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FORM

CHAPTER

Functions
SPM Topical Analysis

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Paper

Number of questions

ONCEPT MAP
Domain
Domain

RELATIONS
HUBUNGAN
Types of Relations
Jenis Hubungan
One-to-one
Many-to-one
One-to-many
Many-to-many

Codomain
Kodomain
FUNCTIONS
FUNGSI

Objects
Objek
Images
Imej
Range
Julat

Absolute Value Functions


Fungsi Nilai Mutlak
f : x|g(x)|

Graphs of Absolute Value Functions


Graf Fungsi Nilai Mutlak
The graph of a linear absolute
value function has a V shape
COMPANION WEBSITE

Learning Objectives

Composite Functions
Fungsi Gubahan
The function of f
followed by g is gf.

Inverse Functions
Fungsi Songsang
Given that y = f(x),
then f 1(y) = x.

Problems that involve Composite


Functions and Inverse Functions
Masalah melibatkan Fungsi Gubahan
dan Fungsi Songsang

1.1 Relations
1
1.1a Representation of a Relation

1
CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

CHAPTER

1 A relation from set A to set B is the linking (or pairing) of the


elements of set A to the elements of set B.
2 A relation between two sets can be represented by
(a) an arrow diagram,
(b) ordered pairs,
(c) a graph.
F
O
R
M

14

A relation from set A = {12, 14, 23, 25, 43} to set B = {3, 5, 7} is defined by
sum of digits of. Represent the relation by
(a) an arrow diagram,
(b) ordered pairs,
(c) a graph.
Solution
(a) Arrow diagram
A

sum of digits of
B

12
14

23

25

43

(b) Ordered pairs


{(12, 3), (14, 5), (23, 5), (25, 7), (43, 7)}
(c) Graph
7
Set B 5
3
12 14 23 25 43
Set A
Try: Question 1, Self Assess 1.1.

1.1b Domain, Codomain, Objects, Images and Range


In a relation between set (A) and another set (B),
the first set (A) is known as domain,
the second set (B) is known as codomain,
the elements in the domain are known as objects,
the elements in the codomain that are linked to the objects are known
as images,
the set of images is known as range.
Functions

Facts
A set is a well-defined collection
of objects.
For example:
Universal set, = {x : 10 x 30,

x is an integer}
Set A = {Factors of 36}
Set B = {Prime numbers}
Set C = {Numbers where the sum
of the digits is 3}
The list of elements of each of the
sets , A, B and C is as follows:
= {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30}
A = {12, 18}
B = {11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29}
C = {12, 21, 30}

3
2
A relation from set P = {16, 36, 49, 64} to set
Q = {4, 6, 7, 8, 11} is defined by factor(s) of.
(a) Represent this relation using an arrow diagram.
(b) State
(i) the domain,
(ii) the codomain,
(iii) the images of 36,
(iv) the images of 64,
(v) the object of 7,
(vi) the objects of 4,
(vii) the range
of this relation.
Solution
(a) The arrow diagram that represents the given
relation is as shown in the next column.

factor(s) of

16

36

49

64

Range

11
Domain

Non-image

Codomain

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

(b) (i) The domain is {16, 36, 49, 64}.


F 8, 11}.
(ii) The codomain is {4, 6, 7,
O
(iii) The images of 36 are 4 and 6.
R
(iv) The images of 64 are 4 and
8.
M
(v) The object of 7 is 49.
(vi) The objects of 4 are 16, 436 and 64.
(vii) The range is {4, 6, 7, 8}.

Try: Question 2, Self Assess 1.1.

1.1c Types of Relations

3
State the type of relation shown by each of the
following arrow diagrams.
(a)
(b)

Types of Relations
1 One-to-one relation
Each object in the
domain has only one
image in the
codomain.
2



Many-to-one relation
There are more than
one object in the
domain that have the
same image in the
codomain.

One-to-many relation
There is at least one
object in the domain
that has more than
one image in the
codomain.

Many-to-many relation
There is at least one
object in the domain
that has more than
one image in the
codomain and there is
at least one element in
the codomain that is
linked to more than
one object in the
domain.

reciprocal of

1
3
1
4
1
5

3
Domain

Codomain

Domain

factors of

Q
2

10

21

5
7

Solution
(a) One-to-one relation
(b) One-to-many relation

Codomain

Try: Question 3, Self Assess 1.1.

Domain

State the type of relation shown by


(a) the ordered pairs:
{(4, 8), (4, 10), (4, 12), (6, 10), (7, 12)}
(b) the graph:

Codomain

Set Y
M
P

Solution
Domain

12 15

Set X

Codomain

Draw arrow diagrams to represent the relations


because it is easier to interpret arrow diagrams
compared to ordered pairs or graphs.

Functions

F
O
R
M
4

(a)

10

12

(b)

The above arrow diagram shows



many-to-many relation.
Try: Question 4, Self Assess 1.1.

P
M

SPM
Clone

07

F
O
The following ordered
pairs represent a relation
R
from set A = {3, 5,
M 7} to set B = {9, 15, 21}.

SPM
Clone

06

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

The above arrow diagram shows



many-to-one relation.

1
1

X
5
7
9
12
15

{(3,4 9), (5, 15), (7, 21)}

(a) State the type of the above relation.


(b) State the range.
(c) Using function notation, write down a relation
between set A and set B.
Solution

15

21

Based on the arrow diagram,


(a) the relation is a one-to-one relation.
(b) the range is {9, 15, 21}.
(c) the function notation is
f(x) = 3x.
Each image is three times
its objects.

It is better to draw an arrow diagram to represent


the above relation because it is easier to interpret
an arrow diagram compared to ordered pairs.
Try: Question 5, Self Assess 1.1.

1.1
(iv) the objects of 12,
(v) the range
of the relation.
3 State the type of relation shown by each of the
following arrow diagrams.
(a)
M
N
capital of

1 Represent each of the following relations by


(a) an arrow diagram,
(b) ordered pairs,
(c) a graph.
(i) The relation remainder when divided
by 5 from set A = {6, 12, 18, 24} to set
B = {1, 2, 3, 4}.
(ii) The relation factors of from set P to
set Q where P = Q = {2, 3, 4, 8}.
(iii) The relation difference of digits of
from set X = {14, 21, 23, 34, 48} to set
Y = {1, 3, 4}.
2 A relation from set P = {26, 34, 45, 62} to set
Q = {12, 20, 24, 48} is defined by product of
digits of.
(a) Represent the relation by an arrow diagram.
(b) State
(i) the domain,
(ii) the codomain,
(iii) the image of 45,
Functions

Sarawak

Kuching

Perak

Ipoh

Kedah

(b)

P
methane
water
carbon
dioxide

Alor Setar

elements of

Q
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen

4 State the type of relation of


(a) the ordered pairs:

{(4, 0), (4, 1), (5, 2), (6, 7), (6, 8)}
4

(b) the graph:

Set B

{(2, 1), (6, 3), (10, 5)}

11
10
8
3 4 6 7 9

(a) State the type of the above relation.


