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Analysis of Past Year Questions Population Geography

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Birth and Mortality


With the help of examples, define the terms epidemic and pandemic and explain briefly their effects on
mortality in LDCs and DCs.
Explain why the infant mortality rate (IMR) may be regarded as one of the best measures of socio-economic
progress.
To what extent is an appreciation of population structure fundamental to understanding mortality in DCs?
Fig 7 shows the impact of different levels of fertility on population age-sex structure, assuming that mortality
is low and that there is no migration. Under what conditions may an increase in fertility become an objective
for a country?
Briefly explain the reasons behind mortality differentials in DCs and LDCs.
Describe and explain the factors that influence fertility.
Discuss how proximate determinants of fertility have affected the demography of a country you have
studied.
Using examples, explain how the use of contraception is key to controlling fertility rates.
Identify the factors which may help explain how epidemics and infectious diseases may affect countries
differently.
Capitalism is the best form of contraception. To what extent do you agree that economic growth is the most
important factor in reducing fertility rate in a country.
Explain how the following could influence population change. (years in marriage, length of breastfeeding,
advances in medical care, level of sanitation)
Institutional factors have the greatest influence in affecting fertility rates. Discuss the validity of this
statement in the light of current global population trends.
Describe and explain why some parts of the world experience lower life expectancies.
Explain why infant mortality rate is often seen as a good measure of a countrys socio-economic progress.
Briefly explain the effect on fertility rates brought about by increasing a countrys literacy rate.
Explain how a countrys fertility rate may be reduced as girls education improves.
With improvements in medicine in the last 50 years to what extent do patterns of mortality still differ
between developed countries (DCs) and less developed countries (LDCs)?

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CJC07

NJC07
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Demographic Transition Model/Population Pyramids


Assess the evidence for, and the usefulness of, the addition of a 5 th stage to the demographic transition
model.
To what extent do you agree that rather than there being one demographic transition, there are in reality
many?
What factors may affect the timing of the demographic transition experienced by different countries? Use
examples to support your answers.
How useful is demographic transition theory in predicting future population scenarios in the LDCs?
How useful is the Demographic Transition Model in understanding demographic characteristics of countries in
the present day?
What factors may affect the timing of the demographic transition experienced by different countries? Use
examples to support your answer.
Discuss the usefulness of the population pyramid in understanding a countrys population structure.
With the aid of diagrams, describe the relationship between the different stages of the Demographic
Transition Model (DTM) and the population structure.
Discuss the links between Demographic Transition Theory and age structure.
Discuss how population structure is affected by changes in family structure and gender imbalance.
Discuss the value and limitations of population pyramids in predicting population change.
The demographic transition theory (DTT) is more accurate and useful in explaining and predicting population
trends in less developed countries (LDCs) than more developed countries (MDCs). To what extent do you
agree with this statement? You should refer to appropriate examples in your answer where possible.
Compare the population structures of more economically developed countries (MEDCs) and less
economically developed countries (LEDCs).
With the help of an age/sex pyramid, explain the meaning of the terms dependency and dependency ratio.
Discuss the extent to which the demographic transition model is a useful tool in understanding the changing
population patterns in countries you have studied.
To what extent can the demographic transition model help us to understand future population trends in
economically less developed countries (ELDCs)?
Explain how the age structure of a country typically changes as it goes through the stages of demographic
transition.
With reference to a specific country in Stage 4 of the demographic transition, evaluate the effectiveness of
the countrys population theory.

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TJC07

How helpful are population pyramids in predicting population change?

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Population Projection
Explain the need for, and the problems of, population forecasting at the national scale.

According to one UN projection, total world population will pass 7 billion in 2013. To what extent do you
agree that such a prediction is of little value?
By 2050, according to the UN predictions, the population of thirty-nine economically more developed
countries (EMDCs) will have declined. To what extent can this be explained by Malthus ideas?
Outline the need for, and explain the problems of, population forecasting at the national scale.

