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ETH Zürich Cadastral System WS 2006/07

Essay Report

The Swedish Cadastral System

System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,
System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,
System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,
System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,
System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,
System WS 2006/07 Essay Report The Swedish Cadastral System (source for all photos: [5]) Silvia Rossinelli,

(source for all photos: [5])

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik 9. Semester

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Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Introduction

Cadastral system can be defined as a methodically arranged public inventory of data concerning properties within a certain country or district, based on a survey of their boundaries. The outlines of the property and the parcel identifier normally are shown on large-scale maps which, together with registers, may show for each separate property the nature, size, value and legal rights associated with the parcel. 1 The main task of the cadastre can be seen as the setting down of parcels, which are represented on a large scale map with a parcel identifier. The identifier (parcel number) is used in the land register to indicate the legal object in a special, short and unambiguous manner as connection of the legal part with the cartographic, surveying one. To create the graphical representation in the map a quite accurate surveying of the land should be carried out. Besides the map or the geometrical part there exists also a descriptive or alphanumeric part of the cadastre: one or more registers which contain physical attributes of the parcel i.e. identifier, local location, area, kind of use and abstract attributes like data for land tax such as value, proprietor and/or taxpayer.

Cadastral systems are tightly connected with the land registration systems. The last one can be defined as the process of official recording of rights (i.e. property right) in land through deeds or as title on properties which it means that there is an official record (land register) of rights on land or of deeds concerning changes in the legal situation of defined units of land that regulate the character and transfer those rights. 2 Land registration system can be divided into two groups: the deed and the title registration system. The main purpose of land registration is to give publicity and legal protection for acquisition of rights in real property. An orderly, well-functioning land registration system is a prerequisite for guaranteeing security and facilitating economic transactions.

Nowadays cadastral system has multipurpose aspects (for example fiscal, legal and economic purpose) and an increasing number of applications of their data (for example land use planning, resource planning and management for a sustainable development). Both cadastral and land registration system are very important as guarantee for the real property establishing certainty of ownership and right to land like servitudes and easements. They give publicity and legal protection for land tenure and they built up the basis of the development of social and economic life. They allow to manage the land and all the connected geo-data in an ordered and systematic way. Only with a good developed and efficient cadastral system there will be a fair and transparent land mark. The information are contained in different cadastral and legal land registers, utilities registers and map databases has an immense capital value in both public and private sector activities. It is also a key infra-structural component in a nation’s economy. A well functioning map and land administration system is one of the essential cornerstones in a market economy. The absence of a reliable and efficient land registration and cadastral system can have serious implications for the social and economic welfare of a country. The main part of the cadastral systems in the developed countries, provide sufficient security for the mortgage market and as results this countries taken economics, social and organizational advantages. This is very often not the case for country in transition (for example Poland and Czech Republik), for country in post- conflict situation (for example Kosovo and Cambodia) or for developing countries. As a matter of fact many systems of those countries don’t offer the necessary transparency and security to build up a trustful land management. The principal reason of this insecurity is often a lack in legal basis:

cadastral system and land registration are usually not assured and supported by the law.

1 Definition taken from [12]

2 Definition taken from [12]

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In this essay the cadastral system of Sweden is studied as example of cadastral system in developed countries.

Purpose

The main goal of this report is to present the cadastral system of Sweden. The conceptual elements and the major components of the Swedish cadastral system have to be explained; the description should cover all the important aspects of the Swedish cadastral system considering his history and his reforms issues too. Example of cadastral maps should be also illustrated. To context this information a short description of the country (geographical, historical and social context, political and administrative structures) will be presented at the beginning of this essay report. This part is helpful to better understand the history and the principle of the Swedish cadastral system.

Country context

Geographical context

The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia. It is bordered by Norway in the west, Finland in the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait in the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia in the east. It is connected to Denmark in the southwest by the Oresund Bridge. Sweden is a long country and extends from approximately 55°N in the south to 69°N in the north. Sweden is 1’572 km long and approximately 500 km wide at its widest point.

km long and approximately 500 km wide at its widest point. Location of Sweden (dark orange)
km long and approximately 500 km wide at its widest point. Location of Sweden (dark orange)

Location of Sweden (dark orange) in Europe (grey and light orange for the countries which belong to the EU) (source: [5]).

Map of Sweden with the largest cities and lakes and the most important roads and railroads (source: [5]).

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The area of Sweden, including lakes and watercourses, is approximately 449’964 square km.

Gotland (3’000 square km) and Öland (1’350 square km) are the largest islands of Sweden. In 2006

it has a population of 9.1 million people. In 2002, the average life expectancy for women was 82,1

and for men 77,7 years. From an international perspective these are high figures. In 2050 the population of Sweden is expected to reach 10 million. The capital and the largest City with about 800’000 residents is Stockholm (the metropolitan area has about 2 million people); other important cities are Göteborg and Malmö with respectively 800’000 and 500’000 inhabitants in the surrounding metropolitan area. Two thirds of Sweden's population lives in urban and semi-urban areas. Except in its metropolitan areas Sweden has a low population density, with most of the inland consisting of forests and with a lot of lakes. People living in Sweden, where the population density is only approximately 22 persons per square km, have so plenty of space compared with those in other European countries.

of space compared with those in other European countries. Photo of the Österdalälven River (on the
of space compared with those in other European countries. Photo of the Österdalälven River (on the
of space compared with those in other European countries. Photo of the Österdalälven River (on the

Photo of the Österdalälven River (on the top, source: [5]), of unspoiled natural land in the North of Sweden (on the left side, source: [5]) and of a small marsh within a forest (on the right side, photo of Silvia Rossinelli, Katerinholm 16.12.2006).