(b) State the range.
(c) Using function notation, write down a
relation between set P and set Q.

Set A

5 The following ordered pairs represent a relation


from set P = {2, 6, 10} to set Q = {1, 3, 5}.

1.2 Functions

1.2a To Recognise Functions


5
Explain whether each of the following relations is a function.
(a) (b) (c)
has

January

28 days

June

30 days

August

31 days

M three times of N

P consists of Q
Bronze
Brass

1
3
5
7

cuprum
stanum
zinc

1
CHAPTER

Facts



3 The main properties for a relation to be considered a function are:
(a) Each and every object must have one and only one image.
[If there are objects that have two or more images, the relation is not a
function.]
(b) Two or more objects are allowed to have the same image.
[Many-to-one relation is considered a function.]
(c) It is not necessary that all elements in the codomain are images.
[Non-image elements are allowed in a function.]
4 If a function links x to x 2 3x + 5, by using function notation, it is
written as f : x x2 3x + 5 or f(x) = x2 3x + 5. It is read as function f
that maps x onto x2 3x + 5.

mapping.

F
O
Facts
R
M known as
Function is also

CHAPTER

1 A function is a special type of relation where each and every object in


the domain has only one image.
2 The types of relations that are considered as functions are:
(a) one-to-one relation
(b) many-to-one relation

3
9
15

Solution
(a) It is a function because
each and every object has only one image,
many-to-one relation is allowed,
non-image element, i.e. 28 days is allowed.
(b) It is not a function because there are objects that have more than one image.
(c) It is not a function because there is an element in the domain that does not
have an image, i.e. 7.

The types of relations that are not


considered as functions are:
(a) one-to-many relation
x

a
b Facts

y
z

[Not a function because



element a has more than

one image.]
(b) many-to-many relation
a

[Not a function because



element b has more than

one image.]
(c) relation where there are
elements in the domain
that do not have an image
a
b
c
d

x
y
z

[Not a function because



element d does not have

an image.]

Try: Question 1, Self Assess 1.2.

Functions

F
O
R
M
4

1.2b To Solve Problems involving Functions


6
(b)

When the function f has an image 4, it means


that f(x) = 4.

When f(x) =4,



x 2 4x 1 = 4

x 2 4x 5 = 0
(x +1)(x 5) = 0

x = 1 or 5
Hence, the objects that have the image 4 are
1 or 5.

Object

F
When x = 2, O
R

f(2)=22 4(2)
1
M

= 4 8 1

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

Given the function f : x x2 4x 1, find


(a) the image of 2,
(b) the objects that have the image 4.
Solution
(a) f : x x 2 4x 1
f(x) = x 2 4x 1


=5
74 of 2 is 5.
Hence, the image
Try: Questions 23, Self Assess 1.2.

7
The arrow diagram below shows the function
15
f : x .

ax + b
x

f(4) =3
15
Substitute x = 4.
=3
4a + b
12a 3b =15
4a b = 5 ........... 2

1 2 : a=2

a=2
From
1 , 3(2) b=3
b=3
(b)

15
ax + b
3

4
5

(a) Find the value of a and of b.


(b) State the value of x such that the function f is
undefined.

A function f is undefined when its denominator


is zero.

Solution

15
(a) f
: x

ax + b

15
f(x)=

ax + b
f(3) =5
15
=5
Substitute x = 3.
3a + b
15a 5b =15
3a b = 3 ........... 1

15

f(x)=

2x + 3
When the denominator 0,
2x + 3 0


x 3

2


x 11

2
Hence, the value of x such that the

function f is undefined is 11 .

2

Try: Questions 48, Self Assess 1.2.

Functions

Press
0.8

SHIFT

R
M

(b) g(x) =1.6


2 cos x =1.6
10

1.6
cos x =
2
cos x =0.8
x =36.87

CHAPTER

Solution

3x + k ,
(a) For f : x

2x 4
8
Denominator 0
2x 4 0

x2
It is given that x p

p=2
(b)

(a) Given the function f(x) = 3 sin x tan x, find


the image of 30.
(b) Given the function g(x) = 2 cos x, find the
value of x such that the function g has the
image 1.6, for the domain 0 x 90.
Solution
(a) f(x) = 3 sin x tan x
f (30) = 3 sin 30 tan 30

= 3(0.5) 0.5774
F
= 0.9226
O
Hence, the image of 30 is 0.9226.
CHAPTER

3x
+ k for all
A function f is defined by f : x
2x 4
values of x, except x = p and k is a constant.
(a) State the value of p.
(b) Given that the value 5 is mapped onto itself
under f, find

(i) the value of k,
(ii) another value of x that is mapped onto
itself.

cos

Answer display: 36.86989765

Self-mapping is given by f(x) = x, where both the


object and the image have the same value.

The value of x such that the function g has the


image 1.6 is 36.87.

(i) 5 is mapped onto itself,



thus
f(5) = 5
3(5)
+
k =5

2(5) 4

15
+
k =5

6
15 + k=30
k=15
(ii) For self-mapping,

f(x) =x

3x
+

15
=x

2x 4

3x + 15 = 2x 2 4x
2

2x 7x 15 = 0
(2x + 3)(x 5) = 0


x = 3 or 5
2

Try: Question 11, Self Assess 1.2.

1.2c Domain, Range, Objects and Images


of a Function

10
The arrow diagram represents the function
f : x 2x 2 5. State
f
x
(a) the domain,
(b) the range,
2
(c) the image of 0,
1
(d) the objects of
0
(i) 3,
1
2
(ii) 3.
Solution
(a) Domain = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
(b) Range = {5, 3, 3}
(c) The image of 0 is 5.
(d) (i) The objects of 3 are 2 and 2.
(ii) The objects of 3 are 1 and 1.

Hence, another value of x that is mapped



onto itself, apart from 5, is 11 .

2

2x2 5
3

3
5

Try: Question 12, Self Assess 1.2.

Try: Questions 910, Self Assess 1.2.

Functions

F
O
R
M
4

1.2
(a) the image of 10,

(b) the object that has the image 1 ,

2
(c) the value of x such that the function f is
undefined.

6 Given that f : x


f(3) = 4, find
(a) the value of p and of q,

(b) the values of x such that f(x) = 4 x.

3
7 Given that g : x a + bx, g(1) = 3 and
g(2) = 3, find
(a) the value of a and of b,
(b) the values of n if g(n2 + 1) = 5n 6.

