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Energy balance for an Internal


Combustion Engine

BEng (HON) Petroleum and Mechanical Engineering


School of Computing, Science and Engineering
University of Salford

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Table of contents
Cover page.................................................................................................................................1
Table of contents........................................................................................................................2
Introduction................................................................................................................................3
Objective....................................................................................................................................3
Theoretical framework...............................................................................................................4
Apparatus....................................................................................................................................5
Experimental procedure.............................................................................................................6
Results........................................................................................................................................7
Calculations................................................................................................................................8
Discussion................................................................................................................................12
Conclusion................................................................................................................................14
References................................................................................................................................15

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Introduction
The concept of combustion can be defined as a self-propagating exothermic oxidative
chemicals reaction, creating lights, warmth as well as fume in an almost adiabatic fire fronts.
The general processes regards the combustion as very similar to once proceeding in the fuel
cell as well as living-matter respirations, thus the general outcomes not only applies to one
specific case but rather equally in all three, despite the differences in the detail; the concept in
question in this instance is regarded as by the high temperature reached (Stone, 2012;
Pulkrabek, 2013). The essential objective in combustion research can be said to be the
predictions of its performances, in terms of safety, efficiency as well as cleaner designs and as
operations of fire creating device, with regards to the various physicochemical phenomena
involved (Gupta, 2013);. Such phenomenas can be split into two categories: equilibrium
performance concerning what one needs and gets on one hand, and on the other kinetics, how
the individual gets this and at what rate.
The method of combustion Thermodynamics is concerned with the former physicochemical
phenomena: fuel and air ratio, heat value, maximal work attainable, etc., whilst the main
focus of combustion kinetics is to mix process, geometry of flames, ignitions, extinctions,
propagation, and stability (Guzzella and Onder 2010). Moreover, the research of combustion
addresses the broader topic of Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions, often known as
Thermochemistry. The core aim of this report is to study and gained greater knowledge about
combustion reaction with especial reference to the heat balance of internal combustion.

Objective

To determine the loss of energy with regards to partial combustion, whereby portion
of the fuel is not used entirely
To determine the loss of energy in terms heat transfer to an air encircling hot engine
component

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Theoretical Framework
Using the rudimentary steady flow energy concept, in-particular the aircycle approach, the formula can be written as follows:
Qr - Wrx = CV + { +} [hpc - ha]
The term Qr signifies the amount of the water temperature reduction
heat transfer as well as natural cooling in relation to hot engine's
component to the circumference air.
So as to allow for the likelihood of unfinished combustion, it becomes
rather important to change the (CV) in the formula to {CV-FL}, in which
the term (FL) stands for the amount of fuel energy which is not obtainable
due to unfinished combustion.
To represent the heat transfer entity Qr as the total energy transfer to
cooling water as well as the energy wasted to the surrounding from hot
engine component, one would get
Q r = - CPW (Tout Tin) + Qrn

The values of hpc ha might be approximated, tightly, by

hpc ha = Cpe (Te Ta), in which, Cpe is understood


as 1100 J/kgK
Therefore, one would get,
- Cpw (Tout Tin) + Qrn Wrx = - {CV FL} + {+ } [hpc ha], or,

Qrn - FL = Cpw (Tout Tin) + Wrx - CV + { + } [hpc - ha]


It is worth noting that the four terms at the end of the equation above are
calculated on an individual basis to give values to the unmeasured heat
transfers by natural cooling and fuel energy waste because of unfinished
combustion.

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Apparatus
The engine and the all the measurement systems are arrangement and
completely running from the beginning of the experiment. The speed of
the engine and power output of the shaft are constant throughout the test
and the parameters below are recorded.
The engine used in this experiment is a Lister-Petter single cylinder engine that
runs on diesel fuel.
Below is a list of test measurements that are carried out in the experiment and the parameters
that are used to measure them.