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How useful is demographic transition theory in predicting future population scenarios in the LDCs?
Discuss the role of population structures in population forecasting and planning.
Assess the need for forecasting of population changes and the role of the government in population
planning.
A recent demographic survey was done by UN and its demographers cut 400 million from their best estimate
of the worlds population in 2050. They are now expecting 8.9 billion people on earth in 2050, rather than
the 9.3 billion that they forecasted in 2002. Discuss the validity of this statement with reference to recent
population trends.
Explain the need and problems of population forecasting at the national level.
Japan is an MEDC with an ageing population. Japans National Institute of Population has predicted that the
population will be extinct (zero) by the year 3387. To what extent do you agree that such predictions are of
limited value?
Explain the need for, and the problems of, population forecasting at the national scale with reference to a
country or countries.
Fig 4 shows the projected date by which selected world areas will reach zero population growth. Account for
the different dates by which these regions will reach zero population growth.
Japan is an MEDC with an ageing population. Japans National Institute of Population has predicted that the
population will be extinct (zero) by the year 3387. To what extent do you agree that such predictions are of
limited value?
Discuss the values and limitations of population pyramids in predicting population change.
Japan is an MEDC with an ageing population. Japans National Institute of Population has predicted that the
population will be extinct (zero) by the year 3387. To what extent do you agree that such predictions are of
limited value?

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Population-Resource Relationship
Describe and explain Boserups ideas about population-resource relationships.

Outline and explain Malthus approach to the population-resource relationship.

By 2050, according to the UN predictions, the population of thirty-nine economically more developed
countries (EMDCs) will have declined. To what extent can this be explained by Malthus ideas?
Explain the concepts of underpopulation, optimum population and overpopulation. Choose one of the
concepts and explain how it may be applied to a named country.
To what extent are the limits of growth model, shown in Fig 8, helpful in understanding the populationresource relationship at the world scale?
With the help of examples, comment on the view that population growth stimulates the development of
technology which will utilize resources more effectively.
Using detailed examples, critically evaluate the consequences of overpopulation and underpopulation.
With reference to an example, describe and explain the socio-economic differential that exists within a
country.
Explain the hedonist and conservationist views in population-resource relationships.
Discuss how global variations in resource use and societal changes affect population-resource relationships
and sustainable development.
Explain the key concepts of Malthus theory of population change.
Compare and contrast the hedonistic and conservationist views on population resource relationships.
Using the I=PAT model, explain the relationship between population growth and resource utilization.
With reference to examples you have studied, show how countries have experienced population-resource
disequilibrium.
Assess the effectiveness of population policies that have been implemented to address the populationresource disequilibrium.
Explain why the concept of ecological footprint may be regarded as one of the best measures of
sustainability.
With reference to population resource theories, evaluate the view that current world food production would
be adequate to feed the world population.
The shortage of resources is due to population numbers, and not because of poor resource management.
Discuss this in relation to population-resource theory or theories.

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Describe the characteristics of overpopulation and explain its causes.


With reference to specific examples, assess the economic and social implications of changes in the
population structure of a country.
Discuss the relationship between population growth and resource utilization.
Explain what you understand by Erlich and Holdrens formula I=PAT where I stands for Impact, P for
Population, A for Affluence and T for Technology. What is the value of this theory?
Can the expanding populations in LDCs be matched with a sustainable use of resources and environments?
Compare Malthus views on population change with the Club of Romes Limits to Growth Theory.
With reference to recent developments in the world, how valid is the Club of Romes Limits to Growth
Theory?
With reference to examples, discuss inequalities that can exist between different sectors of a countrys
population.
Global population growth will eventually exceed the earths carrying capacity. Do you agree with this
statement?
With the aid of a simple diagram, explain the concepts of over, under and optimum population.
How useful are the various population resource theories in explaining the relationship between population
growth and resource utilization?
Evaluate the statement necessity is the mother of invention in the light of population resource
relationships.
Explain what is meant by the terms optimum population, under population and overpopulation.
Evaluate the usefulness of Malthus ideas on population-resource relationships.
Outline the possible consequences of population increases on resource availability.
Using examples that you have studied, discuss the view that socio-economic inequalities are greater within
nations than between nations.
What do you understand by the following concepts: under population, over population and optimum
population?
Review the criteria used to measure inequalities in populations on a global scale.
According to the Club of Rome in 1972, if the present growth trends in world population, industrialisation,
pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet
will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. Based on your assessment, how likely will we
reach our limits to growth before 2072?