The land use type and percentage are in the following table to read out. Only about 10% of the country is of interest for the human activities (built-up area and arable land).

Type

Km2

%

Built-up areas

13’000

3

Arable land

36’000

8

Forest

240’000

53

Mountain

72’000

16

Water

39’000

9

Total

450’000

100

Land use type and percentage of Sweden (source: [5]).

Sweden is a quite flat land with a lot of small hills; only along the boundary toward Norway there is

a mountain range (Skaden), which average height is 2’000m. Kebnekaise (2’111 m) is Sweden's

highest mountain but is only a Lilliput compared with Europe's highest peak and the world's highest

Mount Everest (8’872 m). When the inland ice melted after the last Ice Age, the land began to rise in Sweden. The greatest rate of rise is 8 mm per year along the coast of Ångermanland in the middle of Sweden. In Skåne, in the south of Sweden, the land is sinking at a rate of 0,5 mm per year.

Sweden enjoys a mostly temperate climate despite its northern latitude, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. In the mountains of northern Sweden a sub-Arctic climate predominates. North of the

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Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of summer and in the winter night is unending for a corresponding period.

Historical and social context

Soon after the end of the last ice age, Sweden became populated; the ancestors of the Swedish people are considered to be part of the Teutonic peoples. During the Viking Age of the 9th and 10th century, Swedish Vikings traveled east setting their mark on the Baltic countries and Russia. As a matter of fact during the Middle Ages continued the expansion of Sweden into the northern wilderness of Lapland and Norrbotten, the Scandinavian peninsula, and present-day Finland. During medieval time, it was sometimes a union between Norway, Sweden and Denmark. In 1389, Norway, Denmark and Sweden were united under a single monarch in a treaty known as the Kalmar Union. After several wars and disputes between these nations, King Gustav I of Sweden (House of Vasa) broke free in 1521 and established a nation state, considered the foundation of modern kingdom of Sweden. Gustav I is considered to be Sweden's "Father of the Nation". In 1721 Sweden lost many territories around the Baltic Sea. Area of present day Finland was a part of Sweden proper from the early thirteenth century until 1809. The Union with Norway was in 1905 dissolved. The democratic state was established around 1900.

The 18th and 19th centuries saw a significant population increase and the industrialization began in earnest after 1870. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the century, people gradually began moving into cities to work in factories and the agriculture lost part of importance. The economic development of Sweden had a really fast evolution (this phenomenon is known as the economic Swedish miracle). Within 30 years this poor agricultural country becomes one of the best progressed and advanced country in the world. This was possible thanks a intelligent exploitation of the natural resources, a technical specialization and a good ingenuity. By the 1930s Sweden had achieved one of Europe's highest living standards. Sweden remained neutral during World War I and World War II as claimed by itself. Following the war, Sweden took advantage of intact industrial bases, social stability and its natural resources, making it possible to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe, leading it to be one of the richest countries in the world by 1960. During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party and established a welfare state, striving for a "well being for all"-policy. Sweden remains non-aligned militarily although it participates in some international military operation with NATO. Following a recession in the early 1990s as a result of global economic slowdown, measures were taken to liberalize the economy. Although the basis of the welfare state have been maintained a number of economic reforms have been implemented, including a reform of the pension system, privatization of state-owned companies and liberalization of markets. In recent years, economic liberalization has ensured that Sweden is now more similar to other high tax European countries however Sweden maintains a large welfare state. Sweden joined the European Union in January 1995. However, in a 2003 consultative referendum, Swedish citizens declined to adopt the Euro; the currency remains nowadays the Swedish krona (SEK).

Sweden has no official language but Swedish holds a de facto status as such. The dominant language has always been Swedish however five minority languages (Finnish, Meänkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish) are recognized.

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Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditiona
Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditiona

Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditional Swedish Falu red (on the left side, source: [5]) and yellow residential houses (on the right side, picture of Silvia Rossinelli, Katherinholm 6.12.2006).

Political and administrative structures

Sweden is a representative parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, in which King Carl XVI Gustaf since 1973 is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to official and ceremonial functions. The king has nowadays no political power.

Sweden is one State with one central government and parliament. The nation's legislature is the Swedish Parliament (Swedish: Riksdag), with 349 members; it’s an unicameral system. Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag holds supreme authority in Sweden. Parliamentary elections are held every four years; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation. The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917; it is considered the reason for the Swedish post-war welfare state. In the 2006 general election, the Moderate Party won a majority of the votes and their leader Fredrik Reinfeldt became prime Minister. It was by the Riksdag appointed and he chooses himself the ministers his governance. The ministries in the central government are small organisations, mainly dealing with policy formulation and preparation of proposals to the parliament. The central administration is carried out by national authorities and agencies, which, within the framework of the legislation and budget frames, have to carry out the implementation of the policy, independently. All governmental decisions have to be taken by the collectively within the government.

For administrative purposes, the country is dived into 21 counties (Swedish: län); these represent the regional level. A län is an arm of the executive power of the national government and has therefore neither autonomy nor legislative power. At county level, the State has a regional administration through the County Administrative Board (Swedish: länsstyrelse), which is appointed by the Government. It has own right to levy taxes and responsible mainly for health care at county level. The governor of one country has the title landshöving and he is the head of the länsstyrelse. Each county further divides as local level into a number of municipalities (Swedish:

kommun), making a total of 290 municipalities. Most social welfare issues as well as public school and land use planning are the responsibility of the municipalities, who also have direct elected parliament and own right to levy taxes. In each county there is also separate and direct elected County Councils (swedisch: landsting), which are the municipal representation appointed by the county electorate. It is a combination of several municipalities to take care to tasks that are to big for one single kommun, for example health and environment issues and traffic planning.