1 State whether each of the following relations is a


function.
(a)
A

type of number

6
14

multiple of 3

15

multiple of 7

24

(b)

consist of letters

i
v

F
O
Consonants
R
Vowels
M

(c)

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

w
u

M product of digits of N

21

32

53

15

8 A function f is defined by f : x 5x 2. Find


(a) the object that has the image 5,
(b) the object that is mapped onto itself.

a . The
9 A function f is defined by f : x

bx
values 3 and 5 are mapped onto themselves under
f.
(a) Find the value of a and of b.
(b) State the value of x such that the function f is
undefined.

64

(d)

has

PERAK

2 vowels

KEDAH

3 vowels

SELANGOR

4 vowels

18
9
2 Given the function f : x , x , find
2x 9
2
(a) the image of (i) 0, (ii) 12,
(b) the object that has the image (i) 2, (ii) 6 .

3 Given that f : x a , f(3) = 5 and

xb

f(5) = 1, find
(a) the value of a and of b,
(b) the value of x such that the function f is
undefined.
f

10 The arrow diagram


x
shows the function
1

f : x px + qx 2.
2
Find
(a) the value of p and
of q,
(b) the values of x that
are mapped onto themselves.

px + qx2

5
16

11 (a) Given the function f: x sin x + cos x, find


the image of (i) 45, (ii) 60.
(b) Given the function g: x tan x, find the
value of x such that the image is 1.527, if x is
an acute angle.
12 The arrow diagram
f
x2 + 2
x
represents the function
6

f : x x 2 + 2. State
(a) the domain,
3
(b) the range,
2
2
1
(c) the image of 0,
0
(d) the objects of
1

(i) 3,
2
(ii)6.

ax +
x
4 The arrow diagram
x
shows the function
7


f : x ax + b .
x

2
Find
1
(a) the value of a and of b,
5
(b) the value of x such that
the function f is undefined,
(c) the object that has the image 7, apart from
x = 2.


2x
5 The function g is defined by g : x

.

x+m
If g(5) = 3g(2), find the value of m. Hence, find

Functions

1.3

Absolute Value Functions

1 The absolute value of x is written as _x_ and it is read as


the modulus of x .
2 The definition of _x_ is

Facts
_x_ is the numerical value of x, i.e.
positive numbers are still positive
but negative numbers will be
changed to positive. For example,
_5_ = 5 and _5_ = 5.


x, if x 0

_x_ =

x, if x 0
3 The absolute value function is defined by


f(x), if f(x) 0

_ f(x)_ =

f(x), if f(x) 0

1
CHAPTER

SPM
Clone

The graph of O
a linear absolute
value functionRhas a V shape.
M
CHAPTER

2
2

Facts
F

07

f(x)=3
_4x 5_=3
4x 5 = 3

Given the function f : x _4x 5_, find


(a) the image of
(i)1,
(ii)4,
(b) the objects that have the image 3.
Solution
(a) f : x _4x 5_
f(x) = _4x 5_

(i) f(1) = _4(1) 5_ = _9_ = 9

Hence, the image of 1 is 9.
(ii) f(4) = _4(4) 5_ = _11_ = 11

Hence, the image of 4 is 11.
(b)

The first equation is


4x 5 = 3
4x=8
x=2
The second equation is
4x 5 = 3
4x=2
x=1
2
Hence, the objects that have the image 3 are
2 or 1.
2

For any _f(x)_ = k, there are two equations that can


be formed, i.e. f(x) = k or f(x) = k.
Try: Questions 12, Self Assess 1.3.

SPM
Clone

08

Sketch the graph of each of the following absolute


value functions.
(a) f(x) = _x + 3_ for the domain 4 x 1
(b) f(x) = _4x 7_ for the domain 0 x 4
State the corresponding range of values of f(x).

The sketch of the graph of f(x) = _x + 3_ is as shown


below.
y
4
3

Solution
(a) Prepare a table as shown below.

Range

2
1

4 3 2 1 0 1

4 3 2 1 O

Domain

f (x) 1 0 1 2 3 4
9

Functions

F
O
R
M
4

3
Hence, the graph touches the x-axis at 1 , 0 .
4
Prepare a table as shown below.

The corresponding range of values of f(x) means


the range from the smallest value of y to the largest
value of y, based on the given domain.

0 1 2 3 4

f (x) 7 3 1 5 9
The corresponding range of values of
f(x) is 0 f(x) 4.
(b)

The sketch of graph of f(x)=_4x 7_ is as shown


below.
y
8

F
First of all, determine
the point where the graph
O
touches the x-axis.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

10
6

Range

R
M

At the x-axis, y=0


Thus, _4x 7_ =0
4
4x 7 = 0
4x =7


x =7
=13
4
4

3
1
4

Domain

The corresponding range of values of


f(x) is 0 f(x) 9.

Try: Question 3, Self Assess 1.3.

Facts

1.3
3 Sketch the graph of each of the following
absolute value functions.
(a) f(x) = _ x + 2_ for the domain 3 x 3
(b) f(x) = _ 2x 5_ for the domain 0 x 7
(c) f(x) = _ 3 2x_ for the domain 3 x 4
(d) f(x) = _ 3x 5_ for the domain 2 x 4
State the corresponding range of values of f(x).

1 Given the function f : x _ x 2 4x 3_ , find the


image of
(a) 3,
(b)0,
(c)2.
2 Given the function f(x) = _ 2 5x_ , find
(a) the image of
(i) 2,
(ii) 2,
(b) the objects that have the image 7.

1.4

Composite Functions

1.4a To Find Composite Functions


1 If f is a function which maps set A onto set B and g is a function which
maps set B onto set C, then gf is a composite function of f followed
by g which maps set A onto set C.
gf

x
A
Functions

f(x)
B

g[f(x)] = gf(x)
C

10

Facts
fg(x) means f[g(x)].
In general, fg gf.
f 2 = ff, f 3 = fff or ff 2 and so on.

11
11
The functions f and g are defined by f : x 2x + 1
and g : x x 2 2 respectively. Find
(a) the value of fg(3) and of gf(2),
(b) the composite functions

(i) fg (iii)
f2
(ii) gf (iv)
g 2,
(c) the values of x if gf(x) = 23.
Solution
(a) fg(3) = f[g(3)] = f(32 2) = f(7) = 2(7) + 1

= 15
gf(2) = g[2(2) + 1] = g(3) = (3)2 2

=7
(b) f:x 2x + 1
g : x x2 2
f(x) = 2x + 1
g(x) = x 2 2

(i) fg(x)
=
f[g(x)]
=
f(x 2 2)
Substitute the x in

(iii)
f 2(x)
=
ff(x)
=
f(2x + 1)


=2(x 2) + 1

=2x 2 3
fg : x 2x 2 3

(ii) gf(x)
=
g[ f(x)]
=
g(2x + 1)

=(x 2) 2
=
x 4 4x 2 + 4 2
=
x 4 4x 2 + 2
g 2 : x x 4 4x 2 + 2

CHAPTER

F
O
R
Substitute the x in
M
g(x) = x2 2

with (2x + 1).

