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Card N9

1. Regression and its use in public

1. The importance of studying relationship between
variables. Use of information about associations
for public health practice.
In statistics, variables refer to measurable attributes, as
these typically vary over time or between individuals.
Variables can be continuous (taking values from a
continuum) or discrete (taking values from a defined set).
Temperature is a continuous variable, while number of
legs of an animal is a discrete variable. This concept of a
variable is widely used in the natural, medical and social
2. Correlation techniques
a. Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient
b. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient
c. Kendall tau correlation coefficient
3. Linear regression: its similiarities to correlation
and its difference from correlation
-Correlation quantifies how closely two variables are
connected. Regression finds the line that best predicts Y
from values of X.

Regression, as often practiced in earth sciences, is the

attempt to establish a mathematical relationship
between variables. This can be used to extrapolate or
to predict one variable given the other. For example, a
relationship exists between the frequency of occurrence
of a given size flood or earthquake, and the size of the
Correlation measures the dependability of the
relationship. It is a measure of how well one variable
can predict the other (given the context of the data),
and determines the precision you can assign to a

-Regression or correlation can be bivariate (between 2

variables, x and y) or multivariate, between greater than
two variables.
4. Multiple regression and its use
-regression in which one variable is estimated by the use of
more than one other variable. The general purpose of
multiple regression is to learn more about the relationship
between several independent or predictor variables and a
dependent or criterion variable
You use multiple regression when you have three or more
measurement variables. One of the measurement variables
is the dependent (Y) variable. The rest of the variables are
the independent (X) variables. The purpose of a multiple
regression is to find an equation, that best predicts the Y
variable as a linear function of the X variables.
One use of multiple regression is prediction or estimation of
an unknown Y value corresponding to a set of X values. A
second use of multiple regression is to try to understand the
functional relationships between the dependent and
independent variables, to try to see what might be causing
the variation in the dependent variable.
5. Binary logistic regression
biomedical search





Binary logistic regression is useful in two applications:

analyzing the differences among discrete Xs and modeling
the relationship between a discrete binary Y and discrete
and/or continuous Xs. Binary logistic regression can be
used to model the relationship between a discrete binary Y
and discrete and/or continuous Xs. The predicted values will
be probabilities p(d) of an event such as success or failurenot an event count. The predicted values will be bounded
between zero and one (because they are probabilities).
Tak faham kan? 1-P=Q I think.

2. Abortions
prophylactic measures of abortions.


1. Abortion as a way of family planning. Definition.

Abortion rate. Abortion ratio
-Termination of pregnancy before term.
Numbers of abortions: This is the total number of
legal abortions reported in the U.S.:
1970 to 1980: The number of abortions increased every
1981 to 1982: The number stabilized, increasing by only
about 0.2% a year.
1983 to 1990: Significant growth resumed, with increases
of up to 5% per year
1990 to 1995: The number decreased every year.
Abortion ratio: This is the number of legal abortions per
1,000 live births.
1970 to 1984: The ratio increased, reaching a peak of 364
in 1984
1985 to 1995: The ratio decreased steadily to 311 in 1995
Abortion rate: This is the number of legal abortions per
1,000 women aged 15 to 44 years:
1970 to 1980: The rate increased from 5 to 25.
1981 to 1992: The rate remained stable at 23 to 24.
1993 to 1995: The rate steadily declined to 20.
2. Classification of abortions according to the
legislation with the countries representatives.
First-Trimester Abortions

Two prominent types of surgical abortion are

performed in the first-trimester: Suction-aspiration
and dilation and curettage (D&C).
Suction Aspiration
This is the most common method of abortion during the first
12 weeks of pregnancy. General or local anaesthesia is given
to the mother and her cervix is quickly dilated. A suction
curette (hollow tube with a knife-edged tip) is inserted into
the womb. This instrument is then connected to a vacuum
machine by a transparent tube. The vacuum suction, 29
times more powerful than a household vacuum cleaner,
tears the fetus and placenta into small pieces which are
sucked through the tube into a bottle and discarded.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
This method is similar to the suction method with the added
insertion of a hook shaped knife (curette) which cuts the
baby into pieces. The pieces are scraped out through the
cervix and discarded [Note: This abortion method should not
be confused with a therapeutic D&C done for reasons other
than pregancy.]
The latest trend in early abortions is the chemical
abortion. After implantation, and still very early in
the pregnancy, abortions can be induced by
abortifacient drugs such as RU-486 (also known as
mifepristone) and methotrexate, both of which are
typically used with a prostaglandin (labor-inducing
Dilation and Evacuation (D&E)
This method is used up to 18 weeks' gestation. Instead of
the loop-shaped knife used in D&C abortions, a pair of
forceps is inserted into the womb to grasp part of the fetus.
The teeth of the forceps twist and tear the bones of the

unborn child. This process is repeated until the fetus is

totally dismembered and removed. Usually the spine must
be snapped and the skull crushed in order to remove them.
Late Second- and Third-Trimester Abortions
Salt Poisoning (Saline Injection):
Used after 16 weeks (four months) when enough fluid has
accumulated. A long needle injects a strong salt solution
through the mother's abdomen into the baby's sac. The baby
swallows this fluid and is poisoned by it. It also acts as a
corrosive, burning off the outer layer of skin. It normally
takes somewhat over an hour for the baby to die from this.
Within 24 hours, labor will usually set in and the mother will
give birth to a dead or dying baby. (There have been many
cases of these babies being born alive. They are usually left
unattended to die.
Surgical abortion techniques used late in the second
term and in the third term include hysterotomy,
partial-birth abortion and therapeutic abortion.
Hysterotomy or Caesarean Section:
Used mainly in the last three months of pregnancy, the
womb is entered by surgery through the wall of the
abdomen. The technique is similar to a Caesarean delivery,
except that the umbilical cord is usually cut while the baby is
still in the womb, thus cutting off his oxygen supply and
causing him to suffocate. Sometimes the baby is removed
alive and simply left in a corner to die of neglect or
3. Medical
importance from public health perspective.
A medical abortion is one that is brought about by
taking medications that will end a pregnancy. The
alternative is surgical abortion, which ends a pregnancy
by emptying the uterus (or womb) with special

instruments. Either of two medications, mifepristone or

methotrexate, can be used for medical abortion. Each
of these medications is taken together with another
medication, misoprostol, to induce an abortion.
There are several reasons an abortion might be considered:
The woman may not wish to be pregnant (elective
The woman's health is endangered by pregnancy
(therapeutic abortion)
There is an abnormality in the developing fetus (birth
defect, genetic abnormality)
4. Social indications of abortions. Their importance
from public health perspective.

Grounds on which abortion is permitted:

To save the life of the woman
To preserve physical health
To preserve mental health
Rape or incest
Fetal impairment
Economic or social reasons
Available on request
5. The prophylactic measures of abortions.
-birth control?
-family planning?
-Public education?
-Prompt measures/services