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Cadastral system

History of cadastral system

The Swedish cadastral system has a long history. During the 15th and 16th century Sweden became a centralized state with a powerful monarchy, who needed land information for tax purposes. The modern Swedish cadastre is based on cadastral books from 1530, established for taxation purposes by the king. These books list real properties village by village and give every unit a number in the village. This numbering system is still used nowadays for designation of real properties. During the 17th century these books were complemented by village cadastral maps, showing all real parcels in the village. The purpose of these maps was mainly to improve the taxation of land and make it more just and equal, by surveying the area and value of each land parcel. In order to carry out this task, Lantmäteriet (National Land Survey Office) was created in 1628 as a governmental organisation (see further information in the next chapter).

Land registration (land titles) has been confirmed since beginning of history by local courts in order to make it known that a property has changed ownership. Written documents are available from medieval time. In 1875 a title registration system was introduced. Court proceedings was compared to the cadastral books and maps and a special registry was established, the real property register, in order to give one definition of a real property and a designation to this unit. The title registration system was based on the real property register and the description of the property in the real property register. This register was established during a 20-year period from

1910-1930.

In 1930ties a work to establish a comprehensive and coherent national map in one national geodetic system was started. From the beginning, these maps were based on aerial photography, photo mosaics and later orthophotos. The maps were named economic maps and were produced in scales from 1:5’000-1:20’000. Cadastral boundaries were transferred from the old village maps to the new system by mainly photo interpretation of the boundaries and comparison with the old maps. There were no attempts to calculate new areas for the property units. This mapping program was finished in 1978 and is now maintained and complemented with land use plans, regulation and other features of importance for land use rights.

Another important development is that the original cadastral books with its division of the village into real properties also started (around 1600) to be used for recording of the population (birth, death and place of living) by the church, which at that time was a State Church. This recording has been maintained since then and today been taken over by the Tax Authority. In this way all people living in Sweden are connected to a real property in a continuously updated census. This is today a very important possibility for use of land information and social data for public and private planning and administration. The church books are a very interesting source for genealogical research.

In 1960ies a governmental investigation started to look into the question on how the books in the real property register could be modernised. It came out with the proposal to computerise the real property register. One of the main advantages was seen in the possibility to combine information in the real property register with the population register through the property designation and thus make spatial analysis to support physical and economical planning. For this purpose each real property was assigned a centroïd coordinate in the national system. This was actually one of the pioneer works, which later led to the development of Geographic Information Systems. The computerization of the Property Register and the Land Register did start around 1970. The decision to computerise the real property register was taken in 1968 and the land registry in 1970. The

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system was developed and the first county started with legal force in 1975. The system was completed for the whole of Sweden in 1995. The computerisation of cadastral maps has been made in two ways. First, cadastral parcels were digitised from the economic map, which now is totally digital and has changed name to the real property map. Secondly, surveys of each parcel and parcel (cadastral) maps have been transferred to more accurate cadastral data bases, which have been integrated with the land information system. This process has included many problems in order to link various local geodetic systems into one national system. 3

The Swedish Lantmäteriet has produced a large number of cartographic "treasures" during more than 375 years. In Lantmäteriet's map archives there are approximately three million maps produced between 1628 and the present day. The older materials mainly comprise hand-drawn, large-scale maps.

materials mainly co mprise hand-drawn, large-scale maps. The map shown here is part of an old

The map

shown here is part of an old geometric map of

Stuveryd and a number of other villages in the parish of Fivlered in the county of Älvsborg. It was drawn in 1707 by

the land surveyor Vilhelm Kruse (source: [2]).

As mentioned before Finland and the Baltic States have for different periods been included in the Swedish kingdom and as result they have been also influenced at this time by the Swedish cadastral system. The current system of Finland derives in a great measure of Swedish cadastral system principles. The National Land Survey Board of Finland was established in 1812 and there was no radical change in the cadastral legislation that derived from the Swedish rules.

Institutional framework

As noted before the National Land Survey Office (Swedish: Lantmäteriet) was created in 1628 as a governmental organisation. In government, it is represented through Ministry of Environment. Lantmäteriet is responsible for the land information system supporting cadastral (real property formation) and land registration. They also carry out real property formation and provide information about Sweden´s real property units.

Lantmäteriet´s mission is to manage the Swedish cadastral system and promote the rational subdivision of land, and to be responsible for the efficient provision of basic geographic and land information. This mission also includes the responsibility for the establishment and maintenance of

3 All the previous paragraphs taken from [5] with adaptations

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the Swedish national, fundamental geodetic networks but also for the provision of the technical infrastructure for surveying activities including satellite-based positioning and navigation. The official mission statement of Lantmäteriet is the following: “We contribute to a sustainable use of land and water and a secure ownership of real property. We do this in collaboration with state and municipality, private companies and private individuals. With the aid of our expert knowledge and unique information on geography and properties we help our customers find effective and reliable solutions, both in Sweden and abroad.” 4

Lantmäteriet’s vision should contribute to an efficient and sustainable use of real estate and land and water resources both in Sweden and internationally, should be easy to obtain-in time and place and always of high quality and reliable and can be carried out under conditions that make growth and the development of new products and services possible. Lantmäteriet was given ISO 14001 environmental certification in 2003.

Lantmäteriet´s annual turnover is approximately SEK 1’600 million. It has a regional organisation in each county and local offices in municipalities. There are therefore 21 county cadastral authorities in addition to the 38 cadastral authorities within the local administration (some bigger municipalities). These authorities have resources for carrying out all of the technical, juridical and economic work that is required in connection with property formation and reformation, the determination of boundaries and co-operation concerning joint facilities. Lantmäteriet also carries out formation, reformation, changes and determination of easements. There is a total of approximately 2’000 employees at around 100 offices located throughout Sweden. The head office is in Gävle. Corporate functions, which include finance, legal services, IT, marketing, information, strategy, establishment and international questions, provide support to the whole organization. Around 300 persons are engaged in these common functions.

