , x 3, find

x+3

(a) f 1g(x),

(b) the value of x for which

gf(x) = f 2(2).

CHAPTER

that f : x ax + b and

f 2 :x 9x + 8.

(a) Find the values of a and

the corresponding values

of b.

(b) Considering a 0, find the

values of k for which

f(2k + 1) = k(k + 2).

14

CHAPTER

and fg : x 4 15x, find

(a) the expression for gf,

(b) the values of n if

gf(n2 1) = 6n + 6.

3 kx

20 Given that g1(x) = and

2

f(x) = 2x 2 3, find

(a) g(x) in terms of k,

(b) the value of k for which

g(x 2) = 2f(x).

h 0 and f 2 : x 25x 18,

find

(a) the value of h and of k,

(b) ( f 1)2 in the same form.

1

,xk

kx

and g(x) = 2 + x, find

(a) f(x) in terms of k,

(b) the value k if

ff 1(k 2 + 2) = g[(5 + k)2].

Signifi

cant Figure

3

2

x+p

,

x+q

x q and its inverse function

2 3x

f 1 : x

, x 1, find

1x

(a) the value of p and of q,

1

(b) the values of k if f 2(k) = k.

3

Find

(a) the value of h and of k,

(b) the function that maps x

onto y,

(c) the function that maps x

onto z.

23

x

g : x + 2, find

06

2

SPM

Clone

(b) the function h such that

hg : x 2x + 4.

[3 marks]

Functions

F

O

R

M

4

Paper 1

Short Questions

1 The relation between set

X = {6, 12, 15, 21} and set

11 Y = {3, 5, 7} is factor of.

(a) Find the image of 12.

(b) Express the relation in the

form of ordered

pairs.

F

O

[3

marks]

1

CHAPTER

and h(x) = 3x, find the value of

11 gh(2).

[2 marks]

3

by h1 : x

, x 4. Find

11

4x

(a) h(x),

(b) the value of x such that

h(x) = 14.

[4 marks]

State

(a) the object of 40,

(b) the type of the relation.

[2 marks]

f 2 (x) = 4x + 9, where p and q are

constants, find the value of p and of

q if p < 0.

[3 marks]

is represented by the following set

of ordered pairs:

and the composite function

gf : x x 2 + 6x + 2, find

(a) g(x),

(b) fg(4). [4 marks]

SPM

Clone

R

M

Paper 1

between set A and B.

40

30

(3, 9), (4, 16)}

20

10

3

Set A

relation.

(b) Represent the above relation

using a function notation.

[2 marks]

2x + p

and

5

5x + 3

,

its inverse function f 1(x) =

q

find the value of p and of q.

[4 marks]

(b) If gf 1(x) = 5x, find the values of x. [3 marks]

Paper 2

Long Questions

1 The function f and its inverse function f 1 are

hx

kx

, x 3, f 1(x) =

,x2

defined by f(x) =

x3

x2

respectively, where h and k are constants. Another

1

function g is defined by g(x) = , x 0.

x

Functions

SPM

Clone

Short Questions

Set B

CHAPTER

F

O

R

M

SPM

Clone

x

2 and g : x 3x + k,

2

(a) f 1(3), [2 marks]

(b) the value of k if f 1g: x 6x 4,

[2 marks]

(c) h(x) such that hf : x 9x 3.

[2 marks]

24

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