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MI08
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SAJC08
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AJC07
ACJC07
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Population Policies
Assess the effectiveness of anti-natal policies in LDCs and give reasons for their relative success or failure.
Chinas one child policy is said to have created a generation of little emperors. Assess the social and
economic consequences of most families having only one or two children.
To what extent are anti-natal policies often more effective than pro-natal policies?
To what extent do you agree that governments are effective in controlling population growth?
Discuss the challenges of increasing dependency ratios to governments.
To what extent do you agree that governments can control and manage population change?
To what extent are population pyramids useful in helping governments to formulate relevant policies to curb
with future population problems in their countries.
With reference to examples, show how population policies are meant to attain sustainability of the nation.
Assess the social and economic consequences for families and for the state when most couples have only
one or two children.
With reference to examples, evaluate the range of strategies employed by countries to achieve the goal of
an optimum population.
Evaluate the success of government policies in countering an ageing population.
Explain the implications of an ageing population for government spending.
To what extent is it true that pro-natal policies have had limited success as compared to anti-natal policies?
How successful are governments in planning of and achieving future population growth scenarios?
Pro/anti-natal policies are not always the most appropriate strategies of managing population change.
Assess the social and economic consequences for families and for the state when most couples have only
one or two children.
With the help of located examples, assess the influence of government on proximate variables in achieving
the desired fertility rate.
Using appropriate examples, critically evaluate the role of government planning in affecting demographic
changes.
Explain why a rapidly ageing society might cause a huge fiscal deficit and social headache. (a fiscal deficit
occurs when public sector spending exceeds its revenue)
With reference to examples, assess the effectiveness of the state in managing the challenges of a rapidly
ageing society.
With reference to an example or examples, evaluate the need for, and success of, pro-natal policies.

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To what extent do you agree with the view that economic development is more effective than population
policies in limiting population growth?
Using a case study you have studied in detail, analyse the population policy implemented by the
government.
Explain the implications of a high youth and aged dependency for government spending.
Explain how and why developed countries have attempted to increase fertility rates in recent year.
Evaluate the statement that recent doomsday predictions of global population exceeding the earths
carrying capacity to sustain it is a flawed one.
While it is highly desirable for national governments to regulate population growth, they have not been very
successful at it. How far is this true?
With reference to one country that you have studied, evaluate the measures that have been taken to resolve
the countrys population problems.
Compare the effectiveness of anti and pro-natal policies in two or more countries you have studied.
To what extent do you agree that state governments can control and manage population change?
Why do some countries urgently need an increase in birth rates?
Assess the extent to which national population policies have been effective in regulating the structure and
growth of populations.
Migration
Using examples, explain how distance may operate as a constraint on transnational migration.
Globalization has increased the flow of transnational migrants and the complexity of their movements.
Assess the extent to which this is true for migratory flows you have studied.
Using examples, explain how political and cultural barriers may operate as constraints to the acceptance and
integration of immigrants.
To what extent do you agree that transnational migrants are usually beneficial to both sending and receiving
countries?
Globalisation has increased the flow of transnational migrants and the complexity of their movements.
Assess the extent to which this is true for migratory flows you have studied.
Describe and explain the trends in the migration of people in recent years.
Using examples, explain how transnational migration may be influenced by political and cultural factors.

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Describe and account for the changing nature of migration since the 1960s.
To what extent do you agree that economic transnational migration is usually beneficial to both sending and
receiving countries?
Discuss the factors which influence a persons migrability (how likely they are to migrate).
With reference to a range of examples, assess the benefits and costs of international migration to both
source and host countries.
With reference to examples, describe the main types of internal migration of population.
The social and economic impacts of internal migrations are greater on the source areas than on the
destinations. With reference to LDCs, how far do you agree with this statement?
Discuss the factors which influence a persons migrability (how likely they are to migrate).
What are the impacts of transnational migration on both sending and receiving regions?
Explain why some parts of the world experience higher levels of immigration.
With the help of located examples, assess the impacts of large numbers of rural in-migrants on the society
and economy of receiving areas.
Describe and explain the key political barriers to transnational migration today.
With reference to examples, critically evaluate the view that economic migration is usually beneficial to both
sending and receiving countries.
Explain what is meant by the term feminization of labour migration.
Briefly describe and explain the trends in the migration of the people in recent years.
With reference to examples you have studied, critically examine the view that problems brought about by
immigration far outweigh the benefits that comes with it.
Assess the roles of push and pull factors in one or more example(s) of transnational migration.
With reference to examples, illustrate the differing patterns in recent migratory flows within countries.
Describe the major forms of international migration that have taken place in the last 30 years.
Using examples to support your answer, examine the relative importance of the push factors that lead to
forced and voluntary migration.
Describe the impacts of migratory flows on less developed countries.
Describe and account for the recent trends in migratory patterns.
Discuss the impacts of labour migration on i) the source country, ii) the destination country, iii) the migrants
themselves.
Assess the importance of push and pull factors in one or more examples of transnational migration.

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