The organisation of the Lantmäteriet is illustrated in the following figure.

the Lantmäteriet is illustrated in the following figure. The structure of the Lantmäteriet’s organization (source:

The structure of the Lantmäteriet’s organization (source: [4]).

Lantmäteriet has three main activities, which also form the organizational structure: cadastral services, land and geographic information services and repayment services (Metria).

- The land and geographic information division is responsible for the generation, further development, management and distribution of geographic and land information. Standardization work and R&D in geodesy, cartography and GIS is also carried out in the division.

- The cadastral service division is responsible for the overarching management of activities related to real property formation and cadastral procedures. These include, for example, the

4 [3]

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creation of new property units, changes to existing property boundaries, joint property units, easements and utility easements and joint facilities.

- The division Metria carries out a broad program of repayment services including consultancy. Metria´s consultancy commissions are mainly related to field survey, mapping, remote sensing and geographic information techniques. One of Metria’s specialist areas of competence in the information techniques field is the development of customized GIS solutions. 5

Connected to the Lantmäteriet there are two added division:

- The procurement division is responsible for carrying out the procurements of goods and services on behalf of functions and divisions within Lantmäteriet. The tasks of the division include administering procurements and signing contracts for, as example, framework agreement and at- call procedures.

- The Geo-data Advisory Group of Lantmäteriet is ordained national responsibility by the Swedish Government in coordinating production, cooperation, provision and development of all geo-data (geographic and real property information) in Sweden. The advisory group should participate in the formulation of a national strategic plan for the coordinated provision of information in the geo-data field, carry out the preparatory work and process questions of both basic and common national interest in the geo-data field, contribute to the development of a national and international infrastructure in the field by, for example, supporting the implementation of standards, and contribute to increased coordination of the activities of involved authorities and agencies concerning the development and provision of information. To the strategic plan belongs also the formulation for strengthening of the national spatial date (SDI) infrastructure. The results of this assignment should be presented to the Government by March 30, 2007. 6

If someone wants to make changes to your real property, Lantmäteriet can provide assistance with the legal aspects that may be involved. These can involve the location of existing boundaries and investigating the rights that are connected to a real property. Lantmäteriet can also investigate the environmental consequences of changes to a real property.

Lantmäteriet has responsibility for supporting the development of a secure and rational national credit market through development of specialized products including the Computerised Mortgage Certificate System, the Enterprise Mortgage Certificate System, the Register of Enterprise Mortgages and the Trade and Industry Register (more detail about the credit mark systems are in [2] to find). This is done in close co-operation with banks, credit institutions and the major property companies.

Professional surveyors and land administrators are organised in Svenska Lantmätareföreningen, which have about 1,500 members. Master Degrees in land surveying/land administration/ real property economic can be obtained from the Royal Technical University in Stockholm (about 70 per year) and the Technical University in Lund (about 30 per year). In addition there are possibilities to obtain a BSc in the University College of Trollhättan (about 20 per year) and Gävle (about 30 per year). The private sector is not involved in the official land or cadastral registration, nor in cadastral surveying. The private sector can only be involved as consultants or advisors to a client in particular cases. There is therefore no licensing system. There is only a demand on competence to work as head of a cadastral office, which is at least 2 years relevant practice and a Master Degree in land surveying/land administration. Lantmäteriet is responsible for guaranteeing legal security for individual property owners and also participates in measures to improve and formulate legislation in this field.

5 Paragraph taken from [2] with adaptations 6 Paragraph taken from [2] with adaptations

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Legal context

The Real property register is regulated in the Law of Real Property Register. This law also regulates how the information in the register can be distributed to clients. The Real Property Formation Act regulates, among other things, the content of the first part of the Real property register i.e. a description of the real property. The regulation consists of more detailed information on how the register shall be conducted. The Land Code regulates, among other things, the content of the Land Register. The content of the land Register has legal power and their correctness is guaranteed by the government, with provisions for compensation in case of losses suffered under certain conditions.

According to the technical development the Land Code was altered on the July 1, 2000. The Land Code now regulates the system of computerised registration. The same date a new law called the Property Register Act was implemented. This law regulates the Property Register and the selling of information from the register. This change and the new law was caused by the full implementation of the reform of computerising the land and property register and because of Directive 95/46/EC from October 24, 1995, which aims to prevent the violation of personal integrity in the processing of personal data. The Land Code now regulates the system of computerised registration. That means that even more certificates can be electronic. It is therefore very important that the legislation follows the technical development.

The connections between the different laws can be explained like this.

between the different laws can be explained like this. The Swedish legislation and the connect ions

The Swedish legislation and the connections between the laws (source: [9]).

The legislation concerning property formation and closely related issues is a powerful tool to promote land management. At the same time it guarantees security of the ownership of real property and land-related rights for the individual and third parties.

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Purpose, concept, content and procedure of cadastral system

The cadastral system including the land information system has the following main purposes:

- Promote and control sustainable and efficient land use

- Provide land information for land titling, land surveying, land use planning at local, regional and national level, land taxation, statistical analysis, environmental monitoring for a sustainable environmental development, population registration and business development. The access to all this information about land should be as easier as possible.

- Guarantee the real property establishing certainty of ownership and right to land like servitudes and easements. It give publicity and legal protection for land tenure. In this way a fair land market can be made up and property transfer of land parcels and houses should be facilitated.