CHAPTER


=2(2x + 1) + 1

=4x + 3
f 2: x 4x + 3

(iv) g2(x)
=
gg(x)
=
g(x 2 2)

f(x) = 2x + 1
2

Substitute the x in
f(x) = 2x + 1

4
with (x2 2).

(c)
gf(x) =23
4x 2 + 4x 1 = 23
4x 2 + 4x 24 = 0
x 2 + x 6 = 0
(x 2)(x + 3) = 0

x =2 or 3

with (x2 2).

Substitute the x in
g(x) = x2 2

with (2x + 1).

=(2x + 1)2 2
=4x 2 + 4x + 1 2
=4x 2 + 4x 1
gf : x 4x 2 + 4x 1

Try: Questions 15, Self Assess 1.4.

12
Given the function f : x


x
+
1 +1

=
x 1

=

x + 1

= 1
x 1
x
+
1
+
x

1


x

1

=

x+
1

(x

1)

x 1
2x

=
2
=
x

expression for each of the following functions.


(a) f 2(b)f 8(c)f 9
Solution
f:x
x
+
1
(a)

x1

x
+
1

f(x)=

x1
f 2(x)=ff (x)

x
+
1
=
f
x 1

11

Functions

F
O
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4

(b) f 8(x)=f 2f 2f 2f 2(x)


=
f 2f 2f 2(x)

(c) f 9(x)=ff 8(x)

f 8(x) = x
f 2(x) = x

=
f(x)

x
+1 , x 1

=
x 1

=
f 2f 2(x)
=
f 2(x)
=
x

In the SPM marking scheme,


it is not compulsory for
students to write down x 1
in the answer.

1
CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
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Try: Questions 67, Self Assess 1.4.

F
O
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M

1.4b To Find
the Related Function Given the
4
Composite Function and One of the Functions
4

SPM
Clone

06

(b)

(a) The function f is defined by f : x 2x + 4.


Another function g is such that
fg : x 3x 8. Find the function g.
(b) The function f is defined by f : x x 2.
Another function g is such that
gf : x 1 , x 11 .
Find the function g.
11 3x
34

It is given that f : x x 2 and



1
gf : x
.

11 3x
g is outside.


1

gf(x) =

11 3x
Change each x to

1

g[f(x)] =

the terms in u.
11 3x

1

g(x 2) =

11 3x
Let x 2 = u, then x = u + 2

g(u)=1

11 3(u + 2)

1
=

11 3u 6

1

=

5 3u

g : x 1 , x 5
5 3x
3

Solution
(a)
Case where the function g that has to
be determined is situated inside.

It is given that f : x 2x + 4 and


fg : x 3x 8.
g is inside.

fg(x) = 3x 8

f [g(x)] =3x 8
Substitute the x in
f(x) = 2x + 4

with g(x).

2g(x) + 4 = 3x 8
2g(x) =3x 12

3x
12

g(x) =


2
3x
12
g : x

2
Try: Questions 810, Self Assess 1.4.

Functions

Case where the function g that has to


be determined is situated outside.

12

1.4c Further Examples


5 on Composite Functions
SPM
Clone

07

It is given that f : x hx + k and


g : x (x + 1)2 + 2.
Thus, fg(x)=f[(x + 1)2 + 2]

=
h[(x +1)2 + 2] + k

=
h(x + 1)2 + 2h + k

Given the functions f : x hx + k,


g : x (x + 1)2 + 2 and fg : x 2(x + 1)2 + 1, find
(a) the value of g2(2),
(b) the value of h and of k.
Solution
(a) g2(2) =gg(2)
=
g[(2 + 1)2 + 2]
=
g(11)

= (11 + 1)2 + 2
=
146
(b)

1
CHAPTER

But it is given that fg(x) = 2(x F+ 1)2 + 1.


Hence, by comparison,
O
R
h = 2 and 2h + k=1
M
2(2) + k=1
k=3
CHAPTER

13

The following function problem can be solved by


making a comparison.
Try: Questions 1112, Self Assess 1.4.

13
Given the functions f(x) = 3x + 7 and fg(x) = 22 3x,
find gf(x).
Solution
Find g(x) first.
fg(x) = 22 3x
f(g(x)) = 22 3x
3g(x) + 7 = 22 3x

3g(x) = 22 3x 7
3g(x) = 15 3x

15
3x

g(x)
=


3

g(x) = 5 x
Hence, gf(x)=g(3x + 7)

= 5 (3x + 7)
Substitute the x in
g(x) = 5 x

Substitute the x in f(x) = 3x + 7

with (3x 7).

with g(x).

= 5 3x 7
=
3x 2

Try: Question 8, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 2.

1.4
(c) f : x x 3
(a) f : x x 2 1
g : x 3x + 1 g : x _ x_
(b) f : x (x + 1)2 (d)
f: x 2 x
g
g :x 1 3x
1
: x


x2 + 2
3 The functions f and g are defined by
f : x 4x 3 and g : x x + 1 respectively.

1 Given the functions f : x _ 4 5x_ and


pooooooo

g : x x 2 , x 2, find the value of
(a) fg(6) (c)
f 2(0)
(b) gf(2) (d)
g2(27)
2 Find the composite functions fg and gf for each
of the following pairs of functions f and g.

13

Functions

F
O
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4

10 Find the expressions for the functions g and h in


each of the following.
(a) f : x 2x,
fg : x 4x 12,

2x
+
1
hf : x

2

2x
,
1
(b) f :x 2x 2,
gf : x


3
Facts
fh : x 2x 2
(c) f : x x 2 2,
fg :x x 2 + 6x + 7,
hf :x 2x 2 7

6 Given the functions f : x 5x 7 and



g : x 2, x 0, find the expression for
x
each of the following functions.
(a) fg (c)
g6
2
(b) g (d)
g7

11 The functions f and g are defined by


f : x 1 x and g : x px 2 + q respectively. If
the composite function gf is given by
gf : x 3x 2 6x + 5, find
(a) the value of p and of q,
(b) the value of g 2(0).
Facts
12 The functions f and f 2 are such that
f : x hx + k and f 2 : x 9x + 16.
(a) Find the values of h and the corresponding
values of k.
(b) Considering h 0, find the values of x such
that f(x 2) = 8x.

x1
, x 1, find the
x+1
expression for each of the following functions.
(a) f 2 (c)
f 16
4
(b) f (d)
f 17
8 The function f and the composite function fg are
defined as follows. Find the function g.
(a) f :x x + 2, fg :x 3x 2
(b) f : x 3x + 2,
7 If f is defined by f : x