Atmospheric pressure and temperature barometer reading in


mm hg, and Celsius scales
Engine speed digital or dial gauge reading in rev/min or rev/s
Engine torgue output dial gauge or torgue arm load in kg, N or
lbf
Fuel flow rate rotameter scale or timed known volume, giving
1/min
Combustion air flow rate orifice pressure drop in mm water
gauge, or kPa
Fluid temperature exhaust gas, cooling water inlet and outlet,
air inlet in Celsius
Cooling water flow rate rotameter scale in 1/min

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Experimental procedure
1 Take the reading from the atmospheric pressure
Make sure the fuel supply is at minimum
Find the dynamometer control unit
Turn the water pump on
Se the supply v rheostat completely anticlockwise
Set the field v rheostat completely anticlockwise
Choose motor
Select part
Put the ear defenders on
Turn on the field v rheostat in order to supply 200 volts to the
motor
Turn on the supply v rheostat gradually to turn on motor
Decrease the valve lever then the engine will turn on
Turn the supply V an field V rheostat fully anticlockwise
Select load
Select full
To increases the speed of the engine to 1500rpm, use the throttle.
To choose he load of 15N use the field v
Wait until the water outlet temperature reaches 70 degrees Celsius

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Complete the table overleaf


Shut the engine down

Results
Atmospheric pressure
Engine speed
Spring balance reading
Mass of torque measured
Amount of fuel measured
Time to consume fuel
Relative density of fuel
Orifice plate pressure drop
Exhaust gas temperature
Cooling water inlet
temperature
Cooling water outlet
temperature
Air inlet temperature
Cooling water flow rate

mmHg
rpm
N
kg
ml
secs
mmH2O
C
C

765.5
1530
14.9
5
30
136
0.864
34
261
24

45

C
1/min

17
2

Parameter
Mass flow rate of air
Mass flow rate of fuel
Air/fuel ratio
Heat supplied in fuel
Useful work done
Energy to coolant
Energy to exhaust
Energy to surroundings

value
6.48E-03
1.19E04
33.99
8.20
2.19
2.93
1.79
1.28

Units
Kg/s
Kg/s

Percentage to useful work


Percentage to energy to
coolant
Percentage to exhaust
Percentage lost to
surrounding

Work
Coolant

26.71%
35.79%

Exhaust
Lost

21.84%
15.66%

kW
kW
kW
kW
kW

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Calculations
HEAT SUPPLIED IN FUEL
.

m fuel 0.0000002205882353 864 kg/m^3


Mass flow rate of fuel

(kg/s)
.

m fuel
= 0.0001905882352992
Conversion required for fuel consumed (ie. 1ml = 10-6m3)
.

Vf

0.00003(m 3 )
136(sec)

Volume flow rate of fuel


.

Vf
= 0.0000002205882353
Density of fuel given as

f = 864 kg/m3

Nett calorific value

NCV= 43 x 103 kJ/kg

Q com 0.0001905882352992 43 x 10^3 kJ/kg


Heat from fuel
.

Q com

= 8.195294118

USEFUL WORK OUT

f (5 9.81) 14.9
Reaction force
Torque radius

(N)
r = 0.4

(m)

kg kJ

kW
s kg

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T 34.15 0.4

Torque

(Nm)

T = 13.66 (Nm)

2N
( rads / sec)
60

Rotational speed

2 1530
13.66
W 60
1000

where N is engine speed in rpm

Useful work out

(kW)

= 2.188621938KW

ENERGY TO COOLING WATER


.

V cw

Cooling water volume flow rate

(l/min)
1

Density of water

(kg/l)
.

mcw
Mass flow rate of water

1
60

m cw

Specific heat of water

(kg/s)

0.0333333333333333

Cpcw = 4.19

(kJ/kgK)

Q cw 0.0333333333333333 4.19 (318.15 297.15)


Heat to cooling water
(kW)
.