From the previous situation with different system for urban and rural areas (see chapter history of cadastral system), the system is today one unified and uniformed system valid for all types of land in the all country, also governmental. The cadastral system is based on title registration and it as an unambiguous cadastral unit identifier; by the title registration systems it belongs to the German/Swiss group but in essence it is very similar to the Torrens system. By law is registration of land ownership compulsory. All properties are nowadays already registered; all land parcels are both in urban and rural areas legally registered and surveyed. The documents, maps and marks on the ground produced in the property formation process form the legal basis for the division of land into real properties and have the same legislation for the cadastral process and cadastre in both the urban and rural areas.

According to the Swedish Land Code, all land is divided into real properties. The extension of each real property is defined by the description in the Real Property Registry. A real property unit can consist of one or many land parcels, water parcels or specific rights like hunting, fishing, or from 1st January 2004 a defined room in the space like an apartment in a building or an underground pipeline. Objects permanently fixed to a piece of land or a construction are belongings to the real property unit. Watercourses are also part of the cadastre with the exception of the four biggest lakes of the country.

The content of the Swedish cadastral system is the following:

- Real Property Register: it contains records of the area of real properties and properties designation. The register also contains further information on easements, land-control and zoning regulations, archive references, the centroid coordinates for each parcel of the property, and the street address of the properties. It also contains information about mortgages, encumbrances, and notifications from other authorities on things such as bankruptcy, restoration orders etc.

- Land Register: it contains information about the legal owners name, address and civil registration number.

- Building Register: it consists of an identity (connected to the property identifier) for each building used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes, linked to data on the situation of the building, the use of the building, and the value of the building.

- Taxation information: it contains all information relative to the taxation purpose like value of a parcel or of a building. 7

The handling of the Property Register and Land Register has been automated into one EDP-system. The EDP-system has replaced the old books which previously were in use.

7 Paragraph taken from [6] with adaptations. Other sources list also the apartment Register or/and the address Register as a cadastral system components or only the Real Property Register and the Land Register as contents of the cadastral system

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The first two registers are the basis for the Swedish Land Data Bank System (SLDBS). The Land Data Bank System also contains information from the Real Property Assessment Register and the Population Register. Information from the Real Property Register and the Land Register are integrated within the system. The Digital Cadastral Index Map (see the description in the chapter cadastral mapping) is now also included to this system.

cadastral mapping) is now also included to this system. Overview of the Swedish Land Data Bank

Overview of the Swedish Land Data Bank System (SLDBS) (source: [8]).

The system provides all responsible agencies with integrated land information i.e. improves efficiency of public bodies. With support from the system the registration of title and mortgage is done the same day as the application arrives. The system also provides integrated information for multi-purpose use in the whole Swedish society. The information is disseminated on-line, direct to the users by Lantmäteriet or as value added services by information agents. Integrated information together with the national cadastre index map is accessible via Internet and available for more than 4 million citizens. The costs for development, implementation and operation of the LDBS are covered by fees charged to those who initiate changes of the registers (e.g. applicants for title and mortgages) or request official documents.

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Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik The Swedish Land Data Bank System with the

The Swedish Land Data Bank System with the contents of the several registers (source: [6]).

A number of additional registers have been added as time went on and today the comprehensive

register is named The Real Property Register and includes:

- Address Register

- Co-ordinate Register

- Plan Register

- Property Assessment Register

- Sales Price Register

- Owner Associations Register

- Housing Credit Guaranties Register 8

Lantmäteriet holds a wealth of information about Sweden’s division into property units. Land ownership rights are determined and registered in the Real Property Register. The Property Register

is the basic administrative register for all real properties in Sweden. Lantmäteriets Real Property

Register is the more important component and contains information about Sweden’s real estate; this register contains information about 3,2 million properties. The total assessed value of Sweden's real property is 3’600 billion Swedish kronor. All this information is of fundamental importance for Swedish society and the market economy. Other real property data that can be obtained from

Lantmäteriet includes information concerning tax assessment values and registration of ownership. For example, you can find out who owns a specific property and obtain information about tax assessed values.

All changes that are made to a real property unit must be done through a cadastral procedure. New properties can be formed and existing properties reformed; a cadastral procedure can also involve checking boundaries and creating rights so that, for example, several properties can jointly use a road or a broadband cable. Real property owners, purchasers or holders of other rights who want cadastral procedure to be carried out must apply to a Cadastral Authority. The property formation procedure is financed directly by fees from the applicant.

8 Paragraph taken from [7]

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

The cadastral activities are in particular:

- subdivision: an area is separated from a property unit from which a new property unit is created.

- reallotment: a piece of land is transferred from one property unit to another. An easement is created, changed or annulled.

- property definition: if there is uncertainty as to where the boundaries or markers of a property unit are located, it is possible to have the boundary defined.

- transfer or detachment of fixtures to real property: Swedish legislation permits the transfer of buildings or other fixtures that belong to one real property to another. It is also possible to detach fixtures.

- amalgamation: Two or more property units are merged to form a new property unit.

- partition: a property unit, which is owned by two or more persons, can be divided so that one owner gets his or her share as a new unit.

- establishment of joint facilities: a joint facility is a facility that is needed for the benefit of more than one property unit. Private roads, garages, water and sewerage pipes are examples of joint facilities.

- utility easement procedures: the owner of utilities that are used for the common good can acquire the land needed for this purpose.

- adjudication: the investigation and establishment of ownership.

- legalization: the informal subdivision of land carried out before 1972 can be legalized. 9

Lantmäteriet has the overall national supervision for the Swedish cadastre and through the local offices they carry out cadastral surveys such as subdivision of land into new real property units and making changes to existing units. Lantmäteriet is also responsible for register and system for land registration which shows ownership, mortgages, encumbrances etc.