1.5

fg : x

9 The function f and the composite function gf are


defined as follows. Find the function g.
(a) f : x x + 1, gf : x 3 , x 2
x2

1
5 , x 1

(b) f : x , gf : x
x
10
10x 1

(c) f: x 3x + 2, gf : x 9x 2 + 9x + 2

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
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2x + 5
,x2
x2
(c) f : x x 2 1, fg : x x 2 + 4x + 3

Find the expressions for f 2 and g2. Hence, find


the value of x such that
(a) f = g, (b)
f 2 = g2.
4 The functions f and g are defined by
f : x mx + 2 and g : x kx 3 respectively. If
fg = gf, find the relation between m and k. If
m = 5, find the value of x that satisfies each of the
following equations.
(a) f 2 = f
(b) g2 = g
5 The functions f and g are defined by
f : x (x + 1)2 and g : x x 2 respectively.
F
Find
O
(a) the composite
functions fg and gf,
R
M of x if
(b) the values
(i) fg = 9,
(ii) gf =414,
(c) the value of x if fg = gf.

Inverse Functions

Facts
1

1.5a To Find Inverse Functions


1 If f : x y is a function that maps x onto y, its inverse function is
denoted by f 1. Inverse function is a function that maps y back to x.

Facts

f 1

2 The main step to find the inverse function is


Let y = f(x), then x = f 1 (y) or Let f 1(x) = y, then f(y) = x.
Functions

(fg) = g1f 1 and (gf )1


= f 1g 1.
(f 2)1 = (f 1)2.
ff 1(x) = f 1f(x) = x.

14

The conditions for the existence


of inverse functions are
(a) the function must be one-toone,
(b) that every element in the
codomain must be linked to
an object.

SPM
Clone

SPM
Clone

SPM
Clone

SPM
Clone

03

05

08

10

Try: Question 1, Self Assess 1.5.

F
O
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M

14
Find the inverse function of f : x
Solution
Method 1
1
f 2x
: x

x+2

2x
1
Let
y =
x + 2
y(x + 2) = 2x 1
yx + 2y =2x 1
yx 2x = 1 2y
x(y 2) = 1 2y
1 2y

x =
y 2
(1 + 2y)

x =
(2 y)
1 + 2y

x =
2 y

2x 1
, x 2.
x+2

1 + 2y
f 1(y)=

2 y

1 + 2x
f 1(x) =
2 x

Solution
Lety =f 1(3)
f(y) =3

CHAPTER

y
+
8 =3

y 6
y + 8 = 3(y 6)
y + 8 = 3y 18
2y =26
y
=13
f 1(3)=13


Given the function f 1 : x

find the value of f 1(3).

CHAPTER

14

\ f 1 :
Method 2
Let f 1(x)=y
Thus, f(y)=x
2y
1 =x


y+2
2y 1 = x(y + 2)
2y 1 = xy + 2x
2y xy =2x + 1
y(2 x)=2x + 1

2x+
1

y =
2 x

2x+
1
f 1(x) =
2 x

Rearrange, making x
the subject.
Cross multiplication.
Expand the left-hand
side.
Group the terms in x
together.
Factorise the
left-hand side.
Making x the subject

In the SPM marking scheme,


it is not compulsory for
students to write x 2.
Rearrange the formula,
making y the subject.

\ f 1 : x
Try: Question 2, Self Assess 1.5.

15
Given the functions f(x) = 6 2x and g(x)=x1 ,
x 0, find f 1g1.


6
x
f 1(x) =
2

g(x)=x1
Let g 1(x) =y
Thus, g(y) = x

y1 = x

y =x1
g1(x) =x1

Solution
First of all, find the inverse functions f 1 and g1.
f(x) = 6 2x
Let f 1(x) =y
Thus, f(y) =x
6 2y =x

6 x =2y

6
x

y =
2
15

Functions

F
O
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4

6 x1

=
2
6x
1 , x 0
=


2x

Hence, f 1g1 (x)

=
f 1 x1

Apply the composite


function of g 1
followed by f 1.

Try: Questions 37, Self Assess 1.5.

SPM
Clone

04

F
hx 5
, x 2 and its
Given the function
O f : x
x2
R
2x + k
inverse function M
f 1: x , x 3, find
x3

(a) the value of h4and of k,
(b) the values of t such that f(t) = 4 t.
3


2x
+
k.
But it is given that f 1(x)=


x3
Hence, by comparison, k = 5, h = 3.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
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7
7

f(t) =4 t
3
3t

5
4


=
t

t2
3
3(3t 5) = 4t (t 2)
9t 15 = 4t 2 8t

0 =4t 2 17t + 15

0 = (4t 5)(t 3)
t =5 or 3
4
(b)

Solution
(a) Let f 1(x) =y
Thus, f(y)=x

hy 5

=x

y2

hy 5 = x(y 2)

hy 5 = xy 2x
2x 5 = xy hy
2x 5 = y(x h)

2x

5

y =

x h

2x

5

f 1(x) =

x h
Try: Questions 89, Self Assess 1.5.

8
x

SPM
Clone

05

z
g

f
1

Solution

5
(a) f : y py + q
g : y

3y q

5
f(y)=py + q
g(y)=

3y q

f 3 =1 g 3 =10
2
2
5
3
p + q=1
=10
2
3 3 q
2
1
3p
+
2q
=
2
...
5=10

9
q
2

10

The above diagram shows the representation of the


mapping of y onto x by the function
f :y py + q and the mapping of y onto z by
q
5
the function g : y , y . Find
3y q
3
(a) the value of p and of q,
(b) the function that maps x onto y,
(c) the function that maps x onto z.

Functions

16


5 = 10

9 2q

2
10
= 10
9 2q
1
= 1
9 2q
1 = 9 2q
2q = 8
q = 4
From 1 : When q = 4, 3p + 2(4) = 2
p = 2

(c) Based on the diagram, the function that maps x


onto z is gf 1(x).
f

gf

(b) The function that maps x onto y is f (x).


It has been found that f(y) = 2y + 4.
Let f 1(x) =w
Thus,
f(w)=x
2w + 4 = x

4 x =2w

4
x

w =
2


4x
f 1(x)
=

F
O
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M
4

CHAPTER

gf (x)


4
x
=
g
2

5

=

4

x 4
3
2

5
=

12

3x

2

=10

4 3x
10
4
gf 1 : x
,x
4 3x
3

CHAPTER

Try: Question 10, Self Assess 1.5.

