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Bull Eng Geol Environ (2013) 72:115118

DOI 10.1007/s10064-012-0448-1

ORIGINAL PAPER

Delineation of waterlogged area in inaccessible underground


workings at Hingir Rampur Colliery using 2D resistivity imaging:
a case study
K. K. K. Singh

Received: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published online: 8 January 2013
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Abstract Resistivity imaging (RI) survey was carried out


along two profiles in the Hingir-Rampur Colliery to assess
how far it would be practical to extend the workings in
Seam I towards the waterlogged previous workings, whilst
leaving at least 60 m of coal between the two sections of
mine. In order to corroborate the results of the geophysical
survey, two boreholes were drilled along the profiles.
Analysis confirmed hard, compact and dry strata between
60 and 146 m depth.
Keywords Apparent resistivity  Inundation  2D
inversion  Waterlogged
Resume Des tomographies de resistivite electrique ont
ete realisees suivant deux profils dans la mine de charbon
de Hingir Rampur afin devaluer dans quelle mesure il
serait possible detendre les travaux miniers de la Couche I
vers une zone de travaux precedemment ennoyes. En effet,
une couche de charbon dau moins 60 m depaisseur se
trouve entre ces deux zones de travaux. Afin detalonner les
mesures geophysiques, deux forages ont ete realises au
niveau de ces deux profils geophysiques. Lanalyse a
confirme la presence dune couche de charbon dur, compact et sec entre les profondeurs de 60 m et 146 m.
Mots cles Resistivite apparente  Inondation  Inversion
2D  Ennoyage

K. K. K. Singh (&)
Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad 826015,
Jharkhand, India
e-mail: kkksingh@yahoo.com

Introduction
Inundation is one of the most hazardous incidents that can
take place in a mine. Many such incidences have occurred
in the Indian mining industry, generally related to the
sudden inrush of large volumes of water from old, abandoned and inaccessible workings.
The Hingir-Rampur Colliery is one of the oldest mines
in Orissa which was opened in 1906 and more recently is
extracting coal in Seam I at a depth of more than 100 m. As
the workings are progressing in the direction of the old
water-logged goaves of pits 9 and 11(Fig. 1), it is important to determine whether the new mining will approach
within 60 m of the abandoned workings to avoid any risk
of inundation. A review of the literature reveals that there
are no systematic studies related to delineation of old
water-logged areas in underground mines of Indian Coalfields. It was hoped that the study would elucidate the
conditions at Hingir-Rampur and provide preliminary
platform for further detailed investigation of water-logging
problems using resistivity imaging.

Methodology
Multi-electrode resistivity imaging was the chosen technique as it has been used in the past for cavity/void
detection and because of its low cost, simple field procedures and rapid interpretation of data (Vincenz 1968; Dutta
et al. 1970; Militzer et al. 1979; Smith 1986; Panno et al.
1994; Batayneh and Al-Zoubi 2000). The ground resistivity
is related to various geological parameters such as the
mineral and fluid content, porosity, degree of fracturing,
the percentage of the fractures filled with groundwater and
degree of water saturation in the rock (Keller and

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116

K. K. K. Singh

Fig. 1 Part plan showing the


proposed study profiles in
Hingir Rampur Colliery of
orient area, MCL

N
DEVELOPED
COAL PILLARS
SEAM- IV & V

CMRI-32

SEAM I
WORKINGS

R2

S.O.C.P.

O.B. DUMP
EXTRACTION OF COAL
S.O.C.P.
CMRI-31
R1

HEMM
WORKSHOP
STORE

ORAM PARA

WORKSHOP
TANK

O.B. AREA
OF S.O.C.P.
WATERLOGGED
AREA

GOAF AREA OF
9 & 11 PIT

SCALE - m
0

Frischknecht 1966; Daniels and Alberty 1966). Sedimentary rocks which are usually more porous and having
higher water content, normally have higher resistivity
values in comparison with other rocks. Coal has resistivity
values of 50105 ohm m (Verma and Bhuin 1979; Singh
et al. 2004) while sandstone, shale, clay, water and limestone have resistivties of 84 9 103, 202 9 103, 1100,
10100 and 504 9 102 X m, respectively (Keller and
Frischknecht 1966; Daniels and Alberty 1966). The two
profiles (R1 and R2) in the study area of Hingir-Rampur
Colliery are shown in Fig. 1.

200

section extended to a depth of 160 m; sandy soil to 31.8 m


underlain by a medium grained sandstone to 60 m and
sandy soil/carbonaceous shale to 6090 m. As confirmed
by the borehole, the high resistivity zone from 90 to 146 m
related to the presence of coal.
Details of borehole no. CMRI-32 and the resistivity
section for profile R2 are shown in Figs. 3 and 4 respectively. Again the depth of coverage was 146 m. The results
were similar to those in R1 except that the medium-grained
sandstone with some layers of coal was found between 60
and 100 m, below which the 11,992 X m resistivity values
were interpreted as coal, as shown in the borehole.

Data analysis and its interpretation


Conclusions
The polepole (PP) configuration inverted resistivity section along the profile R1 and the details of borehole no.
CMRI-31 are shown in Figs. 2 and 4. The resistivity

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Resistivity imaging survey conducted along the two profiles (R1 and R2) in Hingir-Rampur Colliery indicated the

Delineating old coal workings with geophysics

117

Fig. 2 Polepole configuration inverted resistivity section along the profile R1

Fig. 3 Polepole configuration inverted resistivity section along the profile R2

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118

K. K. K. Singh

Fig. 4 Boreholes details


(CMRI-31 and CMRI-32)
Scale (m)

50

Lithology

Thickness
(m)

31.8

sandy soil, mainly sandy shale,


grey shale

27

medium grained sandstone,


sandy shale, shaly sandstone

27

sandy shale, grey white,


grey shale, medium grained
sandstone, carb, shale

54

dark grey shale, coal


shaly coal

Scale (m)

Thickness
(m)

Lithology

sandy soil, sludge, clay,


31.8 with thin layers of sandy shale

50

27

medium grained sandstone,


sandy shale, grey white

42

several layers of medium


grained sandstone, grey
shale, few layers coal, shale

100

100

150

coal had not previously been worked to 100 m from the


surface. It was therefore, considered safe to continue to
extract coal in Seam 1 as far as the position of the two
survey alignments. However, extending past these lines
could result in an inundation problem due to the presence
of water-bearing strata in the old goaves.
Acknowledgments The author is very grateful to his Director for
giving permission to publish this paper and to the Mine Management
and Staff at Hingir-Rampur Colliery for providing the necessary
facilities.

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18:405414

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CMRI - 32

CMRI - 31

48

coal, carb shale,


shaly coal

150

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