In Sweden the responsibility for property formation and registration (the division of land into real property units) and land registration (ownership and encumbrances) lies with different organizations. Property formation is carried out by the Property Formation Authorities. The Property Register is the responsibility of the Property Register Authorities. There are 53 such as authorities. The Lantmäteriet has as mentioned before a supervisory responsibility for real property formation and registration. The real Property Register is maintained by a number of cadastral offices throughout the country. Maintenance of the register is basically a task for national government authorities but there are also 39 municipal authorities (the biggest cities), which have responsibility for maintenance within their own jurisdiction. The Land Register is maintained by 93 Land Register Authorities that are administratively supervised by the National Courts Administration. They update the land registry, which is an integrated part of the land information system. A governmental investigation has recently proposed that the responsibility for land registration should move from the courts to Lantmäteriet. These agencies and authorities, except some of the Property Register Authorities (which are municipal), are all governmental organizations.

The

organisations.

following

image

should

clarify

the

9 Paragraph taken from [2]

relationship

between

the

involved

agencies

and

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Agencies and organisation involved into the cadast ral

Agencies and organisation involved into the cadastral and land registration system (source: [6]).

Taxation authorities are responsible for the Real Property Taxation Registry and the Population Registry, which both are linked to the land information system through the real property designation.

Cadastral mapping

Cadastral mapping is integrated in the activities of the Lantmäteriet. To Cadastral Mapping belong a cadastral map of each parcel property unit in connection with property formation and the cadastral index map. Connected in this context are also land use regulations plans and the property maps.

The cadastral map

The Real Property Register contains a detailed description of the property units integrating a cadastral map for each unit. The cadastral map illustrates all the right connected to this property. The Swedish cadastral map is a representation of the property units indicating the properties ID and the surveyed elements. It’s used to describe and document changes in land use, land ownership and land use regulations during the years. This representation should respect the formal standard referring to the identification of the property units and to the graphical sketch. The production of the cadastral map is compulsory for every property unit and it has a legal value because it is published within the Real Property Register. The whole of Sweden is divided into real property units which are recorded in the form of line layers, except for within larger urban areas and in the mountainous areas of the country. For the digital management of this data centroid coordinates with a complete property key taken from the Real Property Register are included for every real property unit.

The cadastral map is always accompanied by a schedule. The more important information that are registered are a list of all the rights that can be connected with the property unit (for example servitudes and easements).

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Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Example of cadastral map (source: [1]). The Swedish

Example of cadastral map (source: [1]).

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Example of schedule associated to the cadastral map

Example of schedule associated to the cadastral map (source: [7]).

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

The Index Map

The index map contains information related to the division of Sweden into real property units including rights (jointly-owned facilities, utility easements and other easements), plans (for example detailed development plans) and restrictions (for example nature reserves, coastal protection areas, quarry and gravel pit permits and ancient sites and monuments).

and gravel pit permits a nd ancient sites and monuments). Example of the index map (source:

Example of the index map (source: [2]).

The map has nationwide coverage except for the mountain areas and within certain larger municipalities. The information is continuously updated and is also, for the most part, available in digital form. The responsibility for building and maintaining the digital map is on shared responsibility bases between the national government authorities and 39 municipal authorities (out of totally 290 municipalities). Lantmäteriet and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities have agreed that municipalities that have their own cadastral authority should store their index map information together with information from the central government cadastral authorities in a common database at Lantmäteriet. This agreement has as goal the building of a National Cadastral Index Map (NDRK) covering the whole country. To be possible this idea was developed an user interface (UI 2000) (see more details in the next chapter). One important demand for the interface is therefore that it will be able to handle all the information in the cadastral index map in Sweden.

all the in formation in the cadastral index map in Sweden. Example of extract from the

Example of extract from the digital cadastral index map for city of Gävle (source: [10]).

The property index map for rural areas is based on the land-use map. This is printed in a scale of 1:20 000, but is maintained on originals in a scale of 1:10 000 at the regional authorities. The map is based on a orthophoto plan. Reporting is done using a coordinate system common to the whole country. The property index maps for urban areas are based on large-scale municipal base maps,

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

with either the national grid or local reference system. These cadastral index maps are produced to a scale of either 1:1 000 or 1:2 000. More than half of this information is converted into digital form.

In opposition to the cadastral map of each property unit the index map has no legal value: the represented property information haven’t legal power because of their insufficient accuracy (they don’t reach the required accuracy applied in the cadastral maps). For the cadastral index map there is up to now no unified standard for the whole country and it is not compulsory for these certain municipalities to update a national cadastral index map database. Nevertheless the index map belongs also to the Real Property Register even if it is kept separated from the textual register and not integrated like the cadastral maps. The ID-Number of the property units and the owner are normally the same. The index map is however very important because it is one of the lawyers in the Sweden Geographic Data together with other official maps and it built up the basis of Sweden's SDI. The cadastral index map is widely used in land administration as reference and for planning purposes. In municipalities it is a part of the urban base map system, which is used for planning and management of municipal functions regarding school, health, public utilities etc. It is also widely used for land valuation, e.g. for taxation purposes and form the base for the definition of value areas, using GIS technology. It is available in digital format through e.g. cheap viewer software for general use and on the Internet.

Property Map

Based on the cadastral maps and on the index map property maps can be derived. The property map contains the best and most detailed map information available for the scale range of 1:10’000- 12’500 and represent in addition to the property units the administrative divisions, the watercourses, the land types and uses, the infrastructure inclusive railways and electricity power transmission lines, restrictions and contours. There is a printed and a digital version (GSD-property map). Into the digital version the presentation has been adapted to facilitate linkage to the Real Property Register. The GSD-Property Map with real property sub-divisions covers the whole of Sweden except for parts of the mountain areas.

the whole of Sweden except for parts of the mountain areas. Example of property map (source:

Example of property map (source: [2]).