1.5b To Find a Function Given its Inverse


Function

1.5c Further Examples on Inverse


Functions

The inverse of an inverse function, f 1(x), will give


9 f(x).
us back the original function,

9
Given that g1(x) =

16
The function f is defined by f (x) = 2x + 1 , x 1.
x1

If f 1(k) = 4 k, find the values of k.
3

SPM
Clone

11

2x + 1
1
, x , find g(x).
2x 1
2

Solution

2x
+
1
Let y =

2x 1
y(2x 1) = 2x + 1
2xy y =2x + 1
2xy 2x =y + 1
x(2y 2) = y + 1
y + 1

x =

2y 2
y + 1
g(y) =

2y 2
x+1

g(x) =
,x1
2x 2

Solution
4
f 1(k) = k
3
If f 1 (x) = y,
k =f 4 k
then x = f (y).
3

4k
2 + 1
3
k =
4k 1

3

8k
+
3


3
k =


4k


3

8k
+
3
3
k =

3
4k 3

8k
+
3
k =

4k 3

Rearrange, making x
the subject.

Try: Question 11, Self Assess 1.5.

17

Functions

F
O
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M
4

4k 2 3k =8k + 3
4k 2 11k 3 = 0
(4k + 1)(k 3) = 0
k = 1 or 3
4

18
Given the function f : x 5x 2, find ( f 2)1 in the
same form.
Solution
Find f 2(x) first.
f 2(x)= ff(x)
=
f(5x 2)

=5(5x 2) 2

=25x 10 2

=25x 12

Try: Question 30, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 1.

Next, find the inverse of f 2(x).


Let ( f 2)1 (x) =y
Thus, f 2(y) =x
If the question requires
25y 12 = x
us to state the answer
25y =x + 12
in the same form, we

x
+12
have to express the
y =

25
answer in the form
(f 2)1 : x
x + 12

x + 12
( f 2)1(x) =

25
25
and not

x
+12
(f 2)1 (x) = .
x + 12
( f 2)1 : x

25
25

F
O
R
17
M

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
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M

Given that g1 4 2 kx
(x)
17= and f(x) = 3x, find
4
(a) g(x) in terms of k,
(b) the values of k such that fg(1) = 3 k.
2
Solution

The inverse of g1 will give us back g.

kx

(a) g1(x) =

4

2

kx
Let y =


4
4y = 2 kx
kx = 2 4y
2 4y
x =

k
2 4y
g(y) =

k

2

4x
g(x) =

Try: Question 21, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 2.

Rearrange, making x
the subject.

19

1
Given that f 1(x) = x + m , x m and

g(x) = 3 x, find

1
3x
(a) the value of m if f(x)=

x ,
(b) the values of k if ff 1(k 2 7) = g[(k + 2)2].
Solution
(a) Letf 1(x)=y
f(y) =x

1
3y

=x
y
1 3y =xy

1 =xy + 3y

1 =y(x + 3)

1

y =
x + 3

1

f 1(x) =

x + 3

1 .
But it is given that f 1(x)=

x+m
Hence, by comparison, m = 3.

fg(1) = 3 k
2

2

4(1)
f = 3 k
k
2
2
f
= 3 k
k
2
2
3
= 3 k
k
2
6
3k
=

k
2
3k 2 =12

k 2 =4

k = 2
(b)

Try: Question 20, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 2.

Functions

18

(b) ff 1(k 2 7) = g[(k + 2)2]


k 2 7 = 3 (k + 2)2

k 2 7 = 3 (k 2 + 4k + 4)
k 2 7 = 3 k 2 4k 4
2k 2 + 4k 6 = 0

k 2 + 2k 3 = 0
(k + 3)(k 1) = 0

k =3 or 1

ff 1(x) = x is always true and it has


to be memorised.
Try: Question 22, SPM Exam Practice 1 Paper 2.

1.5
(a) f 1
(b) g1
(c) g1f 1
Is ( fg)1=g1f 1?

1
CHAPTER

O
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M

(d) fg
F 1
(e) ( fg)
CHAPTER

1 Evaluate f 1(4) for each of the following


functions.
(a) f : x 5 4x
5
(b) f : x 6 ,
x x0
(c) f : x 3x + 2 , x 3
2x + 3
2
2 Find the inverse function of each of the
following functions.
(a) f : x 7x 4

3x

4
(b) g :x


2
3 x0
(c) h : x 9 ,
x
(d) m : x 2x + 2 , x 3
5x 3
5
pooooooo
(e) n : x 2 x x, x 2

7 The function f is defined by f:x4 2x 1.


(a) Find the expressions for f 2 dan f 1.
(b) Show that ( f 1)2 = ( f 2)1.
8 Given the function f : x 4x + h and its inverse

kx
+,
5 find
function f 1 : x


4
(a) the value of h and of k,
(b) the expression for f 1 f.
x+p

, x 5 and
9 Given the function f : x
x5


qx + 6
its inverse function f 1 : x ,

x1
x 1, find

(a) the value of p and of q,
(b) the values of x for which f 1(x) = 8x.

4

3 Given the functions f : x , x 0 and
x


g : x 2x + 3, find each of the following
functions.
(a) fg
(d) g2
(g) f 1g1
1
(b) gf
(e) f
(h) g1f 1
2
1
(c) f
(f) g

10

3x
,
1

4 The function f is defined by f :x


x2
x k, find

(a) the value of k,
(b) f 2,
(c) f 1.

1
2

The diagram shows the representation of the


mapping of y onto x by the function
f :y my + n and the mapping of y onto z by
n
m

the function g : y y . Find
n 2y
2

(a) the value of m and of n,
(b) the function that maps x onto y,
(c) the function that maps x onto z.

5 Given the functions f : x 2 4x and



g : x 3 , x 1, find

x1

1
(a) f
(c) f 1g1
(e) (gf )1
1
(b) g
(d) gf
Is (gf )1=f 1g1?
6 Given the functions f : x 1 2x and

3x
10
11 (a) Given that f 1(x) = +

, find f(x).

4

x
+
2 x 2, find
g : x
,
x2


2x
+,
3 find g(x).
(b) Given that g1(x) =


x+4

19

Functions

F
O
R
M
4

1
Paper 1 Short Questions
Multiple-choice
Questions
1.1
P

15
24

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
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M

Based on the above information,


the relation from P to Q is defined
by the ordered pairs {(2, 1), (2, 3),
(6, 5), (6, 7)}. State
(a) the images of 2,
(b) the object of 7.
[2 marks]

Relations

35
45

F
O
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M

6
7
8

The arrow diagram shows the


relation between set P and set Q.
Based on the arrow diagram, state
(a) the domain,
(b) the range,
(c) the codomain.
2 The arrow diagram shows the
relation between set A and set B.
A

03

Functions

20

y
z

Set P

30

40

Set Q

State
the cant
rangeFigure
of the relation,
1.1 (a)
Signifi

(b) the type of the relation.


[2 marks]

6 In the diagram below, set Q shows


the images of the elements of set P.