Q cw

= 2.933

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ENERGY TO EXHAUST
.

m exh 0.0064782375683571 0.0001905882352992

Mass flow rate of exhaust


(kg/s)

m exh

= 0.0066688258036563

m air 6.84 10 4
Mass flow rate of air

34 765.5
290.15
(kg/s)

m air

= 0.064782375683571 (kg/s)

Where:
Pressure drop across manometer p (mmH2O)
Atmospheric pressure Pa (mmHg)
Inlet temperature t4

Ta (K)

Specific heat of exhaust gas Cpexh = 1.1

(kJ/kgK)

Q exh 0.0066688258036563 1.1 (534.15 290.15)

Heat to exhaust

(kW)
.

Q exh
= 1.789912846 KW

ENERGY BALANCE
.

Q com W Q cw Q exh Q L
Energy balance
.

Q L 8.195294118 (2.188621938 2.933 1.789912846 )


So
.

QL
= 1.283759342

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BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE


Bore=0.0873 m and Stroke = 0.11m
Vswept
Swept volume

(0.0873) 2
0.11
4

(m3)

Vswept

= 0.006543218861
Working strokes per second = 1530/ (60x2)
Working strokes per second = 12.75

BMEP
Brake mean effective pressure
Brake mean effective pressure

where N is engine speed (rpm)

5.471554847 10

0.006543218861 12.75

BMEP = 0.6558569501 bar 10-2

ENERGY BALANCE

Percentage to useful work out

Percentage heat to exhaust

Percentage heat to coolant

Percentage heat lost

2.188621938
100
8.195294118

1.789912846
100
8.195294118
2.933
100
8.195294118
1.283759342
100
8.195294118

= 26.7058376 %

= 21.84073958 %

= 35.78883147 %

= 15.66459136 %

(bar)

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Energy Distribution for the Lister Petter Diesel

Lost; 16%

Work; 27%

Exhaust; 22%

Coolant; 36%

Work

Coolant

Exhaust

Lost

Distribution of heat and work


Work; 27%

Heat; 73%

Work

Heat

Discussion
It can be said that there has been a growing concerns in recent years
towards the issue of efficiency in terms of the internal combustion engine
(ICE). This may perhaps explain the sharp increase of studies focused on
how to overcome such obstacle and reach further improvements. The
definition of the issue in question in this particular instance and how it can
measured becomes very significant at this point. It is generally agreed
that any engines efficiency is worked out by using the energy of the type

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of fuel used per unit time in any given work condition and the output
result is shown on the shaft of the engine once subtracted from all losses.
On the other hand, in order to attain the fuels input power, one should
observe the mass of the fuel to start with and soundly what is its calorific
value. The result or output of the shaft can be calculated using a brake
dynamometer. Hence, to be more precise, the issue of efficiency is to do
with a combination of outputs and inputs. Typically, the efficiency of ICEs
is normally 20% to 30% on average, which to an extent is rather low.

During the course of this report observation, in relations to the internal


combustion engine based on a spark ignition, the loss to cooling water
was 38%. Furthermore loss to exhaust was between 21% and 22%, while
the percentage heat loss was between 15% and 16%
Elements that limit the ICEs Efficiencies
During the analysis of the heat balance sheet, one would come across that there are certain
issues which limit the efficiencies of an ICE. Such are in line with those discussed below:

Heat loss in the course of cooling concerning the engine.


Heat loss in exhaust gases.
Friction losses
Transmissions efficiencies loss. Loss in clutches and fluids couplings
and so on.
Tires selections are compromise amongst safeties, stabilities, and
performances. Safer tires provide minimum braking distances, good
stabilities, less skidding, however less fuel efficiencies. Tires having
less surface contact and more of a line contact are more fuel
efficient, but rather perilous.
Loss as a result of braking
Loss caused by viscosities of lubricating oil.
Compression ratios. The greater the compression ratios the greater
the thermal efficiencies. As in spark ignitions or gasoline engines
the compression ratios are restricted by pre-ignitions (not in
compression ignitions or diesel engine), the diesel engines are
about thirty per cent more efficient than as spouse to gasoline
engine.
Imperfect valve timings
Loss in driving cam shaft