The property map can be used as background information or as basic data for GIS analyses for many purposes including project planning and design, physical planning, real property formation, documentation of utilities, market analyses or other activities which require accurate information about property boundaries. The property IDs in the database correspond to valid IDs in the Real Property Register and can, therefore, be combined with other property information, such as information on owners, buildings, addresses and assessed values. The property map’s database is divided into layers (for example administrative divisions and land use). Both real properties and land layers are depicted as closed polygons in the property map.

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Approximately 98 % of the country’s real properties are depicted as closed polygons and linked to the Real Property Register’s centroid coordinate.

Data exchange

The User Interface 2000 (UI 2000) was developed in a project as a concept for interchange of geographical information between first of all the Lantmäteriet and the Municipalities. The UI 2000 consists of information models, descriptions of transferring mechanism and how they will be administrated and maintained. The interface is not a format or software but a series of technical principles, which can be used for different formats and different data systems. UI 2000 gives new perspectives. It is the objects, for example the plan, easement or the property, which is the base instead of the geometry. These perspectives facilitate integration of the map and the property register. The core in UI 2000 is the models of information i.e. a formal description of the data which will be included in the exchange.

of the data which will be included in the exchange. The nine processed models in the

The nine processed models in the UI 2000 (source: [8]).

The models are expected to be stable for a long period of time whereas technique and format will change. The models have links to the Land Data Bank System via joint identifiers. The models can handle either whole databases or changes of separate objects. This assumes identifiers, which are unique for the country. The modelling language is Express. UI 2000 consists besides models of information, of specified file format and an application for data transmission. These three parts are independents of each other and are possible to change and further develop separately. The specifications for UI 2000 does nor describe how it shall be connected to sending or receiving system or how the agreed model shall be translated to different internal models which exists. There is a demand for a unique solution for each system, which has to be taken out by each organisation together with their system supplier. But there are some basic criteria for each system, which has to be fulfilled. The systems have to be object oriented, be able to make controls of data structure and also handle changes of objects. The UI2000 is into operation and works satisfactory but there are still many municipalities that are still waiting to start using the UI2000.

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik Schematic representation of the transfer system for the

Schematic representation of the transfer system for the UI2000 (source: [8]).

Lantmäteriet is also a distributor of GIS software including products from ESRI and MapInfo. Lantmäteriet develops itself software for handling geographic information. Examples of this software are ArcCadastre based on ArcGIS of ESRI and InfoVisaren. ArcCadastre is a specially developed, internationally unique software for capturing, maintaining, processing and presenting geographic, cadastral and survey information in a single package. It is an all in one system that allows to standardize the communication and the exchange formats and that facilitate the management and the access of all geo-data. ArcCadastre has been constructed to suit a wide range of users and uses such as: local authority survey and mapping organisations, property formation, the production of cadastral index maps, public utilities mapping, surveying and mapping companies, property management groups, property tax assessment and property valuation and national, regional and local planners. 10

ArcCadastre stores geographic data in geo-databases. A geo-database is a relational or object- relational, database that has been enhanced by adding geographic data storage, referential integrity constraints, map display, object editing and analysis functions.

10 List taken from [14]

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik The Geo-database structure of ArcCadastre (source: [15]) The

The Geo-database structure of ArcCadastre (source: [15])

The ArcCadastre basic software comes with two sample data models: an object-oriented model and a geometry-oriented model for cadastral and large-scale mapping. The data models are open for extensions and can be modified to suit specific requirements. More details about ArcCadastre are available for example in [14] and [15].

Services connected with the cadastral system

Development of the SLDBS started in beginning of the 1970s as a common system for the textual part of property and land. It started as an internal system, developed in-house and with internal demands but it has during the year grown to an open system used in the area of land administration and in the financial sector throughout Sweden with more than 25.000 users connected. The SLDBS provides for the constitutional openness and public access. It also has to provide for other needs for land information in society. The basic access to information is available at all public agencies connected to the system. Information can be obtained free of charge on telephone or on visits. Print- out copies can also be obtained at cost price. We find the users in land surveyor offices, in the central and local government sectors (for example Defense Authorities, National Rail Administration, National Road Administration, National Environmental Protection Agency), in the private sector like banks and insurance companies and in real estate agents. Procedures have been developed to meet the client’s different and specific requests for selection and delimitation of information. The system provides:

- Official documents produced from the system like title deeds and certificates.

- Lists of properties which include selected pieces of information concerning the properties, in general the owners.

- Production of population register, population-maps.

- Output on different media. 11

As combination of survey results with the cadastral system and land registration Lantmäteriet produces databases containing geographic information and maps. Lantmäteriet provides a wide and diverse range of products including geographic information, land and real property information, real property formation services and geographic information techniques. In an international perspective this combination is unique. Lantmäteriet supplies cadastral maps and also other maps (for example topographic maps, road maps and atlases), aerial photography, satellite imagery and geographical

11 List taken from [6] with adaptation

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

information (for example geographical theme like land and vegetation cover or administrative division and DHM) for different purposes. Lantmäteriet provides also services for the development and use of geographic information techniques. Lantmäteriet has many Internet service: visitors can view and buy aerial photos and maps (they can be delivered digitally on CD or DVD or in a printed version) and search for individual properties. It also provides two services especially designed for estate agents and banks, etc. These services are called ‘FastighetsSök’ [property search] and ‘KartSök’ [map search], and enable users to obtain information on the owners, tax value, addresses, etc. of a particular property by giving an address or clicking on a map. To use these services, you first need to sign an agreement with the Lantmäteriet.