06

3
2

16

7 The following arrow diagram


SPM
Clone represents a linear function f.

07

Set X

State
(a) the relation in the form of
ordered pairs,
(b) the type of the relation,
(c) the domain of the relation.
[3 marks]

1.2

Functions

1.3

Absolute Value Functions

Set Q

(a) State the type of relation


between set P and set Q.
(b) Using function notation,
write down a relation between
set P and set Q.
[2 marks]

Set P

81

Set P

P = {2, 6, 8}
Q = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

Set Y

10

The above graph represents the


relation from set P = {2, 6, 8} to set
Q = {5, 7, 9, 11}. State
(a) the images of 6,
(b) the objects of 7,
(c) the range.

10

Set Q
11
9
7
5
2 6 8

SPM
Clone

SPM
Clone

04

SPM
Clone

(a) Represent the given relation


using ordered pairs.
(b) State the type of the given
relation.
3

5 The diagram below shows the


relation between set P and set Q.

SPM
Clone

8 The diagram shows the relation


between set X and set Y in the form
09 of a graph.
SPM
Clone

(a) State the value of k.


(b) Using the function notation,
express f (x) in terms of x.
[2 marks]

f(x)

2
5
7
k

1
4
6
8

20

a
bx 2
10

4
1

The arrow diagram represents


a
, x k,
the function f : x
bx 2
where a, b and k are constants.
Find
(a) the value of a and of b,
(b) the value of k.

1.1

Sig

1.1

Sig

19 Given the functions f : x 3x 7


and fg : x x 2 + 1, find the
function g.
20 The function f is defined by
f : x x 2. Another function g is
such that gf : x x2 + 1. Find the
function g.
21 Given the functions f(x) = 2x 4
and fg(x) = 8x + 2, find gf(x).

xh
h
7

Find the value of h. [2 marks]


13 Given the function f : x _x 4_,
SPM
Clone find the values of x such that
07 f (x) = 9.
[2 marks]
14 The given diagram shows the graph
SPM
Clone of the function f(x) = |2x 3| for the
08 domain 0 x 4.
y

22 Given the functions h(x) = 7x 1


and the composite function
04 hg(x) = 35x + 13, find
(a) g(x),
(b) the value of x when
gh(x) = 4.
[4 marks]
SPM
Clone

23 Given the function g: x px + q


and its composite function
07 g2: x 49x 32, find the value of p
and of q such that p > 0.
[3 marks]

x 4, find g1.

2
,
x 3
x 3 and g(x) = 4x 1, find
1
f 1g .
2
28 Given the functions f(x) =

29 Given the function f : x 3x + h


and its inverse Ffunction
2O
f 1: x kx R, find the value of h
3
and of k.
M
4

18 Given that f : x 2x + m and


f 2 : x px + 6, find the value of m
and of p.

4x + 1
,
x+4

CHAPTER

12 The diagram shows the function


xh
06 m : x h , where h is
a constant.
SPM
Clone

17 Given the function f : x 4 5x,


find f 2.

27 Given the function g : x

11 Given the function g(x) = 2x 9,


find the possible values of
x if g(x) = 4.

16 Given the functions g : x 4 + x 2


and h : x 2x 4, find gh.

CHAPTER

10 (a) Sketch the graph of the


absolute value function
f (x) = 3 x for the domain
0 x 4.
(b) Hence, state the corresponding
range of values of f(x).

24
30 Given the function f(x) =
,
px + q

f(1) = 8, find
(a) the value of p and of q,
(b) the values of k if f 1 (k) = k.
31 Given the inverse function
f 1(x) = 2x 5, find
(a) f(x),
(b) the values of k if
f 1 f (k) = k 2 12.

SPM
Clone

32
x

f 1

4x + p

24 Given the function f (x) = x + 4 and


g(x) = tx 6, find
08 (a) f (6),
SPM
Clone (b) the value of t such that
10
gf (6) = 24.
[3 marks]
SPM
Clone

State
(a) the value of k,
(b) the range of values of f (x)
corresponding to the given
domain.[3 marks]

1.4

25 Given the function g: x 4x 1


and h: x 8x, find
09 (a) hg (x),
(b) the value of x if hg(x) = 2g(x).
[4 marks]
SPM
Clone

1.5
Composite Functions

15 The functions f and g are defined by


f : x 3x 2 and g : x x + 2
respectively. Calculate fg(5).

The arrow diagram represents


f 1(x) = 4x + p, where
p is a constant. Find
(a) the value of p,
(b) f(x).

33 Given the functions f(x) =

2
,
3x + 1

Inverse Functions

4x + 3 ,
x+5
x 5, calculate the value of

26 Given the function f(x) =


f 1(2).

21


(a) g1 f(x),
(b) the values of x which are
mapped onto themselves
under the function f.
Functions

F
O
R
M
4

34 Given that g : x 4x 1 and


h : x x 2 3x + 5, find
03 (a) g 1(7),
SPM
Clone (b) hg(x).
08 [4 marks]

1
CHAPTER

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

SPM
Clone

m
35 Given the functions h : x
3,
x
SPM
Clone
10
04 x 0 and h 1 : x
, x k,
x+k

where m and k are
constants, find
F
the value of m and
O of k.

[3 marks]
R
M

36 In the following arrow diagram, the


function f maps x4onto y and the
05 function g maps y onto z.
SPM
Clone

(a) h1(6),
(b) w1(x). [4 marks]

38 Given the functions m: x 4x 6


3 , x 0, find nm1.
05 and n: x
x

[3 marks]
SPM
Clone

Write down the value of


(a) g 1(4),
(b) gf(1).
[2 marks]
37 The functions h and w are defined
2
by h(x) = 3x + 5 and w(x) =
,
05
1 4x
SPM
Clone

39 Given the function g : x 6 2x,


find
09 (a) g(4),
(b) the value of p such that
g1(p) = 8.
[3 marks]
SPM
Clone

40 Given the functions g : x 2x + 3


and h : x 5x 8, find
10 (a) g 1(x),
(b) hg1(11).
[3 marks]
SPM
Clone

Paper 2 Long Questions


1.4

Composite Functions

1 The following diagram shows the


functions f and g that are defined
10
by f : x ax + b and g : x
,
cx
x c respectively.
17
f
g

m
2

g
f

Find
(a) the value of a, of b and of c,
(b) the value of m,
(c) the expression for gf.

2 The functions f and g are


defined by f : x hx 5 and
g : x x 2 + 3x + 5 respectively.
If the composite function fg is
defined by fg : x 2x 2 + kx + 5,
find the value of h and of k.
Functions

3 The functions f and g are defined


ax
by f : x , x 1 and
1x

g : x bx 1 respectively. If
f(4) = 4 and g(2) = 3, find
(a) the value of a and of b,
(b) the value of x for which
fg = gf.