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Certain level of energy spent by auxiliaries like water pump and oil
pump
Approaches and Technology to Improve ICE Efficiency
The current practical concepts as well as new technology which support to increase the
efficiencies of the internal combustion engines are as shown below:
As braking cars waste the kinetics energy in the forms of heat,
regenerative braking is a good concept when there is a need to
brake a car in order to manage the traveling speeds, i.e. in a
downhill motion. In this electromagnetics, braking is conducted as
small motors utilise the energy and transform it into battery energy.
Variable Injection Timings: such method is use particularly in
Maritime engines. At low load and speed, the injection is enhanced
permitting equal mean effective pressure to be sustained. It is
important to know that this does not sole raises how efficient the
engine is considering the scavenge pressures are sustained; it
similarly permits for lower quality fuels to be burnt.
Variable Valve Timings: under this concept, the exhausts and inlet
valve opening and closing time may be diverse, impacting the
efficiency of engines. This approach could raise the efficiency by
four to five per cent.
Cutting off the cylinder: In relations to bigger engines either on high
speed or otherwise, fifty per cent of the cylinders could be removed
in order to reduce fuel demands. However, this cannot does not
apply to small engines since the engines would turn out to be
irregular.
Turbocharger: the term in this case can be described as an exhaust
gas retrieval component which improvements boost air pressure
thus optimising combustion. It enhances efficiency by seven to eight
per cent.
Direct Fuel Injections: retrospectively the fuel used in engines were
added together with air then injected, however at the present times
fuels are directly injected into the combustion chambers and mixing
begins relations to the profile of the combustion chambers. It raises
efficiencies by eleven to thirteen present.
Twin spark plug: As the flame front begins from the spark plugs and
moves outwards, portion of the fuel will appear to remain unburnt
due to its ejection prior to the flame front reaching it. In twin spark
plugs, cylinder two flames front are formed, triggering greater
combustion.
The use of accurate viscosity of lubricating oil, since viscous oil
could lead to losses because of frictions.
Incorporated starter and generator system: under such systems
engines are instantly stopped during stationary periods and started
as soon as the accelerator is pushed.

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Conclusion
To conclude, this report conducted an internal combustion experiment in order to calculate
the amount of energy that is lost from incomplete combustion and to measure the level of
energy lost within the timescale/process of heat transfer. The report carried out is a laboratory
based experiment and used Petter Diesel and the results of the laboratory are presented into
a chart.
Overall the experiment has been a success and met its initial objectives. As outlined in the
discussion section, the major obstacles to overcome are reducing unwanted wastage of
energy, for example heat which is sometimes caused by a kinetic energy in the form of heat.
The report core findings indicate that there is always a level of energy loss and therefore from
an internal combustion engine it is thermodynamically impossible to produce 100%
efficiency. The major energy loss, the report identified, is heat and because of this and other
factors, only 27% of useful work is generated.
Despite the success of the experiment, from a practical point of view, there is still a room for
improvement. The report recommends the following points in order to enhance the validity
and reliability of the laboratory findings and to minimise margins of error. For instance,
repeating the experiment few times in order to get a mean average would contribute to a more
accurate calculation. Using the same type of internal combustion engine, two or three of
them running at the same time while also repeating the processes a few times to get a mean
average between them all, would improve the result, therefore reducing the margin of error.
This will not increase the efficiency but rather it will contribute to a more accurate
calculation.

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References
Gupta H.N (2013) Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, Delhi, PHI Learning
Limited
Guzzella L and Onder C (2010) Introduction to Modelling and Control of Internal
Combustion Engine Systems, Berlin, Springer-Verlag
Pulkrabek W (2013) Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion, Pearson
Education Limited, UK
Stone R (2012) Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, Palgrave Macmillan, UK