Reform issues of the cadastral system

Lantmäteriet has published a strategic plan for the period 2006-2060, where all the strategic goals of the National Land Survey Office are specified. The main goals are to improve the cadastral service and to increase the use of geo-data. For more information please refer to document [3]. An ongoing activity is to improve efficiency, accessibility and service level from the system as well working procedures, through development of Internet applications and through investigations of customary satisfaction. Projects are going to look for new possibility in user interfaces, technical platforms, way of register the information, way of storing and in the and way of making the information available in the society.

Another current initiative is the introduction of 3D real properties, which request for development of methodology to represent 3D properties on paper and on computers. Parliament has approved legislation on 3D real property formation, which came into force on the 1st January 2004 (see more details in [13]).

All the relevant reforms as well as the changes in the corresponding law in the last years are in the annual reports made by the Lantmäteriet documented. The news of year 2005 are to find in the document [4].

Another future oriented aim is the integration of the Swedish cadastral system and of all geo-data referred to Sweden in Europe. There is worldwide the interest to make different national systems compatible with each other and Sweden is engaged in European co-operation projects, which are aimed at facilitating the efficient exchange of geographic and land information between countries. To realise this purpose development works to change IT support system to latest computer technology. In planning phase is also the switch to object-oriented data modelling and development of new software technology. The national strategic plan for the integrated provision of geo-data mentioned before should aim at providing guidance to producers and users of geographic and real property information concerning the development and implementation of standards and specifications, metadata and metadata services, services for the dissemination of information, policies for accessing and use of information, research and training as well as organization and forms for cooperation. The main purpose of the strategic plan is to provide guidance for all players in Sweden concerning a more efficient management of basic geographic and real property information, in other words, provide the common foundation for Sweden's SDI (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and for Sweden's activities within the framework of European and international cooperation. The following figure illustrates the components of a conceptual SDI and how they interact to provide an optimum solution.

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

Cadastral System, WS 2006-07 Silvia Ross inelli, Geomatik The components of a conceptual SDI and their

The components of a conceptual SDI and their interactions (source: [2]).

Conclusion

The Swedish cadastral procedure is unique from an international perspective. It is based on a legislation that gives the cadastral surveyor large responsibility and authority, a secure real property register and an effective process for handling cadastral matters. Real property information comprises information from the Real Property Register, including the digital cadastral index map, the Land Register and the central registers for buildings, apartments, addresses, mortgage certificates and real property prices. Geographic information comprises basic geographic data such as co-ordinates, terrain elevation data, aerial photographs, vegetation cover data and place names. There is also a big assortment of available geo-data that highlight the multipurpose character of the Swedish cadastral system.

Sweden is in possession of one efficient and good structured cadastral system which is international recognised since many years. Many countries tend nowadays to have such a model for their cadastral system. As seen before the cadastral system is integrated in a land data bank system for the management of the main part of all the geo-data. The basic objectives behind the establishment of the LDBS were to improve the operations of the register authorities and to facilitate access to land information in society. The objectives have been achieved. There has been considerable reduction in turn around times for applications lodged with the register authorities and there is a continuously growing demand for and utilization from the LDBS in society.

There are many benefits of the Swedish cadastral system. The system is in function, covers the whole country, certifies the ownership, and the rights to land. The system facilitates the transfer of land and other land related activities. The registers serve important purposes as far as real estate credit, taxation, statistics, planning and population registration. Other strengths of the system are the

ETH Zürich, Cadastral System, WS 2006-07

Silvia Rossinelli, Geomatik

availability of the system of 99 %, the safety system is very secure, the system is easy to reach, and the answers are given very quickly. The conclusion is that Sweden has a well functioning system, with a good economy which serves its purpose. The Swedish cadastral system is therefore worldwide one of the best systems.

References

[1]

Country

Report

2003

(Based

on

the

PCGIAP-Cadastral

Template

2003),

http://www.geo21.ch/cadastraltemplate/countryreport/Sweden.pdf.

 

[2]

Homepage

of

the

National

Land

Survey

of

Sweden:

http://www.lantmateriet.se

(13.12.2006).

 

[3]

National Land Survey of Sweden, Lantmätereit’s strategic plan 2006-2010.

 

[4]

National Land Survey of Sweden, Lantmätereit annual report 2005.

 

[5]

Wikipedia homepage, http://www.wikipedia.org (13.12.2006)

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweden

 

- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schweden

[6]

Agneta

Ericsson,

The

cadastral

system

in

Sweden,

http://www.fig.net/commission7/reports/events/delft_seminar_95/paper6.html (13.12.2006).

[7]

Tommy Ljunggren, The use of the Cadastre in Sweden.

 

[8]

Bo Lauri, User interface and internet approach – Important components in the Swedish cadastral system.

[9]

Monica Johansson, Land register in Sweden – Present and future, FIG XXII International Congress, Washington D.C., USA, 2002.

[10]

Olof Olsson, Christos Papadopoulos, The new cadastral index map of Sweden – A matter of cooperation, FIG XXIII International Congress, Munich, Germany. 2006.

[11]

Emil Ciepielewski, Peter Ringberg, Development of e-Land Administration in Sweden and the next phase, FIG XXIII International Congress, Munich, Germany. 2006.

[12]

Jo Henssen: Basic principles of the main cadastral system in the world, 1995

 

[13]

Göran Eriksson, A new multi-dimensional information system introduced in Sweden, FIG Working Week 2005 and GSDI-8, Cairo, Egypt, 2005.

[14]

ArcCadastre Homepage, http://www.arccadastre.com (15.12.2005)

 

[15]

National Land Survey of Sweden, ArcCadastre – A brief technical description for managers of cadastral and map information systems, 2004