4 Given the functions f : x 3 x


1
and g : x , x 1, find the
1x

expression for each of the
following.
(a) fg
(b) f 2
(c) f 13
g2
1.1 (d)
Signifi
cant Figure
(e) g3
19
(f) g

5 The function f is defined by


f : x 2x + 3. Another function g is
such that gf : x 4x2 + 12x + 15.
Find
(a) the function g,
(b) the values of c if g(c) = 7c,
(c) the values of x if fg = gf.

22

y
8

z
g

f
5

The above arrow diagram shows


the representation of the mapping
of x onto y by the function f : x
4x a and the mapping of y onto z

b
by the function g : y ,

12 y
y 12. Find
(a) the value of a and of b,
(b) the expression for the function
that maps x onto z,
(c) the element x that does not
change when it is mapped
onto z.

7 The functions f and g are


defined by f : x 2x + 3 and
g : x x 2 + bx + c respectively.
If the composite function fg is
given by fg :x 2x 2 + 4x 3,
find
(a) the value of b and of c,
(b) the value of g2(1).

10 The function g is defined by


g : x x + 2. Another function f
is such that fg :x x 2 + 5x + 7.
Find
(a) the function f(x),
(b) the values of c if f(2c) = 7c.

1.5

Inverse Functions

11 The function f is defined by


f : x mx + k, where m and k
are constants. The function g is
12
defined by g : x , x 1.
x+1
(a) Find the expression for g1.
(b) Find the expression for fg in
terms of m and k.
(c) If f(3) = g1(3) and
fg(2) = 2, find the value of m
and of k.

12 Given the functions f: x

x+1
,
x2

kx + 3
x 2 and g : x

, x 0,
x

find the value of k if gf 1(0) = 3.

g1
3

15 Given the function f : x 5x + h


and its inverse function
2
f 1 : x kx + , find
5
(a) the value of h and of k,
(b) (i) f(3),
(ii)
f 1f(3).


mx n
16 Given the function f : x
,

x2
x 2 and its inverse function
5 2x
f 1 : x , x 2, find
2x

(a) the value of m and of n,
(b) the value of k for which
f(k) = k + 2.

17 The following diagram represents


the mapping of y onto x by the
function f : y hy + k and
the mapping of y onto z by the
6
k
function g : y
,y
2y

k
2
.

x

1.1

19 Given that f : x p qx, find


(a) f 1(x) in terms of p and q,
(b) the value Fof p and of q if
O and f(1) = 2.
f 1(8) = 1
R
M
4

The diagram shows the mapping of


the functions f and g1, such that
f : x 2x + a and
g :x bx + c. Given that g maps 1
onto itself, find
(a) the value of a,
(b) the value of b and of c.

18 Given the functions f(x) = 2x 5


3x
and g(x) = , x 3, find
x+3

(a) f 1g(x),
(b) the value of x for which
gf(x) = f 2(2).

CHAPTER

9 The functions f and f 2 are such


that f : x ax + b and
f 2 :x 9x + 8.
(a) Find the values of a and
the corresponding values
of b.
(b) Considering a 0, find the
values of k for which
f(2k + 1) = k(k + 2).

14

CHAPTER

8 Given the functions f:x 3x 2


and fg : x 4 15x, find
(a) the expression for gf,
(b) the values of n if
gf(n2 1) = 6n + 6.


3 kx
20 Given that g1(x) = and

2
f(x) = 2x 2 3, find
(a) g(x) in terms of k,
(b) the value of k for which
g(x 2) = 2f(x).

21 Given the functions f :x hx + k,


h 0 and f 2 : x 25x 18,
find
(a) the value of h and of k,
(b) ( f 1)2 in the same form.

1
,xk
kx
and g(x) = 2 + x, find
(a) f(x) in terms of k,
(b) the value k if
ff 1(k 2 + 2) = g[(5 + k)2].

22 Given that f 1(x) =

Signifi
cant Figure
3
2

x+p
,
x+q
x q and its inverse function
2 3x
f 1 : x
, x 1, find
1x
(a) the value of p and of q,
1
(b) the values of k if f 2(k) = k.
3

13 Given the function f : x

Find
(a) the value of h and of k,
(b) the function that maps x
onto y,
(c) the function that maps x
onto z.

23

23 Given that f : x 2x 3 and


x
g : x + 2, find
06
2
SPM
Clone

(a) f 1 g,[3 marks]


(b) the function h such that
hg : x 2x + 4.
[3 marks]
Functions

F
O
R
M
4

Paper 1

Short Questions
1 The relation between set
X = {6, 12, 15, 21} and set
11 Y = {3, 5, 7} is factor of.
(a) Find the image of 12.
(b) Express the relation in the
form of ordered
pairs.
F
O
[3
marks]

1
CHAPTER

2 Given the functions g(x) = 5x 11


and h(x) = 3x, find the value of
11 gh(2).
[2 marks]

3 The inverse function h1 is defined


3
by h1 : x
, x 4. Find
11
4x
(a) h(x),
(b) the value of x such that

h(x) = 14.
[4 marks]

State
(a) the object of 40,
(b) the type of the relation.
[2 marks]

3 Given the function f (x) = px + q and


f 2 (x) = 4x + 9, where p and q are
constants, find the value of p and of
q if p < 0.
[3 marks]

2 The relation between two variables


is represented by the following set
of ordered pairs:

4 Given the function f : x x + 4


and the composite function
gf : x x 2 + 6x + 2, find
(a) g(x),
(b) fg(4). [4 marks]

SPM
Clone

R
M

Paper 1

1 The graph below shows the relation


between set A and B.

40
30

{(4, 16), (3, 9), (2, 4), (2, 4),


(3, 9), (4, 16)}

20
10

3
Set A

(a) State the type of the above


relation.
(b) Represent the above relation
using a function notation.
[2 marks]

2x + p
and
5
5x + 3
,
its inverse function f 1(x) =
q
find the value of p and of q.
[4 marks]

5 Given the function f (x) =

(a) Find the value of h and of k. [4 marks]


(b) If gf 1(x) = 5x, find the values of x. [3 marks]

Paper 2

Long Questions
1 The function f and its inverse function f 1 are
hx
kx
, x 3, f 1(x) =
,x2
defined by f(x) =
x3
x2
respectively, where h and k are constants. Another
1
function g is defined by g(x) = , x 0.
x

Functions

SPM
Clone

Short Questions

Set B

CHAPTER

F
O
R
M

SPM
Clone

2 Given the functions f : x

x
2 and g : x 3x + k,
2

where k is a constant, find


(a) f 1(3), [2 marks]
(b) the value of k if f 1g: x 6x 4,
[2 marks]
(c) h(x) such that hf : x 9x 3.
[2 marks]

24

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